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Title: Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris

Date of first publication: 1904

Author: John Parkinson (1567-1650)

Date first posted: Nov. 27, 2022

Date last updated: Nov. 27, 2022

Faded Page eBook #20221153

This eBook was produced by: Fay Dunn, MWS, Carlo Traverso, Janet Blenkinship and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at https://www.pgdp.net

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PARADISI IN SOLE
PARADISUS TERRESTRIS

Transcriber’s Note

This book is dedicated to the memory of David T. Jones who cared deeply about making literature like this available to the world.

The cover image has been created by the transcriber, and is placed in the public domain.

Variant spelling, inconsistent hyphenation, punctuation and spelling are retained, however a few changes have been made to correct apparent errors, these are described in the note at the end of the book.

The characters “u”, “v”; and “i”, “j” have been left as printed, even where they are not used consistently. “ſ” characters have been changed to “s” throughout.

The Errata (Faults escaped in some Copies), which is near the end of the book have been applied to the text.

PARADISI IN SOLE

PARADISUS TERRESTRIS

BY JOHN PARKINSON

FAITHFULLY REPRINTED
FROM THE EDITION
OF 1629

METHUEN & CO.

LONDON

1904


THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED


Frontispiece

PARADISI IN SOLE
Paradisus Terrestris.

or
A Garden of all sorts of pleasant flowers which our,
English ayre will permitt to be noursed vp:
with
A Kitchen garden of all manner of herbes, rootes, & fruites,
for meate or sause vsed with vs,
and
An Orchard of all sorte of fruitbearing Trees
and shrubbes fit for our Land
together
With the right orderinge planting & preseruing
of them and their vses & vertues
Collected by John Parkinson
Apothecary of London,
1629


Qui veut parangonner l’artifice a Nature
Et nos parcs a l’Eden indiscret il mesure.
Le pas de l’Elephant par le pas du ciron,
Et de l’Aigle le vol par cil du mouscheron.

Decoration

TO
THE QVEENES
MOST EXCELLENT
MAIESTIE.

Madame,

K

Knowing your Maiestie so much delighted with all the faire Flowers of a Garden, and furnished with them as farre beyond others, as you are eminent before them; this my Worke of a Garden, long before this intended to be published, and but now only finished, seemed as it were destined, to bee first offered into your Highnesse hands, as of right challenging the proprietie of Patronage from all others. Accept, I beseech your Maiestie, this speaking Garden, that may informe you in all the particulars of your store, as well as wants, when you cannot see any of them fresh vpon the ground: and it shall further encourage him to accomplish the remainder; who, in praying that your Highnesse may enioy the heauenly Paradise, after the many yeares fruition of this earthly, submitteth to be

Your Maiesties
in all
humble deuotion
,

Iohn Parkinson.


Decoration

TO THE COVRTEOVS
READER.

[e]

A

Although the ancient Heathens did appropriate the first inuention of the knowledge of Herbes, and so consequently of physicke, some vnto Chiron the Centaure, and others vnto Apollo or Æsculapius his sonne; yet wee that are Christians haue out of a better Schoole learned, that God, the Creator of Heauen and Earth, at the beginning when he created Adam, inspired him with the knowledge of all naturall things (which successiuely descended to Noah afterwardes, and to his Posterity): for, as he was able to giue names to all the liuing Creatures, according to their seuerall natures; so no doubt but hee had also the knowledge, both what Herbes and Fruits were fit, eyther for Meate or Medicine, for Vse or for Delight. And that Adam might exercise this knowledge, God planted a Garden for him to liue in, (wherein euen in his innocency he was to labour and spend his time) which hee stored with the best and choysest Herbes and Fruits the earth could produce, that he might haue not onely for necessitie whereon to feede, but for pleasure also; the place or garden called Paradise importing as much, and more plainly the words set downe in Genesis the second, which are these; Out of the ground the Lord God made to grow euerie tree pleasant to the sight and good for meate; and in the 24. of Numbers, the Parable of Balaam, mentioning the Aloe trees that God planted; and in other places if there were neede to recite them. But my purpose is onely to shew you, that Paradise was a place (whether you will call it a Garden, or Orchard, or both, no doubt of some large extent) wherein Adam was first placed to abide; that God was the Planter thereof, hauing furnished it with trees and herbes, as well pleasant to the sight, as good for meate, and that hee being to dresse and keepe this place, must of necessity know all the things that grew therein, and to what vses they serued, or else his labour about them, and knowledge in them, had been in vaine. And although Adam lost the place for his transgression, yet he lost not the naturall knowledge, nor vse of them: but that, as God made the whole world, and all the Creatures therein for Man, so hee may vse all things as well of pleasure as of necessitie, to bee helpes vnto him to serue his God. Let men therefore, according to their first institution, so vse their seruice, that they also in them may remember their seruice to God, and not (like our Grand-mother Eve) set their affections so strongly, on the pleasure in them, as to deserue the losse of them in this Paradise, yea and of Heauen also. For truly from all sorts of Herbes and Flowers we may draw matter at all times not only to magnifie the Creator that hath giuen them such diuersities of forms, sents and colours, that the most cunning[f] Worke-man cannot imitate, and such vertues and properties, that although wee know many, yet many more lye hidden and vnknowne, but many good instructions also to our selues: That as many herbes and flowers with their fragrant sweete smels doe comfort, and as it were reuiue the spirits, and perfume a whole house; euen so such men as liue vertuously, labouring to doe good, and profit the Church of God and the Common wealth by their paines or penne, doe as it were send forth a pleasing savour of sweet instructions, not only to that time wherein they liue, and are fresh, but being drye, withered and dead, cease not in all after ages to doe as much or more. Many herbes and flowers that haue small beautie or savour to commend them, haue much more good vse and vertue: so many men of excellent rare parts and good qualities doe lye hid unknown and not respected, vntill time and vse of them doe set forth their properties. Againe, many flowers haue a glorious shew of beauty and brauery, yet stinking in smell, or else of no other vse: so many doe make a glorious ostentation, and flourish in the world, when as if they stinke not horribly before God, and all good men, yet surely they haue no other vertue then their outside to commend them, or leaue behind them. Some also rise vp and appear like a Lilly among Thornes, or as a goodly Flower among many Weedes or Grasse, eyther by their honourable authoritie, or eminence of learning or riches, whereby they excell others, and thereby may doe good to many. The frailty also of Mans life is learned by the soone fading of them before their flowring, or in their pride, or soone after, being either cropt by the hand of the spectator, or by a sudden blast withered and parched, or by the reuolution of time decaying of it owne nature: as also that the fairest flowers or fruits first ripe, are soonest and first gathered. The mutabilitie also of states and persons, by this, that as where many goodly flowers & fruits did grow this years and age, in another they are quite pulled or digged vp, and eyther weedes and grasse grow in their place, or some building erected thereon, and their place is no more known. The Ciuill respects to be learned from them are many also: for the delight of the varieties both of formes, colours and properties of Herbes and Flowers, hath euer beene powerfull ouer dull, unnurtured, rusticke and sauage people, led only by Natures instinct; how much, more powerfull is it, or should be in the mindes of generous persons? for it may well bee said, he is not humane, that is not allured with this obiect. The study, knowledge, and trauel in them, as they haue been entertained of great Kings, Princes and Potentates, without disparagement to their Greatnesse, or hinderance to their more serious and weighty Affaires: so no doubt vnto all that are capable thereof, it is not onely pleasant, but profitable, by comforting the minde, spirits and senses with an harmelesse delight, and by enabling the iudgement to conferre and apply helpe to many dangerous diseases. It is also an Instructer in the verity of the genuine Plants of the Ancients, and a Correcter of the many errours whereunto the world by continuance hath bin diuerted, and almost therein fixed, by eradicating in time, and by degrees, the pertinacious wilfulnesse of many, who because they were brought vp in their errours, are most vnwilling to leaue them without consideration of the good or euill, the right or wrong, they draw on therewith. And for my selfe I may well say, that had not mine owne paines and studies by a naturall inclination beene more powerfull in mee then any others helpe (although some through an euill disposition and ignorance haue so far traduced me as to say this was rather another mans worke then mine owne, but I leaue them to their folly) I had neuer done so much as I here publish; nor been fit or prepared for a larger, as time may suddenly (by Gods permission) bring to light, if the maleuolent dispositions of degenerate spirits doe not hinder the accomplishment.[g] But perswading my selfe there is no showre that produceth not some fruit, or no word but worketh some effect, eyther of good to perswade, or of reproofe to euince; I could not but declare my minde herein, let others iudge or say what they please. For I haue alwaies held it a thing vnfit, to conceale or bury that knowledge God hath giuen, and not to impart it, and further others therewith as much as is conuenient, yet without ostentation, which I haue euer hated. Now further to informe the courteous Reader, both of the occasion that led me on to this worke, and the other occurrences to it. First, hauing perused many Herbals in Latine, I obserued that most of them haue eyther neglected or not knowne the many diuersities of the flower Plants, and rare fruits are known to vs at this time, and (except Clusius) haue made mention but of a very few. In English likewise we haue some extant, as Turner and Dodonæus translated, who haue said little of Flowers, Gerard who is last, hath no doubt giuen vs the knowledge of as many as he attained vnto in his time, but since his daies we haue had many more varieties, then he or they euer heard of, as may be perceiued by the store I haue here produced. And none of them haue particularly seuered those that are beautifull flower plants, fit to store a garden of delight and pleasure, from the wilde and vnfit: but haue enterlaced many, one among another, whereby many that haue desired to haue faire flowers, haue not known eyther what to choose, or what to desire. Diuers Bookes of Flowers also haue been set forth, some in our owne Countrey, and more in others, all which are as it were but handfuls snatched from the plentifull Treasury of Nature, none of them being willing or able to open all sorts, and declare them fully; but the greatest hinderance of all mens delight was, that none of them had giuen any description of them, but the bare name only. To satisfie therefore their desires that are louers of such Delights, I took vpon me this labour and charge, and haue here selected and set forth a Garden of all the chiefest for choyce, and fairest for shew, from among all the seuerall Tribes and Kindreds of Natures beauty, and haue ranked them as neere as I could, or as the worke would permit, in affinity one vnto another. Secondly, and for their sakes that are studious in Authors, I haue set down the names haue bin formerly giuen vnto them, with some of their errours, not intending to cumber this worke with all that might bee said of them, because the deciding of the many controuersies, doubts, and questions that concerne them, pertaine more fitly to a generall History: yet I haue beene in some places more copious and ample then at the first I had intended, the occasion drawing on my desire to informe others with what I thought was fit to be known, reseruing what else might be said to another time & worke; wherein (God willing) I will inlarge my selfe, the subiect matter requiring it at my hands, in what my small ability can effect. Thirdly, I haue also to embellish this Worke set forth the figures of all such plants and flowers as are materiall and different one from another: but not as some others haue done, that is, a number of the figures of one sort of plant that haue nothing to distinguish them but the colour, for that I hold to be superfluous and waste. Fourthly, I haue also set down the Vertues and Properties of them in a briefe manner, rather desiring to giue you the knowledge of a few certaine and true, then to relate, as others haue done, a needless and false multiplicitie, that so there might as well profit as pleasure be taken from them, and that nothing might be wanting to accomplish it fully. And so much for this first part, my Garden of pleasant and delightfull Flowers. My next Garden consisteth of Herbes and Rootes, fit to be eaten of the rich and poor as nourishment and food, as sawce or condiment, as sallet or refreshing, for pleasure or profit; where I doe as well play the Gardiner, to shew you (in briefe, but not at large) the times[h] and manner of sowing, setting, planting, replanting, and the like (although all these things, and many more then are true, are set down very largely in the seuerall bookes that others haue written of this subiect) as also to shew some of the Kitchen vses (because they are Kitchen herbes &c.) although I confesse but very sparingly, not intending a treatise of cookery, but briefly to giue a touch thereof; and also the Physicall properties, to shew some what that others haue not set forth; yet not to play the Empericke, and giue you receipts of medicines for all diseases, but only to shew in some sort the qualities of Herbes, to quicken the minds of the studious. And lastly an Orchard of all sorts of domesticke or forraine, rare and good fruits, fit for this our Land and Countrey, which is at this time better stored and furnished then euer in any age before. I haue herein endeauoured, as in the other Gardens, to set forth the varieties of euery sort in as briefe a manner as possibly could be, without superfluous repetitions of descriptions, and onely with especiall notes of difference in leaues, flowers and fruits. Some few properties also are set downe, rather the chiefest then the most, as the worke did require. And moreouer before euery of these parts I haue giuen Treatises of the ordering, preparing and keeping the seuerall Gardens and Orchard, with whatsoeuer I thought was conuenient to be known for euery of them.

Thus haue I shewed you both the occasion and scope of this Worke, and herein haue spent my time, paines and charge, which if well accepted, I shall thinke well employed, and may the sooner hasten the fourth Part, A Garden of Simples; which will be quiet no longer at home, then that it can bring his Master newes of faire weather for the iourney.

Thine in what he may,

Iohn Parkinson.


[i]

Decoration

Ioanni Parkinsono Pharmacopæo Londinensi
solertissimo Botanico
consummatissimo
T.D.M. S.P.D.

P

Poema panegyricum Opus tuum indefessi laboris, vtilitatis eximiæ postulat, & meriti iure à me extorqueret (mi Parkinsone) si fauentibus Musis, & secundo Apolline in bicipiti somniare Parnasso, & repentè Poetæ mihi prodire liceret. In fœtus tui bonis auibus in lucem editi, & prolixiorem nepotum seriem promittentis laudes, alii Deopleni Enthusiastæ carmine suos pangant elenchos; quos sub figmentis ampullata hyperbolicarum vocum mulcedine, vates serè auribus mentibusne insinuant. Veritas nuditatis amans, fuco natiuum candorem obumbranti non illustranti perpetuum indixit bellum: In simplicitate, quam assertionum neruosa breuitas exprimit, exultat. Audi quid de te sentiam, Tu mihi sis in posterum Crateuas Brittannus; inter omnes quotquot mihi hic innotuerunt, peritissimus, exercitatissimus, oculatissimus, & emunctissimæ naris Botanicus: Cuius opera in fortunata hac Insula rem herbariam tractari, emendari, augeri, & popularibus tuis vernaculo sermone ad amussim tradi, non decentiæ modo, sed etiam necessitatis est. Macte tua sedulitate (Vir optime) neque te laborum tam arduis lucubrationibus datorum hactenus pœniteat, vel deinceps impendendorum pigeat. Difficilia quæ pulchra. Leniet debitæ laudis dulcedo vigiliarum acerbitatem, & Olympicum stadium cito pede, à carceribus ad metas alacriter decurrentem nobile manet βραβεῖον. Sed memento Artem longam, Vitam esse breuem. Μηδὲν ἀναβαλλόμενος. Vide quid ad antiquum ilium, cuius si non animam, saltem genium induisti, Crateuam scribat Hippocrates, Τέχνης πάσης ἀλλότριον ἀναβολὴ ἰητρικῆς δὲ καὶ πάνυ, ἐν ᾗ ψυχῆς κίνδυνος ἡ ὑπέρθεσις. Nobilissimam Medicinæ partem Botanicam esse reputa. Floræ nunc litasti & Pomonæ, Apollini vt audio propediem Horto Medico facturus. Amabò integræ Vestæ sacra conficito, eiusque variegatum multis simplicium morbifugorum, myriadibus sinum absolutè pandito, quem sine velo nobis exhibeas. Nulla dies abeat sine linea. Sic tandem fructus gloriæ referes vberrimos, quos iustè sudoribus partos, vt in cruda & viridi senectute decerpas diu, iisque longum fruaris opto. Vale. Datum Londini Calendas Octobris anno salutis 1629.

Theodorus de Mayerne Eques aurat. in Aula Regum Magnæ Britanniæ Iacobi & Caroli P. & F. Archiatrorum Comes.

Decoration

Ad eximium arte & vsu Pharmacopœum & Botanographum I. Parkinsonum.

H
Herbarum vires, primus te (magne Britanne)
Edocuit medicas, inclytus arte sophus.
Atque cluens herbis alter, Chironis alumnus,
Descripsit plantas, neu cadat vlla salus.
Fortunate senex, sis tu nunc tertius Heros
Hortos qui referas, deliciasque soli,
Gu. Turnerus. M.D.
Io. Gerardus Chirurgus.
Et flores Veneris lætos, herbasque virentes,
Arboreos fætus, pharmacum & arte potens.
Posteritas iustos posthac tibi solvet honores,
Laudabitque tuæ dexteritatis opus.

Ottuellus Meuerell. D.M. & Collegii
Med. Lond. socius.


Amico suo Ioanni Parkinsono.

E
Extollunt alij quos (Parkinsone) labores
Da mihi iam veniam comminuisse tuos.
Extremos poteris credi migrasse per Indos:
Cum liber haud aliud quam tuus hortus hic est:
Ipse habitare Indos tecum facis, haud petis Indos
I nunc, & tua me comminuisse refer.
Est liber Effigies, tuus hic qui pingitur hortus,
Digna manu facies hæc, facieque manus!
Vidi ego splendentem varigatis vndique gemmis.
Vna fuit Salomon, turba quid ergo fuit?
Vt vario splendent Pallacia regia sumptu,
Et Procerum turbis Atria tota nitent:
Tunc cum festa dies veniam dedit esse superbis
Quosque ficus texit, nunc tria rura tegunt:
Plena tuo pariter spectatur Curia in Horto,
Hic Princeps, Dux hic, Sponsaque pulchra Ducis.
Quæque dies est festa dies, nec parcius vnquam
Luxuriant, lauta hæc; Quotidiana tamen.
Ecce velut Patriæ Paradisi haud immemor Exul,
Hunc naturali pingit amore sibi.
Pingit & ad vivum sub eodem nomine, & hic est
Fronticuli sudor quem cerebrique dedit:
Astat Adam medius Paradiso noster in isto
Et species nomen cuique dat ipse suum.
Hos cape pro meritis, qui florem nomine donas
Æternum florens tu tibi Nomen habe.

Guilielmus Atkins.

[k]

Decoration

Ad Amicum Ioannem Parkinsonum Pharmacopœum, & Archibotanicum Londinensem.

A
Africa quas profert Plantas, quas India mittit,
Quas tua dat tellus, has tuus hortus habet:
Atque harum Species, florendi tempora, vires,
Et varias formas iste libellus habet:
Nescio plus librum talem mirabor, an hortum
Totus inest horto mundus; at iste libro.
Parkinsone tuus liber, & labor, & tua sit laus,
Herbas dum nobis das; datur herba tibi.

Guilielmus Brodus Pharmacopœus
ac Philobotanicus Londinensis.


Ad Amicum Ioannem Parkinsonum Pharmacopœum & Botanicum insignem. Carmen.

Q
Qvam magno pandis Floræ penetralia nixu
Atque facis cœlo liberiore frui?
Omnibus vt placeas, ô quam propensa voluntas,
Solicitusque labor nocte dieque premit?
Quam magno cultum studio conquirere in hortum
Herbarum quicquid mundus in orbe tenet,
Immensus sumptus, multosque extensus in annos
Te labor afficiunt? & data nulla quies.
Talia quærenti, surgit novus ardor habendi,
Nec tibi tot soli munera magna petis;
Descriptos vivâ profers sub imagine flores,
Tum profers mensæ quicquid & hortus alit,
Laudatos nobis fructus & promis honores,
Profers, quas celebrant nullibi scripta virum,
Herbarum species, quibus est quoque grata venustas:
Sic nos multiplici munere, Amice, beas.
Hoc cape pro meritis, florum dum gratia floret,
Suntque herbis vires; en tibi Nomen erit.
In serum semper tua gloria floreat ævum,
Gloria quæ in longum non peritura diem.

Thomas Iohnson vtriusque
Societatis consors.


IOANNIS PARKINSONI PHARMACOPŒI LONDINENSIS EFFIGIES
LXII ÆTATIS ANNVM AGENTIS
A NATO CHRISTO CIↃDCXXIX.

John Parkinson

[1]

Decoration

THE ORDERING OF THE
GARDEN OF PLEASVRE.


Chap. I.
The situation of a Garden of pleasure, with the nature of soyles, and how to amend the defects that are in many sorts of situations and grounds.

T

The seuerall situations of mens dwellings, are for the most part vnauoideable and vnremoueable; for most men cannot appoint forth such a manner of situation for their dwelling, as is most fit to auoide all the inconueniences of winde and weather, but must bee content with such as the place will afford them; yet all men doe well know, that some situations are more excellent than others: according therfore to the seuerall situation of mens dwellings, so are the situations of their gardens also for the most part. And although diuers doe diuersly preferre their owne seuerall places which they haue chosen, or wherein they dwell; As some those places that are neare vnto a riuer or brooke to be best for the pleasantnesse of the water, the ease of transportation of themselues, their friends and goods, as also for the fertility of the soyle, which is seldome bad neare vnto a riuers side; And others extoll the side or top of an hill, bee it small or great, for the prospects sake; And againe, some the plaine or champian ground, for the euen leuell thereof: euery one of which, as they haue their commodities accompanying them, so haue they also their discommodities belonging vnto them, according to the Latine Prouerbe, Omne commodum fert suum incommodum. Yet to shew you for euerie of these situations which is the fittest place to plant your garden in, and how to defend it from the iniuries of the cold windes and frosts that may annoy it, will, I hope, be well accepted. And first, for the water side, I suppose the North side of the water to be the best side for your garden, that it may haue the comfort of the South Sunne to lye vpon it and face it, and the dwelling house to bee aboue it, to defend the cold windes and frosts both from your herbes, and flowers, and early fruits. And so likewise I iudge for the hill side, that it may lye full open to the South Sunne, and, the house aboue it, both for the comfort the ground shall receiue of the water and raine descending into it, and of defence from winter and colds. Now for the plaine leuell ground, the buildings of the house should be on the North side of the garden, that so they might bee a defence of much sufficiency to safeguard it from many iniurious cold nights and dayes, which else might spoyle the pride thereof in the bud. But because euery one cannot so appoint his dwelling, as I here appoint the fittest place for it to be, euery ones pleasure thereof shall be according to the site, cost, and endeauours they bestow, to cause it come nearest to this proportion, by such helpes of bricke or stone wals to defend it, or by the helpe of high growne and well spread trees, planted on the North side thereof, to keepe it the warmer. And euery of these three situations, hauing the fairest buildings of the house facing the garden in this manner before specified, besides the benefit of shelter it shall haue from them, the buildings and roomes abutting thereon, shall haue reciprocally the beautifull prospect into it, and haue both sight and sent of whatsoeuer is excellent, and worthy to giue content out of it, which is one of the greatest pleasures a garden can yeeld his Master. Now hauing shewed you the best place where this your[2] garden should be, let me likewise aduise you where it should not be, at least that it is the worst place wherein it may be, if it be either on the West or East side of your house, or that it stand in a moorish ground, or other vnwholsome ayre (for many, both fruits, herbes, and flowers that are tender, participate with the ayre, taking in a manner their chiefest thriuing from thence) or neare any common Lay-stalles, or common Sewers, or else neare any great Brew-house, Dye-house, or any other place where there is much smoake, whether it be of straw, wood, or especially of sea-coales, which of all other is the worst, as our Citie of London can giue proofe sufficient, wherein neither herbe nor tree will long prosper, nor hath done euer since the vse of sea-coales beganne to bee frequent therein. And likewise that it is much the worse, if it bee neare vnto any Barnes or Stackes of corne or hey, because that from thence will continually with the winde bee brought into the garden the strawe and chaffe of the corne, the dust and seede of the hey to choake or pester it. Next vnto the place or situation, let mee shew you the grounds or soyles for it, eyther naturall or artificiall. No man will deny, but the naturall blacke mould is not only the fattest and richest, but farre exceedeth any other either naturall or artificiall, as well in goodnesse as durability. And next thereunto, I hold the sandy loame (which is light and yet firme, but not loose as sand, nor stiffe like vnto clay) to be little inferiour for this our Garden of pleasure; for that it doth cause all bulbous and tuberous rooted plants to thriue sufficiently therein, as likewise all other flower-plants, Roses, Trees, &c. which if it shall decay by much turning and working out the heart of it, may soone be helped with old stable manure of horses, being well turned in, when it is old and almost conuerted to mould. Other grounds, as chalke, sand, grauell, or clay, are euery of them one more or lesse fertill or barren than other; and therefore doe require such helpes as is most fit for them. And those grounds that are ouer dry, loose, and dustie, the manure of stall fedde beasts and cattell being buried or trenched into the earth, and when it is thorough rotten (which will require twice the time that the stable soyle of horses will) well turned and mixed with the earth, is the best soyle to temper both the heate and drinesse of them. So contrariwise the stable dung of horses is the best for cold grounds, to giue them heate and life. But of all other sorts of grounds, the stiffe clay is the very worst for this purpose; for that although you should digge out the whole compasse of your Garden, carry it away, and bring other good mould in the stead thereof, and fill vp the place, yet the nature of that clay is so predominant, that in a small time it will eate out the heart of the good mould, and conuert it to its owne nature, or very neare vnto it: so that to bring it to any good, there must bee continuall labour bestowed thereon, by bringing into it good store of chalke, lime, or sand, or else ashes eyther of wood or of sea-coales (which is the best for this ground) well mixed and turned in with it. And as this stiffe clay is the worst, so what ground soeuer commeth nearest vnto the nature thereof, is neared vnto it in badnesse, the signes whereof are the ouermuch moysture thereof in Winter, and the much cleaning and chapping thereof in Summer, when the heate of the yeare hath consumed the moysture, which tyed and bound it fast together, as also the stiffe and hard working therein: but if the nature of the clay bee not too stiffe, but as it were tempered and mixed with sand or other earths, your old stable soyle of horses will helpe well the small rifting or chapping thereof, to be plentifully bestowed therin in a fit season. Some also do commend the casting of ponds and ditches, to helpe to manure these stiffe chapping grounds. Other grounds, that are ouermoist by springs, that lye too neare the vpper face of the earth, besides that the beds thereof had need to be laid vp higher, and the allies, as trenches and furrowes, to lye lower, the ground it selfe had neede to haue some good store of chalke-stones bestowed thereon, some certaine yeares, if it may be, before it be laid into a Garden, that the Winter frosts may breake the chalke small, and the Raine dissolue it into mould, that so they may bee well mixed together; than which, there is not any better manure to soyle such a moist ground, to helpe to dry vp the moysture, and to giue heate and life to the coldnesse thereof, which doth alwayes accompany these moist grounds, and also to cause it abide longer in heart than any other. For the sandy and grauelly grounds, although I know the well mollified manure of beasts and cattell to be excellent good, yet I know also, that some commend a white Marle, and some a clay to be well spread thereon, and after turned thereinto: and for the chalkie ground, è conuerso, I commend fatte clay to helpe it. You must vnderstand, that the lesse rich or more barren that your ground is, there nee[3]deth the more care, labour, and cost to bee bestowed thereon, both to order it rightly, & so to preserue it from time to time: for no artificiall or forc’t ground can endure good any long time, but that within a few yeares it must be refreshed more or lesse, according as it doth require. Yet you shall likewise vnderstand, that this Garden of pleasure stored with these Out-landish flowers; that is, bulbous and tuberous rooted plants, and other fine flowers, that I haue hereafter described, and assigned vnto it, needeth not so much or so often manuring with soyle, &c. as another Garden planted with the other sorts of English flowers, or a Garden of ordinary Kitchin herbes doth. Your ground likewise for this Garden had neede to bee well cleansed from all annoyances (that may hinder the well doing or prospering of the flowers therein) as stones, weedes, rootes of trees, bushes, &c. and all other things cumbersome or hurtfull; and therefore the earth being not naturally fine enough of it selfe, is vsed to bee fitted to make it the finer, and that either through a hurdle made of sticks, or lathes, or through square or round sieues platted with fine and strong thin stickes, or with wyers in the bottome. Or else the whole earth of the Garden being course, may be cast in the same manner that men vse to try or fine sand from grauell, that is, against a wall; whereby the courser and more stony, falling downe from the fine, is to be taken away from the foote of the heape, the finer sand and ground remaining still aboue, and on the heape. Or else in the want of a wall to cast it against, I haue seene earth fined by it selfe in this manner: Hauing made the floore or vpper part of a large plat of ground cleane from stones, &c. let there a reasonable round heape of fine earth be set in the midst thereof, or in stead thereof a large Garden flowerpot, or other great pot, the bottome turned vpwards, and then poure your course earth on the top or head thereof, one shouell full after another somewhat gently, and thereby all the course stuffe and stones will fall downe to the bottome round about the heape, which must continually be carefully taken away, and thus you may make your earth as fine as if it were cast against a wall, the heape being growne great, seruing in stead thereof. Those that will not prepare their grounds in some of these manners aforesaid, shall soone finde to their losse the neglect thereof: for the trash and stones shall so hinder the encrease of their roots, that they will be halfe lost in the earth among the stones, which else might be saued to serue to plant wheresoeuer they please.


Chap. II.
The frame or forme of a Garden of delight and pleasure, with the seuerall varieties thereof.

Although many men must be content with any plat of ground, of what forme or quantity soeuer it bee, more or lesse, for their Garden, because a more large or conuenient cannot bee had to their habitation: Yet I perswade my selfe, that Gentlemen of the better sort and quality, will prouide such a parcell of ground to bee laid out for their Garden, and in such conuenient manner, as may be fit and answerable to the degree they hold. To prescribe one forme for euery man to follow, were too great presumption and folly: for euery man will please his owne fancie, according to the extent he designeth out for that purpose, be it orbicular or round, triangular or three square, quadrangular or foure square, or more long than broad. I will onely shew you here the seuerall formes that many men haue taken and delighted in, let euery man chuse which him liketh best, or may most fitly agree to that proportion of ground hee hath set out for that purpose. The orbicular or round forme is held in it owne proper existence, to be the most absolute forme, containing within it all other formes whatsoeuer; but few I thinke will chuse such a proportion to be ioyned to their habitation, being not accepted any where I think, but for the generall Garden to the Vniuersity at Padoa. The triangular or three square is such a forme also, as is seldome chosen by any that may make another choise, and as I thinke is onely had where another forme cannot be had, necessitie constraining them to be therewith content. The foure square forme is the most vsually accepted with all, and doth best agree to any mans dwelling, being (as I said before) behinde the house, all the backe windowes thereof opening into it. Yet if it bee longer than the breadth, or broader than the length, the proportion of walkes, squares, and knots may be soon brought to the square forme, and be so cast, as the beauty thereof may[5] bee no lesse than the foure square proportion, or any other better forme, if any be. To forme it therfore with walks, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with hedges, with squares, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure square parts, is according as euery mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge: For there may be therein walkes eyther open or close, eyther publike or priuate, a maze or wildernesse, a rocke or mount, with a fountaine in the midst thereof to conuey water to euery part of the Garden, eyther in pipes vnder the ground, or brought by hand, and emptied into large Cisternes or great Turkie Iarres, placed in conuenient places, to serue as an ease to water the nearest parts thereunto. Arbours also being both gracefull and necessary, may be appointed in such conuenient places, as the corners, or else where, as may be most fit, to serue both for shadow and rest after walking. And because many are desirous to see the formes of trayles, knots, and other compartiments, and because the open knots are more proper for these Out-landish flowers; I haue here caused some to be drawne, to satisfie their desires, not intending to cumber this worke with ouer manie, in that it would be almost endlesse, to expresse so many as might bee conceiued and set downe, for that euery man may inuent others farre differing from these, or any other can be set forth. Let euery man therefore, if hee like of these, take what may please his mind, or out of these or his own conceit, frame any other to his fancy, or cause others to be done as he liketh best, obseruing this decorum, that according to his ground he do cast out his knots, with conuenient roome for allies and walkes; for the fairer and larger your allies and walkes be, the more grace your Garden shall haue, the lesse harme the herbes and flowers shall receiue, by passing by them that grow next vnto the allies sides, and the better shall your Weeders cleanse both the beds and the allies.

Garden plans

Chap. III.
The many sorts of herbes and other things, wherewith the beds and parts of knots are bordered to set out the forme of them, with their commodities and discommodities.

It is necessary also, that I shew you the seuerall materials, wherewith these knots and trayles are set forth and bordered; which are of two sorts: The one are liuing herbes, and the other are dead materials; as leade, boords, bones, tyles, &c. Of herbes, there are many sorts wherewith the knots and beds in a Garden are vsed to bee set, to shew forth the forme of them, and to preserue them the longer in their forme, as also to be as greene, and sweete herbes, while they grow, to be cut to perfume the house, keeping them in such order and proportion, as may be most conuenient for their seuerall natures, and euery mans pleasure and fancy: Of all which, I intend to giue you the knowledge here in this place; and first, to begin with that which hath beene most anciently receiued, which is Thrift. This is an euerliuing greene herbe, which many take to border their beds, and set their knots and trayles, and therein much delight, because it will grow thicke and bushie, and may be kept, being cut with a paire of Garden sheeres, in some good handsome manner and proportion for a time, and besides, in the Summer time send forth many short stalkes of pleasant flowers, to decke vp an house among other sweete herbes: Yet these inconueniences doe accompany it; it will not onely in a small time ouergrow the knot or trayle in many places, by growing so thicke and bushie, that it will put out the forme of a knot in many places: but also much thereof will dye with the frosts and snowes in Winter, and with the drought in Summer, whereby many voide places will be seene in the knot, which doth much deforme it, and must therefore bee yearely refreshed: the thicknesse also and bushing thereof doth hide and shelter snayles and other small noysome wormes so plentifully, that Gilloflowers, and other fine herbes and flowers being planted therein, are much spoyled by them, and cannot be helped without much industry, and very great and daily attendance to destroy them. Germander is another herbe, in former times also much vsed, and yet also in many places; and because it will grow thicke, and may be kept also in some forme and proportion with cutting, and that the cuttings are much vsed as a strawing herbe for houses, being pretty and sweete, is also much affected by diuers: but this also will often dye and grow out of forme, and besides that, the stalkes will grow too great, hard and stubby, the rootes doe so farre shoote vnder ground, that, vpon a little continuance thereof, will[6] spread into many places within the knot, which if continually they be not plucked vp, they will spoile the whole knot it selfe; and therefore once in three or foure yeares at the most, it must be taken vp and new set, or else it will grow too roynish and cumbersome. Hyssope hath also been vsed to be set about a knot, and being sweete, will serue for strewings, as Germander: But this, although the rootes doe not runne or creep like it, yet the stalkes doe quickly grow great aboue ground, and dye often after the first yeares setting, whereby the grace of the knot will be much lost. Marierome, Sauorie, and Thyme, in the like manner being sweete herbes, are vsed to border vp beds and knots, and will be kept for a little while, with cutting, into some conformity; but all and euery of them serve most commonly but for one yeares vse, and will soone decay and perish: and therefore none of these, no more than any of the former, doe I commend for a good bordering herbe for this purpose. Lauander Cotton also being finely slipped and set, is of many, and those of the highest respect of late daies, accepted, both for the beauty and forme of the herbe, being of a whitish greene mealy colour, for his sent smelling somewhat strong, and being euerliuing and abiding greene all the Winter, will, by cutting, be kept in as euen proportion as any other herbe may be. This will likewise soone grow great and stubbed, notwithstanding the cutting, and besides will now and then perish in some places, especially if you doe not strike or put off the snow, before the Sunne lying vpon it dissolue it: The rarity & nouelty of this herbe, being for the most part but in the Gardens of great persons, doth cause it to be of the greater regard, it must therfore be renewed wholly euery second or third yeare at the most, because of the great growing therof. Slips of Iuniper or Yew are also receiued of some & planted, because they are alwayes green, and that the Iuniper especially hath not that ill sent that Boxe hath, which I will presently commend vnto you, yet both Iuniper and Yew will soon grow too great and stubbed, and force you to take vp your knot sooner, than if it were planted with Boxe. Which lastly, I chiefly and aboue all other herbes commend vnto you, and being a small, lowe, or dwarfe kinde, is called French or Dutch Boxe, and serueth very well to set out any knot, or border out any beds: for besides that it is euer greene, it being reasonable thicke set, will easily be cut and formed into any fashion one will, according to the nature thereof, which is to grow very slowly, and will not in a long time rise to be of any height, but shooting forth many small branches from the roote, will grow very thicke, and yet not require so great tending, nor so much perish as any of the former, and is onely receiued into the Gardens of those that are curious. This (as I before said) I commend and hold to bee the best and surest herbe to abide faire and greene in all the bitter stormes of the sharpest Winter, and all the great heates and droughts of Summer, and doth recompence the want of a good sweet sent with his fresh verdure, euen proportion, and long lasting continuance. Yet these inconueniences it hath, that besides the vnpleasing sent which many mislike, and yet is but small, the rootes of this Boxe do so much spread themselues into the ground of the knot, and doe draw from thence so much nourishment, that it robbeth all the herbes that grow neare it of their sap and substance, thereby making all the earth about it barren, or at least lesse fertile. Wherefore to shew you the remedy of this inconuenience of spreading, without either taking vp the Boxe of the border, or the herbes and flowers in the knot, is I thinke a secret knowne but vnto a few, which is this: You shall take a broad pointed Iron like vnto a Slise or Chessill, which thrust downe right into the ground a good depth all along the inside of the border of Boxe somewhat close thereunto, you may thereby cut away the spreading rootes thereof, which draw so much moisture from the other herbes on the inside, and by this meanes both preserue your herbes and flowers in the knot, and your Boxe also, for that the Boxe will be nourished sufficiently from the rest of the rootes it shooteth on all the other sides. And thus much for the liuing herbes, that serue to set or border vp any knot. Now for the dead materials, they are also, as I said before diuers: as first, Leade, which some that are curious doe border their knots withall, causing it to be cut of the breadth of foure fingers, bowing the lower edge a little outward, that it may lye vnder the vpper crust of the ground, and that it may stand the faster, and making the vpper edge either plain, or cut out like vnto the battlements of a Church: this fashion hath delighted some, who haue accounted it stately (at the least costly) and fit for their degree, and the rather, because it will be bowed and bended into any round square, angular, or other proportion as one listeth, and is not much to be misliked, in that the Leade[7] doth not easily breake or spoile without much iniury, and keepeth vp a knot for a very long time in his due proportion: but in my opinion, the Leade is ouer-hot for Summer, and ouer-cold for Winter. Others doe take Oaken inch boords, and sawing them foure or fiue inches broad, do hold vp their knot therewith: but in that these boordes cannot bee drawne compasse into any small scantling, they must serue rather for long outright beds, or such knots as haue no rounds, halfe rounds or compassings in them. And besides, these boordes are not long lasting, because they stand continually in the weather, especially the ends where they are fastened together will soonest rot and perish, and so the whole forme will be spoyled. To preuent that fault, some others haue chosen the shanke bones of Sheep, which after they haue beene well cleansed and boyled, to take out the fat from them, are stucke into the ground the small end downewards, and the knockle head vpwards, and thus being set side to side, or end to end close together, they set out the whole knot therewith, which heads of bones although they looke not white the first yeare, yet after they haue abiden some frosts and heates will become white, and prettily grace out the ground: but this inconvenience is incident to them, that the Winter frosts will raise them out of the ground oftentimes, and if by chance the knockle head of any doe breake, or be strucke off with any ones foot, &c. going by, from your store, that lyeth by you of the same sort, set another in the place, hauing first taken away the broken peece: although these will last long in forme and order, yet because they are but bones many mislike them, and indeed I know but few that vse them. Tyles are also vsed by some, which by reason they may bee brought compasse into any fashion many are pleased with them, who doe not take the whole Tyle at length, but halfe Tyles, and other broken pieces set somewhat deepe, into the ground, that they may stand fast, and these take vp but little roome, and keepe vp the edge of the beds and knots in a pretty comely manner, but they are often out of frame, in that many of them are broken and spoiled, both with mens feete passing by, the weather and weight of the earth beating them downe and breaking them, but especially the frosts in Winter doe so cracke off their edges, both at the toppes and sides that stand close one vnto another, that they must be continually tended and repaired with fresh and sound ones put in the place of them that are broken or decayed. And lastly (for it is the latest inuention) round whitish or blewish pebble stones, of some reasonable proportion and bignesse, neither too great nor too little, haue beene vsed by some to be set, or rather in a manner but laide vpon the ground to fashion out the traile or knot, or all along by the large grauelly walke sides to set out the walke, and maketh a pretty handsome shew, and because the stones will not decay with the iniuries of any time or weather, and will be placed in their places againe, if any should be thrust out by any accident, as also that their sight is so conspicuous vpon the ground, especially if they be not hid with the store of herbes growing in the knot; is accounted both for durability, beauty of the sight, handsomnesse in the worke, and ease in the working and charge, to be of all other dead materials the chiefest. And thus, Gentlemen, I haue shewed you all the varieties that I know are vsed by any in our Countrey, that are worth the reciting (but as for the fashion of Iawe-bones, vsed by some in the Low Countries, and other places beyond the Seas, being too grosse and base, I make no mention of them) among which euery one may take what pleaseth him best, or may most fitly be had, or may best agree with the ground or knot. Moreouer, all these herbes that serue for borderings, doe serue as well to be set vpon the ground of a leuelled knot; that is, where the allies and foot-pathes are of the same leuell with the knot, as they may serue also for the raised knot, that is, where the beds of the knot are raised higher than the allies; but both Leade, Boordes, Bones, and Tyles, are only for the raised ground, be it knot or beds. The pebble stones againe are onely for the leuelled ground, because they are so shallow, that as I said before, they rather lye vpon the earth than are thrust any way into it. All this that I haue here set downe, you must vnderstand is proper for the knots alone of a Garden. But for to border the whole square or knot about, to serue as a hedge thereunto, euery one taketh what liketh him best; as either Priuet alone, or sweete Bryer, and white Thorne enterlaced together, and Roses of one, or two, or more sorts placed here and there amongst them. Some also take Lauander, Rosemary, Sage, Southernwood, Lauander Cotton, or some such other thing. Some againe plant Cornell Trees, and plash them, or keepe them lowe, to[8] forme them into an hedge. And some againe take a lowe prickly shrubbe, that abideth alwayes greene, described in the end of this Booke, called in Latine Pyracantha, which in time will make an euer greene hedge or border, and when it beareth fruit, which are red berries like vnto Hawthorne berries, make a glorious shew among the greene leaues in the Winter time, when no other shrubbes haue fruit or leaues.


Chap. IV.
The nature and names of diuers Out-landish flowers, that for their pride, beauty, and earlinesse, are to be planted in Gardens of pleasure for delight.

Having thus formed out a Garden, and diuided it into his fit and due proportion, with all the gracefull knots, arbours, walkes, &c. likewise what is fit to keepe it in the same comely order, is appointed vnto it, both for the borders of the squares, and for the knots and beds themselues; let vs now come and furnish the inward parts, and beds with those fine flowers that (being strangers vnto vs, and giuing the beauty and brauery of their colours so early before many of our home bred flowers, the more to entice vs to their delight) are most beseeming it; and namely, with Daffodils, Fritillarias, Iacinthes, Saffron-flowers, Lillies, Flowerdeluces, Tulipas, Anemones, French Cowslips, or Beares eares, and a number of such other flowers, very beautifull, delightfull, and pleasant, hereafter described at full, whereof although many haue little sweete scent to commend them, yet their earlinesse and exceeding great beautie and varietie doth so farre counteruaile that defect (and yet I must tell you with all, that there is among the many sorts of them some, and that not a few, that doe excell in sweetnesse, being so strong and heady, that they rather offend by too much than by too little sent, and some againe are of so milde and moderate temper, that they scarce come short of your most delicate and daintiest flowers) that they are almost in all places with all persons, especially with the better sort of the Gentry of the Land, as greatly desired and accepted as any other the most choisest, and the rather, for that the most part of these Out-landish flowers, do shew forth their beauty and colours so early in the yeare, that they seeme to make a Garden of delight euen in the Winter time, and doe so giue their flowers one after another, that all their brauery is not fully spent, vntil that Gilliflowers, the pride of our English Gardens, do shew themselues: So that whosoeuer would haue of euery sort of these flowers, may haue for euery moneth seueral colours and varieties, euen from Christmas vntill Midsommer, or after; and then, after some little respite, vntill Christmas againe, and that in some plenty, with great content and without forcing; so that euery man may haue them in euery place, if they will take any care of them. And because there bee many Gentlewomen and others, that would gladly haue some fine flowers to furnish their Gardens, but know not what the names of those things are that they desire, nor what are the times of their flowring, nor the skill and knowledge of their right ordering, planting, displanting, transplanting, and replanting; I haue here for their sakes set downe the nature, names, times, and manner of ordering in a briefe manner, referring the more ample declaration of them to the worke following. And first of their names and natures: Of Daffodils there are almost an hundred sorts, as they are seuerally described hereafter, euery one to be distinguished from other, both in their times, formes, and colours, some being eyther white, or yellow, or mixt, or else being small or great, single or double, and some hauing but one flower vpon a stalke, others many, whereof many are so exceeding sweete, that a very few are sufficient to perfume a whole chamber, and besides, many of them be so faire and double, eyther one vpon a stalke, or many vpon a stalke, that one or two stalkes of flowers are in stead of a whole nose-gay, or bundell of flowers tyed together. This I doe affirme vpon good knowledge and certaine experience, and not as a great many others doe, tell of the wonders of another world, which themselues neuer saw nor euer heard of, except some superficiall relation, which themselues haue augmented according to their owne fansie and conceit. Againe, let me here also by the way tell you, that many idle and ignorant Gardiners and others, who get names by stealth, as they doe many other things, doe call[9] some of these Daffodils Narcisses, when as all know that know any Latine, that Narcissus is the Latine name, and Daffodill the English of one and the same thing; and therefore alone without any other Epithite cannot properly distinguish seuerall things. I would willingly therefore that all would grow iudicious, and call euery thing by his proper English name in speaking English, or else by such Latine name as euery thing hath that hath not a proper English name, that thereby they may distinguish the seuerall varieties of things and not confound them, as also to take away all excuses of mistaking; as for example: The single English bastard Daffodill (which groweth wilde in many Woods, Groues, and Orchards in England.) The double English bastard Daffodill. The French single white Daffodill many vpon a stalke. The French double yellow Daffodill. The great, or the little, or the least Spanish yellow bastard Daffodill, or the great or little Spanish white Daffodill. The Turkie single white Daffodill, or, The Turkie single or double white Daffodill many vpon a stalke, &c. Of Fritillaria, or the checkerd Daffodill, there are halfe a score seuerall sorts, both white and red, both yellow and blacke, which are a wonderfull grace and ornament to a Garden in regard of the Checker like spots are in the flowers. Of Iacinthes there are aboue halfe an hundred sorts, as they are specified hereafter; some like vnto little bells or starres, others like vnto little bottles or pearles, both white and blew, sky-coloured and blush, and some starlike of many pretty various formes, and all to giue delight to them that will be curious to obserue them. Of Crocus or Saffron flowers, there are also twenty sorts; some of the Spring time, others flowring onely in the Autume or Fall, earlier or later than another, some whereof abide but a while, others indure aboue a moneth in their glorious beauty. The Colchicum or Medowe Saffron, which some call the sonne before the father, but not properly, is of many sorts also; some flowring in the Spring of the yeare, but the most in Autume, whereof some haue faire double flowers very delightfull to behold, and some partly coloured both single and double so variable, that it would make any one admire the worke of the Creatour in the various spots and stripes of these flowers. Then haue wee of Lillies twenty seuerall sorts and colours, among whom I must reckon the Crowne Imperiall, that for his stately forme deserueth some speciall place in this Garden, as also the Martagons, both white and red, both blush and yellow, that require to be set by themselues apart, as it were in a small round or square of a knot, without many other, or tall flowers growing neare them. But to tell you of all the sorts of Tulipas (which are the pride of delight) they are so many, and as I may say, almost infinite, doth both passe my ability, and as I beleeue the skill of any other. They are of two especiall sorts, some flowring earlier, and others later than their fellowes, and that naturally in all grounds, wherein there is such a wonderfull variety and mixture of colours, that it is almost impossible for the wit of man to descipher them thoroughly, and to giue names that may be true & seuerall distinctions to euery flower, threescore seuerall sorts of colours simple and mixed of each kind I can reckon vp that I haue, and of especiall note, and yet I doubt not, but for euery one of them there are ten others differing from them, which may be seen at seuerall times, and in seuerall places: & besides this glory of variety in colors that these flowers haue, they carry so stately & delightfull a forme, & do abide so long in their brauery (enduring aboue three whole moneths from the first vnto the last) that there is no Lady or Gentlewoman of any worth that is not caught with this delight, or not delighted with these flowers. The Anemones likewise or Windeflowers are so full of variety and so dainty, so pleasant and so delightsome flowers, that the sight of them doth enforce an earnest longing desire in the minde of any one to be a possessour of some of them at the least: For without all doubt, this one kinde of flower, so variable in colours, so differing in forme (being almost as many sorts of them double as single) so plentifull in bearing flowers, and so durable in lasting, and also so easie both; to preserue and to encrease, is of it selfe alone almost sufficient to furnish a garden with their flowers for almost halfe the yeare, as I shall shew you in a fit and conuenient place. The Beares eares or French Cowslips must not want their deserued commendations, seeing that their flowers, being many set together vpon a stalke, doe seeme euery one of them to bee a Nosegay alone of it selfe: and besides the many differing colours that are to be seene in them, as white, yellow, blush, purple, red, tawney, murrey, haire colour, &c. which encrease much delight in all sorts of the Gentry of the Land, they are not vnfurnished with a pretty sweete sent,[10] which doth adde an encrease of pleasure in those that make them an ornament for their wearing. Flowerdeluces also are of many sorts, but diuided into two especiall, kindes; the one bearing a leafe like a flagge whose roots are tuberous, thicke and short (one kinde of them being the Orris rootes that are sold at the Apothecaries, whereof sweete powders are made to lye among garments) the other having round rootes like vnto Onions, and narrow long leaues somewhat like grasse: Of both these kindes there is much variety, especially in their colours. The greater Flagge kinde is frequent enough and dispersed in this Land, and well doth serue to decke vp both a Garden and House with natures beauties: But the chiefe of all is your Sable flower, so fit for a mourning habit, that I thinke in the whole compasse of natures store, there is not a more patheticall, or of greater correspondency, nor yet among all the flowers I know any one comming neare vnto the colour of it. The other kinde which hath bulbous or Onion like rootes, diuersifieth it selfe also into so many fine colours, being of a more neate shape and succinct forme than the former, that it must not bee wanting to furnish this Garden. The Hepatica or Noble Liuerwoort is another flower of account, whereof some are white, others red, or blew, or purple, somewhat resembling Violets, but that there are white threads in the middest of their flowers, which adde the more grace vnto them; and one kinde of them is so double, that it resembleth a double thicke Dasie or Marigold, but being small and of an excellent blew colour, is like vnto a Button: but that which commendeth the flower as much as the beauty, is the earlinesse in flowring, for that it is one of the very first flowers that open themselues after Christmas, euen in the midst of Winter. The Cyclamen or Sowebread is a flower of rare receipt, because it is naturally hard to encrease, and that the flowers are like vnto red or blush coloured Violets, flowring in the end of Summer or beginning of Autumne: the leaues likewise hereof haue no small delight in their pleasant colour, being knotted and circled white vpon greene, and that which most preferreth it, is the Physicall properties thereof for women, which I will declare when I shall shew you the seuerall descriptions of the varieties in his proper place. Many other sorts of flowers there are fit to furnish this Garden, as Leucoium or Bulbous Violet, both early and late flowring. Muscari or Muske Grape flower. Starre flowers of diuers sorts. Phalangium or Spiderwort, the chiefe of many is that sort whose flowers are like vnto a white Lilly. Winter Crowfoote or Wolfes bane. The Christmas flower like vnto a single white Rose. Bell flowers of many kindes. Yellow Larkes spurre, the prettiest flower of a score in a Garden. Flower-gentle or Floramour. Flower of the Sunne. The Maruaile of Peru or of the world. Double Marsh Marigold or double yellow Buttons, much differing and farre exceeding your double yellow Crowfoote, which some call Batchelours Buttons. Double French Marigolds that smell well, and is a greater kinde than the ordinary, and farre surpasseth it. The double red Ranunculus or Crowfoote (farre excelling the most glorious double Anemone) and is like vnto our great yellow double Crowfoote. Thus having giuen you the knowledge of some of the choisest flowers for the beds of this Garden, let me also shew you what are fittest for your borders and for your arbours. The Iasmine white and yellow. The double Honysockle. The Ladies Bower, both white, and red, and purple single and double, are the fittest of Outlandish plants to set by arbours and banqueting houses, that are open, both before and aboue to helpe to couer them, and to giue both sight, smell, and delight. The sorts of Roses are fittest for Standards in the hedges or borders. The Cherry Bay or Laurocerasus. The Rose Bay or Oleander. The white and the blew Syringa or Pipe tree, are all gracefull and delightfull to set at seuerall distances in the borders of knots; for some of them giue beautifull and sweete flowers. The Pyracantha or Prickly Corall tree doth remaine with greene leaues all the yeare, and may be plashed, or laid downe, or tyed to make a fine hedge to border the whole knot, as is said before. The Wilde Bay or Laurus Tinus, doth chiefly desire to be sheltered vnder a wall, where it will best thriue, and giue you his beautifull flowers in Winter for your delight, in recompence of his fenced dwelling. The dwarfe Bay or Mesereon, is most commonly either placed in the midst of a knot, or at the corners thereof, and sometimes all along a walke for the more grace. And thus to fit euery ones fancy, I haue shewed you the variety of natures store in some part for you to dispose of them to your best content.


[11]

Chap. V.
The nature and names of those that are called vsually English flowers.

Those flowers that haue beene vsually planted in former times in Gardens of this Kingdome (when as our forefathers knew few or none of those that are recited before) haue by time and custome attained the name of English flowers, although the most of them were neuer naturall of this our Land, but brought in from other Countries at one time or other, by those that tooke pleasure in them where they first saw them: and I doubt not, but many other sorts than here are set downe, or now knowne to vs, haue beene brought, which either haue perished by their negligence or want of skill that brought them, or else because they could not abide our cold Winters; those onely remaining with vs that haue endured of themselues, and by their encreasing haue beene distributed ouer the whole Land. If I should make any large discourse of them, being so well knowne to all, I doubt I should make a long tale to small purpose: I will therefore but briefly recite them, that you may haue them together in one place, with some little declaration of the nature and quality of them, and so passe to other matters. And first of Primroses and Cowslips, whereof there are many prettie varieties; some better knowne in the West parts of this Kingdome, others in the North, than in any other, vntill of late being obserued by some curious louers of varieties, they haue been transplanted diuersly, and so made more common: for although we haue had formerly in these parts about London greene Primroses vsually, yet we neuer saw or heard of greene Cowslips both single and double but of late dayes, and so likewise for Primroses to be both single and double from one roote, and diuers vpon one stalke of diuers fashions, I am sure is not vsuall: all which desire rather to bee planted vnder some hedge, or fence, or in the shade, than in the Sunne. Single Rose Campions, both white, red, and blush, and the double red Rose Campion also is knowne sufficiently, and will abide moderate Sunne as well as the shade. The flower of Bristow or None-such is likewise another kinde of Campion, whereof there is both white flowring plants and blush as well as Orange colour, all of them being single flowers require a moderate Sunne and not the shadow: But the Orange colour Nonesuch with double flowers, as it is rare and not common, so for his brauery doth well deserue a Master of account that will take care to keepe and preserue it. Batchelours Buttons both white and red, are kindes of wilde Campions of a very double forme, and will reasonably well like the Sunne but not the shade. Wall-flowers are common in euery Garden, as well the ordinary double as the single, and the double kinde desireth no more shade than the single, but the greater kindes both double and single must haue the Sunne. Stock-Gilloflowers likewise are almost as common as Wall-flowers, especially the single kindes in euery womans Garden, but the double kindes are much more rare, and possessed but of a few, and those onely that will bee carefull to preserue them in Winter; for besides that the most of them are more tender, they yeeld no seede as the single kindes doe to preserue them, although one kinde from the sowing of the seed yeeld double flowers: They will all require the comfort of the Sunne, especially the double kindes, and to be defended from cold, yet so as in the Summer they doe not want water wherein they much ioy, and which is as it were their life. Queenes Gilloflowers (which some call Dames Violets, and some Winter Gilloflowers, are a kinde of Stock-Gilloflower) planted in Gardens to serue to fill vp the parts thereof for want of better things, hauing in mine opinion neither sight nor sent much to commend them. Violets are the Springs chiefe flowers for beauty, smell, and vse, both single and double, the more shadie and moist they stand the better. Snapdragon are flowers of much more delight, and in that they are more tender to keep, and will hardly endure the sharpe Winters, vnlesse they stand well defended, are scarce seene in many Gardens. Columbines single and double, of many sorts, fashions, and colours, very variable both speckled and party coloured, are flowers of that respect, as that no Garden would willingly bee without them, that could tell how to haue them, yet the rarer the flowers are, the more trouble to keepe; the ordinary sorts on the con[12]trary part will not be lost, doe what one will. Larkes heeles, or spurres, or toes, as in seuerall Countries they are called, exceed in the varietie of colours, both single and double, any of the former times; for vntill of late dayes none of the most pleasant colours were seene or heard of: but now the single kindes are reasonable well disperst ouer the Land, yet the double kindes of all those pleasant colours (and some other also as beautifull) which stand like little double Roses, are enioyed but of a few: all of them rise from seed, and must be sowne euery yeare, the double as well as the single. Pansyes or Hartes eases of diuers colours, and although without sent, yet not without some respect and delight. Double Poppies are flowers of a great and goodly proportion, adorning a Garden with their variable colours to the delight of the beholders, wherein there is some speciall care to be taken, lest they turne single; and that is, if you see them grow vp too thicke, that you must pull them vp, and not suffer them to grow within lesse than halfe a yard distance, or more one from another. Double Daisies are flowers not to be forgotten, although they be common enough in euery Garden, being both white and red, both blush and speckled, or party coloured, besides that which is called Iacke an Apes on horsebacke, they require a moist and shadowie place; for they are scorched away, if they stand in the Sunne in any dry place. Double Marigolds also are the most common in all Gardens. And so are the French Marigolds that haue a strong heady sent, both single and double, whose glorious shew for colour would cause any to beleeue there were some rare goodnesse or vertue in them. These all are sometimes preserued in the Winter, if they bee well defended from the cold. But what shall I say to the Queene of delight and of flowers, Carnations and Gilloflowers, whose brauery, variety, and sweete smell ioyned together, tyeth euery ones affection with great earnestnesse, both to like and to haue them? Those that were knowne, and enioyed in former times with much acceptation, are now for the most part lesse accounted of, except a very few: for now there are so many other varieties of later inuention, that trebleth the other both in number, beauty, and worth: The names of them doe differ very variably, in that names are imposed and altered as euerie ones fancy will haue them, that carryed or sent them into the seuerall Countries from London, where their truest name is to be had, in mine opinion. I will here but giue you the names of some, and referre you to the worke ensuing for your further knowledge. The red and the gray Hulo. The old Carnation, differing from them both. The Gran Pere. The Cambersiue. The Sauadge. The Christall. The Prince. The white Carnation, or Delicate. The ground Carnation. The French Carnation. The Douer. The Oxford. The Bristow. The Westminster. The Daintie. The Granado, and many other Gilloflowers too tedious to recite in this place, because I haue amply declared them in the booke following. But there is another sort of great delight and varietie, called the Orange tawny Gilloflower, which for the most part hath risen from seed, and doth giue seed in a more plentifull manner than any of the former sorts, and likewise by the sowing of the seed, there hath been gained so many varieties of that excellent worth and respect, that it can hardly be expressed or beleeued, and called by diuers names according to the marking of the flowers; as The Infanta. The Stript Tawny, The Speckled Tawny. The Flackt Tawny. The Griseld Tawny, and many others, euery one to bee distinguished from others: Some also haue their flowers more double and large than others, and some from the same seed haue single flowers like broad single Pinkes: the further relation of them, viz. their order to sowe, encrease and preserue them, you shall haue in the subsequent discourse in a place by it selfe. Pinkes likewise both single and double are of much variety, all of them very sweete, comming neare the Gilloflowers. Sweete Williams and Sweete Iohns, both single and double, both white, red, and spotted, as they are kindes of wilde Pinkes, so for their grace and beauty helpe to furnish a Garden, yet desire not to stand so open to the Sunne as the former. Double and single Peonies are fit flowers to furnish a Garden, and by reason of their durability, giue out fresh pleasure euery yeare without any further trouble of sowing. And lastly, Hollihocks both single and double, of many and sundry colours, yeeld out their flowers like Roses on their tall branches, like Trees, to sute you with flowers, when almost you haue no other to grace out your Garden: the single and double doe both yeeld seed, and yet doe after their seeding abide many yeares. Thus haue I shewed you most of the English, as well as (I did before) the Out[13]landish flowers that are fit to furnish the knots, trailes, beds, and borders of this Garden. Roses onely, as I said before, I reserve to circle or encompasse all the rest, because that for the most part they are planted in the outer borders or the quarters, and sometimes by themselues in the middle of long beds, the sorts or kindes whereof are many, as they are declared in their proper place: but the White Rose, the Red, and the Damaske, are the most ancient Standards in England, and therefore accounted naturall.


Chap. VI.
The order and manner to plant and replant all the sorts of Out-landish flowers spoken of before, as well those with bulbous rootes, as others with stringie rootes.

Whereas it is the vsuall custome of most in this Land, to turne vp their Gardens, and to plant them againe in the Spring of the yeare, which is the best time that may bee chosen for all English flowers, yet it is not so for your Out-landish flowers. And herein indeede hath beene not onely the errour of a great many to hinder their rootes from bearing out their flowers as they should, but also to hinder many to take delight in them, because as they say they will not thriue and prosper with them, when as the whole fault is in the want of knowledge of the fit and conuenient time wherein they should bee planted. And because our English Gardiners are all or the most of them vtterly ignorant in the ordering of these Out-landish flowers, as not being trained vp to know them, I haue here taken vpon mee the forme of a new Gardiner, to giue instructions to those that will take pleasure in them, that they may be the better enabled with these helpes I shall shew them, both to know how they should be ordered, and to direct their Gardiners that are ignorant thereof, rightly to dispose them according to their naturall qualities. And I doe wish all Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, whom it may concerne for their owne good, to bee as carefull whom they trust with the planting and replanting of these fine flowers, as they would be with so many Iewels; for the rootes of many of them being small, and of great value, may be soone conueyed away, and a cleanly tale faire told, that such a roote is rotten, or perished in the ground if none be seen where it should be, or else that the flower hath changed his colour, when it hath been taken away, or a counterfeit one hath beene put in the place thereof; and thus many haue been deceiued of their daintiest flowers, without remedy or true knowledge of the defect. You shall therefore, if you will take the right course that is proper for these kindes of flowers, not set or plant them among your English flowers; for that when the one may be remoued, the other may not be stirred: but plant those rootes that are bulbous, or round like Onions, eyther in knots or beds by themselues which is the best, or with but very few English or Out-landish flower plants that haue stringie rootes: For you must take this for a generall rule, that all those rootes that are like Lillies or Onions, are to bee planted in the moneths of Iuly or August, or vnto the middle or end of September at the furthest, if you will haue them to prosper as they should; and not in the Spring of the yeare, when other gardening is vsed. Yet I must likewise giue you to vnderstand, that if Tulipas, and Daffodils, and some other that are firme and hard rootes, and not limber or spongie, being taken vp out of the ground in their fit season, that is, in Iune, Iuly, and August, and likewise kept well and dry, may be reserued out of the ground vntill Christmas or after, and then (if they could not be set sooner) being set, will thriue reasonable well, but not altogether so well as the former, being set long before; but if you shall remoue these bulbous rootes againe, either presently after their planting; hauing shot their small fibres vnder the round rootes, and sprung likewise vpwards, or before they be in flower at the soonest (yet Tulipas, Daffodils, and many other bulbous, may be safely remoued being in flower, and transplanted into other places, so as they be not kept too long out of the ground) you shall much endanger them either vtterly to perish, or to be hindered from bearing out their flowers they then would haue[14] borne, and for two or three years after from bearing flowers againe. For the order of their planting there are diuers wayes, some whereof I will shew you in this place: Your knot or beds being prepared fitly, as before is declared, you may place and order your rootes therein thus, Eyther many rootes of one kind set together in a round or cluster, or longwise crosse a bed one by another, whereby the beauty of many flowers of one kinde being together, may make a faire shew well pleasing to many; Or else you may plant one or two in a place dispersedly ouer the whole knot, or in a proportion or diameter one place answering another of the knot, as your store will suffer you, or your knot permit: Or you may also mingle these rootes in their planting many of diuers sorts together, that they may giue the more glorious shew when they are in flower; and that you may so doe, you must first obserue the seuerall kindes of them, which doe flower at one and the same time, and then to place them in such order and so neare one vnto another, that their flowers appearing together of seuerall colours, will cause the more admiration in the beholders: as thus, The Vernall Crocus or Saffron flowers of the Spring, white, purple, yellow, and stript, with some Vernall Colchicum or Medow Saffron among them, some Dens Caninus or Dogges teeth, and some of the small early Leucoium or Bulbous Violet, all planted in some proportion as neare one vnto another as is fit for them, will giue such a grace to the Garden, that the place will seeme like a peece of tapestry of many glorious colours, to encrease euery ones delight: Or else many of one sort together, as the blew, white, and blush Grape flowers in the same manner intermingled, doe make a maruellous delectable shew, especially because all of them rise almost to an equall height, which causeth the greater grace, as well neare hand as farre of. The like order may be kept with many other things, as the Hepatica, white, blew, purple, and red set or sowne together, will make many to beleeue that one roote doth beare all those colours: But aboue and beyond all others, the Tulipas may be so matched, one colour answering and setting of another, that the place where they stand may resemble a peece of curious needle-worke, or peece of painting; and I haue knowne in a Garden, the Master as much commended for this artificiall forme in placing the colours of Tulipas, as for the goodnesse of his flowers, or any other thing. The diuers sorts and colours of Anemones or Winde-flowers may be so ordered likewise, which are very beautifull, to haue the seuerall varieties planted one neare vnto another, that their seuerall colours appearing in one place will be a very great grace in a Garden, or if they be dispersed among the other sorts of flowers, they will make a glorious shew. Another order in planting you may obserue; which is this, That those plants that grow low, as the Aconitum Hyemale or Winter-wolues bane, the Vernall Crocus or Saffron-flowers of diuers sorts, the little early Leucoium or Bulbous Violet, and some such other as rise not vp high, as also some Anemones may be very well placed somewhat neare or about your Martagons, Lillies, or Crownes Imperiall, both because these little plants will flower earlier than they, and so will bee gone and past, before the other greater plants will rise vp to any height to hinder them; which is a way may well be admitted in those Gardens that are small, to saue roome, and to place things to the most aduantage. Thus hauing shewed you diuers wayes and orders how to plant your rootes, that your flowers may giue the greater grace in the Garden, let mee shew you likewise how to set these kindes of rootes into the ground; for many know not well eyther which end to set vpwards or downewards, nor yet to what depth they should be placed in the ground. Daffodils if they be great rootes, will require (as must bee obserued in all other great plants) to bee planted somewhat deeper than the smaller of the same kinde as also that the tops or heads of the rootes be about two or three fingers breadth hid vnder ground. The Tulipas likewise if you set them deepe, they will be the safer from frosts if your ground be cold, which will also cause them to be a little later before they be in flower, yet vsually if the mould be good, they are to be set a good hand breadth deep within the ground, so that there may be three or foure inches of earth at the least aboue the head, which is the smaller end of the roote: for if they shall lye too neare the vpper face or crust of the earth, the colds & frosts will pierce and pinch them the sooner. After the same order and manner must Hyacinthes, whether great or small, and other such great rootes be planted. Your greater rootes, as Martagons, Lillies, and Crownes Imperiall, must be set much deeper than any other bulbous roote, because they are greater rootes than others, and by themselues also, as[15] is most vsuall either in some square, round, triangle, or other small part in the Garden, because they spread and take vp a very great deale of ground. All of them likewise are to be set with the broad end of the roote downewards, and the small end vpwards, that is, both Lillies, Daffodils, Hyacinthes, and Tulipas, and all other sorts of round rootes, which shew one end to bee smaller than another. But the Colchicum or Medow-Saffron onely requireth an exception to this generall rule, in regard the roote thereof hath a small eminence or part on the one side thereof, which must bee set or planted downeward, and not vpward; for you shall obserue, if the roote lye a little moist out of the ground, that it will shoote fibres out at the small long end thereof, although you may perceiue when you take it vp, that the fibres were at the other broad end or side of the roote. As for the Crowne Imperiall, which is a broad round roote and flat withall, hauing a hole in the middle, for the most part quite thorow, when it is taken vp in his due time out of the ground, you shall perceiue the scales or cloues of the rootes to bee a little open on the vpperside, and close and flat on the vnderside, which will direct you which part to set vpward; as also that the hole is bigger aboue then it is below. The Persian Lilly is almost like unto the Crowne Imperiall, but that the roote thereof is not so flat, and that it hath a smaller head at the one part, whereby it may be discerned the plainer how to be set. The Fritillaria is a small white root diuided as it were into two parts, so that many haue doubted, as formerly in the Crowne Imperiall, what part to set vppermost; you shall therefore marke, that the two parts of the roote are ioyned together at the bottome, where it shooteth out fibres or small stringie rootes, as all other sorts of bulbous rootes doe, and withall you shall see, that betweene the two parts of the roote a small head will appeare, which is the burgeon that will spring vp to beare leaues and flowers. In the rootes of Anemones there are small round swelling heads, easie enough to be obserued if you marke it, which must be set vpwards. All other sorts of stringie rooted plants (and not bulbous or tuberous rooted) that lose their greene leaues in Winter, will shew a head from whence the leaues and flowers will spring, and all others that keepe their greene leaues, are to bee planted in the same manner that other herbes and flower-plants are accustomed to be. But yet for the better thriuing of the stringie rooted plants, when you will plant them, let me informe you of the best way of planting, and the most sure to cause any plant to comprehend in the ground without failing, and is no common way with any Gardiner in this Kingdome, that euer I heard or knew, which is thus: Presuming that the stringie rooted plant is fresh and not old gathered, and a plant that being remoued will grow againe, make a hole in the ground large enough where you meane to set this roote, and raise the earth within the hole a little higher in the middle then on the sides, and set the roote thereon, spreading the strings all abroad about the middle, that they may as it were couer the middle, and then put the earth gently round about it, pressing it a little close, and afterwards water it well, if it be in Summer, or in a dry time, or otherwise moderately: thus shall euery seuerall string of the roote haue earth enough to cause it to shoote forth, and thereby to encrease farre better than by the vsuall way, which is without any great care and respect to thrust the rootes together into the ground. Diuers other flower plants are but annuall, to bee new sowne euery yeare; as the Maruaile of the world, the Indian Cresses, or yellow Larkes heeles, the Flower of the Sunne, and diuers others: they therefore that will take pleasure in them, that they may enioy their flowers the earlier in the yeare, and thereby haue ripe seede of them while warme weather lasteth, must nurse vp their seedes in a bed of hot dung, as Melons and Cowcumbers are, but your bed must be prouided earlier for these seeds, than for Melons, &c. that they may haue the more comfort of the Summer, which are to be carefully tended after they are transplanted from the hotbed, and couered with straw from colds, whereby you shall not faile to gaine ripe seed euery yeare, which otherwise if you should misse of a very kindly & hot Summer, you should neuer haue. Some of these seedes neede likewise to be transplanted from the bed of dung vnder a warme wall, as the Flower of the Sunne, and the Maruaile of the world, and some others, and that for a while after their transplanting, as also in the heate of Summer, you water them at the roote with water that hath stood a day or two in the Sunne, hauing first laid a round wispe of hay or such other thing round about the roote, that so all helpes may further their giuing of ripe seede. One or two rules more I will giue you concerning[16] these dainty flowers, the first whereof is this, That you shall not bee carefull to water any of your bulbous or tuberous rooted plants at any time; for they all of them do better prosper in a dry ground than in a wet, onely all sorts of tuberous rooted Flowerdeluces vpon their remouall had neede of a little water, and some will doe so also to such Tulipas and other bulbous rootes as they transplant, when they are in flower, and this is I grant in some sort tolerable, if it bee not too much, and done onely to cause the stalke and flower to abide sometime the longer before they wither, but else in no other case to be permitted. The second rule is, That I would aduise you to water none of your dainty flowers or herbes, with any water that hath presently before been drawne out of a well or pumpe, but onely with such water that hath stood open in the Sunne in some cisterne, tubbe, or pot for a day at the least, if more the better: for that water which is presently drawne out of a well, &c. is so cold, that it presently chilleth & killeth any dainty plant be it younger or elder grown, whereof I haue had sufficient proofe: and therfore I giue you this caution by mine own experience. Thus haue I directed you from point to point, in all the particulars of preparing & planting that belong to this Garden, sauing only that yet I would further enforme you of the time of the flowring of these Out-landish plants, according to the seuerall moneths in the yeare, that euery one may know what flowers euery moneth yeeldeth, and may chuse what them liketh best, in that they may see that there is no moneth, but glorieth in some peculiar sorts of rare flowers. I would likewise rather in this place shew you, the true and best manner & order to encrease and preserue all sorts of Gilloflowers & Carnations, then ioyne it with the Chapter of Gilloflowers in the worke following, because it would in that place take vp too much roome. And lastly, I must of necessity oppose three sundry errours, that haue possessed the mindes of many both in former and later times, which are, that any flower may be made to grow double by art, that was but single before by nature: And that one may by art cause any flower to grow of what colour they will: And that any plants may be forced to flower out of their due seasons, either earlier or later, by an art which some can vse. All which being declared, I then suppose enough is spoken for an introduction to this worke, referring many other things to the seuerall directions in the Chapters of the booke.


Chap. VII.
The seuerall times of the flowring of these Out-landish flowers, according to the seuerall moneths of the yeare.

I intend in this place onely to giue you briefly, the names of some of the chiefest of these Out-landish flowers, according to the seuerall moneths of the yeare wherein they flower, that euery one seeing what sorts of flowers euery moneth yeeldeth, may take of them which they like best. I begin with Ianuary, as the first moneth of the yeare, wherein if the frosts be not extreme, you shall haue these flowers of plants; the Christmas flower or Helleborus niger verus, Winter wolues bane or Aconitum hyemale, Hepatica or Noble Liuer wort blew and red, and of shrubbes, the Laurus Tinus or Wilde Bay tree, and Mesereon or the dwarfe Bay: but because Ianuarie is oftentimes too deepe in frosts and snow, I therefore referre the Hepaticas vnto the moneth following, which is February, wherein the weather beginneth to be a little milder, and then they will flower much better, as also diuers sorts of Crocus or Saffron flower will appeare, the little early Summer foole or Leucoium bulbosum, and towards the latter end thereof the Vernall Colchicum, the Dogges tooth Violet or Dens Caninus, and some Anemones, both single and double, which in some places will flower all the Winter long. March will yeeld more varieties; for besides that it holdeth some of the flowers of the former moneth, it will yeeld you both the double blew Hepatica, and the white and the blush single: then also you shall haue diuers other sorts of Crocus or Saffron flowers, Double yellow Daffodils, Orientall Iacinths and others, the Crowne Imperiall, diuers sorts of early Tulipas, some sorts of French Cowslips, both tawney, murry, yellow and blush, the early Fritillaria or checkered Daffo[17]dill, and some other sorts of early Daffodils, and many sorts of Anemones. In Aprill commeth on the pride of these strangers; for herein you may behold all the sorts of Auricula Vrsi or Beares Eares, many sorts of Anemones, both single and double, both the sorts of Tulipas, the earlier vntill the middle of the moneth, and the later then beginning; which are of so many different colours, that it is almost impossible to expresse them, the white, red, blacke, and yellow Fritillarias, the Muscari or Muske Grape flower, both ash colour and yellow. Diuers other sorts of Iacinths and Daffodils, both single and double, the smaller sorts of Flowerdeluces, the Veluet Flowerdeluce and double Honysuckles, with diuers others. May likewise at the beginning seemeth as glorious as Aprill, although toward the end it doth decline, in regard the heate of the Sunne hath by this time drawne forth all the store of natures tenderest dainties, which are vsually spent by the end of this moneth, and then those of stronger constitution come forward. Herein are to bee seene at the beginning the middle flowring Tulipas, and at the end the later sorts: some kindes of Daffodils, the Day Lillies, the great white Starre flower, the Flowerdeluce of Constantinople or the mourning Sable flower, the other sorts of Flowerdeluces. Single and double white Crowfoote, and single and double red Crowfoot, the glory of a Garden: the early red Martagon, the Persian Lilly, the yellow Martagon, the Gladiolus or Corne flagge, both white, red, and blush: the double yellow Rose, and some other sorts of Roses. In Iune doe flower the white and the blush Martagon, the Martagon Imperiall, the mountaine Lillies, and the other sorts of white and red Lillies, the bulbous Flowerdeluces of diuers sorts, the red flowred Ladies bower, the single and double purple flowred Ladies bower, the white Syringa or Pipe tree, for the blew Pipe tree flowreth earlier, the white and the yellow Iasmin. Iuly holdeth in flower some of the Ladies bowers and Iasmines, and besides doth glory in the Female Balsame apple, the Indian Cresses or yellow Larkes spurres, the purple Flower-gentle and the Rose Bay. In August begin some of the Autumne bulbous flowers to appeare, as the white and the purple Colchicum or Medow Saffron, the purple mountaine Crocus or Saffron flower, the little Autumne Leucoium and Autumne Iacinth, the Italian Starrewort, called of some the purple Marigold, the Meruaile of Peru or of the world, the Flower of the Sunne, the great blew Bell-flower, the great double French Marigold. September flourisheth with the Flower of the Sunne, the Meruaile of the world, the purple Marigold, and blew Bell-flower spoken of before, and likewise the other sorts of Medow Saffron, and the double kinde likewise, the siluer Crocus, the Autumne yellow Daffodill, Cyclamen also or Sowbread shew their flowers in the end of this moneth. October also will shew the flowers of Cyclamen, and some of the Medow Saffrons. In Nouember, as also sometimes in the moneth before, the party coloured Medow Saffron may bee seene, that will longest hold his flower, because it is the latest that sheweth it selfe, and the ash coloured mountaine Crocus. And euen December it selfe will not want the true blacke Hellebor or Christmas flower, and the glorious shew of the Laurus Tinus or wilde Bay tree. Thus haue I shewed you some of the flowers for euery moneth, but I referre you to the more ample declarion of them and all the others, vnto the work following.


Chap. VIII.
The true manner and order to encrease and preserue all sorts of Gilloflowers, as well by slippes as seedes.

Because that Carnations and Gilloflowers bee the chiefest flowers of account in all our English Gardens, I haue thought good to entreate somewhat amply of them, and that a part by it selfe, as I said a little before, in regard there is so much to be said concerning them, and that if all the matters to be entreated of should haue beene inserted in the Chapter of Gilloflowers, it would haue made it too tedious and large, and taken vp too much roome. The particular matters whereof I mean in this place to entreate are these: How to encrease Gilloflowers by planting and by[18] sowing, and how to preserue them being encreased, both in Summer from noysome and hurtfull vermine that destroy them, and in Winter from frosts, snowes, and windes, that spoile them. There are two wayes of planting, whereby to encrease these faire flowers; the one is by slipping which is the old and ready vsuall way, best knowne in this Kingdome; the other is more sure, perfect, ready, and of later inuention, videlicet, by laying downe the branches. The way to encrease Gilloflowers by slipping, is so common with all that euer kept any of them, that I think most persons may thinke me idle, to spend time to set downe in writing that which is so well known vnto all: Yet giue me leaue to tell them that so might imagine, that (when they haue heard or read what I haue written thereof, if they did know fully as much before) what I here write, was not to informe them, but such as did not know the best, or so good a way as I teach them: For I am assured, the greatest number doe vse, and follow the most vsuall way, and that is not alwaies the best, especially when by good experience a better way is found, and may be learned; and therefore if some can doe a thing better than others, I thinke it is no shame to learne it of them. You shall not then (to take the surest course) take any long spindled branches, nor those branches that haue any young shootes from the ioynts on them, nor yet sliue or teare any slippe or branch from the roote; for all these waies are vsuall and common with most, which causeth so many good rootes to rot and perish, and also so many slippes to be lost, when as for the most part, not the one halfe, or with some, not a third part doth grow and thriue of those slippes they set. And although many that haue store of plants, doe not so much care what hauocke they make to gaine some, yet to saue both labour and plants, I doe wish them to obserue these orders: Take from those rootes from whence you intend to make your encrease, those shootes onely that are reasonable strong, but yet young, and not either too small and slender, or hauing any shootes from the ioynts vpon them; cut these slippes or shootes off from the stemme or roote with a knife, as conueniently as the shoote or branch will permit, that is, either close vnto the maine branch, if it be short, or leauing a ioynt or two behinde you, if it be long enough, at which it may shoote anew: When you haue cut off your slippes, you may either set them by and by, or else as the best Gardiners vse to doe, cast them into a tubbe or pot with water for a day or two, and then hauing prepared a place conuenient to set them in, which had neede to bee of the finest, richest, and best mould you can prouide, that they may thriue therein the better, cut off your slippe close at the ioynt, and hauing cut away the lowest leaues close to the stalke, and the vppermost euen at the top, with a little sticke make a little hole in the earth, and put your slippe therein so deep, as that the vpper leaues may be wholly aboue the ground, (some vse to cleaue the stalke in the middle, and put a little earth or clay within the cleft, but many good and skilfull Gardiners doe not vse it); put the earth a little close to the slippe with your finger and thumbe, and there let it rest, and in this manner doe with as many slippes as you haue, setting them somewhat close together, and not too farre in sunder, both to saue ground and cost thereon, in that a small compasse will serue for the first planting, and also the better to giue them shadow: For you must remember in any case, that these slippes new set, haue no sight of the Sunne, vntill they be well taken in the ground, and shot aboue ground, and also that they want not water, both vpon the new planting and after. When these slippes are well grown vp, they must be transplanted into such other places as you thinke meete; that is, either into the ground in beds, or otherwise, or into pots, which that you may the more safely doe, after you haue well watered the ground, for halfe a day before you intend to transplant them, you shall separate them seuerally, by putting down a broad pointed knife on each side of the slippe, so cutting it out, take euery one by it selfe, with the earth cleauing close vnto the root, which by reason of the moisture it had formerly, and that which you gaue presently before, will be sufficient with any care had, to cause it to hold fast vnto the roote for the transplanting of it: for if the earth were dry, and that it should fall away from the roote in the transplanting, it would hazzard and endanger the roote very much, if it did thriue at all. You must remember also, that vpon the remouing of these slips, you shadow them from the heate of the Sunne for a while with some straw or other thing, vntill they haue taken hold in their new place. Thus although it bee a little more labour and care than the ordinary way is, yet it is surer, and will giue you plants that[19] will be so strongly growne before Winter, that with the care hereafter specified, you shall haue them beare flowers the next yeare after, and yeeld you encrease of slippes also. To giue you any set time, wherein these slippes will take roote, and begin to shoote aboue ground, is very hard to doe; for that euery slip, or yet euery kinde of Gilloflower is not alike apt to grow; nor is euery earth in like manner fit to produce and bring forward the slippes that are set therein: but if both the slippe be apt to grow, and the earth of the best, fit to produce, I thinke within a fortnight or three weekes, you shall see them begin to put forth young leaues in the middle, or else it may be a moneth and more before you shall see any springing. The best time likewise when to plant, is a speciall thing to be knowne, and of as great consequence as any thing else: For if you slippe and set in September, as many vse to doe, or yet in August, as some may thinke will doe well, yet (vnlesse they be the most ordinary sorts, which are likely to grow at any time, and in any place) the most of them, if not all, will either assuredly perish or neuer prosper well: for the more excellent and dainty the Gilloflower is, the more tender for the most part, and hard to nurse vp will the slippes be. The best time therefore is, that you cut off such slippes as are likely, and such as your rootes may spare, from the beginning of May vntill the middle of Iune at the furthest, and order them as I haue shewed you before, that so you may haue faire plants, plenty of flowers, and encrease sufficient for new supply, without offence or losse of your store. For the enriching likewise of your earth, wherein you shall plant your slippes, that they may the better thriue and prosper, diuers haue vsed diuers sorts of manure; as stable soyle of horse, beasts or kine, of sheepe, and pigeons, all which are very good when they are thoroughly turned to mould, to mixe with your other earth, or being steeped in water, may serue to water the earth at times, and turned in with it. And some haue likewise proued Tanners earth, that is, their barke, which after they haue vsed, doth lye on heapes and rot in their yards, or the like mould from wood-stackes or yards; but especially, and beyond all other is commended the Willow earth, that is, that mould which is found in the hollow of old Willow trees, to be the most principall to mixe with other good earth for this purpose. And as I haue now giuen you directions for the first way to encrease them by slipping, so before I come to the other way, let mee giue you a caueat or two for the preseruing of them, when they are beginning to runne vtterly to decay and perish: The one is, that whereas many are, ouer greedy to haue their plants to giue them flowers, and therefore let them runne all to flower, so farre spending themselues thereby, that after they haue done flowring, they grow so weake, hauing out spent themselues, that they cannot possibly be preserued from the iniuries of the succeeding Winter; you shall therefore keepe the kinde of any sort you are delighted withall, if you carefully looke that too many branches doe not runne vp and spindle for flowers, but rather either cut some of them downe, before they are run vp too high, within two or three ioynts of the rootes; or else pluck away the innermost leaues where it springeth forwards, which you see in the middle of euery branch, before it be runne vp too high, which will cause them to breake out the faster into slips and suckers at the ioynts, to hinder their forward luxurie, and to preserue them the longer: The other is, If you shall perceiue any of your Gilloflower leaues to change their naturall fresh verdure, and turne yellowish, or begin to wither in anie part or branch thereof, it is a sure signe that the roote is infected with some cancker or rottennesse, and will soon shew it selfe in all the rest of the branches, whereby the plant will quickly be lost: to preserue it therefore, you shall betime, before it be runne too farre, (for otherwise it is impossible to saue it) either couer all or most of the branches with fresh earth, or else take the fairest slippes from it, as many as you can possibly, and cast them into a pot or tubbe with water, and let them there abide for two or three daies at the least: the first way hath recouered many, being taken in time. Thus you shall see them recouer their former stiffenesse and colour, and then you may plant them as you haue beene heretofore directed; and although many of them may perish, yet shall you haue some of them that will grow to continue the kinde againe. The other or second way to encrease Gilloflowers by planting, is, as I said before, by in-laying or laying downe the branches of them and is a way of later inuention, and as frequently vsed, not onely for the tawney or yellow Gilloflower, and all the varieties therof, but with the other kinds of Gilloflowers, whereof experience hath shewed[20] that they will likewise take if they be so vsed; the manner whereof is thus: You must choose out the youngest, likeliest, and lowest branches that are nearest the ground (for the vpper branches will sooner breake at the ioynt, than bend downe so low into the earth, without some pot with earth raised vp vnto them) and cut it on the vnderside thereof vpwards at the second ioynt next vnto the roote, to the middle of the branch, and no more, and not quite thorough in any case, and then from that second ioynt vnto the third; slit or cut the branch in the middle longwise, that so it may be the more easily bended into the ground, the cut ioynt seeming like the end of a slippe, when you haue bended downe the branch where it is cut into the ground (which must bee done very gently for feare of breaking) with a little sticke or two thrust slopwise, crosse ouer it, keepe it downe within the earth, and raise vp sufficient earth ouer it, that there it may lye and take roote, which commonly will be effected within sixe weekes or two moneths in the Summer time, and then (or longer if you doubt the time too short for it to take sufficient roote) you may take or cut it away, and transplant it where you thinke good, yet so as in any case you shadow it from the heate of the Sunne, vntill it haue taken good hold in the ground. The other way to encrease Gilloflowers, is by sowing the seede: It is not vsuall with all sorts of Gilloflowers to giue seede, but such of them as doe yeeld seede may be encreased thereby, in the same manner as is here set downe. The Orange tawney Gilloflower and the varieties thereof is the most vsuall kinde, (and it is a kinde by it selfe, how various soeuer the plants be that rise from the seede) that doth giue seede, and is sowne, and from thence ariseth so many varieties of colours, both plaine and mixt, both single and double, that one can hardly set them downe in writing: yet such as I haue obserued and marked, you shall finde expressed in the Chapter of Gilloflowers in the worke following. First therefore make choise of your seede that you intend to sowe (if you doe not desire to haue as many more single flowers as double) that it bee taken from double flowers, and not from single, and from the best colours, howsoeuer some may boast to haue had double and stript flowers from the seede of a single one; which if it were so, yet one Swallow (as we say) maketh no Summer, nor a thing comming by chance cannot bee reckoned for a certaine and constant rule; you may be assured they will not vsually doe so: but the best, fairest, and most double flowers come alwaies, or for the most part, from the seede of those flowers that were best, fairest, and most double; and I doe aduise you to take the best and most double: for euen from them you shall haue single ones enow, you neede not sowe any worser sort. And againe, see that your seede bee new, of the last yeares gathering, and also that it was full ripe before it was gathered, lest you lose your labour, or misse of your purpose, which is, to haue faire and double flowers. Hauing now made choise of your seede, and prepared you a bedde to sowe them on, the earth whereof must be rich and good, and likewise sifted to make it the finer; for the better it is, the better shall your profit and pleasure bee: hereon, being first made leuell, plaine, and smooth, sowe your seede somewhat thinne, and not too thicke in any case, and as euenly as you can, that they be not too many in one place, and too few in another, which afterwards couer with fine sifted earth ouer them about one fingers thicknesse; let this be done in the middle of Aprill, if the time of the yeare be temperate, and not too cold, or else stay vntill the end of the moneth: after they are sprung vp and growne to be somewhat bigge, let them bee drawne forth that are too close and neare one vnto another, and plant them in such place where they shall continue, so that they stand halfe a yard of ground distance asunder, which after the planting, let be shadowed for a time, as is before specified; and this may bee done in the end of Iuly, or sooner if there be cause. I haue not set downe in all this discourse of planting, transplanting, sowing, setting, &c. any mention of watering those slips or plants, not doubting but that euery ones reason will induce them to thinke, that they cannot prosper without watering: But let this Caueat be a sufficient remembrance vnto you, that you neuer water any of these Gilloflowers, nor yet indeede any other fine herbe or plant with cold water, such as you haue presently before drawne out from a pumpe or Well, &c. but with such water as hath stood open in the aire in a cisterne, tubbe, or pot, for one whole day at the least; if it be two or three daies it will be neuer the worse, but rather the better, as I haue related before: yet take especiall heede that you doe not giue them too much to ouer-glut them at any time, but temperately to ir[21]rorate, bedew or sprinkle them often. From the seedes of these Gilloflowers hath risen both white, red, blush, stamell, tawny lighter and sadder, marbled, speckled, striped, flaked, and that in diuers manners, both single and double flowers, as you shall see them set downe in a more ample manner in the Chapter of Gilloflowers. And thus much for their encrease by the two wayes of planting and sowing: For as for a third way, by grafting one into or vpon another, I know none such to be true, nor to be of any more worth than an old Wiues tale, both nature, reason, and experience, all contesting against such an idle fancy, let men make what ostentation they please. It now resteth, that we also shew you the manner how to preserue them, as well in Summer from all noysome and hurtfull things, as in the Winter and Spring from the sharp and chilling colds, and the sharpe and bitter killing windes in March. The hurtfull things in the Summer are especially these, too much heate of the Sunne which scorcheth them, which you must be carefull to preuent, by placing boughes, boords, clothes or mats, &c. before them, if they bee in the ground; or else if they bee in pots, to remoue them into the shadow, to giue them refreshing from the heate, and giue them water also for their life: too much water, or too little is another annoyance, which you must order as you see there is iust cause, by withholding or giuing them water gently out of a watering pot, and not cast on by dishfuls: Some also to water their Gilloflowers, vse to set their pots into tubbes or pots halfe full of water, that so the water may soake in at the lower holes in each flower pot, to giue moisture to the roots of the Gilloflowers onely, without casting any water vpon the leaues, and assuredly it is an excellent way to moisten the rootes so sufficiently at one time, that it doth saue a great deale of paines many other times. Earwickes are a most infestuous vermine, to spoyle the whole beauty of your flowers, and that in one night or day; for these creatures delighting to creepe, into any hollow or shadowie place, doe creepe into the long greene pods of the Gilloflowers, and doe eate away the white bottomes of their leaues, which are sweete, whereby the leaues of the flowers being loose, doe either fall away of themselues before, or when they are gathered, or handled, or presently wither within the pods before they are gathered, and blowne away with the winde. To auoide which inconuenience, many haue deuised many waies and inuentions to destroy them, as pots with double verges or brimmes, containing a hollow gutter betweene them, which being filled with water, will not suffer these small vermine to passe ouer it to the Gilloflowers to spoile them. Others haue vsed old shooes, and such like hollow things to bee set by them to take them in: but the best and most vsuall things now vsed, are eyther long hollow canes, or else beasts hoofes, which being turned downe vpon stickes ends set into the ground, or into the pots of earth, will soone drawe into them many Earwickes, lying hid therein from sunne, winde, and raine, and by care and diligence may soone bee destroyed, if euery morning and euening one take the hoofes gently off from the stickes, and knocking them against the ground in a plain allie, shake out all the Earwicks that are crept into them, which quickly with ones foot may be trode to peeces. For sodain blasting with thunder and lightening, or fierce sharp windes, &c. I know no other remedy, vnlesse you can couer them therefrom when you first foresee the danger, but patiently to abide the losse, whatsoeuer some haue aduised, to lay litter about them to auoide blasting; for if any shall make tryall thereof, I am in doubt, he shall more endanger his rootes thereby, being the Summer time, when any such feare of blasting is, than any wise saue them from it, or doe them any good. For the Winter preseruation of them, some haue aduised to couer them with Bee-hiues, or else with small Willow stickes, prickt crossewise into the ground ouer your flowers, and bowed archwise, and with litter laid thereon, to couer the Gilloflowers quite ouer, after they haue been sprinkled with sope ashes and lyme mixt together: and this way is commended by some that haue written thereof, to be such an admirable defence vnto them in Winter, that neither Ants, nor Snailes, nor Earwickes shall touch them, because of the sope ashes and lyme, and neyther frosts nor storms shall hurt them, because of the litter which so well will defend them; and hereby also your Gilloflowers will bee ready to flower not onely in the Spring very early, but euen all the Winter. But whosoeuer shall follow these directions, may peraduenture finde them in some part true, as they are there set downe for the Winter time, and while they are kept close and couered; but let them bee assured,[22] that all such plants, or the most part of them, will certainely perish and dye before the Summer be at an end: for the sope ashes and lyme will burne vp and spoile any herbe; and againe it is impossible for any plant that is kept so warme in Winter, to abide eyther the cold or the winde in the Spring following, or any heate of the Sun, but that both of them will scorch them, and carry them quite away. One great hurt vnto them, and to all other herbes that wee preserue in Winter, is to suffer the snow to lye vpon them any time after it is fallen, for that it doth so chill them, that the Sunne afterward, although in Winter, doth scorch them and burne them vp: looke therefore vnto your Gilloflowers in those times, and shake or strike off the snow gently off from them, not suffering it to abide on them any day or night if you can; for assure your selfe, if it doth not abide on them, the better they will be. The frosts likewise is another great annoyance vnto them, to corrupt the rootes, and to cause them to swell, rot, and break: to preuent which inconuenience, I would aduise you to take the straw or litter of your horse stable, and lay some thereof about euery roote of your Gilloflowers (especially those of the best account) close vnto them vpon the ground, but be as carefull as you can, that none thereof lye vpon the greene leaues, or as little as may be, and by this onely way haue they been better defended from the frosts that spoile them in Winter, then by any other that I haue seen or knowne. The windes in March, and Sunneshine dayes then, are one of the greatest inconueniences that happeneth vnto them; for they that haue had hundreds of plants, that haue kept faire and greene all the Winter vntill the beginning or middle of March, before the end thereof, haue had scarce one of many, that either hath not vtterly perished, or been so tainted, that quickly after haue not been lost; which hath happened chiefly by the neglect of these cautions before specified, or in not defending them from the bitter sharp windes and sunne in this moneth of March. You shall therefore for their better preseruation, besides the litter laid about the rootes, which I aduise you not to remoue as yet, shelter them somewhat from the windes, with eyther bottomlesse pots, pales, or such like things, to keep away the violent force both of windes and sun for that moneth, and for some time before & after it also: yet so, that they be not couered close aboue, but open to receiue ayre & raine. Some also vse to wind withes of hey or straw about the rootes of their Gilloflowers, and fasten them with stickes thrust into the ground, which serue very well in the stead of the other. Thus haue I shewed you the whole preseruation of these worthy and dainty flowers, with the whole manner of ordering them for their encrease: if any one haue any other better way, I shall be as willing to learne it of them, as I haue beene to giue them or any others the knowledge of that I haue here set downe.


Chap. IX.
That there is not any art whereby any flower may be made to grow double, that was naturally single, nor of any other sent or colour than it first had by nature; nor that the sowing or planting of herbes one deeper than other, will cause them to be in flower one after another, euery moneth in the yeare.

The wonderfull desire that many haue to see faire, double, and sweete flowers, hath transported them beyond both reason and nature, feigning and boasting often of what they would haue, as if they had it. And I thinke, from this desire and boasting hath risen all the false tales and reports, of making flowers double as they list, and of giuing them colour and sent as they please, and to flower likewise at what time they will, I doubt not, but that some of these errours are ancient, and continued long by tradition, and others are of later inuention: and therefore the more to be condemned, that men of wit and iudgement in these dayes should expose themselues in their writings, to be rather laughed at, then beleeued for such idle tales. And although in the contradiction of them, I know I shall vndergoe many calumnies, yet notwithstanding, I will endeauour to set downe and declare so much, as I hope may by reason[23] perswade many in the truth, although I cannot hope of all, some being so strongly wedded to their owne will, and the errours they haue beene bred in, that no reason may alter them. First therefore I say, that if there were any art to make some flowers to grow double, that naturally were single, by the same art, all sorts of flowers that are single by nature, may be made to grow double: but the sorts of flowers that are single by nature, whereof some are double, were neuer made double by art; for many sorts abide still single, whereof there was neuer seene double: and therefore there is no such art in any mans knowledge to bring it to passe. If any man shall say, that because there are many flowers double, whereof there are single also of the same kinde, as for example, Violets, Marigolds, Daisyes, Daffodils, Anemones, and many other, that therefore those double flowers were so made by the art of man: viz. by the obseruation of the change of the Moone, the constellations or coniunctions of Planets, or some other Starres or celestiall bodies. Although I doe confesse and acknowledge, that I thinke some constellations, and peraduenture changes of the Moone, &c. were appointed by the God of nature, as conducing and helping to the making of those flowers double, that nature hath so produced, yet I doe deny, that any man hath or shall euer be able to proue, that it was done by any art of man, or that any man can tell the true causes and seasons, what changes of the Moone, or constellations of the Planets, wrought together for the producing of those double flowers, or can imitate nature, or rather the God of nature, to doe the like. If it shall bee demanded, From whence then came these double flowers that we haue, if they were not so made by art? I answer, that assuredly all such flowers did first grow wilde, and were so found double, as they doe now grow in Gardens, but for how long before they were found they became double, no man can tell; we onely haue them as nature hath produced them, and so they remaine. Againe, if any shall say, that it is likely that these double flowers were forced so to be, by the often planting and transplanting of them, because it is obserued in most of them, that if they stand long in any one place, and not be often remoued, they will grow still lesse double, and in the end turne single. I doe confesse, that Facilior est descensus quàm ascensus, and that the vnfruitfulnesse of the ground they are planted in, or the neglect or little care had of them, or the growing of them too thicke or too long, are oftentimes a cause of the diminishing of the flowers doublenesse; but withall you shall obserue, that the same rootes that did beare double flowers (and not any other that neuer were double before) haue returned to their former doublenesse againe, by good ordering and looking vnto: single flowers haue only beene made somewhat fairer or larger, by being planted in the richer and more fruitfull ground of the Garden, than they were found wilde by nature; but neuer made to grow double, as that which is naturally so found of it selfe: For I will shew you mine owne experience in the matter. I haue been as inquisitiue as any man might be, with euery one I knew, that made any such report, or that I thought could say any thing therein, but I neuer could finde any one, that could assuredly resolue me, that he knew certainly any such thing to be done: all that they could say was but report, for the obseruation of the Moone, to remoue plants before the change, that is, as some say, the full of the Moone, others the new Moone, whereupon I haue made tryall at many times, and in many sorts of plants, accordingly, and as I thought fit, by planting & transplanting them, but I could neuer see the effect desired, but rather in many of them the losse of my plants. And were there indeed such a certaine art, to make single flowers to grow double, it would haue beene knowne certainly to some that would practise it, and there are so many single flowers, whereof there were neuer any of the kinde seene double, that to produce such of them to be double, would procure both credit and coyne enough to him that should vse it; but Vltra posse non est esse: and therefore let no man beleeue any such reports, bee they neuer so ancient; for they are but meere tales and fables. Concerning colours and sents, the many rules and directions extant in manie mens writings, to cause flowers to grow yellow, red, greene, or white, that neuer were so naturally, as also to be of the sent of Cinamon, Muske, &c. would almost perswade any, that the matters thus set downe by such persons, and with some shew of probability, were constant and assured proofes thereof: but when they come to the triall, they all vanish away like smoake. I will in a few words shew you the matters and manners of their proceedings to effect this purpose: First (they say) if you shall steepe[24] your seedes in the lees of red Wine, you shall haue the flowers of those plants to be of a purple colour. If you will haue Lillies or Gilloflowers to be of a Scarlet red colour, you shall put Vermillion or Cynaber betweene the rinde and the small heads growing about the roote: if you will haue them blew, you shall dissolue Azur or Byse between the rinde and the heads: if yellow, Orpiment: if greene, Vardigrease, and thus of any other colour. Others doe aduise to open the head of the roote, and poure into it any colour dissolued, so that there be no fretting or corroding thing therein for feare of hurting the roote, and looke what colour you put in, iust such or neare vnto it shall the colour of the flower bee. Some againe doe aduise to water the plants you would haue changed, with such coloured liquor as you desire the flower to be of, and they shall grow to be so. Also to make Roses to bee yellow, that you should graft a white Rose (some say a Damaske) vpon a Broome stalke, and the flower will be yellow, supposing because the Broome flower is yellow, therefore the Rose will be yellow. Some affirme the like, if a Rose be grafted on a Barbery bush, because both the blossome and the barke of the Barbery is yellow, &c. In the like manner for sents, they haue set downe in their writings, that by putting Cloues, Muske, Cinamon, Benzoin, or any other such sweete thing, bruised with Rose water, betweene the barke and the body of trees, the fruit of them will smell and taste of the same that is put vnto them; and if they bee put vnto the toppe of the rootes, or else bound vnto the head of the roote, they will cause the flowers to smell of that sent the matter put vnto them is of: as also to steep the seeds of Roses, and other plants in the water of such like sweet things, and then to sowe them, and water them morning and euening with such like liquor, vntill they be growne vp; besides a number of such like rules and directions set downe in bookes so confidently, as if the matters were without all doubt or question: whenas without all doubt and question I will assure you, that they are all but meere idle tales & fancies, without all reason or truth, or shadow of reason or truth: For sents and colours are both such qualities as follow the essence of plants, euen as formes are also; and one may as well make any plant to grow of what forme you will, as to make it of what sent or colour you will; and if any man can forme plants at his will and pleasure, he can doe as much as God himselfe that created them. For the things they would adde vnto the plants to giue them colour, are all corporeall, or of a bodily substance, and whatsoeuer should giue any colour vnto a liuing and growing plant, must be spirituall: for no solide corporeall substance can ioyne it selfe with the life and essence of an herbe or tree, and the spirituall part of the colour thereof is not the same with the bodily substance, but is a meere vapour that riseth from the substance, and seedeth the plant, whereby it groweth, so that there is no ground or colour of reason, that a substantiall colour should giue colour to a growing herbe or tree: but for sent (which is a meere vapour) you will say there is more probability. Yet consider also, that what sweete sent soeuer you binde or put vnto the rootes of herbes or trees, must be either buried, or as good as buried in the earth, or barke of the tree, whereby the substance will in a small time corrupt and rot, and before it can ioyne it selfe with the life, spirit, and essence of the plant, the sent also will perish with the substance: For no heterogeneall things can bee mixed naturally together, as Iron and Clay; and no other thing but homogeneall, can be nourishment or conuertible into the substance of man or beast: And as the stomach of man or beast altereth both formes, sents, and colours of all digestible things; so whatsoeuer sent or colour is wholsome, and not poysonfull to nature, being receiued into the body of man or beast, doth neither change the bloud or skinne into that colour or sent was receiued: no more doth any colour or sent to any plant; for the plants are onely nourished by the moisture they draw naturally vnto them, be it of wine or any other liquor is put vnto them, and not by any corporeal substance, or heterogeneall vapour or sent, because the earth like vnto the stomach doth soone alter them, before they are conuerted into the nature and substance of the plant. Now for the last part I vndertooke to confute, that no man can by art make all flowers to spring at what time of the yeare hee will; although, as I haue here before shewed there are flowers for euery moneth of the yeare, yet I hope there is not any one, that hath any knowledge in flowers and gardening, but knoweth that the flowers that appeare and shew themselues in the seuerall moneths of the yeare, are not one and the same, and so made to flower by art; but that they are seuerall sorts of plants, which[25] will flower naturally and constantly in the same moneths one yeare, that they vse to doe in another, or with but little alteration, if the yeares proue not alike kindly: As for example, those plants that doe flower in Ianuary and February, will by no art of industry of man be caused to flower in Summer or in Autumne; and those that flower in Aprill and May, will not flower in Ianuary or February; or those in Iuly, August, &c. either in the Winter or Spring: but euery one knoweth their owne appointed naturall times, which they constantly obserue and keepe, according to the temperature of the yeare, or the temper of the climate, being further North or South, to bring them on earlier or later, as it doth with all other fruits, flowers, and growing greene herbes, &c. except that by chance, some one or other extraordinarily may be hindered in their due season of flowring, and so giue their flowers out of time, or else to giue their flowers twice in the yeare, by the superaboundance of nourishment, of the mildnesse of the season, by moderate showers of raine, &c. as it sometimes also happeneth with fruits, which chance, as it is seldome, and not constant, so we then terme it but Lusus naturæ: or else by forcing them in hot stoues, which then will perish, when they haue giuen their flowers or fruits. It is not then, as some haue written, the sowing of the seedes of Lillies, or any other plants a foote deepe, or halfe a foote deepe, or two inches deepe, that will cause them to be in flower one after, another, as they are sowne euery moneth of the yeare; for it were too grosse to thinke, that any man of reason and iudgement would so beleeue. Nor is it like wise in the power of any man, to make the same plants to abide a moneth, two, or three, or longer in their beauty of flowring, then naturally they vse to doe; for I thinke that were no humane art, but a supernaturall worke. For nature still bendeth and tendeth to perfection, that is, after flowring to giue fruit or seede; nor can it bee hindered in the course thereof without manifest danger of destruction, euen as it is in all other fruit-bearing creatures, which stay no longer, then their appointed time is naturall vnto them, without apparent damage. Some things I grant may be so ordered in the planting, that according to that order and time which is obserued in their planting, they shall shew forth their faire flowers, and they are Anemones, which will in that manner, that I haue shewed in the worke following, flower in seuerall moneths of the yeare; which thing as it is incident to none or very few other plants, and is found out but of late, so likewise is it knowne but vnto a very few. Thus haue I shewed you the true solution of these doubts: And although they haue not beene amplified with such Philosophicall arguments and reasons, as one of greater learning might haue done, yet are they truely and sincerely set downe, that they may serue tanquam galeatum, against all the calumnies and obiections of wilfull and obdurate persons, that will not be reformed. As first, that all double flowers were so found wilde, being the worke of nature alone, and not the art of any man, by planting or transplanting, at or before the new or full Moone, or any other obseruation of time, that hath caused the flower to grow double, that naturally was single: Secondly, that the rules and directions, to cause flowers to bee of contrary or different colours or sents, from that they were or would be naturally, are meere fancies of men, without any ground of reason of truth. And thirdly, that there is no power or art in man, to cause flowers to shew their beauty diuers moneths before their naturall time, nor to abide in their beauty longer then the appointed naturall time for euery one of them.


Decoration

THE GARDEN
OF
PLEASANT FLOWERS.


Chap. I.
Corona Imperialis. The Crowne Imperiall.

B

Because the Lilly is the more stately flower among manie: and amongst the wonderfull varietie of Lillies, knowne to vs in these daies, much more then in former times, whereof some are white, others blush, some purple, others red or yellow, some spotted, others without spots, some standing vpright, others hanging or turning downewards, The Crowne Imperiall for his stately beautifulness, deserueth the first place in this our Garden of delight, to be here entreated of before all other Lillies; but because it is so well knowne to most persons, being in a manner euery where common, I shall neede onely to giue you a relation of the chiefe parts thereof (as I intend in such other things) which are these: The roote is yellowish on the outside, composed of fewer, but much thicker scales, then any other Lilly but the Persian, and doth grow sometimes to be as great as a pretty bigge childes head, but somewhat flat withall, from the sides whereof, and not from the bottome, it shooteth forth thicke long fibres, which perish euery yeare, hauing a hole in the midst thereof, at the end of the yeare, when the old stalke is dry and withered, and out of the which a new stalke doth spring againe (from a bud or head to be seen within the hollownesse on the one side) the yeare following: the stalke then filling vp the hollownesse, riseth vp three or foure, foote high, being great, round, and of a purplish colour at the bottome, but greene aboue, beset from thence to the middle thereof with many long and broad greene leaues, very like to the leaues of our ordinary white Lilly, but somewhat shorter and narrower, confusedly without order, and from the middle is bare or naked without leaues, for a certaine space vpwards, and then beareth foure, sixe, or tenne flowers, more or lesse, according to the age of the plant, and the fertility of the soyle where it groweth: The buddes at the first appearing are whitish, standing vpright among a bush or tuft of greene leaues, smaller then those below, and standing aboue the flowers, after a while they turne themselues, and hang downewards euerie one vpon his owne footestalke, round about the great stemme or stalke, sometimes of an euen depth, and other while one lower or higher than another, which flowers are neare the forme of an ordinary Lilly, yet somewhat lesser and closer, consisting of sixe leaues of an Orange colour, striped with purplish lines and veines, which adde a great grace to the flowers: At the bottome of the flower next vnto the stalke, euery[28] leafe thereof hath on the outside a certaine bunch or eminence, of a darke purplish colour, and on the inside there lyeth in those hollow bunched places, certaine cleare drops of water like vnto pearles, of a very sweete taste almost like sugar: in the midst of each flower is a long white stile or pointell, forked or diuided at the end, and sixe white chiues tipt with yellowish pendents, standing close about it: after the flowers are past, appeare sixe square seede vessels standing vpright, winged as it were or welted on the edges, yet seeming but three square, because each couple of those welted edges are ioyned closer together, wherein are contained broad, flat, and thinne seedes, of a pale brownish colour, like vnto other Lillies, but much greater and thicker also. The stalke of this plant doth oftentimes grow flat, two, three, or foure fingers broad, and then beareth many more flowers, but for the most part smaller then when it beareth round stalkes. And sometimes it happeneth the stalke to be diuided at the top, carrying two or three tufts of greene leaues, without any flowers on them. And sometimes likewise, to beare two or three rowes or crownes of flowers one aboue another vpon one stalke, which is seldome and scarce seene, and besides, is but meere accidentall: the whole plant and euery part thereof, as well rootes, as leaues and flowers, doe smell somewhat strong as it were the fauour of a Foxe, so that if any doe but come neare it, he cannot but smell it, which yet is not vnwholsome.

I haue not obserued any variety in the colour of this flower, more then that it will be fairer in a cleare open ayre, and paler, or as it were blasted in a muddy or smoakie ayre. And although some haue boasted of one with white flowers, yet I could neuer heare that any such hath endured in one vniforme colour.

The Place.

This plant was first brought from Constantinople into these Christian Countries, and by the relation of some that sent it, groweth naturally in Persia.

The Time.

It flowereth most commonly in the end of March, if the weather be milde, and springeth not out of the ground vntill the end of February, or beginning of March, so quicke it is in the springing: the heads with seed are ripe in the end of May.

The Names.

It is of some called Lilium Persicum, the Persian Lilly: but because wee haue another, which is more vsually called by that name, as shall be shewed in the next Chapter, I had rather with Alphonsus Pancius the Duke of Florence his Physitian, (who first sent the figure thereof vnto Mᶴʳ. Iohn de Brancion) call it Corona Imperialis, the Crowne Imperiall, then by any other name, as also for that this name is now more generally receiued. It hath been sent also by the name Tusai, and Tuschai, and Turfani, or Turfanda, being, as it is like, the Turkish names.

The Vertues.

For any Physicall Vertues that are in it, I know of none, nor haue heard that any hath been found out: notwithstanding the strong sent would perswade it might be applyed to good purpose.


Chap. II.
Lilium Persicum. The Persian Lilly.

The roote of the Persian Lilly is very like vnto the root of the Crowne Imperiall, and losing his fibres in like maner euery yeare, hauing a hole therin likewise where the old stalke grew, but whiter, rounder, and a little longer, smaller, and not stinking at all like it, from whence springeth vp a round whitish greene stalke, not[30] much lower than the Crowne Imperiall, but much smaller, beset from the bottome to the middle thereof, with many long and narrow leaues, of a whitish or blewish greene colour, almost like to the leafe of a Tulipa: from the middle vpwards, to the toppe of the stalke, stand many flowers one aboue another round about it, with leaues at the foote of euery one of them, each whereof is pendulous or hanging downe the head, like vnto the Crowne Imperiall, and not turning vp any of the flowers againe, but smaller than in any other kinde of Lilly, yea not so bigge as the flower of a Fritillaria, consisting of sixe leaues a peece, of a dead or ouerworne purplish colour, hauing in the midst a small long pointell, with certaine chiues tipt with yellow pendents: after the flowers are past (which abide open a long time, and for the most part flower by degrees, the lowest first, and so vpwards) if the weather be temperate, come sixe square heads or seede vessels, seeming to be but three square, by reason of the wings, very like to the heads of the Crowne Imperiall, but smaller and shorter, wherein are contained such like flat seed, but smaller also, and of a darker colour.

Page 29: Lilly.
1Corona Imperialis. The Crown Imperiall.
2Lilium Persicum. The Persian Lilly.
3Martagon Imperiale. The Martagon Imperiall.

The Place.

This was, as it is thought, first brought from Persia vnto Constantinople, and from thence, sent vnto vs by the meanes of diuers Turkie Merchants, and in especiall, by the procurement of Mʳ. Nicholas Lete, a worthy Merchant, and a louer of all faire flowers.

The Time.

It springeth out of the ground very neare a moneth before the Crowne Imperiall, but doth not flower till it bee quite past (that is to say) not vntill the latter end of Aprill, or beginning of May: the seed (when it doth come to perfection, as it seldome doth) is not ripe vntill Iuly.

The Names.

It hath been sent by the name of Pennachio Persiano, and wee thereupon doe most vsually call it Lilium Persicum, The Persian Lilly. Clusius saith it hath been sent into the Low Countries vnder the name of Susam giul, and he thereupon thinking it came from Susis in Persia, called it Lilium Susianum, The Lilly of Susis.

The Vertues.

Wee haue not yet heard, that this hath beene applyed for any Physicall respect.


Chap. III.
Martagon Imperiale, siue Lilium Montanum maius. The Martagon Imperiall.

Vnder this title of Lilium Montanum, or Lilium Siluestre, I do comprehend only those kindes of Lillies, which carry diuers circles of greene leaues set together at certaine distances, round about the stalke, and not sparsedly as the two former, and as other kindes that follow, doe. And although there bee many of this sort, yet because their chiefest difference is in the colour of the flower, wee will containe them all in one Chapter, and begin with the most stately of them all, because of the number of flowers it beareth vpon one stalke. The Imperiall Lilly hath a scaly roote, like vnto all the rest of the Lillies, but of a paler yellow colour, closely compact or set together, being short and small oftentimes, in comparison of the greatnesse of the[31] stemme growing from it. The stalke is brownish and round at the bottome, and sometimes flat from the middle vpwards, three foote high or more, beset at certaine distances with rondles or circles of many broad leaues, larger and broader for the most part than any other of this kinde, and of a darke green colour: It hath two or three, and sometimes foure of these rondles or circles of leaues, and bare without any leafe betweene; but aboue toward the tops of the stalkes, it hath here and there some leaues vpon it, but smaller than any of the other leaues: at the toppe of the stalke come forth many flowers, sometime three or foure score, thicke thrust, or confusedly set together, and not thinne or sparsedly one aboue another, as in the lesser of this kinde of Mountaine Lilly. It hath been sometimes also obserued in this kinde, that it hath borne manie flowers at three seuerall spaces of the stalke, one aboue another, which hath made a goodly shew; each flower whereof is pendulous, hanging downe, and each leafe of the flower turning vp againe, being thicke or fleshy, of a fine delayed purple colour, spotted with many blackish or brownish spots, of a very pleasant sweet sent, which maketh it the more acceptable: in the middle of the flower hangeth downe a stile or pointell, knobbed or buttoned at the end with sixe yellow chiues, tipt with loose pendents of an Orient red or Vermillion colour, which will easily sticke like dust vpon any thing that toucheth them: the heads or seede vessels are small and round, with small edges about them, wherein is contained flat browne seede like other Lillies, but lesser. This root is very apt to encrease or set of, as we call it, wherby the plant seldome commeth to so great a head of flowers, but riseth vp with many stalkes, and then carry fewer flowers.

Martagon Imperiale flore non punctato.

Of this kinde there is sometimes one found, that beareth flowers without any spots: the leaues whereof and stalke likewise are paler, but not else differing.

Martagon flore albo. The White Martagon.

We haue also some other of this kind, the first wherof hath his stalke & leafe greener than the former, the stalke is a little higher, but not bearing so thicke a head of flowers, although much more plentifull than the lesser Mountaine Lilly, being altogether of a fine white colour, without any spots, or but very few, and that but sometimes also: the pendents in the middle of this flower are not red, as the former, but yellow; the roote of this, and of the other two that follow, are of a pale yellow colour, the cloues or scales of them being brittle, and not closely compact, yet so as if two, and sometimes three scales or cloues grew one vpon the head or vpperpart of another; which difference is a speciall note to know these three kindes, from any other kinde of Mountaine Lilly, as in all old rootes that I haue seene, I haue obserued, as also in them that are reasonably well growne, but in the young rootes it is not yet so manifest.

Martagon flore albo maculato. The White spotted Martagon.

The second is like vnto the first in all things, saue in this, that the flowers hereof are not altogether so white, and besides hath many reddish spots on the inside of the leaues of the flower, and the stalke also is not so greene but brownish.

Martagon flore carneo. The blush Martagon.

A third sort there is of this kinde, whole flowers are wholly of a delayed flesh colour, with many spots on the flowers, and this is the difference hereof from the former.

Lilium Montanum siue siluestre minus. The lesser Mountaine Lilly.

The lesser Mountaine Lilly is so like in root vnto the greater that is first described, that it is hard to distinguish them asunder; but when this is sprung vp out of the ground, which is a moneth after the first: it also carrieth his leaues in rondles about the stalke, although not altogether so great nor so many. The flowers are more thinly set on the stalkes one aboue another, with more distance betweene each flower than the former, and are of a little deeper flesh colour or purple, spotted in the same manner. The buds [33]or heads of flowers, in some of these before they be blowne, are hoary white, or hairie, whereas in others, there is no hoarinesse at all, but the buddes are smooth and purplish: in other things this differeth not from the former.

Lilium Montanum non maculatum.

Of this sort also there is one that hath but few spots on the flowers, whose colour is somewhat paler than the other.

Page 29: Martagon.
1Martagon flore albo. The white Martagon.
2Martagon siue Lilium Canadense maculatum. The spotted Martagon, or Lilly of Canada.
3Martagon Pomponeum. The Martagon Pompony, or early red Martagon.

Martagon Canadense maculatum. The spotted Martagon of Canada.

Although this strange Lilly hath not his flowers hanging downe, and turning vp again, as the former kinds set forth in this Chapter, yet because the green leaues stand at seuerall ioynts as they do, I must needs insert it here, not knowing where more fitly to place it. It hath a small scaly roote, with many small long fibres thereat, from whence riseth vp a reasonable great stalke, almost as high as any of the former, bearing at three or foure distances many long and narrow greene leaues, but not so many or so broad as the former, with diuers ribbes in them: from among the vppermost rundle of leaues breake forth foure or fiue flowers together, euery one standing on a long slender foote stalke, being almost as large as a red Lilly, but a little bending downewards, and of a faire yellow colour, spotted on the inside with diuers blackish purple spots or strakes, hauing a middle pointell, and sixe chiues, with pendents on them.

The Place.

All these Lillies haue been found in the diuers Countries of Germany, as Austria, Hungaria, Pannonia, Stiria, &c. and are all made Denisons in our London Gardens, where they flourish as in their owne naturall places. The last was brought into France from Canada by the French Colonie, and from thence vnto vs.

The Time.

They flower about the later end of Iune for the most part, yet the first springeth out of the ground a moneth at the least before the other, which are most vsually in flower before it, like vnto the Serotine Tulipas, all of them being early vp, and neuer the neere.

The Names.

The first is vsually called Martagon Imperiale, the Imperiall Martagon, and is Lilium Montanum maius, the greatest Mountaine Lilly; for so it deserueth the name, because of the number of flowers vpon a head or stalke. Some haue called it Lilium Sarasenicum, and some Hemerocallis, but neither of them doth so fitly agree vnto it.

The second is Lilium Montanum maius flore albo, and of some Martagon Imperiale flore albo, but most vsually Martagon flore albo, the white Martagon. The second sort of this second kinde, is called Martagon flore albo maculato, the spotted white Martagon. And the third, Martagon flore carneo, the blush Martagon.

The third kinde is called Lilium Montanum, the Mountaine Lilly, and some adde the title minus, the lesser, to know it more distinctly from the other. Some also Lilium Siluestre, as Clusius, and some others, and of Matthiolus Martagon. Of diuers women here in England, from the Dutch name, Lilly of Nazareth. The last hath his title Americanum & Canadense, and in English accordingly.


[34]

Chap. IV.
1. Martagon Pomponeum siue Lilium rubrum præcox, vel Lilium Macedonicum. The early red Martagon, or Martagon Pompony.

As in the former Chapter we described vnto you such Lillies, whose flowers being pendulous, turne their leaues backe againe, and haue their greene leaues, set by spaces about the stalke: so in this wee will set downe those sorts, which carry their greene leaues more sparsedly, and all along the stalke, their flowers hanging downe, and turning vp againe as the former, and begin with that which is of greatest beauty, or at least of most rarity.

1. Martagon Pomponeum angusti folium praecox.

1. This rare Martagon hath a scaly root closely compact, with broader and thinner scales than others, in time growing very great, and of a more deepe yellow colour then the former, from whence doth spring vp a round greene stalke in some plants, and flat in others, two or three foote high, bearing a number of small, long, and narrow greene leaues, very like vnto the leaues of Pinkes, but greener, set very thicke together, and without order about the stalke, vp almost vnto the toppe, and lesser by degrees vpwards, where stand many flowers, according to the age of the plant, and thriuing in the place where it groweth; in those that are young, but a few, and more sparsedly, and in others that are old many more, and thicker set: for I haue reckoned threescore flowers and more, growing thicke together on one plant with mee, and an hundred flowers on another: these flowers are of a pale or yellowish red colour, and not so deep red as the red Martagon of Constantinople, hereafter set down, nor fully so large: yet of the same fashion, that is, euery flower hanging downe, and turning vp his leaues againe. It is not so plentifull in bearing of seede as the other Lillies, but when it doth, it differeth not but in being lesse.

2. Martagon angusti folium magis serotinum.

There is another, whose greene leaues are not so thicke set on the stalke, but else differeth not but in flowring a fortnight later.

3. Martagon Pomponeum latifolium praecox.

There is another also of this kind, so like vnto the former in root, stalk, flower, & maner of growing, that the difference is hardly discerned; but consisteth chiefly in these two points: First, that the leaues of this are a little broader and shorter then the former; and secondly, that it beareth his flowers a fortnight earlier than the first. In the colour or forme of the flower, there can no difference bee discerned, nor (as I said) in any other thing. All these Lillies doe spring very late out of the ground, euen as the yellow Martagons doe, but are sooner in flower then any others.

4. Martagon flore phaeniceo.

A fourth kinde hereof hath of late been knowne to vs, whose leaues are broader and shorter than the last, and the flowers of a paler red, tending to yellow, of some called a golden red colour: but flowreth not so early as they.

2. Lilium rubrum Byzantinum, siue Martagon Constantinopolitanum. The red Martagon of Constantinople.

1. The red Martagon of Constantinople is become so common euery where, and so well knowne to all louers of these delights, that I shall seeme vnto them to lose time, to bestow many lines vpon it; yet because it is so faire a flower, and was at the first so highly esteemed, it deserueth his place and commendations, howsoeuer encreasing the plenty hath not made it dainty. It riseth out of the ground early in the spring, before many other Lillies, from a great thicke yellow scaly root, bearing a round brownish stalke, beset with many faire greene leaues confusedly thereon, but not so broad as the common white Lilly, vpon the toppe whereof stand one, two, or three, or more flowers, vpon long footestalkes, which hang downe their heads, and turne vp their leaues againe, of an excellent red crimson colour, and sometimes paler, hauing a long pointell in the middle, compassed with sixe whitish chiues, tipt with loose yellow pendents, of a reasonable good sent, but somewhat faint. It likewise beareth seede in heads, like vnto the other, but greater.

[35]

Martagon Constantinopolitanum maculatum. The red spotted Martagon of Constantinople.

We haue another of this kinde, that groweth somewhat greater and higher, with a larger flower, and of a deeper colour, spotted with diuers blacke spots, or strakes and lines, as is to be seene in the Mountaine Lillies, and in some other hereafter to be described; but is not so in the former of this kinde, which hath no shew of spots at all. The whole plant as it is rare, so it is of much more beauty than the former.

2. Martagon Pannonicum, siue Exoticum flore spadiceo. The bright red Martagon of Hungarie.

Although this Martagon or Lilly bee of another Countrey, yet by reason of the neerenesse both in leafe and flower vnto the former, may more fitly be placed next vnto them, then in any other place. It hath his roote very like the other, but the leaues are somewhat larger, and more sparsedly set vpon the stalke, else not much vnlike: the flowers bend downe, and turne vp their leaues againe, but somewhat larger, and of a bright red, tending to an Orenge colour, that is, somewhat yellowish, and not crimson, like the other.

3. Martagon Luteum punctatum. The Yellow spotted Martagon.

1. This Yellow Martagon hath a great scaly or cloued roote, and yellow, like vnto all these sorts of turning Lillies, from whence springeth vp a round greene strong stalke, three foote high at the least, confusedly set with narrow long greene leaues, white on the edges vp to the very toppe thereof almost, hauing diuers flowers on the head, turning vp againe as the former doe, of a faint yellowish, or greenish yellow colour, with many blacke spots or strakes about the middle of the leafe of euery flower, and a forked pointell, with sixe chiues about it, tipt with reddish pendents, of a heauie strong smell, not very pleasant to many. It beareth seede very plentifully, in great heads, like vnto the other former Lillies, but a little paler.

2. Martagon Luteum non maculatum. The Yellow Martagon without spots.

The other yellow Martagon differeth in no other thing from the former, but onely that it hath no spots at all vpon any of the leaues of the flowers; agreeing with the former, in colour, forme, height, and all things else.

3. Martagon Luteum serotinum. The late flowring Yellow Martagon.

There is yet another yellow Martagon, that hath no other difference then the time of his flowring, which is not vntill Iuly, vnlesse in this, that the flower is of a deeper yellow colour.

The Place.

The knowledge of the first kindes of these early Martagons hath come from Italy, from whence they haue bin sent into the Low-Countries, and to vs, and, as it seemeth by the name, whereby they haue bin sent by some into these parts, his originall should be from the mountaines in Macedonia.

The second sort is sufficiently knowne by his name, being first brought from Constantinople, his naturall place being not farre from thence, as it is likely. But the next sort of this second kinde, doth plainly tell vs his place of birth to be the mountaines of Pannonia or Hungarie.

The third kindes grow on the Pyrenæan mountains, where they haue been searched out, and found by diuers louers of plants, as also in the Kingdome of Naples.

[36]

The Time.

The first early Martagons flower in the end of May, or beginning of Iune, and that is a moneth at the least before those that come from Constantinople, which is the second kinde. The two first yellow Martagons flower somewhat more early, then the early red Martagons, and sometimes at the same time with them. But the third yellow Martagon, as is said, flowreth a moneth later or more, and is in flower when the red Martagon of Constantinople flowreth. And although the early red and yellow Martagons, spring later then the other Martagons or Lillies, yet they are in flower before them.

The Names.

The first early red Lillies or Martagons haue beene sent vnto vs by seuerall names, as Martagon Pomponeum, and thereafter are called Martagon of Pompony, and also Lilium or Martagon Macedonicum, the Lilly or Martagon of Macedonia. They are also called by Clusius Lilium rubrum præcox, the one angustiore folio, the other latiore folio. And the last of this kinde hath the title flore phæniceo added or giuen vnto it, that is, the Martagon or Lilly of Macedonia with gold red flowers.

The Martagons of Constantinople haue beene sent by the Turkish name Zufiniare, and is called Martagon, or Lilium Byzantinum by some, and Hemerocallis Chalcedonica by others; but by the name of the Martagon of Constantinople they are most commonly receiued with vs, with the distinction of maculatum to the one, to distinguish the sorts. The last kinde in this classis, hath his name in his title, as it hath been sent vnto vs.

The Yellow Martagons are distinguished in their seuerall titles, as much as is conuenient for them.


Chap. V.
Lilium Aureum & Lilium Rubrum. The Gold and Red Lillies.

There are yet some other kindes of red Lillies to bee described, which differ from all the former, and remaine to be spoken of in this place. Some of them grow high, and some lowe, some haue small knots, which wee call bulbes, growing vpon the stalkes, at the ioynts of the leaues or flowers, and some haue none: all which shall be intreated of in their seuerall orders.

Lilium pumilum cruentum. The dwarfe red Lilly.

The dwarfe red Lilly hath a scaly roote, somewhat like vnto other Lillies, but white, and not yellow at all, and the cloues or scales thicker, shorter, and fewer in number, then in most of the former: the stalke hereof is not aboue a foote and a halfe high, round and greene, set confusedly with many faire and short greene leaues, on the toppe of which doe stand sometimes but a few flowers, and sometimes many, of a faire purplish red colour, and a little paler in the middle, euery flower standing vpright, and not hanging downe, as in the former, on the leaues whereof here and there are some blacke spots, lines or markes, and in the middle of the flower a long pointell, with some chiues about it, as is in the rest of these Lillies.

Lilium rubrum multiplici flore.

This kinde is sometimes found to yeeld double flowers, as if all the single flowers should grow into one, and so make it consist of many leaues, which notwithstanding h[37]is so continuing sundry yeares, vpon transplanting, will redire ad ingenium, that is, quickly come againe to his old byas or forme.

Page 37: Lilly.
1Martagon rubrum siue luteum. The red or the yellow Martagon.
2Lilium Bulbiferum. The red bulbed Lilly.
3Lilium aureum. The gold red Lilly.
4Lilium album. The white Lilly.

[38]

Lilium Aureum. The Gold red Lilly.

The second red Lilly without bulbes groweth much higher then the first, and almost as high as any other Lilly: the roote hereof is white and scaly, the leaues are somewhat longer, and of a darke or sad greene colour; the flowers are many and large, standing vpright as all these sorts of red Lillies doe, of a paler red colour tending to an Orenge on the inside, with many blacke spots and lines on them, as in the former, and more yellow on the outside: the seede vessels are like vnto the roundish heads of other Lillies, and so are the seedes in them likewise.

1. Lilium minus bulbiferum. The dwarfe bulbed Lilly.

The first of the Lillies that carrieth bulbes on the stalke, hath a white scaly roote like the former; from whence riseth vp a small round stalke, not much higher then the first dwarfe Lilly, seeming to be edged, hauing many leaues thereon of a sad green colour set about it, close thrust together: the greene heads for flowers, will haue a kind of woollinesse on them, before the flowers begin to open, and betweene these heads of flowers, as also vnder them, and among the vppermost leaues, appeare small bulbes or heads, which being ripe if they be put into the ground, or if they fall of themselues, will shoote forth leaues, and beare flowers within two or three yeares like the mother plant, and so will the bulbes of the other hereafter described: the flowers of this Lilly are of a faire gold yellow colour, shadowed ouer with a shew of purple, but not so red as the first, or the next to bee described. This Lilly will shoote strings vnder ground, like as the last red Lilly will doe also, whereat will grow white bulbed roots, like the rootes of the mother plant, thereby quickly encreasing it selfe.

2. Lilium Cruentum bulbiferum. The Fierie red bulbed Lilly.

The second bulbed Lilly riseth vp with his stalke as high as any of these Lillies, carrying many long and narrow darke greene leaues about it, and at the toppe many faire red flowers, as large or larger then any of the former, and of a deeper red colour, with spots on them likewise, hauing greater bulbes growing about the toppe of the stalke and among the flowers, then any else.

Lilium Cruentum flore pleno. The Fierie red double Lilly.

The difference of this doth chiefly consist in the flower, which is composed of manie leaues, as if many flowers went to make one, spotted with black spots, and without any bulbes when it thus beareth, which is but accidentall, as the former double Lilly is said to be.

3. Lilium maius bulbiferum. The greater bulbed red Lilly.

The third red Lilly with bulbes, riseth vp almost as high as the last, and is the most common kinde we haue bearing bulbes. It hath many leaues about the stalke, but not of so sad a greene colour as the former: the flowers are of as pale a reddish yellow colour as any of the former, and comming neerest vnto the colour of the Gold red Lilly. This is more plentifull in bulbes, and in shooting strings, to encrease rootes vnder ground, then the others.

The Place.

These Lillies doe all grow in Gardens, but their naturall places of growing is the Mountaines and the Vallies neere them in Italy, as Matthiolus [39]saith: and in many Countries of Germany, as Hungarie, Austria, Stiria, and Bohemia, as Clusius and other doe report.

The Time.

They flower for the most part in Iune, yet the first of these is the earliest of all the rest.

The Names.

All these Lillies are called Lilia Rubra, Red Lillies: Some call them Lilium Aureum, Lilium Purpureum, Lilium Puniceum, & Lilium Cruentum. Some also call them Martagon Chimistarum. Clusius calleth these bulbed Lillies Martagon Bulbiferum. It is thought to be Hyacinthus Poetarum, but I referre the discussing thereof to a fitter time. Wee haue, to distinguish them most fitly (as I take it) giuen their proper names in their seuerall titles.


Chap. VI.
Lilium Album. The White Lilly.

Now remaineth onely the White Lilly, of all the whole family or stocke of the Lillies, to bee spoken of, which is of two sorts. The one is our common or vulgar White Lilly; and the other, that which was brought from Constantinople.

Lilium Album vulgare. The ordinary White Lilly.

The ordinary White Lilly scarce needeth any description, it is so well knowne, and so frequent in euery Garden; but to say somewhat thereof, as I vse to doe of euery thing, be it neuer so common and knowne; it hath a cloued or scaly roote, yellower and bigger then any of the red Lillies: the stalke is of a blackish greene colour, and riseth as high as most of the Lillies, hauing many faire, broad, and long greene leaues thereon, larger and longer beneath, and smaller vpon the stalke vpwards; the flowers are many or few, according to the age of the plant, fertility of the soile, and time of standing where it groweth: and stand vpon long greene footstalkes, of a faire white colour, with a long pointell in the middle, and white chiues tipt with yellow pendents about it; the smell is somewhat heady and strong.

Lilium Album Byzantinum. The White Lilly of Constantinople.

The other White Lilly, differeth but little from the former White Lilly, either in roote, leafe, or flower, but only that this vsually groweth with more number of flowers, then euer we saw in our ordinary White Lilly: for I haue seene the stalke of this Lilly turne flat, of the breadth of an hand, bearing neere two hundred flowers vpon a head, yet most commonly it beareth not aboue a dozen, or twenty flowers, but smaller then the ordinary, as the greene leaues are likewise.

The Place.

The first groweth onely in Gardens, and hath not beene declared where it is found wilde, by any that I can heare of. The other hath beene sent from Constantinople, among other rootes, and therefore is likely to grow in some parts neere thereunto.

The Time.

They flower in Iune or thereabouts, but shoote forth greene leaues in [40]Autumne, which abide greene all the Winter, the stalke springing vp betweene the lower leaues in the Spring.

The Names.

It is called Lilium Album, the White Lilly, by most Writers; but by Poets Rosa Iunonis, Iuno’s Rose. The other hath his name in his title.

The Vertues.

This Lilly aboue all the rest, yea, and I thinke this onely, and none of the rest is vsed in medicines now adayes, although in former times Empericks vsed the red; and therefore I haue spoken nothing of them in the end of their Chapters, reseruing what is to be said in this. This hath a mollifying, digesting, and cleansing quality, helping to suppurate tumours, and to digest them, for which purpose the roote is much vsed. The water of the flowers distilled, is of excellent vertue for women in trauell of childe bearing, to procure an easie deliuery, as Matthiolus and Camerarius report. It is vsed also of diuers women outwardly, for their faces to cleanse the skin, and make it white and fresh. Diuers other properties there are in these Lillies, which my purpose is not to declare in this place. Nor is it the scope of this worke; this that hath been said is sufficient: for were it not, that I would giue you some taste of the qualities of plants (as I said in my Preface) as I goe along with them, a generall worke were fitter to declare them then this.


Chap. VII.
Fritillaria. The checkerd Daffodill.

Although diuers learned men do by the name giuen vnto this delightfull plant, thinke it doth in some things partake with a Tulipa or Daffodill, and haue therefore placed it betweene them; yet I, finding it most like vnto a little Lilly, both in roote, stalke, leafe, flower, and seede, haue (as you see here) placed it next vnto the Lillies, and before them. Hereof there are many sorts found out of late, as white, red, blacke, and yellow, besides the purple, which was first knowne; and of each of them there are also diuers sorts: and first of that which is most frequent, and then of the rest, euery one in his place and order.

1. Fritillaria vulgaris. The common checkerd Daffodill.

The ordinary checkerd Daffodill (as it is vsually called, but might more properly be called the small checkerd Lilly) hath a small round white roote, and somewhat flat, made as it were of two cloues, and diuided in a maner into two parts, yet ioyning together at the bottome or seate of the roote, which holdeth them both together: from betweene this cleft or diuision, the budde for the stalke &c. appeareth, which in time riseth vp a foote, or a foote and a halfe high, being round and of a brownish greene colour, especially neere vnto the ground, whereon there standeth dispersedly foure or fiue narrow long and greene leaues, being a little hollow: at the toppe of the stalke, betweene the vpper leaues (which are smaller then the lowest) the flower sheweth it selfe, hanging or turning downe the head, but not turning vp againe any of his leaues, as some of the Lillies before described doe; (sometimes this stalke beareth two flowers, and very seldome three) consisting of sixe leaues, of a reddish purple colour, spotted diuersly with great spots, appearing like vnto square checkers, of a deeper colour; the inside of the flower is of a brighter colour then the outside, which hath some greennesse at the bottome of euery leafe: within the flower there appeare sixe c[41]hiues tipt with yellow pendents, and a three-forked stile or pointell compassing a greene head, which when the flower is past, riseth vpright againe, and becommeth the seede vessell, being somewhat long and round, yet hauing a small shew of edges, flat at the head, like the head of a Lilly, and without any crowne as the Tulipa hath, wherein is contained pale coloured flat seede, like vnto that of a Lilly, but smaller.

[42]

Fritillaria vulgaris pallidior, praecox, & serotina.

There is some variety to be seene in this flower; for in some the colour is paler, and in others againe of a very high or deepe colour: sometimes also they haue eight leaues, and sometimes ten or twelue, as if two flowers were made one, which some thereupon haue called a Double Fritillaria. Some of them likewise doe flower very early, euen with or before the early flowring Tulipas; and some againe flower not vntill a moneth or more after the former.

Page 41: Fritillaria.
1Fritillaria vulgaris. The common Fritillaria.
2Fritillaria flore atrorubente. The dark red Fritillaria.
4Fritillaria alba. The white Fritillaria.
7Fritillaria lutea punctata. The yellow checkerd Fritillaria.
8Fritillaria lutea Italica. The great yellow Italian Fritillaria.
10Fritillaria lutea Lusitanica. The small yellow Fritillaria of Portugal.
11Fritillaria Pyrenæa. The blacke Fritillaria.
12Fritillaria umbellifera. The Spanish blacke Fritillaria.

2. Fritillaria flore atrorubente. The bloud red Fritillaria.

The roote of this Fritillaria is somewhat rounder and closer then the former, from whence the stalke riseth vp, being shorter and lower then in any other of these kindes, hauing one or two leaues thereon, and at the top thereof two or three more set closer together, which are broader, shorter, and whiter then any of them before, almost like vnto the leaues of the yellow Fritillaria, from among which toppe leaues commeth forth the flower, somewhat bending downe, or rather standing forth, being larger then any of the former, and almost equall in bignesse vnto the yellow Fritillaria, of a duskie gray colour all ouer on the outside, and of a very darke red colour on the inside, diuersly spotted or straked: this very hardly encreaseth by the roote, and as seldome giueth ripe seede, but flowreth with the other first sorts, and before the blacke, and abideth lesse time in flower then any.

3. Fritillaria maxima purpurea siue rubra. The great purple or red Fritillaria.

This great Fritillaria hath his roote equall to the bignesse of the rest of his parts, from whence riseth vp one, & oftentimes two stalks, hauing one, two or three flowers a peece on them, as nature and the seasons are fitting: euery one of these flowers are larger and greater then any of the former described, and pendulous as they are, of a sad red or purplish colour, with many thwart lines on them, and small long markes, which hardly seeme checkerwise, nor are so eminent or conspicuous as in the former: the stalke is strong and high, whereon are set diuers long whitish greene leaues, larger and broader then those of the former.

4. Fritillaria alba. The white Fritillaria.

The white Fritillaria is so like vnto the first, that I shall not neede to make another description of this: it shall (I hope) be sufficient to shew the chiefe differences, and so proceed to the rest. The stalke and leaues of this are wholly greene, whereby it may easily be knowne from the former, which, as is said, is brownish at the bottome. The flower is white, without almost any shew of spot or marke in it, yet in some the markes are somewhat more plainly to be seene, and in some againe there is a shew of a faint kinde of blush colour to be seene in the flower, especially in the inside, the bottomes of the leaues of euery flower sometimes are greenish, hauing also a small list of greene, comming downe towards the middle of each leafe: the head or seede vessell, as also the seede and the roote, are so like vnto the former, that the most cunning cannot distinguish them.

5. Fritillaria flore duplici albicante. The double blush Fritillaria.

This Fritillaria hath a round flattish white roote, very like vnto the last Fritillaria, bearing a stalke with long greene leaues thereon, little differing from it, or the first ordinary Fritillaria: the flower is said to be constant, composed of many leaues, being ten at the least, and most vsually twelue, of a pale whitish purple colour, spotted like vnto the paler ordinary Fritillaria that is early, so that one would verily thinke it were[43] but an accidentall kinde thereof, whereas it is (as is said before) held to bee constant, continuing in this manner.

6. Fritillaria flore luteo puro. The pure yellow Fritillaria.

The pure yellow Fritillaria hath a more round, and not so flat a whitish roote as the former kindes, and of a meane bignesse; from the middle riseth vp a stalke a foote and a halfe high, and sometimes higher, whereon are set without order diuers long and somewhat broad leaues of a whitish greene colour, like vnto the leaues of the blacke Fritillaria, but not aboue halfe so broad: the flower is somewhat small and long, not much vnlike to the blacke for shape and fashion, but that the leaues are smaller and rounder pointed, of a faint yellowish colour, without any shew of spots or checkers at all, eyther within or without the flower, hauing some chiues and yellow pendents in the middle, as is to be seene in all of them: the seede is like the first kinde.

7. Fritillaria flore luteo vario siue punctato. The checkerd yellow Fritillaria.

This Fritillaria groweth not much lower then the former, and brownish at the rising vp, hauing his leaues whiter, broader, and shorter then it, and almost round pointed. The flower is greater, and larger spread then any other before, of a faire pale yellow colour, spotted in very good order, with fine small checkers, which adde a wonderfull pleasing beauty thereunto: it hath also some lists of greene running downe the backe of euery leafe. It seldome giueth seede; the roote also is like the other, but not so flat.

8. Fritillaria lutea maxima Italica. The great yellow Italian Fritillaria.

This kinde of Fritillaria riseth vp with a round and browne greene stalke, whereon are set diuers leaues somewhat broad and short, which compasse the stalke at the bottome of them, of a darke greene colour; at the toppe of the stalke, which bendeth a little downewards, doe most vsually stand three or foure leaues, betweene which commeth forth most vsually but one flower, which is longer then the last, hanging downe the head as all the others doe, consisting of sixe leaues, of a darke yellowish purple colour, spotted with some small red checkers. This kinde flowreth late, and not vntill all the rest are past.

9. Fritillaria Italorum polyanthos flore parno. The small Italian Fritillaria.

This small Italian Fritillaria carrieth more store of flowers on the stalke, but they are much smaller, and of a yellowish greene colour, spotted with long and small darke red checkers or markes: the stalke hath diuers small short greene leaues thereon, vnto the very toppe.

10. Fritillaria lutea Iuncifolia Lusitanica. The small yellow Fritillaria of Portugall.

The leaues of this Fritillaria are so small, narrow and long, that it hath caused them to take the name of rushes, as if you should call it, The rush leafed Fritillaria, which stand on a long weake round stalke, set without order the flower is small and yellow, but thicker checkerd with red spots then any of the other yellow Fritillaria’s; the stalk of the flower, at the head thereof, being also of a yellowish colour.

11. Fritillaria Pyrenæa siue Apenninea. The blacke Fritillaria.

The roote of this kinde doth often grow so great, that it seemeth like vnto the roote of a small Crowne Imperiall: the stalke is strong, round, and high, set without order, with broader and whiter greene leaues then any of the former, bearing one, two, or three flowers; sometimes at the toppe, being not so large as those of the ordinary purple Fritillaria, but smaller, longer, and rounder, sometimes a little turning vp the brims or edges of the leaues againe, and are of a yellowish shining greene colour on[44] the inside, sometimes spotted with red spots almost through the whole inside of the flower, vnto the very edge, which abideth of a pale yellow colour, and sometimes there are very few spots to be seene, and those from the middle onely on the inside (for on the outside there neuer appeareth any spots at all in this kinde) and sometimes with no shew of spots at all, sometimes also of a more pale greene, and sometime of a more yellow colour: the outside of the flowers doe likewise vary, for in some the outside of the leaues are of a darke sullen yellow, &c. else more pale yellow, and in other of a darke purplish yellow colour, which in some is so deepe, and so much, that it rather seemeth blacke then purple or yellow, and this especially about the bottome of the flower, next vnto the stalke, but the edges are still of a yellowish greene: the head of seede, and the seede likewise is like vnto the former, but bigger in all respects.

12. Fritillaria Hispanica vmbellifera. The Spanish blacke Fritillaria.

This Fritillaria is no doubt of kindred to the last recited, it is so like, but greater in all parts thereof, as if growing in a more fruitfull soile, it were the stronger and lustier to beare more store of flowers: the flowers grow foure or fiue from the head together, hanging downe round about the stalke, like vnto a Crowne Imperiall, and are of a yellowish greene colour on the inside, spotted with a few red spots, the outside being blackish as the former.

The Place.

The first of these plants was first brought to our knowledge from France, where it groweth plentifully about Orleance; the other sorts grow in diuers other Countries, as some in Portugall, Spaine, Italy, &c. as their names doe import, and as in time they haue been obserued by those that were curious searchers of these rarities, haue been sent to vs.

The Time.

The early kindes doe flower in the beginning of Aprill or thereabouts, according to the mildenesse or sharpenesse of the precedent Winter. The other doe flower after the first are past, for a moneths space one after another, and the great yellow is very late, not flowring vntill about the middle or end of May.

The Names.

This hath receiued diuers names: some calling it Flos Meleagridis, the Ginny Hen Flower, of the variety of the colours in the flower, agreeing with the feathers of that Bird. Some call it Narcissus Caparonius, of the name of the first inuentor or finder thereof, called Noel Caperon, an Apothecary dwelling in Orleance, at the time he first found it, and was shortly after the finding thereof taken away in the Massacre in France. It is now generally called Fritillaria, of the word Fritillus, which diuers doe take for the Chesse borde or table whereon they play, whereunto, by reason of the resemblance of the great squares or spots so like it, they did presently referre it. It is called by Lobel Lilionarcissus purpureus variegatus, & sessulatus, making it a kinde of Tulipa; but as I said in the beginning of the Chapter, it doth most neerely resemble a small pendulous Lilly, and might therefore rightly hold the name of Lilium variegatum, or in English, the checkerd Lilly. But because the errour which first referred it to a Daffodill, is growne strong by custome of continuance, I leaue to euery one their owne will, to call it in English eyther Fritillaria, as it is called of most, or the checkerd Daffodill, or the Ginnie Hen flower, or, as I doe, the checkerd Lilly. I shall not neede in this place further to explaine the seuerall names of euery of them, hauing giuen you them in their titles.

[45]

The Vertues.

I haue not found or heard by any others of any property peculiar in this plant, to be applied either inwardly or outwardly for any disease: the chiefe or onely vse thereof is, to be an ornament for the Gardens of the curious louers of these delights, and to be worne of them abroad, which for the gallant beauty of many of them, deserueth their courteous entertainment, among many other the like pleasures.


Chap. VIII.
Tulipa. The Turkes Cap.

Next vnto the Lillies, and before the Narcissi or Daffodils, the discourse of Tulipas deserueth his place, for that it partaketh of both their natures; agreeing with the Lillies in leaues, flowers, and seede, and somewhat with the Daffodils in rootes. There are not onely diuers kindes of Tulipas, but sundry diuersities of colours in them, found out in these later dayes by many the searchers of natures varieties, which haue not formerly been obserued: our age being more delighted in the search, curiosity, and rarities of these pleasant delights, then any age I thinke before. But indeede, this flower, aboue many other, deserueth his true commendations and acceptance with all louers of these beauties, both for the stately aspect, and for the admirable varietie of colours, that daily doe arise in them, farre beyond all other plants that grow, in so much, that I doubt, although I shall in this Chapter set downe the varieties of a great many, I shall leaue more vnspoken of, then I shall describe; for I may well say, there is in this one plant no end of diuersity to be expected, euery yeare yeelding a mixture and variety that hath not before been obserued, and all this arising from the sowing of the seede. The chiefe diuision of Tulipas, is into two sorts: Præcoces, early flowring Tulipas, and Serotinæ, late flowring Tulipas. For that sort which is called Mediæ or Dubiæ, that is, which flower in the middle time betweene them both, and may be thought to be a kinde or sort by it selfe, as well as any of the other two: yet because they doe neerer participate with the Serotinæ then with the Præcoces, not onely in the colour of the leafe, being of the same greennesse with the Serotinæ, and most vsually also, for that it beareth his stalke and flower, high and large like as the Serotinæ doe; but especially, for that the seede of a Media Tulipa did neuer bring forth a Præcox flower (although I know Clusius, an industrious, learned, and painfull searcher and publisher of these rarities, saith otherwise) so farre as euer I could, by mine owne care or knowledge, in sowing their seede apart, or the assurance of any others, the louers and sowers of Tulipa seede, obserue, learne, or know: and because also that the seede of the Serotinæ bringeth forth Medias, and the seede of Medias Serotinæ, they may well bee comprehended vnder the generall title of Serotinæ: But because they haue generally receiued the name Mediæ, or middle flowring Tulipas, to distinguish between them, and those that vsually doe flower after them; I am content to set them downe, and speake of them seuerally, as of three sorts. Vnto the place and ranke likewise of the Præcoces, or early flowring Tulipas, there are some other seuerall kinds of Tulipas to be added, which are notably differing, not onely from the former Præcox Tulipa, but euery one of them, one from another, in some speciall note or other: as the Tulipa Boloniensis flore rubro, the red Bolonia Tulipa. Tulipa Boloniensis flore luteo, the yellow Bolonia Tulipa. Tulipa Persica, Persian Tulipa. Tulipa Cretica, the Candie Tulipa, and others: all which shall bee described and entreated of, euery one apart by it selfe, in the end of the ranke of the Præcoces, because all of them flower much about their time. To begin then with the Præcox, or early flowring Tulipas, and after them with the Medias and Serotinas, I shall for the better method, diuide their flowers into foure primary or principall colours, that is to say, White, Purple, Red and Yellow, and vnder every one of these colours, set downe the seuerall varie[46]ties of mixtures we haue seene and obserued in them, that so they may be both the better described by me, and the better conceiued by others, and euery one placed in their proper ranke. Yet I shall in this, as I intend to doe in diuers other plants that are variable, giue but one description in generall of the plant, and then set downe the varietie of forme or colour afterwards briefly by themselues.

Tulipa præcox. The early flowring Tulipa.

The early Tulipa (and so all other Tulipas) springeth out of the ground with his leaues folded one within another, the first or lowest leafe riseth vp first, sharpe pointed, and folded round together, vntill it be an inch or two aboue the ground, which then openeth it selfe, shewing another leafe folded also in the bosome or belly of the first, which in time likewise opening it selfe, sheweth forth a third, and sometimes a fourth and a fifth: the lower leaues are larger then the vpper, and are faire, thicke, broad, long, and hollow like a gutter, and sometimes crumpled on the edges, which will hold water that falleth thereon a long time, of a pale or whitish greene colour, (and the Mediæ and Serotinæ more greene) couered ouer as it were with a mealinesse or hoarinesse, with an eye or shew of rednesse towards the bottome of the leaues, and the edges in this kinde being more notable white, which are two principall notes to know a Præcox Tulipa from a Media or Serotina: the stalke with the flower riseth vp in the middle, as it were through these leaues, which in time stand one aboue another, compassing it at certaine vnequall distances, and is often obserued to bend it selfe crookedly downe to the ground, as if it would thrust his head thereinto, but turning vp his head (which will be the flower) againe, afterwards standeth vpright, sometimes but three or foure fingers or inches high, but more often halfe a foote, and a foot high, but the Medias, and Serotinas much higher, carrying (for the most part) but one flower on the toppe thereof, like vnto a Lilly for the forme, consisting of sixe leaues, greene at the first, and afterwards changing into diuers and sundry seuerall colours and varieties, the bottomes likewise of the leaues of these sometimes, but most especially of the Mediæ, being as variable as the flower, which are in some yellow, or green, or blacke, in others white, blew, purple, or tawnie; and sometimes one colour circling another: some of them haue little or no sent at all, and some haue a better then others. After it hath been blowne open three or foure dayes or more, it will in the heate of the Sunne spread it selfe open, and lay it selfe almost flat to the stalke: in the middle of the flower standeth a greene long head (which will be the seed vessell) compassed about with sixe chiues, which doe much vary, in being sometimes of one, and sometimes of another colour, tipt with pendents diuersly varied likewise: the head in the middle of the flower groweth after the flower is fallen, to be long, round, and edged, as it were three square, the edges meeting at the toppe, where it is smallest, and making as it were a crowne (which is not seen in the head of any Lilly) and when it is ripe, diuideth it selfe on the inside into sixe rowes, of flat, thinne, brownish, gristly seede, very like vnto the seede of the Lillies, but brighter, stiffer, and more transparent: the roote being well growne is round, and somewhat great, small and pointed at the toppe, and broader, yet roundish at the bottome, with a certaine eminence or seate on the one side, as the roote of the Colchicum hath; but not so long, or great, it hath also an hollownesse on the one side (if it haue borne a flower) where the stalke grew, (for although in the time of the first springing vp, vntill it shew the budde for flower, the stalke with the leaues thereon rise vp out of the middle of the roote; yet when the stalke is risen vp, and sheweth the budde for flower, it commeth to one side, making an impression therein) couered ouer with a brownish thin coate or skin, like an Onion, hauing a little woollinesse at the bottome; but white within, and firme, yet composed of many coates, one folding within another, as the roote of the Daffodils be, of a reasonable good taste, neyther very sweete, nor yet vnpleasant. This description may well serue for the other Tulipas, being Medias or Serotinas, concerning their springing and bearing, which haue not any other great variety therein worth the note, which is not expressed here; the chiefe difference resting in the variety of the colours of the flower, and their seuerall mixtures and markes, as I said before: sauing onely, that the flowers of some are great and large, and of others smaller, and the leaues of some long [47]and pointed, and of others broad and round, or bluntly pointed, as shall bee shewed in the end of the Chapter: I shall therefore onely expresse the colours, with the mixture or composure of them, and giue you withall the names of some of them, (for it is impossible I thinke to any man, to giue seuerall names to all varieties) as they are called by those that chiefly delight in them with vs.

Page 47: Tulipa.
1Tulipa præcox alba siue rubra, &c. vnius coloris. The early white or red Tulipa, &c. being of one colour.
2Tulipa, præcox purpurea oris albis. The early purple Tulipa with white edges, or the Prince.
3Tulipa præcox variegata. The early stript Tulipa.
4Tulipa præcox rubra oris luteis. The early red Tulipa with yellow edges, or the Duke.

[48]

Tulipa præcox Alba.

1 Niuea tota interdum purpureis staminibus, vel saltem luteis, fundo puro haud luteo.

2 Alba siue niuea fundo luteo.

3 Albida.

4 Alba, venis cærulis in dorso.

5 Alba purpureis oris. ⎧Harum flores vel
⎨constantes, vel
⎩dispergentes.

6 Alba carneis oris.

7 Alba sanguineis oris.

8 Alba oris magnis carneis, & venis intro respicientibus.

9 Alba extra, carnei vero coloris intus, oras habens carneas saturatiores.

10 Albida, oris rubris, vel oris purpureis.

11 Alba, purpurascentibus maculis extra, intus vero carnei viuacissimi.

12 Alba, purpureis maculis aspersa extra, intus vero alba purpurantibus oris.

13 Dux Alba, i. e. coceineis & albis variata flaminis, à medio ad oras intercursantibus.

14 Princessa, i.e. argentei coloris maculis purpurascentibus.

15 Regina pulcherrima, albis & sanguineis aspersa radijs & punctis.



The early White Tulipa.

1 The flower whereof is either pure snow white, with purple sometimes, or at least with yellow chiues, without any yellow bottome.

2 Or pure white with a yellow bottome.

3 Or milk white that is not so pure white.

4 White with blew veines on the outside.

5 White with purple edges. ⎧Some of these
⎪abiding constant,
⎨& others
⎪spreading
⎩or running.

6 White with blush edges.

7 White With red edges.

8 White with great blush edges, and some strakes running from the edge inward.

9 White without, and somewhat blush within, with edges of a deeper blush.

10 Whitish, or pale white with red or purple edges.

11 Whitish without, with some purplish veins & spots, & of a liuely blush within.

12 White without, spotted with small purple spots, and white within with purple edges.

13 A white Duke, that is, parted with white & crimson flames, from the middle of each leafe to the edge.

14 The Princesse, that is, a siluer colour spotted with fine deepe blush spots.

15 The Queen, that is, a fine white sprinkled with bloud red spots, and greater strakes.


Tulipa præcox purpurea.

1 Purpurea satura rubescens, vel violacea.

2 Purpurea pallida, Columbina dicta.

3 Persici coloris saturi.

4 Persici coloris Pallidioris.

5 Paeoniæ floris coloris.

6 Rosea.

7 Chermesiua peramæna.

8 Chermesiua parum striata.

9 Princeps, i.e. purpurea saturatior vel dilutior, oris albis magnis vel paruis, fundo luteo, vel albo orbe, quæ multum variatur, & colore, & oris, ita vt purpurea elegans oris magnis albis; dicta est, Princeps excellens, &

10 Princeps Columbina, purpurea dilutior.

11 Purpurea Chermesina, rubicandioris coloris, albidis vel albis oris.

12 Purpurea, vel obsoleta albidis oris Princeps Brancion.

13 Purpurea diluta, oris dilutioris purpurei coloris.

14 Purpurea in exterioribus, carnei vero ad medium intus, oris albis, fundo luteo.

15 Purpurea albo plumata extra, oris albis, purpurascens intus, fundo luteo, vel orbe albo.

16 Alia, minus elegans plumata, minoribusq., oris albidis.



The early purple Tulipa.

1 A reddish purple, or more violet.

2 A pale purple, called a Doue colour.

3 A deep Peach colour.

4 A paler Peach colour.

5 A Peony flower colour.

6 A Rose colour.

7 A Crimson very bright.

8 A Crimson stript with a little white.

[49]

9 A Prince or Bracklar, that is, a deepe or pale purple, with white edges, greater or smaller, and a yellow bottome, or circled with white, which varieth much, both in the purple & edges, so that a faire deep purple, with great white edges, is called, The best or chiefe Prince, and

10 A paler purple with white edges, called a Doue coloured Prince.

11 A Crimson Prince or Bracklar.

12 A Brancion Prince, or purple Brancion.

13 A purple with more pale purple edges.

14 Purple without, and blush halfe way within, with white edges, and a yellow bottome.

15 Purple feathered with white on the out side, with white edges, and pale purple within, the ground being a little yellow, or circled with white.

16 Another very neere vnto it, but not so fairely feathered, being more obscure, and the edges not so great or whitish.


Tulipa præcox rubra.

1 Rubra vulgaris fundo luteo, aliquando nigro.

2 Rubra satura oris luteis paruis, dicta Roan.

3 Baro, i. e. rubra magis intensa, oris luteis paruis.

4 Dux maior & minor, i.e. rubra magis aut minus elegans satura, oris luteis maximis vel minoribus, & fundo luteo magno. Alia alijs est magis amœna, in alijs etiam fundo nigro vel obscuro viridi.

5 Ducissa, i. e. Duci similis, at plus lutei quàm rubri, oris magnis luteis, & rubore magis aut minus intus in gyrum acto, fundo item luteo magno.

6 Testamentum Brancion i.e., rubra sanguinea satura, aut minus rubra, oris pallidis, magnis vel paruis: alia alijs magis aut minus elegans diuersimodo.

7 Flambans, ex rubore & flauedine radiata, vel striata fundo luteo.

8 Mali Aurantij coloris, ex rubore, & flauedinè integre, non separatim mixta, oris luteis paruis, vel absq., oris.

9 Minij, siue Cinabaris coloris, i.e. ex purpurea, rubedine, & flauedine radiata, vnguibus luteis, & aliquando oris.

10 Rex Tuliparum, i.e. ex sanguineo & aureo radiatim mixta, à flammea diuersa, fundo luteo, orbe rubro.

11 Tunica Morionis, i.e. ex rubore & aureo separatim diuersa.



The early red Tulipa.

1 An ordinary red, with a yellow, & sometimes a blacke bottome.

2 A deep red, with a small edge of yellow, called a Roane.

3 A Baron, that is, a faire red with a small yellow edge.

4 A Duke, a greater and a lesser, that is, a more or less faire deep red, with greater or lesser yellow edges, and a great yellow bottome. Some of this sort are much more or lesse faire then others, some also haue a blacke or darke greene bottome.

5 A Dutchesse, that is like vnto the Duke, but more yellow then red, with greater yellow edges, and the red more or lesse circling the middle of the flower on the inside, with a large yellow bottome.

6 A Testament Brancion, or a Brancion[50] Duke, that is, a faire deepe red, or lesse red, with a pale yellow or butter coloured edge, some larger others smaller: and some more pleasing then others, in a very variable manner.

7 A Flambant, differing from the Dutchesse; for this hath no such great yellow edge, but streaks of yellow through the leafe vnto the very edge.

8 An Orenge colour, that is, a reddish yellow, or a red and yellow equally mixed, with small yellow edges, and sometimes without.

9 A Vermillion, that is, a purplish red, streamed with yellow, the bottome yellow, and sometimes the edges.

10 The Kings flower, that is, a crimson or bloud red, streamed with a gold yellow, differing from the Flambant, the bottome yellow, circled with red.

11 A Fooles coate, parted with red and yellow guardes.


Tulipa præcox lutea.

1 Lutea siue flaua.

2 Pallida lutea siue straminea.

3 Aurea, oris rubicundis.

4 Straminea, oris rubris.

5 Aurea, rubore perfusa extra.

6 Aurea, vel magis pallida, rubore in gyrum acta simillima Ducissæ, nisi minus rubedinis habet.

7 Aurea, extremitatibus rubris, dici potest, Morionis Pilæus præcox.



The early yellow Tulipa.

1 A faire gold yellow without mixture.

2 A strawe colour.

3 A faire yellow with reddish edges.

4 A strawe colour, with red edges.

5 A faire yellow, reddish on the out side onely.

6 A gold or paler yellow, circled on the inside a little with red, very like the Dutchesse, but that it hath lesse red therein.

7 A gold yellow with red toppes, and may be called, The early Fooles Cap.


[51]

Tulipa de Caffa. The Tulipa of Caffa.

There is another sort or kinde of early Tulipa, differing from the former, whose pale greene leaues being as broad and large as they, and sometimes crumpled or waued at the edges, in some haue the edges onely of the said leaues for a good breadth, of a whitish or whitish yellow colour, and in others, the leaues are lifted or parted with whitish yellow and greene: the stalke riseth not vp so high as the former, and beareth a flower at the toppe like vnto the former, in some of a reddish yellow colour, with a russet coloured ground or bottome, and in others, of other seuerall colours: the seede and roote is so like vnto others of this kinde, that they cannot be distinguished.

There is (as I doe heare) of this kinde, both Præcoces and Serotinæ early flowring, and late flowring, whereof although wee haue not so exact knowledge, as of the rest, yet I thought good to speake so much, as I could hitherto vnderstand of them, and giue others leaue (if I doe not) hereafter to amplifie it.

Tulipa Boloniensis, siue Bombycina flore rubro major. The greater red Bolonia Tulipa.

There are likewise other kindes of early Tulipas to bee spoken of, and first of the red Bolonia Tulipa; the roote whereof is plainly discerned, to be differing from all others: for that it is longer, and not hauing so plaine an eminence at the bottome thereof, as the former and later Tulipas, but more especially because the toppe is plentifully stored with a yellowish silke-like woollinesse: the outside likewise or skinne is of a brighter or paler red, not so easie to be pilled away, and runneth vnder ground both downeright and sidewise (especially in the countrey ground and ayre, where it will encrease aboundantly, but not either in our London ayre, or forc’t grounds) somewhat like vnto the yellow Bolonia Tulipa next following. It shooteth out of the ground with broad and long leaues, like the former; but neither so broad, nor of so white or mealy a greene colour as the former, but more darke then the late flowring Tulipa, so that this may bee easily discerned by his leafe from any other Tulipa aboue the ground, by one that is skilfull. It beareth likewise three or foure leaues vpon the stalke, like the former, and a flower also at the toppe of the same fashion, but that the leaues hereof are alwayes long, and somewhat narrow, hauing a large blacke bottome, made like vnto a cheuerne, the point whereof riseth vp vnto the middle of the leafe, higher then any other Tulipa; the flower is of a pale red colour, nothing so liuely as in the early or late red Tulipas, yet sweeter for the most part then any of them, and neerest vnto the yellow Bolonia Tulipa, which is much about the same sent.

Tulipa pumilio rubra, siue Bergomensis rubra media & minor. The dwarfe red Bergomo Tulipa, a bigger and a lesser.

There are two other sorts hereof, and because they were found about Bergomo, do carry that name, the one bigger or lesser then another, yet neither so great as the former, hauing very little other difference to bee obserued in them, then that they are smaller in all parts of them.

Tulipa Boloniensis flore luteo. The yellow Bolonia Tulipa.

The roote of this Tulipa may likewise bee knowne from the former red (or any other Tulipa) in that it seldome commeth to bee so bigge, and is not so woolly at the toppe, and the skinne or outside is somewhat paler, harder, and sharper pointed: but the bottome is like the former red, and not so eminent as the early or late Tulipas. This beareth much longer and narrower leaues then any (except the Persian & dwarfe yellow Tulipas) and of a whitish greene colour: it beareth sometimes but one flower on a stalke, and sometimes two or three wholly yellow, but smaller, & more open then the other kinds, and (as I said) smelleth sweete, the head for seede is smaller then in others, and hath not that crowne at the head thereof yet the seed is like, but smaller.

[52]

Tulipa Narbonensis, siue Monspeliensis vel pumilio. The French or dwarfe yellow Tulipa.

This Tulipa is very like vnto the yellow Bolonia Tulipa, both in roote, leafe, and flower, as also in the colour thereof, being yellow: the onely difference is, that it is in all things lesser and lower, and is not so apt to beare, nor so plentifull to encrease by the roote.

Tulipa Italica maior & minor. The Italian Tulipa the greater and the lesser.

Both these kindes of Tulipas doe so neere resemble the last kinde, that I might almost say they were the same, but that some difference which I saw in them, maketh mee set them apart; and consisteth in these things, the stalkes of neither of both these rise so high, as of the first yellow Bolonia Tulipa: the leaues of both sorts are writhed in and out at the edges, or made like a waue of the sea, lying neerer the ground, and the flower being yellow within, is brownish or reddish on the backe, in the middle of the three outer leaues the edges appearing yellow. Both these kindes doe differ one from the other in nothing, but in that one is bigger, and the other smaller then the other which I saw with Iohn Tradescante, my very good friend often remembred.

Tulipa Lusitanica, siue pumilio versicolor. The dwarfe stript Tulipa.

This dwarfe Tulipa is also of the same kindred with the three last described; for there is no other difference in this from them, then that the flower hath some red veins running in the leaues thereof.

There are two other sorts of dwarfe Tulipas with white flowers, whereof Lobel hath made mention in the Appendix to his Aduersaria; the one whereof is the same that Clusius setteth forth, vnder the title of Pumilio altera: but because I haue not seen either of them both, I speake no further of them.

Tulipa pumilio alba. The white dwarfe Tulipa.

But that white flower that Iohn Tradescante shewed me, and as hee saith, was deliuered him for a white Pumilio, had a stalke longer then they set out theirs to haue, and the flower also larger, but yet had narrower leaues then other sorts of white Tulipas haue.

Tulipa Bicolor. The small party coloured Tulipa.

Vnto these kindes, I may well adde this kinde of Tulipa also, which was sent out of Italy, whose leaues are small, long, and narrow, and of a darke greene colour, somewhat like vnto the leaues of an Hyacinth: the flower is small also, consisting of sixe leaues, as all other Tulipas doe, three whereof are wholly of a red colour, and the other three wholly of a yellow.

[53]

Page 53: Tulipa.
1Tulipa Bombycina flore rubro. The red Bolonia Tulipa.
2Tulipa Boloniensis flore luteo. The yellow Bolonia Tulipa.
3Tulipa pumilio rubra siue lutea. The red or yellow dwarfe Tulipa.
4Folium Tulipa de Cassa per totum striuatum. The leafe of the Tulipa of Cassa striped throughout the whole leafe.
5Folium Tulipa Cassa per oras striatum. The leafe of the Tulipa of Cassa striped at the edges onely.
6Tulipa Persica. The Persian Tulipa.
7Tulipa Cretica. The Tulipa of Candie.
8Tulipa Armeniaca. The Tulipa of Amenia.

Tulipa Persica. The Persian Tulipa.

This rare Tulipa, wherewith we haue beene but lately acquainted, doth most fitly deserue to be described in this place, because it doth so neerely participate with the Bolonia and Italian Tulipas, in roote, leafe, and flower: the roote hereof is small, couered with a thicke hard blackish shell or skinne, with a yellowish woollinesse both at the toppe, and vnder the shell. It riseth out of the ground at the first, with one very long and small round leafe, which when it is three or foure inches high, doth open it selfe, and shew forth another small leafe (as long almost as the former) breaking out of the one side thereat, and after it a third, and sometimes a fourth, and a fift; but each shorter then other, which afterwards be of the breadth of the dwarfe yellow Tulipa, or somewhat broader but much longer then any other, and abiding more hollow, and of the colour of the early Tulipas on the inside: the stalke riseth vp a foot and a halfe[54] high sometimes, bearing one flower thereon, composed of sixe long and pointed leaues of the forme of other small Tulipas, and not shewing much bigger then the yellow Italian Tulipa, and, is wholly white, both inside and outside of all the leaues, except the three outtermost, which haue on the backe of them, from the middle toward the edges, a shew of a brownish blush or pale red colour, yet deeper in the midst, and the edges remaining wholly white: the bottomes of all these leaues are of a darke or dun tawnie colour, and the chiues and tippes of a darkish purple or tawnie also. This doth beare seed but seldome in our country, that euer I could vnderstand, but when it doth, it is small like vnto the Bolonia or dwarfe yellow Tulipas, being not so plentifull also in parting, or setting of by the roote as they, and neuer groweth nor abideth so great as it is brought vnto vs, and seldome likewise flowreth after the first yeare: for the rootes for the most part with euery one grow lesse and lesse, decaying euery yeare, and so perish for the most part by reason of the frosts and cold, and yet they haue been set deepe to defend them, although of their owne nature they will runne downe deep into the ground.

Tulipa Byzantina duobus floribus Clusij. The small Tulipa of Constantinople.

The small Tulipa of Constantinople, beareth for the most part but two leaues on the stalke, which are faire and broad, almost like vnto the Candy Tulipa, next hereunto to be described: the stalke it selfe riseth not aboue a foote high, bearing sometimes but one flower, but most commonly two thereon, one below another, and are no bigger then the flowers of the yellow Bolonia Tulipa, but differing in colour; for this is on the outside of a purplish colour, mixed with white and greene, and on the inside of a faire blush colour, the bottome and chiues being yellow, and the tippes or pendents blackish: the roote is very like the yellow Bolonia Tulipa.

Tulipa Cretica. The Tulipa of Candie.

This Tulipa is of later knowledge with vs then the Persian, but doth more hardly thriue, in regard of our cold climate; the description whereof, for so much as wee haue knowledge, by the sight of the roote and leafe, and relation from others of the flower, (for I haue not yet heard that it hath very often flowred in our Country) is as followeth. It beareth faire broad leaues, resembling the leaues of a Lilly, of a greenish colour, and not very whitish: the stalke beareth thereon one flower, larger and more open then many other, which is either wholly white, or of a deepe red colour, or else is variably mixed, white with a fine reddish purple, the bottomes being yellow, with purplish chiues tipt with blackish pendents: the roote is small, and somewhat like the dwarfe yellow Tulipa, but somewhat bigger.

Tulipa Armeniaca. The Tulipa of Armenia.

This small Tulipa is much differing from all the former (except the small or dwarfe white Tulipas remembred by Lobel and Clusius, as is before set downe) in that it beareth three or foure small, long, and somewhat narrow greene leaues, altogether at one ioynt or place; the stalke being not high, and naked or without leaues from them to the toppe, where it beareth one small flower like vnto an ordinary red Tulipa, but somewhat more yellow, tending to an Orenge colour with a blacke bottome: the roote is not much bigger then the ordinary yellow Bolonia Tulipa, before set downe.

And these are the sorts of this first Classis of early Tulipas.

Tulipa Media. The meaner or middle flowring Tulipa.

For any other, or further description of this kinde of Tulipa, it shall not neede, hauing giuen it sufficiently in the former early Tulipa, the maine difference consisting first in the time of flowring, which is about a moneth after the early Tulipas, yet some more some lesse; for euen in the Præcoces, or early ones, some flower a little earlier, and later then others, and then in the colours of the flowers; for wee haue obserued many[55] colours, and mixtures, or varieties of colours in the Medias, which we could neuer see in the Præcoces, and so also some in the Præcoces, which are not in the Medias: yet there is farre greater varieties of mixture of colours in these Medias, then hath been obserued in all the Præcoces, (although Clusius saith otherwise) eyther by my selfe, or by any other that I haue conuersed with about this matter, and all this hath happened by the sowing of the seede, as I said before. I will therefore in this place not trouble you with any further circumstance, then to distinguish them, as I haue done in the former early Tulipas, into their foure primary colours, and vnder them, giue you their seuerall varieties and names, for so much as hath come to my knowledge, not doubting, but that many that haue trauelled in the sowing of the seed of Tulipas many yeares, may obserue each of them to haue some variety that others haue not: and therefore I thinke no one man can come to the knowledge of all particular distinctions.


Tulipa media alba.

1 Niuea, fundo albo vel luteo.

2 Argentea, quasi alba cineracea fundo lutescente, purpureis staminibus.

3 Margaritina alba, carneo dilutissima.

4 Alba, fundo cæruleo vel nigro.

5 Albida.

6 Alba, oris rubris. ⎧Hæc tria genera
⎪in aliquibus
⎨constanter
⎪tenent oras, in
⎩alijs dispergunt.

7 Alba, purpureis oris.

8 Alba, oris coccineis.

9 Albida primum, deinde albidior, oris purpureis, & venis intrò respicientibus, dicta nobis Hackquenay.

10 Alba, sanguineo colore variata, fundo vel albissimo, vel alio.

11 Alba, radiatim disposita flammis, & maculis coccineis.

12 Alba, purpurea rubedine plumata, diuersarum specierum, quæ cum superiore, vel albo, vel luteo, vel paruo cæruleo constant fundo, quæ constanter tenent punctatos colores, & non dispergunt, sed post trium aut quatuor dierum spatium pulchriores apparent.

13 Panni argentei coloris, i.e. alba, plumata, punctata, striata, vel diuersimodè variata, rubedine dilutiore, vel saturatiore purpurea, interius vel exterius, vel vtrinq., diuersarum specierum.

14 Tunica morionis alba varia, i.e. ex albo & purpureo striata diuersimodè, fundo albo vel alio.

15 Holias alba vel albida, absq., fundo, vel fundo purpureo cæruleo, vel cæruleo albo circundato, diuersè signata, vel variata intus ad medietatem foliorum, sursum in orbem vt plurimum, vel ad oras pertingens amplas & albas. Hæ species tantoperè multiplicantur, vt vix sint explicabiles.

Tanta est huius varietas, vel multitudine,[56] vel striarum paucitate & distinctione, vel fundis variantibus, vt ad tædium esset perscribere.



The white meane flowring Tulipa.

1 A snow white, with a white or yellow bottome.

2 A siluer colour, that is, a very pale or whitish ashe colour, with a yellowish bottome and purple chiues.

3 A Pearle colour, that is, white, with a wash or shew of blush.

4 A white, with a blew or blacke bottome.

5 A Creame colour.

6 A white, with red edges. ⎧These three sorts
⎪doe hold their
⎨edges constant
⎪in some, but well
⎩spread in others.

7 A white, with purple edges.

8 A white, with crimson edges.

9 A pale or whitish yellow, which after a few dayes groweth more white, with purplish red edges, and some streakes running inward from the edge, which we call an Hackney.

10 A white mixed with a bloud red very variably, and with a pure white, or other coloured bottome.

11 A white, streamed with crimson flames, and spots through the whole flower.

12 A white, speckled with a reddish purple, more or lesse, of diuers sorts, with white, yellow, or blew bottomes, all which doe hold their markes constant, and doe not spread their colours, but shew fairer after they haue stood blown three or foure dayes.

13 A cloth of siluer of diuers sorts, that is, a white spotted, striped, or otherwise marked with red or purple, in some paler, in some deeper, either on the inside, or on the outside, or on both.

14 A white Fooles coate of diuers sorts, that is, purple or pale crimson, and white, as it were empaled together, eyther with a white ground or other, whereof there is great variety.

15 A white Holias, that is, a faire white, or paler white, eyther without a bottome, or with a blewish purple bottome, or blew and white circling the bottome,and from the middle vpwards, speckled and straked on the inside for the most part, with bloud red or purplish spots and lines vnto the very edges, which abide large and white. Of this kinde there are found very great varieties, not to be expressed.

Of this sort there is so much variety, some being larger or fairer marked then others, their bottomes also varying, that it is almost impossible to express them.


Tulipa media purpurea.

1 Purpurea satura.

2 Purpurea dilutior, diuersarum specierum, quarum Rosea vna, Carnea sit altera.

3 Persicicoloris, duarum aut trium specierum.

4 Chermesina, obscura aut pallida.

5 Stamela, intensior aut remissior.

6 Xerampelina.

7 Purpurea, striata.

8 Persici saturi, vel diluti coloris, vndulata, vel radiata.

9 Columbina, oris & radijs albis.

10 Purpurea rubra, oris, albis, similis Præcoci, dicta Princeps.

11 Chermesina, vel Heluola, lineis albis in medio, & versus oras, fundo cæruleo, vel albo, itemq., albo orbe.

12 Purpurea remissior, aut intensior, oris albis, paruis aut magnis, vt in Principe præcoci, fundo vel cæruleo, orbe albo, vel albo orbe cæruleo amplo.

13 Holias Heluola, sanguineis guttis intus à medio sursum in orbem, fundo cæruleo.

14 Tunica Morionis purpurea rubra satura, albido striata, quam in alba saturatior, fundo ex cæruleo & albo.

15 Purpurea rubra satura vel diluta, albo vel albedine, punctata vel striata diuersimodè, dicta Cariophyllata.



The meane flowring purple Tulipa.

1 A faire deep purple.

2 A paler purple, of many sorts, whereof a Rose colour is one, a Blush another.

3 A Peach colour of two or three sorts.

4 A Crimson, deepe, or pale.

5 A Stamell, darke or light.

6 A Murrey.

7 A purple, stript and spotted.

8 A Peach colour, higher or paler, waued or stript.

9 A Doue colour, edged and straked with white.

10 A faire red purple, with white edges, like vnto the early Tulipa, called a Prince.

11 A faire crimson, or Claret wine colour, with white lines both in the middle, and towards the edges, most haue a blew bottome, yet some are white, or circled with white.

12 A light or deepe purple, with white edges, greater or smaller, like the early Prince, the bottomes eyther blew circled with white, or white circled with a large blew.

13 A purple Holias, the colour of a pale Claret wine, marked and spotted with bloud red spots, round about the middle of each leafe vpward on the inside onely, the bottome being blew.

14 A Crimson Fooles Coate, a darke crimson, and pale white empaled together, differing from the white Fooles Coate, the bottome blew and white.

15 A deeper or paler reddish purple, spotted or striped with a paler or purer white, of diuers sorts, called the Gilloflower Tulipa.


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Page 57: Tulipa.
1Tulipa rubra & lutea varia. The Fooles Coate red and yellow.
2Tulipa Holeas alba absq. fundo. The white Holeas without a bottome.
3Tulipa argentea, vel punctata, &c. The cloth of siluer, or other spotted Tulipa.
4Tulipa alba flammis coccineis. The white Fooles Coate.
5Tulipa Holeas alba, &c. fundo purpureo, &c. A white Holeas, &c. with a purple bottome, &c.
6Tulipa rubra & lutea flammea, &c. A red and yellow flamed Tulipa, &c.
7Tulipa alba striata & punctata. A white striped and spotted Tulipa.
8Tulipa altera variata, &c. Another variable Tulipa.

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Tulipa media rubra.

1 Rubra communis, fundo luteo, vel nigro.

2 Mali Aurantij coloris.

3 Cinabaris coloris.

4 Lateritij coloris.

5 Rubra, luteo aspersa.

6 Rubra, oris luteis.

7 Testamentum Brancion rubra satura, oris pallidis, diuersarum specierum, rubore variantium, & orarum amplitudine.

8 Cinabaris radiata, magis aut minus serotina.

9 Rubra purpurascens obsoleta exterioribus folijs, perfusa luteo intus, oris pallidis luteis.

10 Rubra purpurascens elegans extra & intus lutescens, oris pallidis luteis, fundo luteo vel viridi.

11 Rubra flambans coccinea, crebris maculis luteis absq. fundo.

12 Flambans elegantior rubra, i.e. radijs luteis intercursantibus ruborem.

13 Flambans remissior vtroq. colore.

14 Panni aurei coloris.

15 Tunica Morionis verior, seu Palto du Sot. optima, tænijs amplis amœnis & crebris, exrubro & flauo separatim diuisis & excurrentibus, flos constans.

16 Tunica Morionis altera, tænijs minoribus & minus frequentibus, magis aut minus alia alijs inconstans.

17 Tunica Morionis pallida, i. e. tænijs vel strijs frequentioribus in vtroq. colore pallidis, flos est constans & elegans.

18 Pileus Morionis, radijs luteis, in medio foliorum latis, per ruborem excurrentibus, fundo luteo, apicibus luteis, & tribus exterioribus folijs luteis oris rubris, vel absq. oris.

19 Le Suisse, tænijs radiata magnis ex rubore & pallore.

20 Altera dicta Goliah à floris magnitudine, tænijs radiata simillima le Suisse, nisi rubor & albedo sint elegantiores.

21 Holias rubra, i.e. sanguinea argenteis radijs, & guttis in orbem dispositis, præsertim interiùs, fundo viridi saturo.

22 Holias coccinea, rubra coccinea, albo radiata in orbem, circa medium foliorum interiùs, fundo albo.

23 Alia huic similis, fundo albo & cæruleo.



The meane flowring red Tulipa.

1 A faire red which is ordinary, with a yellow or blacke bottome.

2 A deepe Orenge colour.

3 A Vermillion.

4 A pale red, or Bricke colour.

5 A Gingeline colour.

6 A red with small yellow edges.

7 A Testament Brancion of diuers sorts, differing both in the deepnesse of the red, and largenesse of the pale coloured edges.

8 A Vermillion flamed, flowring later or earlier.

9 A dead purplish red without, and of a yellowish red within, with pale yellow edges.

10 A bright Crimson red on the outside, more yellowish on the inside, with pale yellow edges, and a bottome yellow or greene.

11 A red Flambant, spotted thicke with yellow spots without any bottome.

12 A more excellent red Flambant, with flames of yellow running through the red.

13 A pale coloured Flambant.

14 A cloth of gold colour.

15 A true Fooles Coate, the best is a faire red & a faire yellow, parted into guards euery one apart, varied through euery leafe to the very edge, yet in most abiding constant.

16 Another Fooles Coate, not so fairely marked, nor so much, some of these are more or lesse constant in their marks, & some more variable then others.

17 A pale Fooles Coate, that is, with pale red, and pale yellow guardes or stripes very faire and constant.

18 A Fooles Cappe, that is, with lists or stripes of yellow running through the middle of euery leafe of the red, broader at the bottome then aboue, the bottome being yellow, the three outer leaues being yellow with red edges, or without.

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19 A Swisse, pained with a faire red and pale white or strawe colour.

20 A Goliah, so called of the bignesse of the flower, most like to the Swisse in the marks and guardes, but that the red and white is more liuely.

21 A red Holias. A bloud red stript with siluer white veines and spots, with a darke green bottome.

22 A Crimson red Holias, that is, a faire purplish red, spotted with white circlewise about the middle of the inner leaues, and a white bottome.

23 Another like thereunto, with a blew and white bottome.


Page 59: Tulipa.
1Tulipa tricolor. A Tulipa of three colours.
2Tulipa Macedonica, siue de Caffa varia. The Tulipa of Caffa purple, with pale white stripes.
3Tulipa Heluola chermesina versicolor. A pure Claret wine colour variable.
4Tulipa Caryophyllata Wilmeri. Mr. Wilmers Gilloflower Tulipa.
5Tulipa Chermesina flammis albis. A Crimson with white flames.
6Tulipa Goliah. A kind of Zwisser called Goliah.
7Tulipa le Zwisse. A Tulipa called the Zwisser.
8Tulipa alba flammis coccineis. Another white Flambant or Fooles Coate.
9Tulipa Cinnabarina albo flammata. The Vermillion flamed.
10Tulipa plumata rubra & lutea. The feathered Tulipa red and yellow.

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Tulipa media lutea.

1 Lutea, siue Aurea vulgaris.

2 Straminea.

3 Sulphurea.

4 Mali Aurantij pallidi coloris.

5 Lutea dilutè purpurea striata, aurei panni pallidi instar.

6 Pallidè lutea fuscedine adumbrata.

7 Flaua, oris rubris magnis, aut paruis.

8 Straminea oris rubris magnis intensis, vel paruis remissis.

9 Obscura & fuliginosa lutea, instar Folij decidui, ideoq. Folium mortuum appellatur.

10 Flaua, rubore perfusa, etiamque striata per totum, dorso coccineo, oris pallidis.

11 Pallidè lutea, perfusa & magis aut minus rubore striata, fundo vel luteo, vel viridi.

12 Testamentum Clusij, i.e. lutea pallida fuligine obfusca, exteriùs & interiùs ad oras vsq. pallidas, per totum vero floris medium, maculis interiùs aspersa instar omnium aliarum Holias, dorso obscuriore, fundo viridi.

13 Flambans lutea, diuersimodè intus magis aut minus striata, vel in alijs extra maculata rubore, fundo vt plurimum nigro, vel in alijs luteo.

14 Flambans pallidior & elegantior.

15 Holias lutea intensior vel remissior diuersimodè, in orbem radiata interius, rubris maculis ad supremas vsq. oras, aliquoties crebrè, aliàs parcè, fundo viridi, vel tanetto obscuro.

16 Holias straminea rubore striata & punctata, instar alba Holias.

17 Tunica Morionis lutea, alijs dicta Flammea, in qua color flavus magis & conspicuus rubore, diuersimodè radiata.

Huc reddenda esset viridarum Tuliparum classis, quæ diuersarum etiam constat specierum. Vna viridis intensior cuius flos semper ferè semiclausus manet staminibus simbriatis. Altera remissior, instar Psittacipennarum viridium, luteo variata oris albis. Tertia adhuc dilutiori viriditate oris purpureis. Quarta, cujus folia æqualiter purpura diluta, & viriditate diuisa sunt. Quinta, folijs longissimis stellæmodo expansis, ex rubore & viriditate coacta.



The meane flowring yellow Tulipa.

1 A faire gold yellow.

2 A Strawe colour.

3 A Brimstone colour pale yellowish greene.

4 A pale Orenge colour.

5 A pale cloth of gold colour.

6 A Custard colour a pale yellow shadowed ouer with a browne.

7 A gold yellow with red edges, greater or smaller.

8 A Strawe colour with red edges, deeper or paler, greater or smaller.

9 A sullen or smoakie yellow, like a dead leafe that is fallen, and therefore called, Fucille mort.

10 A yellow shadowed with red, and striped also through all the leaues, the backside of them being of a red crimson, and the edges pale.

11 A pale yellow, shadowed and striped with red, in some more in some lesse, the bottomes being either yellow or green.

12 A Testamentum Clusij, that is, a shadowed pale yellow, both within & without, spotted round about the middle on the inside, as all other Holias are, the backe of the leaues being more obscure or shadowed with pale yellow edges, and a greene bottome.

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13 A yellow Flambant of diuers sorts, that is, the whole flower more or lesse streamed or spotted on the inside, and in some on the outside with red, the bottome in most being blacke, yet in some yellow.

14 A paler yellow Flambant more beautifull.

15 A yellow Holias, paler or deeper yellow very variable, spotted on the inside round about the middle, with red sometimes plentifully, or else sparingly with a green or dark tawny bottome.

16 A strawe coloured Holias, spotted and streamed with red, as is to bee seene in the white Holias.

17 A yellow Fooles coate, of some called a flame colour, wherein the yellow is more then the red, diuersly streamed.

Vnto these may be added the greene Tulipa which is also of diuers sorts. One hauing a great flower of a deepe green colour, seldome opening it selfe, but abiding alwaies as it were halfe shut vp and closed, the chiues being as it were feathered. Another of a paler or yellowish green, paned with yellow, and is called, The Parret, &c. with white edges. A third of a more yellowish green, with red or purplish edges. A fourth, hath the leaues of the flower equally almost parted, with greene and a light purple colour, which abiding a long time in flower, groweth in time to be fairer marked: for at the first it doth not shew it selfe so plainely diuided. Some call this a greene Swisser. A fifth hath the longest leaues standing like a starre, consisting of greene and purple.


Tulipa Serotina. The late flowring Tulipa.

The late flowring Tulipa hath had his description expressed in the precedent discourse, so that I shall not neede to make a repetition of what hath already beene set downe. The greatest matter of knowledge in this kinde is this, That it hath no such plentifull variety of colours or mixtures in his flowers, as are in the two former sorts, but is confined within these limits here expressed, as farre as hath come to our knowledge.


Tulipa Serotina.

Rosea intensior, aut remissior.

Rubra vulgaris, aut saturatior, & quasi nigricans, fundo luteo vel nigro orbe, aureo incluso, dicta Oculus Solis.

Lutea communis.

Lutea oris rubris.

Lutea guttis sanguineis, fundo nigro vel vario.



The late flowring Tulipa.

A Rose Colour deeper or paler.

An ordinary red, or else a deeper red like blacke bloud, with a blacke or yellow bottome, or blacke circled with yellow, called the Suns eye.

An ordinary yellow.

A yellow with red edges.

A yellow with red spots and veines, the bottome black or discoloured.


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There yet remaine many obseruations, concerning these beautifull flowers, fit to be knowne, which could not, without too much prolixity, be comprehended within the body of the description of them; but are reserued to bee intreated of a part by themselues.

All sorts of Tulipas beare vsually but one stalke, and that without any branches: but sometimes nature is so plentifull in bearing, that it hath two or three stalkes, and sometimes two, or more branches out of one stalke (euery stalke or branch bearing one flower at the toppe) but this is but seldome seene; and when it doth happen once, it is hardly seene againe in the same roote, but is a great signe, that the roote that doth thus, being an old roote, will the same yeare part into diuers rootes, whereof euery one, being of a reasonable greatnesse, will beare both his stalke and flower the next yeare, agreeing with the mother plant in colour, as all the of-sets of Tulipas doe for the most part: for although the young of-sets of some doe vary from the maine roote, euen while it groweth with them, yet being separated, it will bee of the same colour with the mother plant.

There groweth oftentimes in the Medias, and sometimes also in the Præcoces, but more seldome, a small bulbe or roote, hard aboue the ground, at the bottome of the stalke, and betweene it and the lower leafe, which when the stalke is dry, and it ripe, being put into the ground, will bring forth in time a flower like vnto the mother plant, from whence it was taken.

The flowers also of Tulipas consist most commonly of sixe leaues, but sometimes they are seene to haue eight or tenne, or more leaues; but vsually, those rootes beare but their ordinary number of sixe leaues the next yeare: the head for seede then, is for the most part foure square, which at all other times is but three square, or when the flower wanteth a leafe or two, as sometimes also it doth, it then is flat, hauing but two sides.

The forme of the flower is also very variable; for the leaues of some Tulipas are all sharpe pointed, or all blunt and round pointed, and many haue the three outer leaues sharpe pointed, and the three inner round or pointed, and some contrariwise, the three outermost round pointed, and the three inner sharpe pointed. Againe, some haue all the leaues of the flowers long and narrow, and some haue them broader and shorter. Some Præcoces also haue their flowers very large and great, equall vnto eyther the Media, or Serotina, which most commonly are the largest, and others haue them as small as the Bolonia Tulipa.

The bottomes of the leaues of the flowers are also variably diuersified, and so are both the chiues or threeds that stand vp about the head, and the tips or pendents that are hanging loose on the toppes of them; and by the difference of the bottomes or chiues, many flowers are distinguished, which else are very like in colour, and alike also marked.

For the smell also there is some diuersity; for that the flowers of some are very sweete, of others nothing at all, and some betweene both, of a small sent, but not offensiue: and yet some I haue obserued haue had a strong ill sent; but how to shew you to distinguish them, more then by your owne sense, I cannot: for the seedes of sweete smelling Tulipas doe not follow their mother plant, no more then they doe in the colour.

And lastly, take this, which is not the least obseruation, worth the noting, that I haue obserued in many: When they haue beene of one entire colour for diuers yeares, yet in some yeare they haue altered very much, as if it had not beene the same, viz. from a purple or stamell, it hath beene variably either parted, or mixed, or striped with white, eyther in part, or through the whole flower, and so in a red or yellow flower, that it hath had eyther red or yellow edges, or yellow or red spots, lines, veines, or flames, running through the red or yellow colour, and sometimes it hath happened, that three leaues haue been equally parted in the middle with red yellow, the other three abiding of one colour, and in some the red had some yellow in it, and the yellow some red spots in it also; whereof I haue obserued, that all such flowers, not hauing their originall in that manner, (for some that haue such or the like markes from the beginning, that is, from the first and second yeares flowring, are constant, and doe not change) but as I said, were of one colour at the first, doe shew the[63] weaknesse and decay of the roote, and that this extraordinary beauty in the flower, is but as the brightnesse of a light, vpon the very extinguishing thereof, and doth plainly declare, that it can doe his Master no more seruice, and therefore with this iollity doth bid him good night. I know there is a common opinion among many (and very confidently maintained) that a Tulipa with a white flower, hath changed to beare a red or yellow, and so of the red or yellow, and other colours, that they are likewise inconstant, as though no flowers were certaine: but I could neuer either see or heare for certaine any such alteration, nor any other variation, but what is formerly expressed. Let not therefore any iudicious be carried away with any such idle conceit, but rather suspect some deceit in their Gardeners or others, by taking vp one, and putting in another in the place, or else their owne mistaking.

Now for the sowing, planting, transplanting, choise, and ordering of Tulipas, which is not the least of regard, concerning this subiect in hand, but (as I think) would be willingly entertained; What I haue by my best endeauours learned, by mine owne paines in almost forty yeares trauell, or from others informations, I am willing here to set downe; not doubting, but that some may adde what hath not come to my knowledge.

First, in the sowing of seedes of Tulipas, I haue not obserued (whatsoeuer others haue written) nor could of certainty learne of others, that there doth arise from the seedes of Præcoces any Medias or Serotine Tulipas, (or but very seldome) nor am certainly assured of any: but that the seedes of all Præcoces (so they be not doubtfull, or of the last flowring sorts) will bring Præcoces: And I am out of doubt, that I neuer saw, nor could learne, that euer the seede of the Medias or Serotines haue giuen Præcoces; but Medias or Serotines, according to their naturall kinde. But if there should bee any degeneration, I rather incline to thinke, that it sooner commeth to passe (à meliore ad pelus, for facilis est descensus, that is) that Præcoces may giue Medias, then that Medias or Serotines should giue Præcoces.

For the choise of your seede to sowe. First, for the Præcoces, Clusius saith, that the Præcox Tulipa, that beareth a white flower, is the best to giue the greatest variety of colours. Some among vs haue reported, that they haue found great variety rise from the seede of the red Præcox, which I can more hardly beleeue: but Clusius his experience hath the greater probability, but especially if it haue some mixture of red or purple in it. The purple I haue found to be the best, next thereunto is the purple with white edges, and so likewise the red with yellow edges, each of them will bring most of their owne colours. Then the choise of the best Medias, is to take those colours that are light, rather white then yellow, and purple then red; yea white, not yellow, purple, not red: but these againe to be spotted is the best, and the more the better; but withall, or aboue all in these, respect the ground or bottome of the flower, (which in the Præcox Tulipa cannot, because you shall seldome see any other ground in them but yellow) for if the flower be white, or whitish, spotted, or edged, and straked, and the bottome blew or purple (such as is found in the Holias, and in the Cloth of siluer), this is beyond all other the most excellent, and out of question the choisest of an hundred, to haue the greatest and most pleasant variety and rarity. And so in degree, the meaner, in beauty you sowe, the lesser shall your pleasure in rarities be. Bestowe not your time in sowing red or yellow Tulipa seede, or the diuers mixtures of them; for they will (as I haue found by experience) seldome be worth your paines. The Serotina, or late flowring Tulipa, because it is seldome seene, with any especiall beautifull variety, you may easily your selues ghesse that it can bring forth (euen as I haue also learned) no raritie, and little or no diuersity at all.

The time and manner to sowe these seedes is next to be considered. You may not sowe them in the spring of the yeare, if you hope to haue any good of them; but in the Autumne, or presently after they be thorough ripe and dry: yet if you sowe them not vntill the end of October, they will come forward neuer the worse, but rather the better; for it is often seene, that ouer early sowing causeth them to spring out of the ground ouer early, so that if a sharp spring chance, to follow, it may go neere to spoile all, or the most of your seede. Wee vsually sowe the same yeares seede, yet if you chance to keepe of your owne, or haue from others such seed, as is two years old, they will thriue and doe well enough especially if they were ripe and well gathered:[64] You must not sowe them too thicke, for so doing hath lost many a pecke of good seede, as I can tell; for if the seede lye one vpon another, that it hath not roome vpon the sprouting, to enter and take roote in the earth, it perisheth by and by. Some vse to tread downe the ground, where they meane to sowe their seede, and hauing sowne them thereon, doe couer them ouer the thicknesse of a mans thumbe with fine sifted earth, and they thinke they doe well, and haue good reason for it: for considering the nature of the young Tulipa rootes, is to runne downe deeper into the ground, euery yeare more then other, they thinke to hinder their quicke descent by the fastnesse of the ground, that so they may encrease the better. This way may please some, but I doe not vse it, nor can finde the reason sufficient; for they doe not consider, that the stiffenesse of the earth, doth cause the rootes of the young Tulipas to bee long before they grow great, in that a stiffe ground doth more hinder the well thriuing of the rootes, then a loose doth, and although the rootes doe runne downe deeper in a loose earth, yet they may easily by transplanting be holpen, and raised vp high enough. I haue also seene some Tulipas not once remoued from their sowing to their flowring; but if you will not lose them, you must take them vp while their leafe or stalk is fresh, and not withered: for if you doe not follow the stalke downe to the roote, be it neuer so deepe, you will leaue them behinde you. The ground also must be respected; for the finer, softer, and richer the mould is, wherein you sowe your seede, the greater shall be your encrease and varietie: Sift it therefore from all stones and rubbish, and let it be either fat naturall ground of it selfe, or being muckt, that it bee thoroughly rotten: but some I know, to mend their ground, doe make such a mixture of grounds, that they marre it in the making.

After the seede is thus sowne, the first yeares springing bringeth forth leaues, little bigger then the ordinary grasse leaues; the second yeare bigger, and so by degrees euery yeare bigger then other. The leaues of the Præcoces while they are young, may be discerned from the Medias by this note, which I haue obserued. The leaues of them doe wholly stand vp aboue the ground, shewing the small footstalkes, whereby euerie leafe doth stand, but the leaues of the Medias or Serotines doe neuer wholly appeare out of the ground, but the lower part which is broad, abideth vnder the vpper face of the earth. Those Tulipas now growing to bee three yeares old, (yet some at the second, if the ground and ayre be correspondent) are to bee taken vp out of the ground, wherein yee shall finde they haue runne deepe, and to be anew planted, after they haue been a little dryed and cleansed, eyther in the same, or another ground againe, placing them reasonable neare one vnto another, according to their greatnesse, which being planted and couered ouer with earth againe, of about an inch or two thicknesse, may be left vntaken vp againe for two yeare longer, if you will, or else remoued euery yeare after, as you please; and thus by transplanting them in their due season (which is still in the end of Iuly, or beginning of August, or thereabouts) you shall according to your seede and soyle, haue some come to bearing, in the fifth yeare after the flowring, (and some haue had them in the fourth, but that hath beene but few, and none of the best, or in a rich ground) some in the sixth and seuenth, and some peraduenture, not vntill the eighth or tenth yeare: but still remember, that as your rootes grow greater, that in re-planting you giue them the more roome to be distant one from another, or else the one will hinder, if not rot the other.

The seede of the Præcoces doe not thriue and come forward so fast as the Medias or Serotines, nor doe giue any of-sets in their running downe as the Medias doe, which vsually leaue a small roote at the head of the other that is runne downe euery yeare; and besides, are more tender, and require more care and attendance then the Medias, and therefore they are the more respected.

This is a generall and certaine rule in all Tulipas, that all the while they beare but one leafe, they will not beare flower, whether they bee seedlings, or the of-sets of elder rootes, or the rootes themselues, that haue heretofore borne flowers; but when they shew a second leafe, breaking out of the first, it is a certaine signe, that it will then beare a flower, vnlesse some casualty hinder it, as frost or raine, to nip or spoile the bud, or other vntimely accident befall it.

To set or plant your best and bearing Tulipas somewhat deeper then other rootes, I hold it the best way; for if the ground bee either cold, or lye too open to the cold[65] Northerne ayre, they will be the better defended therein, and not suffer the frosts or cold to pierce them so soone: for the deepe frosts and snowes doe pinch the Præcoces chiefly, if they bee too neare the vppermost crust of the earth; and therefore many, with good successe, couer ouer their ground before Winter, with either fresh or old rotten dung, and that will maruellously preserue them. The like course you may hold with seedlings, to cause them to come on the forwarder, so it bee after the first yeares sowing, and not till then.

To remoue Tulipas after they haue shot forth their fibres or small strings, which grow vnder the great round rootes, (that is, from September vntill they bee in flower) is very dangerous; for by remouing them when they haue taken fast hold in the ground, you doe both hinder them in the bearing out their flower, and besides, put them in hazzard to perish, at least to bee put backe from bearing for a while after, as oftentimes I haue proued by experience: But when they are now risen to flower, and so for any time after, you may safely take them vp if you will, and remoue them without danger, if you haue any good regard vnto them, vnlesse it be a young bearing roote, which you shall in so doing much hinder, because it is yet tender, by reason it now beareth his first flower. But all Tulipa roots when their stalke and leaues are dry, may most safely then be taken vp out of the ground, and be so kept (so that they lye in a dry, and not in a moist place) for sixe moneths without any great harme: yea I haue knowne them that haue had them nine moneths out of the ground, and haue done reasonable well, but this you must vnderstand withall, that they haue not been young but elder rootes, and they haue been orderly taken vp and preserued. The dryer you keep a Tulipa roote the better, so as you let it not lye in the sunne or winde, which will pierce it and spoile it.

Thus Gentlewomen for your delights, (for these pleasures are the delights of leasure, which hath bred your loue & liking to them, and although you are herein predominant, yet cannot they be barred from your beloued, who I doubt not, wil share with you in the delight as much as is fit) haue I taken this paines, to set downe, and bring to your knowledge such rules of art, as my small skill hath enabled mee withall concerning this subiect, which of all other, seemed fittest in this manner to be enlarged, both for the varietie of matter, and excellency of beautie herein, and also that these rules set forth together in one place, might saue many repetitions in other places, so that for the planting and ordering of all other bulbous rootes, and the sowing the seedes of them, you may haue recourse vnto these rules, (tanquam ad normam & examen) which may serue in generall for all other, little diuersitie of particulars needing exception.

The Place.

The greater Tulipas haue first beene sent vs from Constantinople, and other parts of Turkie, where it is said they grow naturally wilde in the Fields, Woods, and Mountaines; as Thracia, Macedonia, Pontus about the Euxine Sea, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and about Tripolis and Aleppo in Syria also: the lesser haue come from other seuerall places, as their names doe decipher it out vnto vs; as Armenia, Persia, Candye, Portugall, Spaine, Italy, and France. They are all now made denizens in our Gardens, where they yeeld vs more delight, and more encrease for their proportion, by reason of the culture, then they did vnto their owne naturals.

The Time.

These doe flower some earlier, some later, for three whole moneths together at the least, therein adorning out a Garden most gloriously, in that being but one kinde of flower, it is so full of variety, as no other (except the Daffodils, which yet are not comparable, in that they yield not that alluring pleasant variety) doe the like besides. Some of the Præcoces haue beene in flower with vs, (for I speake not of their owne naturall places, where the Winters are milder, and the Spring, earlier then ours) in the moneth of Ianuary, when the Winter before hath beene milde, but many in February,[66] and all the Præcoces, from the beginning to the end of March, if the yeare be kindly: at what time the Medias doe begin, and abide all Aprill, and part of May, when the Serotines flower and fade; but this, as I said, if the yeare be kindly, or else each kinde will be a moneth later. The seede is ripe in Iune and Iuly, according to their early or late flowring.

The Names.

There haue beene diuers opinions among our moderne Writers, by what name this plant was knowne to the ancient Authors. Some would haue it be Cosmosandatos, of the Ancient. Dodonæus referreth it to πυπῶν of Theophrastus, in his seuenth Booke and thirteenth Chapter: but thereof he is so briefe, that besides the bare name, wee cannot finde him to make any further relation of forme, or quality. And Bauhinus, vpon Matthiolus Commentaries of Dioscorides, and in his Pinax also, followeth his opinion. Camerarius in his Hortus Medicus is of opinion, it may be referred to the Helychrysum of Crateua. Gesner, as I thinke, first of all, and after him Lobel, Camerarius, Clusius and many others, referre it to the Satyrium of Dioscorides: and surely this opinion is the most probable for many reasons. First, for that this plant doth grow very frequent in many places of Greece, and the lesser Asia, which were no doubt sufficiently knowne both to Theophrastus, and Dioscorides, and was accounted among bulbous rootes, although by sundry names. And secondly, as Dioscorides setteth forth his Satyrium, so this most commonly beareth three leaues vpon a stalke (although sometimes with vs it hath foure or fiue) like vnto a Lilly, whereof some are often seen to be both red, in the first springing, and also vpon the decaying, especially in a dry time, and in a dry ground: the flower likewise of some is white, and like a Lilly; the roote is round, and as white within as the white of an egge, couered with a browne coate, hauing a sweetish, but not vnpleasant taste, as any man without danger many try. This description doth so liuely set forth this plant, that I thinke wee shall not neede to be any longer in doubt, where to finde Dioscorides his Satyrium Triphyllum, seeing wee haue such plenty growing with vs. And thirdly, there is no doubt, but that it hath the same qualities, as you shall hereafter heare further. And lastly, that plant likewise that beareth a red flower, may very well agree with his Erythronium; for the descriptions in Dioscorides are both alike, as are their qualities, the greatest doubt may be in the seede, which yet may agree vnto Lin or Flaxe as fitly, or rather more then many other plants doe, in many of his comparisons, which yet wee receiue for currant. For the seede of Tulipas are flat, hard, and shining as the seede of Linum or Flaxe, although of another colour, and bigger, as Dioscorides himselfe setteth it downe. But if there should be a mistaking in the writing of λὶνου for κρὶνου or λεῖριου in the Greeke Text, as the slippe is both easie and likely, it were then out of all question the same: for the seede is very like vnto the seede of Lillies, as any man may easily discerne that know them, or will compare them. It is generally called by all the late Writers, Tulipa, which is deriued from the name Tulpan, whereby the Turkes of Dalmatia doe entitle their head Tyres, or Caps; and this flower being blowne, laide open, and inuerted, doth very well resemble them. We haue receiued the early kinde from Constantinople, by the name of Cafa lale, and the other by the name of Cauala lale. Lobel and others doe call it Lilio-narcissus, because it doth resemble a Lilly in the leafe, flower, and seede, and a Daffodil in the roote. We call it in English the Turkes Cap, but most vsually Tulipa, as most other Christian Countries that delight therein doe. Daleschampius calleth it Oulada.

The Vertues.

Dioscorides writeth, that his first Satyrium is profitable for them that [67]haue a convulsion in their necke, (which wee call a cricke in the necke) if it be drunke in harsh (which we call red) wine.

That the roots of Tulipas are nourishing, there is no doubt, the pleasant, or at least the no vnpleasant taste, may hereunto perswade; for diuers haue had them sent by their friends from beyond Sea, and mistaking them to bee Onions, haue vsed them as Onions in their pottage or broth, and neuer found any cause of mislike, or any sense of euill quality produced by them, but accounted them sweete Onions.

Further, I haue made tryall of them my selfe in this manner. I haue preserued the rootes of these Tulipas in Sugar, as I haue done the rootes of Eringus, Orchis, or any other such like, and haue found them to be almost as pleasant as the Eringus rootes, being firme and sound, fit to be presented to the curious; but for force of Venereous quality, I cannot say, either from my selfe, not hauing eaten many, or from any other, on whom I haue bestowed them: but surely, if there be any speciall propertie in the rootes of Orchis, or some other tending to that purpose, I thinke this may as well haue it as they. It should seeme, that Dioscorides doth attribute a great Venereous faculty to the seede, whereof I know not any hath made any especiall experiment with vs as yet.


Chap. IX.
Narcissus. The Daffodill.

There hath beene great confusion among many of our moderne Writers of plants, in not distinguishing the manifold varieties of Daffodils; for euery one almost, without consideration of kinde or forme, or other speciall note, giueth names so diuersly one from another, that if any one shall receiue from seuerall places the Catalogues of their names (as I haue had many) as they set them down, and compare the one Catalogue with the other, he shall scarce haue three names in a dozen to agree together, one calling that by one name, which another calleth by another, that very few can tell what they meane. And this their confusion, in not distinguishing the name of Narcissus from Pseudonarcissus, is of all other in this kinde the greatest and grossest errour. To auoide therefore that gulfe, whereof I complaine that so manie haue bin endrenched; and to reduce the Daffodils into such a methodicall order, that euery one may know, to what Classis or forme any one doth appertaine, I will first diuide them into two principall or primary kindes: that is, into Narcissos, true Daffodils, and Pseudonarcissos, bastard Daffodils: which distinction I hold to be most necessarie to be set downe first of all, that euery one may be named without confusion vnder his owne primary kind, and then to let the other parts of the subdiuision follow, as is proper to them, and fittest to expresse them. Now to cause you to vnderstand the difference betweene a true Daffodill and a false, is this; it consisteth onely in the flower, (when as in all other parts they cannot bee distinguished) and chiefly in the middle cup or chalice; for that we doe in a manner onely account those to bee Pseudonarcissos, bastard Daffodils, whose middle cup is altogether as long, and sometime a little longer then the outter leaues that doe encompasse it, so that it seemeth rather like a trunke or long nose, then a cup or chalice, such as almost all the Narcissi, or true Daffodils haue; I say almost, because I know that some of them haue their middle cup so small, that we rather call it a crowne then a cup; and againe, some of them haue them so long, that they may seem to be of the number of the Pseudonyms, or bastard Daffodils: but yet may easily be knowne from them, in that, although the cup of some of the true Daffodils be great, yet it is wider open at the brim of edge, and not so long and narrow all alike as the bastard kindes are; and this is the chiefe and onely way to know how to seuer these kindes, which rule holdeth certaine in all, except that kinde which is called Narcissus Iuncifolius reflexo flore, whose cup is narrow, and as long as the leaues that turne vp againe.

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Secondly, I will subdiuide each of these again apart by themselues, into foure sorts; and first the Narcissos, or true Daffodils into

These sorts againe doe comprehend vnder them some other diuisions, whereby they may the better be distinguished, and yet still bee referred to one of those foure former sorts: as

And lastly, with the Pseudonarcissos, or bastard Daffodils, I will keepe the same order, to distinguish them likewise into their foure seuerall sorts; and as with the true Daffodils, so with these false, describe vnder euery sort: first, those that beare single flowers, whether one or many vpon a stalke; and then those that beare double flowers, one or many also. As for the distinctions of maior and minor, greater and lesser, and of maximus and minimus, greatest and least, they doe not onely belong to these Daffodils; and therefore must be vsed as occasion permitteth, but vnto all other sort of plants. To begin therefore, I thinke fittest with that stately Daffodill, which for his excellency carrieth the name of None such.

{True Daffodils: broad leaues, one or two single flowers vpon a stalke}

{Incomparable Daffodils}
1. Narcissus latifolius omnium maximus, amplo calice flauo, siue Nompareille. The great None such Daffodill, or Incomparable Daffodill.

This Narcissus Nompareille hath three or foure long and broad leaues, of a grayish greene colour, among which riseth vp a stalke two foote high at the least, at the toppe whereof, out of a thinne skinnie huske, as all Daffodils haue, commeth forth one large single flower, and no more vsually, consisting of sixe very pale yellow large leaues, almost round at the point, with a large cuppe in the middle, somewhat yellower then the leaues, the bottome whereof next vnto the stalke is narrow and round, rising wider to the mouth, which is very large and open, and vneuenly cut in or indented about the edges. The cup doth very well resemble the chalice, that in former dayes with vs, and beyond the Seas is still vsed to hold the Sacramentall Wine, that is with a narrower bottome, and a wide mouth. After the flower is past, sometimes there commeth (for it doth not often) a round greene head, and blacke round seede therein, like vnto other Daffodils, but greater. The roote is great, as other Daffodils that beare large flowers, and is couered ouer with a brownish coate or skinne. The flower hath little or no sent at all.

Flore geminato.

This doth sometimes bring forth a flower with ten or twelue leaues, and a cup much larger, as if it would be two, euen as the flower seemeth.

2. Narcissus omnium maximus flore & calice flauo. The great yellow Incomparable Daffodill.

This other kinde differeth neither in forme, nor bignesse of leafe or flower from the former, but in the colour of the circling leaues of the flower, which are of the same yellow colour with the cup.

Flore geminato.

This doth sometimes degenerate and grow luxurious also, bringing forth two flowers vpon a stalke, each distinct from other, and sometimes two flowers thrust together, as if they were but one, although it be but seldome; for it is not a peculiar kinde that is constant, yearly abiding in the same forme.

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3. Narcissus maximus griseus calice flauo. The gray Peerlesse Daffodill.

This Peerlesse Daffodill well deserueth his place among these kindes, for that it doth much resemble them, and peraduenture is but a difference raised from the seede of the former, it is so like in leafe and flower, but that the leaues seeme to be somewhat greater, and the sixe outer leaues of the flower to be of a glistering whitish gray colour, and the cup yellow, as the former, but larger.

4. Narcissus latifolius flauo flore amplo calice, siue Mattenesse. The lesser yellow Nompareille, or the Lady Mattenesses Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill, are somewhat like vnto the leaues of the first kind, but not altogether so long or broad: the stalke likewise riseth not vp fully so high, and beareth one flower like the former, but lesser, and both the cuppe and the leaues are of one colour, that is, of a pale yellow, yet more yellow then in the former: the cup of this also is lesser, and a little differing; for it is neither fully so small in the bottome, nor so large at the edges, nor so crumpled at the brimmes, so that all these differences doe plainly shew it to be another kinde, quite from the former.

The Place.

The places of none of these are certainly knowne to vs where they grow naturally, but we haue them onely in our Gardens, and haue beene sent, and procured from diuers places.

The Time.

They flower sometimes in the end of March, but chiefly in Aprill.

The Names.

The first and second haue been sent vs by the name of Narcisse Nompareille, as it is called in French; and in Latine, Narcissus omnium maximus amplo calice flauo, and Narcissus Incomparabilis, that is, the Incomparable Daffodill, or the greatest Daffodill of all other, with a large yellow cuppe: but assuredly, although this Daffodill doth exceed many other, both in length and bignesse, yet the great Spanish bastard Daffodill, which shall be spoken of hereafter, is in my perswasion oftentimes a farre higher and larger flower; and therefore this name was giuen but relatiuely, we may call it in English, The great None such Daffodill, or the Incomparable Daffodill, or the great Peerlesse Daffodill, or the Nompareille Daffodill, which you will: for they all doe answer either the French or the Latine name; and because this name Nompareille is growne currant by custome, I know not well how to alter it. The third kinde may passe with the title giuen it, without controule. The last is very well knowne beyond the Seas, especially in the Low Countries, and those parts, by the Lady Mattenesse Daffodill, because Clusius receiued it from her. We may call it in English, for the correspondency with the former, The lesser yellow Nompareille, or Peerlesse Daffodill, or the Lady Mattenesse Daffodill, which you will.

Narcissus Indicus flore rubro, dictus Iacobæus. The Indian Daffodill with a red flower.

This Indian Daffodill is so differing, both in forme, not hauing a cuppe, and in colour being red, from the whole Family of the Daffodils (except the next that followeth, and the Autumne Daffodils) that some might justly question the fitnesse of his place here. But because as all the plants, whether bulbous or other, that come from[70] the Indies, either East or West (although they differ very notably, from those that grow in these parts of the world) must in a generall suruey and muster be ranked euery one, as neere as the surueiours wit will direct him, vnder some other growing with vs, that is of neerest likenesse; Euen so vntill some other can direct his place more fitly, I shall require you to accept of him in this, with this description that followeth, which I must tell you also, is more by relation then knowledge, or sight of the plant it selfe. This Daffodill hath diuers broad leaues, somewhat like vnto the common or ordinary white Daffodill, of a grayish greene colour; from the sides whereof, as also from the middle of them, rise vp sometimes two stalkes together, but most vsually one after another (for very often it flowreth twice in a Summer) and often also but one stalke alone, which is of a faint reddish colour, about a foote high or more, at the toppe whereof, out of a deepe red skinne or huske, commeth forth one flower bending downwards, consisting of sixe long leaues without any cup in the middle, of an excellent red colour, tending to a crimson; three of these leaues that turne vpwards, are somewhat larger then those three that hang downewards, hauing sixe threads or chiues in the middle, tipt with yellow pendents, and a three forked stile longer then the rest, and turning vp the end thereof againe: the roote is round and bigge, of a brownish colour on the outside, and white within. This is set forth by Aldinus, Cardinall Farnesius his Physitian, that at Rome it rose vp with stalks of flowers before any leaues appeared.

The Place, Time, and Names.

This naturally groweth in the West Indies, from whence it was brought into Spaine, where it bore both in Iune and Iuly, and by the Indians in their tongue named Azcal Xochitl, and hath beene sent from Spaine, vnto diuers louers of plants, into seuerall parts of Christendome, but haue not thriued long in these transalpine colde Countries, so far as I can heare.

Narcissus Trapezunticus flore luteo præcocissimus. The early Daffodill of Trebizond.

Because this Daffodill is so like in flower vnto the former, although differing in colour, I thought it the fittest place to ioyne it the next thereunto. This early Daffodill hath three or foure short very greene leaues, so like vnto the leaues of the Autumne Daffodill, that many may easily bee deceiued in mistaking one for another, the difference consisting chiefly in this, that the leaues of this are not so broad or so long, nor rise vp in Autumne: in the midst of these leaues riseth vp a short green stalke, an handfull high, or not much higher vsually, (I speake of it as it hath often flowred with mee, whether the cause be the coldnesse of the time wherein it flowreth, or the nature of the plant, or of our climate, I am in some doubt; but I doe well remember, that the stalkes of some plants, that haue flowred later with me then the first, haue by the greater strength, and comfort of the Sunne, risen a good deale higher then the first) bearing at the top, out of a whitish thinne skinne stripped with greene, one flower a little bending downewards, consisting of sixe leaues, laid open almost in the same manner with the former Indian Daffodill, whereof some doe a little turne vp their points againe, of a faire pale yellow colour, hauing sixe white chiues within it, tipt with yellow pendents, and a longer pointell: the roote is not very great, but blackish on the outside, so like vnto the Autumne Daffodill, but that it is yellow vnder the first or outermost coate, that one may easily mistake one for another.

The Place.

It was sent vs from Constantinople among other rootes, but as wee may ghesse by the name, it should come thither from Trapezunte or Trebizond.

The Time.

It flowreth sometimes in December, if the former part of the Winter [71]haue been milde; but most vsually about the end of Ianuary, or else in Februarie the beginning or the end.

The Names.

Wee doe vsually call it from the Turkish name, Narcissus Trapezunticus, and some also call it Narcissus vernus præcox, as Clusius doth, in English, The early Daffodill of Trebizond.

Page 71: Daffolill.
1Narcissus Nonpareille. The incomparable Daffodill.
2Narcissus Mattenesse. The lesser yellow Nompareille Daffodill.
3Narcissus Iacobæus flore rubro. The red Indian Daffodill.
4Narcissus Trapezunticus. The early Daffodill of Trabesond.
5Narcissus Montanus albus apophysibus præditus. The white winged Daffodill.
6Narcissus Montanus, siue Nompareille totus albus. The white Nompareille, or Peerlesse Daffodill.
7Narcissus albus oblongo calice. The white Daffodill with a long cup.
{Mountain Daffodils}
Narcissus Montanus albus apophysibus præditus. The white Mountaine Daffodill with eares, or The white winged Daffodill.

This Mountaine Daffodill riseth vp with three or four broad leaues, somewhat[72] long, of a whitish greene colour, among which riseth vp a stalke a foote and a halfe high, whereon standeth one large flower, and sometimes two, consisting of sixe white leaues a peece, not very broad, and without any shew of yellownesse in them, three whereof haue vsually each of them on the back part, at the bottome vpon the one side of them, and not on both, a little small white peece of a leafe like an eare, the other three hauing none at all: the cup is almost as large, or not much lesse then the small Nompareille, small at the bottome, and very large, open at the brimme, of a faire yellow colour, and sometimes the edges or brimmes of the cup will haue a deeper yellow colour about it, like as if it were discoloured with Saffron: the flower is verie sweete, the roote is great and white, couered with a pale coate or skinne, not verie blacke, and is not very apt to encrease, seldome giuing of-sets; neither haue I euer gathered seede thereof, because it passeth away without bearing any with me.

Narcissus Montanus, siue Nompareille totus albus amplo calice. The white Nompareille Daffodill.

This white Nompareille Daffodill, is in roote and leafe very like vnto the former mountain or winged Daffodill, but that they are a little larger: the stalke from among the leaues riseth vp not much higher then it, bearing at the top one large flower, composed of sixe long white leaues, each whereof is as it were folded halfe way together, in the middle whereof standeth forth a large white cup, broader at the mouth or brims then at the bottome, very like vnto the lesser Nompareille Daffodill before remembred, which hath caused it to be so entituled: the sent whereof is no lesse sweete then the former.

The Place.

The naturall places of these Daffodils are not certainly knowne to vs; but by the names they carry, they should seeme to bee bred in the Mountaines.

The Time.

These flower not so early as many other kindes doe, but rather are to bee accounted among the late flowring Daffodils; for they shew not their flowers vntill the beginning of May, or the latter end of Aprill, with the soonest.

The Names.

The names set downe ouer the heads of either of them be such, whereby they are knowne to vs; yet some doe call the first Narcissus auriculatus, that is to say, The Daffodill with eares: and the other, Narcissus Nompareille totus albus, that is to say, The white Nompareille, or Peerlesse Daffodill.

[73]

{Daffodils with a long cup}
1. Narcissus albus oblongo calice luteo præcox minor. The small early white Daffodill with a long cup.

The leaues of this early Daffodill are broad, very greene, and not whitish as others, three or foure standing together, about a foote long or better, among which riseth vp a greene stalke, not full so high as the leaues, bearing one flower at the toppe thereof of a reasonable bignesse, but not so great as the later kindes that follow are, consisting of six whitish leaues, but not perfect white, hauing a show of a Creame colour appearing in them; in the middle is a long round yellow cup, about halfe an inch long or better. The smell of this flower is reasonable sweete, the roote is of a reasonable bignesse, yet lesser then the rootes of the later kindes.

2. Narcissus pallidus oblongo calice flauo præcox. The early Strawe coloured Daffodill with a long cup.

The leaues of this Daffodill are as greene as the former, but much narrower; and the leaues of the flower are more enclining to yellow, but yet very pale, as if it were a light strawe colour, and seeme to bee a little more narrow and pointed then the former: the cup of this, is as long and yellow as the precedent. The smell whereof is very like the former, yet neither of them being so sweete as those that follow.

3. Narcissus albus oblongo calice luteo serotinus maier. The great late flowring white Daffodill with a long cup.

This later flowring Daffodill hath his leaues somewhat narrow & long, of a grayish or whitish greene colour, among which the stalke riseth vp a foote and a halfe high, bearing one flower at the toppe, made of six white leaues, hauing the cup in the middle thereof as long as the former, and of a deepe yellow: the edges of this cuppe are sometimes plaine, and sometimes a little crumpled; they are often also circled at the brimmes with a Saffron colour, and often also without it, the smell whereof is very pleasant, and not heady: the roote hereof is reasonable bigge, and couered ouer rather with a pale then blackish skinne. This flower doth sometimes alter his forme into eight leaues, which being narrow and long, seeme like a white starre, compassing a yellow trunke.

4. Narcissus totus pallidus oblongo calice serotinus minor. The late pale coloured Daffodill with a long cup.

There is another of this kinde, whose flowers is wholly of a pale white, or yellowish colour, differing neither in leafe nor roote from the former.

5. Narcissus pallidus oblongo calice flauo serotinus. The Strawe coloured late flowring Daffodill with a long yellow cup.

The chiefe difference of this Daffodill from the former, consisteth in the colour of the cup, which is a more yellow colour, and a little larger then the former, and the brimmes or edges of the cup of a deeper yellow, or Saffron colour. The smell of this is no lesse sweete then in the former.

6. Narcissus albus oblongo calice flauo serotinus, duobus floribus in caule. The late white Daffodill with a long cup, and two flowers on a stalke.

This Daffodill is surely a kinde of it selfe, although it be so like the former, abiding constant in his forme and manner of flowring, vsually bearing without missing two flowers vpon a stalke, very like vnto the former great white kinde, that one cannot know any greater matter of difference betweene them, then that it beareth two flowers on a stalke: the cuppes whereof are seldome touched with any shew of Saffron colour on them at the brimmes or edges, as some of the former haue.

[74]

The Place.

All these Daffodils doe grow on the Pyrenæan mountaines, and haue been sought out, and brought into these parts, by those curious or couetous searchers of these delights, that haue made vs partakers of them.

The Time.

The former kindes flower earlier by a fortnight then the later, the one in the later end of March, and the other not vntill the middle of Aprill.

The Names.

Their names are giuen to euery one of them in their seuerall titles, as fitly as may best agree with their natures; and therefore I shall not neede to speake any further of them.

{White Daffodils}
Narcissus medioluteus vulgaris. The common white Daffodill called Primrose Peerlesse.

This Daffodill is so common in euery Country Garden almost through England, that I doubt I shall but spend my time in vaine, to describe that which is so well knowne, yet for their sakes that know it not, I will set downe the description of it in this manner. It hath long limber and broad leaues, of a grayish greene colour, among which riseth vp a stalke, bearing at the toppe out of a skinnie huske sometimes but one flower, but most commonly two flowers, and seldome three or more, but larger for the most part, then any that beare many flowers vpon a stalke, of a pale whitish Creame colour, tending somewhat neare vnto the colour of a pale Primrose (which hath caused our Countrey Gentlewomen, I thinke, to entitle it Primrose Peerlesse) with a small round flat Crowne, rather then a cup in the middle, of a pale yellow colour, with some pale chiues standing therein, being of a sweete, but stuffing sent: the roote is reasonable great, and encreasing more then a better plant.

Narcissus mediocroceus serotinus. The late flowring white Daffodill.

This Daffodill hath much smaller leaues, and shorter then the last, the stalke also riseth not so high by much, and beareth but one flower thereon, of a pure white colour, made of six small leaues, and somewhat narrow, standing seuerally one from another, and not so close together as the former, but appearing like a starre: the cup is small and round, of a pale yellow colour, but saffrony about the brims, hauing six small pale chiues in the middle, the smell whereof is much sweeter then in the former.

The Place.

The first is thought to grow naturally in England, but I could neuer heare of his naturall place. I am sure it is plentifull enough in all Country Gardens, so that wee scarce giue it place in our more curious parkes. The second liueth only with them that delight in varieties.

The Time.

The first Daffodill flowreth in the middle time, being neither of the earliest, nor of the latest; but about the middle, or end of April. The other flowreth with the latest in May.

The Names.

I shall not neede to trouble you with further repetitions of names, they hauing been set downe in their titles, which are proper to them.

[75]

Page 75: Daffodill.
1Narcissus vulgaris medio luteus. The common White Daffodill, or Primrose Peerlesse.
2Narcissus medio purpureus maximus. The great white purple ringed Daffodill.
3Narcissus medio purpureus præcox. The early purple ringed Daffodill.
4Narcissus medio purpureus stellatus. The starry purple ringed Daffodill.
5Narcissus Persicus. The Persian Daffodill.
6Narcissus Autumnalis minor. The lesser Winter Daffodill.
7Narcissus Autumnalis maior. The greater Winter Daffodill.

[76]

{Purple Ringed Daffodils}
1. Narcissus medio purpureus præcox. The early purple ringed Daffodill.

This early Daffodill hath many long grayish greene leaues, somewhat narrower and stiffer than the former common white Daffodill, among which riseth vp a long naked hollow stalke (as all other Daffodils haue) bearing at the toppe one flower, and seldome two, made of sixe long white leaues, standing close together about the stalke; the cup is yellow, and so flat, that it might rather bee called a crowne: for it standeth very close to the middle, and very open at the brimmes, circled with a reddish or purple coloured ring, hauing certaine chiues in the middle of it also. The smell hereof is very sweete, exceeding many other.

2. Narcissus medio purpureus serotinus. The late purple ringed Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill are alwayes broader then the former early one, and some are very neare twice as broad: the flower is very like the former, being large, and his leaues standing close one to the side of another; the ring likewise that compasseth the yellow coronet, is sometimes of a paler reddish purple, and sometimes as deep a red as the former: so that it differeth not in any other materiall point, then that it flowreth not vntill the other is past and gone. The sent of this is like the former, the roote hereof is greater, as well as the leafe and flower.

3. Narcissus medio purpureus maximus. The great white purple ringed Daffodill.

There is another kinde, whose flower (as well as leaues and rootes) is larger then any other of this kinde, which only maketh it a distinct sort from the other: it flowreth also with the later sort of these purple ringed Daffodils.

4. Narcissus medio purpureus stellaris. The starry purple ringed Daffodill.

This Daffodill hath his leaues a little narrower and greener then the former sorts, the flower also of this hath his sixe white leaues not so broad, but narrower, and seeming longer then they, not closing together, but standing apart one from another, making it seem like a white starre: it hath also a yellow coronet in the middle, circled about with purple, like the former. This doth smell nothing so sweete as the first but yet hath a good sent.

The Place.

The first, third, and fourth of these Daffodils, haue always beene sent vs from Constantinople among other bulbous rootes, so that wee know no further of their naturall places.

The second groweth in many places of Europe, both in Germany, France, and Italy, as Clusius hath noted.

The Time.

The first flowreth very early in March, euen with the first Daffodils. The second, third, and fourth, about a moneth after.

The Names.

The early and starre Daffodils, haue been sent vs by the Turkish name of Deuebohini, and Serincade. But their names, they haue receiued since, to bee endenizond with vs, are set downe in their seuerall titles.

{Persian and Autumne or Winter Daffodils}
Narcissus Persicus. The Persian Daffodill.

This Persian Daffodill differeth from all other kindes of Daffodils in his manner of[77] growing, for it neuer hath leaues and flowers at one time together, wherein it is like vnto a Colchicum, yet in roote and leafe it is a Daffodill. The roote is a little blackish on the outside, somewhat like the roote of the Autumne Daffodill, from whence riseth vp a naked foote stalke, bearing one pale yellow flower, breaking through a thinne skinne, which first enclosed it, composed of six leaues, the three outermost being a little larger then the rest, in the middle of the flower there are six small chiues, and a longer pointell. The whole flower is of an vnpleasant sent. After the flower is past, come vp the leaues, sometimes before Winter, but most vsually after the deepe of Winter is past with vs, in the beginning of the yeare, which are broad, long, and of a pale greene colour, like the leaues of other Daffodils, but not greene as the Autumne Daffodill is, and besides they doe a little twine themselues, as some of the Pancratium, or bastard Sea Daffodils doe.

Narcissus Autumnalis maior. The greater Autumne or Winter Daffodill.

The greater Autumne Daffodill riseth vp with three or foure faire broad and short leaues at the first, but afterwards grow longer, of a very deepe or darke greene colour, in the middle of which riseth vp a short, stiffe, rounded footestalke, bearing one faire yellow flower on the head thereof (inclosed at the first in a thinne skinne, or huske) and consisteth of six leaues as the former, with certaine chiues in the middle, as all or most other Daffodils haue, which passeth away without shew of any seed, or head for seed, although vnder the head there is a little greene knot, which peraduenture would beare seede, if our sharpe Winters did not hinder it. The roote is great and round, couered ouer with a blackish skinne or coate.

Narcissus Autumnalis minor. The lesser Autumne or Winter Daffodill.

Clusius setteth downe, that the manner of the flowring of this lesser Daffodill, is more like vnto the Persian Daffodill, then vnto the former greater Autumne kind; but I doe fine that it doth in the same sort, as the greater kinde, rise vp with his leaues first, and the flowers a while after: the flower of this is lesser, and a little paler then the flower of the greater kinde, but consisting in like sort of six leaues, narrow and sharpe pointed; the greene leaues also are almost of as deepe a green colour, as the greater kinde, but smaller and narrower, and a little hollow in the middle. The roote is also alike, but lesser, and couered with a blackish skinne as the former. This hath sometimes borne blacke round seede in three square heads.

The Place.

The Persian Daffodill hath beene sent sometimes, but very seldome, among other roots from Constantinople, and it is probable by the name whereby it was sent, that it should naturally grow in Persia.

The other two haue likewise beene sent from Constantinople, and as it is thought, grow in Thracia, or thereabouts.

The Time.

They all doe flower much about one time, that is, about the end of September, and in October.

The Names.

The first hath been sent by the name of Serincade Persiana, and thereupon is called Narcissus Persicus, The Persian Daffodill.

The other two haue been thought by diuers to be Colchica, and so haue they called them, vpon no other ground, but that their flower is in forme and time somewhat like Colchicum, when as if they had marked them better, they might plainly discerne, that in all other things they did resemble Daffodils; but now the names of Colchicum luteum maius, & minus, is quite[78] lost, time hauing worne them out, and they are called by most Herbarists now adayes, Narcissus Autumnalis maior & minor, The greater and the lesser Autumne Daffodill.

{True Daffodils: broad leaues, many single flowers vpon a stalke}

Thus farre haue I proceeded with those Daffodils, that hauing broad leaues, beare but one single flower, or two at the most vpon a stalke: And now to proceed with the rest, that haue broad leaues, and beare single flowers, but many vpon a stalke.

{Yellow Daffodils}
Narcissus Africanus aureus maior. The great yellow Daffodill of Africa.

This braue and stately Daffodill hath many very long and broad leaues, of a better green colour, then many others that are grayish, among which appeareth a stalke, not rising to the height of the leaues, bearing at the toppe out of a skinnie hose many faire, goodly, and large flowers, to the number of ten or twelue, if the roote bee well growne, and stand in a warme place, euery one being larger then any of the French, Spanish, or Turkie Daffodils, that beare many single flowers vpon a stalke, and commeth neere vnto the bignesse of the English Daffodill, called Primrose Peerlesse, before described, or that French kinde hereafter described, that beareth the largest flowers, many vpon a stalke (which some would make to bee a kinde of English Daffodill, but bearing more flowers) and of a faire shining yellow colour, hauing large, round, and open cups or boules, yellower then the outer leaues; and is of so exceeding sweete a sent, that it doth rather offend the senses by the aboundance thereof: the roote is great, and couered with a blackish browne coate or skinne.

Narcissus Africanus aureus minor. The lesser Barbary Daffodill.

This lesser kinde is very neere the same with the former, but that it lacketh somewhat of his statlinesse of height, largenesse of flower and cup (being a paler yellow) and beauty of colour, for it beareth neither of these equall vnto the former, but is in them all inferiour. And thus by this priuatiue, you may vnderstand his positive, and that shall be sufficient at this time.

Narcissus Byzantinus totus luteus. The yellow Turkie Daffodill.

Whereas the last described, came short of the beauty of the former, so this lacketh of that beauty is in the last; for this, although it haue very long leaues, and a high stalke, yet the flowers are neither so many, as not being aboue foure or fiue, nor so large, being not much greater then the ordinary French Daffodill hereafter described, nor the colour so faire, but much paler, and the cup also smaller; and herein consisteth the chiefest differences betweene this, and both the other, but that the sent of this is also weaker.

The Place.

The first and the second grow in Barbary, about Argiers, and Fez, as by the relation of them, that haue brought them into these parts, wee haue been enformed.

The last hath been often brought from Constantinople among other varieties of Daffodils, but from whence they receiued them, I could neuer learne.

The Time.

These Daffodils do flower very early, euen with the first sort of Daffodils, I meane after they haue been accustomed vnto our climate: for oftentimes vpon their first bringing ouer, they flower in Ianuary or February, especially if they be preserued from the frosts, and kept in any warme place; for they are very tender, and will soone perish, being left abroad.

The Names.

The first is called by diuers in French, Narcisse d’ Algiers and in many[79] places of the Low Countries, Narcissen van Heck, or Narcissus Heckius; by diuers others Narcissus Africanus aureus maior, we may call it in English, The great African Daffodill, or the great Barbary Daffodill, or the great yellow Daffodill of Argiers, which you please.

The second hath no other variation of name, then a diminutiue of the former, as is set downe in the title.

The third is no doubt the same, that Clusius setteth downe in the twelfth Chapter of his second Booke of the History of more rare plants, and maketh the fourth sort, which came from Constantinople, and may also be the same, which he maketh his fifth, which (as he saith) he receiued from Doctour Simor Touar of Seuill in Spaine. Wee call it, from the place from whence we receiued it, Narcissus Byzantinus, with the addition of totus luteus, to put a difference from other sorts that come from thence also: in English, The yellow single Daffodill of Turkie.

{Lemon coloured Daffodils}
Narcissus Sulphureus maior. The greater Lemon coloured Daffodill.

The greater of these Daffodils, beareth three or foure greene and very long leaues, a foote and a halfe long at the least, among which riseth vp a round, yet crested stalke, not so high as the leaues, bearing fiue or sixe single flowers thereon, euery one of them being greater then the ordinary French or Italian Daffodils, with many flowers vpon a stalke; of a faint, but yet pleasant yellow colour at the first, which after they haue been in flower a fortnight or thereabouts, change into a deeper, or more sullen yellow colour: the cup in the middle is likewise larger, then in those formerly named, and of a deeper yellow colour then the outer leaues, hauing onely three chiues within it. The smell is very pleasant.

Narcissus Sulphureus minor. The lesser Lemon coloured Daffodill.

This lesser Daffodill hath broader and shorter leaues then the former, of the colour of other Daffodils, and not greene like the former: the stalke of this riseth vp higher then the leaues, bearing foure or fiue flowers vpon shorter footestalkes, and no bigger then the French Daffodill, of a pale yellow, which most doe call a Brimstone colour, the cup or rather crowne in the middle, is small, and broad open, of a little deeper yellow, hauing many chiues within it, and is as it were sprinkled ouer with a kinde of mealinesse. The smell of this is not full so pleasant as the former.

The Place.

Both these haue been gathered on the Pyrenæan Mountaines, and both likewise haue been sent out of Italy.

The Time.

They both flower in the middle time of the Daffodils flowring, that is, in Aprill.

The Name.

They haue their Latine names expressed in their titles and so are their English also, if you please so to let them passe; or else according to the Latine, you may call them, The greater and the lesser Brimstone coloured Daffodils; some haue called them Narcissus Italicus, but the Italians themselues haue sent them by the name of Narcisso Solfarigno.

{Milke White Daffodils}
Narcissus totus albus polyanthos. The milke white Daffodill many vpon a stalke.

The leaues of this Daffodill are of a meane size, both for length and breadth, yet somewhat greener then in the ordinary sorts, that haue some whitenesse in them: the[80] flowers are many vpon the stalke, as small for the most part, as any of these kindes that beare many together, being wholly of a milke, or rather snow white colour, both the cuppe, which is small, and the outer leaues that compasse it; after which come small heads, wherein is contained round blacke seede, as all other Daffodils doe, although some greater, and others lesser, according to the proportion of the plants: the roote is couered ouer with a blackish skinne or coate; the smell is very sweete.

There are two other sorts more of this kinde, the differences whereof are, that the one hath his leaues somewhat broader, and the flowers greater then the former: And the other smaller leaues and flowers also, whose cups being small, are neuer seene fully open, but as it were halfe closed at the brimmes.

Narcissus latifolius totus albus, mediocri calice reflexus. The milke white Daffodill with the great cup.

There is yet another sort of these milke white Daffodils, whose leaues are as broad as any of the former, and whose cup in the middle of the flower, is somewhat larger then in any of the lesser sorts, and lesser then in the greater kinde: but the leaues of the flowers doe a little turne themselues vpwards, which maketh a chiefe difference.

The Place.

These Daffodils grow in Spaine, from whence I receiued many that flourished a while, but perished by some fierce cold Winters: they likewise grow in France, from whence many also haue been brought vnto vs. They haue likewise been sent from Constantinople to vs, among other kindes of Daffodils.

The Time.

They that come from Constantinople, for the most part doe flower earlier then the other, euen after they are accustomed to our ayre. Some of them flower notwithstanding in the end of March, the rest in Aprill.

The Names.

They are vsually called Narcissus totus albus polyanthos, adding thereunto the differences of maior, medius, and minor, that is, The milke white Daffodill, the greater, the middle, and the lesser; for so some doe distinguish them. The last, for distinction, hath his name in his title sufficient to expresse him.

{French, Italian and English Daffodils}
1. Narcissus Narbonensis, siue medio luteus præcox. The early French Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill, spring vp out of the ground a moneth or two sometimes before the other of this kinde, that follow; being also shorter and narrower: the stalke likewise is not very high, bearing diuers flowers at the top, breaking through a thinne skinne, as is vsuall with all the Daffodils, euery one whereof is small, consisting of six white leaues, and small yellow cup in the middle, which is of a prettie small sent, nothing so strong as many others: the roote is great and round, and seldome parteth into of-sets, euen as all the other that follow, bearing many single flowers, doe.

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Page 81: Daffodill.
1Narcissus Africanus aureus maior. The great yellow Daffodill of Africa.
2Narcissus Africanus luteus minor. The lesser yellow Daffodill of Africa.
3Narcissus Narbonensis medio luteus. The French Daffodill.
4Narcissus Pisanus, vel totus albus. The Italian Daffodill, or the all white Daffodill.
5Narcissus Mussart. Mussart his Daffodill.
6Narcissus Anglicus polyanthos. The great English Daffodill.
2. Narcissus Narbonensis vulgaris. The ordinary French Daffodill.

This Daffodill hath long and broad greene leaues, a little hollowish in the middle, and edged on both sides; the stalke is a foote and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe diuers flowers, somewhat larger then the former, consisting of six white leaues, somewhat round; the cup is yellow in the middle, small and round, like vnto an Acorne cuppe, or a little fuller in the middle: this is the forme of that sort which was first [82]brought vnto vs: But since there is found out some, whose cup is shorter, others flatter, some of a paler, others of a deeper yellow colour, and some that haue their cuppe longer then the rest. The rootes of them all are couered with a blackish skin or coate.

3. Narcissus Narbonensis maior amplo flore. The French Daffodill with great flowers.

The leaues of this Daffodill are somewhat like vnto the last, but not so broad, yet full as long, and spring sooner out of the ground, yet not so early as the first of these kindes: the stalke hereof is flatter, and riseth higher, bearing foure or fiue flowers, much larger then any of this kinde; for euery one of them doth equall the English Daffodill, before described, but whiter then it, and the yellow cup larger, and more open then in any of the rest. The roote of this is not so great, or round, as the former, but is more plentifull in of-sets, then any other of these French, or Italian kindes.

4. Narcissus Pisanus. The Italian Daffodill.

This Italian Daffodill hath his leaues as large, or larger then the second French Daffodill, and his stalke somewhat higher, bearing many white flowers, very like vnto the common French Daffodill, but somewhat larger also; and the yellow cup in the middle likewise is larger, and rounder, then is vsually seen in any of the French kinds, except the last with the greatest flowers.

5. Narcissus mediocroceus polyanthos. The French Daffodill with Saffron coloured cups.

This French Daffodill hath diuers leaues of a grayish greene colour, not so broad or long as the last recited Daffodill, but comming neerer vnto the second French kinde, the flowers likewise are white, and many vpon a stalke, like thereunto, but the yellow cup is somewhat large, and circled with a Saffron like brimme or edge, which maketh the chiefest difference.

6. Narcissus mediocroceus alter, dictus Mussart. Mussart his Daffodill.

The affinity between this & the last, (for it is not the same to be expressed vnder one title) hath made me ioyne it next vnto it, yet because it hath a notable difference, it deserueth a place by himselfe. The leaues are large and long, and the flowers, being white, are larger also then in any other, except the greatest, but the cup hereof is small and short, rather seeming a coronet then a cup, of a deepe Saffron colour all about the brimmes or edges.

7. Narcissus Anglicus polyanthos. The great English Daffodill.

This Daffodill hath his leaues not much broader or longer, then the French kinde with great flowers, before described, the stalke with flowers riseth not fully so high as it, bearing many flowers thereon, not altogether so white, yet whiter then the former English Daffodill, called Primrose Peerlesse, but nothing so large, and with short, broad, and almost round leaues, standing close one vnto another: the yellow cup in the middle is bowle fashion, being somewhat deeper then in any of the former kinds, but not much greater: the smell hereof is very sweete and pleasant.

8. Narcissus Narbonensis, siue medio luteus serotinus maior. The greater late flowring French Daffodill.

The roote as well as the leaues of this Daffodill, are greater, larger, broader, and longer then in any other of the former French, or Italian kindes; the stalke is as high as any of them, bearing at the toppe fiue or sixe white flowers, standing open spread like a starre, and not close together, euery one whereof is large, and round pointed,[83] the cup is yellow, small and short, yet not lying flat to the flower, but a little standing out with some threads in the middle, as all the former Daffodils haue. This is not so sweete as the earlier kindes.

9. Narcissus medioluteus alter serotinus calice breui. The lesser late flowring French Daffodill.

This Daffodill is of the same kinde with the last described, the onley difference is, that it is lesser, and the yellow cuppe in the middle of the flower, is somewhat shorter then the former, although the former be shorter then many others, otherwise it differeth not, no not in time; for it flowreth late as the former doth.

The Place.

These Daffodils haue been brought vs from diuers places; The first and second grow naturally in many places of Spaine, that are open to the Sea: they grow likewise about Mompelier, and those parts in France. They haue been likewise sent among many other sorts of Daffodils from Constantinople, so that I may thinke, they grow in some places neere thereunto.

The fourth groweth plentifully in Italy, about Pisa in Tuscane, from whence we haue had plants to furnish our Gardens.

The seuenth is accounted beyond Sea to be naturall of our Country, but I know not any with vs that haue it, but they haue had it from them.

The rest haue been brought at diuers times, but wee know no further of their naturall places.

The Time.

The first flowreth earlier then any of the rest by a moneth, euen in the beginning of March, or earlier, if the weather be milde. The other in Aprill, some a little before or after another. The late kinds flower not vntill May.

The Names.

There can be no more said of the names of any of them, then hath beene set out in their titles; for they distinguish euery sort as fitly as we can: onely some doe call the first two sorts, by the name of Donax Narbonensis.

{True Daffodils: Broad leaves, double flowers}

After all these Daffodils, that hauing broad leaues beare single flowers, either one or many vpon a stalke, I shall now goe on to set forth those broad leafed Daffodils, that carry double flowers, either one or many vpon a stalke together, in the same order that we haue vsed before.

1. Narcissus albus multiplex. The double white Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill are not very broad, but rather of a meane size, being of the same largenesse with the leaues of the purple ringed Daffodill, the stalke riseth vp to be a foote and a halfe high, bearing out of a thinne white skinne or hose, one flower and no more, consisting of many leaues, of a faire white colour, the flower is larger then any other double white Daffodill, hauing euery leafe, especially the outermost, as large almost as any leafe of the single Daffodill with the yellow cup, or purple ring. Sometimes it happeneth, that the flower is very little double, and almost single, but that is either in a bad ground, or for that it hath stood long in a place without remouing; for then it hath such a great encrease of rootes about it, that it draweth away into many parts, the nourishment that should be for a few: but if you doe transplant it, taking away the of-sets, and set his rootes single, it will then thriue, and beare his flower as goodly and double, as I haue before described it: and is very sweete.

2. Narcissus mediopurpureus multiplex. The double purple ringed Daffodill.

There is little difference in the leaues of this kinde, from the leaues of the single pur[84]ple ringed Daffodill; for it is probable it is of the same kinde, but by natures gift (and not by any humane art) made more plentifull, which abideth constant, and hath not that dalliance, which oftentimes nature sheweth, to recreate the senses of men for the present, and appeareth not againe in the same forme: the chiefest difference is, that the flower (being but sometimes one on a stalke, and sometimes two) consisteth of six white outer leaues, as large as the leaues of the single kinde, hauing many small yellow peeces, edged with purple circles round about them, instead of a cup; and in the middle of these peeces, stand other six white leaues, lesser then the former, and a yellow cup edged with a purple circle likewise, parted into peeces, and they comprehend a few other white leaues, smaller than any of the other, hauing among them some broken peeces of the cup, with a few chiues also in the middle of the flower. The flower is very sweete.

There is of this kinde another, whose flower hath not so plaine a distinction, of a triple rowe of leaues in it: but the whole flower is confusedly set together, the outer leaues being not so large, and the inner leaues larger then the former; the broken yellow cuppe, which is tipt with purple, running diuersly among the leaues; so that it sheweth a fairer, and more double flower then the former, as it is indeed.

3. Narcissus medioluteus corona duplici. The Turkie Daffodill with a double crowne.

This Daffodill hath three or foure leaues, as large and long almost, as the great double Daffodill of Constantinople next following hath: the stalke likewise is very neere as great, but as high altogether, bearing at the toppe foure or fiue flowers, the leaues whereof are as large, as of the first or second kinde of French Daffodils, before described, but not altogether of so pure a white colour; and being six in number, stand like the former single French Daffodils, but that the yellow cup in the middle of this is thicke and double, or as it were crumpled together, not standing very high to be conspicuous, but abiding lowe and short, so that it is not presently marked, vnlesse one looke vpon it precisely; yet is exceeding sweete. The roote is like vnto the roote of the purple ringed Daffodill, or somewhat bigger.

4. Narcissus Chalcedonicus flore pleno albo polyanthos. The double white Daffodill of Constantinople.

This beautifull and goodly Daffodill (wherewith all Florists greatly desire to bee acquainted, as well for the beauty of his double flowers, as also for his superabounding sweete smell, one stalke with flowers being instead of a nosegay) hath many very broad, and very long leaues, somewhat greener then gray, among which riseth vp a strong round stalke, being sometimes almost flat, and ribbed, bearing foure or fiue, or more white flowers at the toppe, euery one being very great, large, and double, the leaues being confusedly set together, hauing little peeces of a yellow cup running among them, without any shew of that purple ring that is in the former, and fall away without bearing seed, euen as all, or most other double flowers doe: the smell is so exceeding sweet and strong, that it will soone offend the senses of any, that shall smell much vnto it: the roote is great and thicke, couered with a blackish coate.

5. Narcissus Chalcedonicus fimbriatus multiplex polyanthos. The great double purple ringed Daffodill of Constantinople.

This Daffodill differeth very little or nothing in leafe from the former, the onely difference is in the flowers, which although they bee double, and beare many vpon a stalke, like vnto them, yet this hath the peeces of the yellow cuppes tipt with purple, as if they were shred or scattered among the white leaues, whereas the other hath only the yellow, without any shew of purple tips vpon them: the smell of this is as strong as of the other.

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Page 85: Daffodill.
1Narcissus albus multiplex. The double white Daffodill.
2Narcissus medioluteus corona duplici. The Turkie Daffodill with a double crowne.
3Narcissus mediopurpureus multiplex. The double purple ringed Daffodill.
4Narcissus Chalcedonicus flore pleno albo polyanthos. The double white Daffodill of Constantinople.

[86]

6. Narcissus Cyprius flore pleno lutes polyanthos. The double yellow Daffodill of Cyprus.

The leaues of this Daffodill are almost as broad and long as the former, the stalke is a foot high and more, bearing foure or fiue flowers on the top, euery one very double, and of a fine pale yellow colour, of a strong heady sent. The root of this is also like the former.

The Place.

The first of these Daffodils, was full brought into England by Mʳ. Iohn de Franqueuille the elder, who gathered it in his owne Countrey of Cambray, where it groweth wild, from whose sonne, Mʳ. Iohn de Franqueuille, now liuing, we all haue had it. The rest haue come from Constantinople at seuerall times; and the last is thought to come from Cyprus. Wee haue it credibly affirmed also, that it groweth in Barbary about Fez and Argiers. Some of the double white kindes grow in Candy, and about Aleppo also.

The Time.

The Turkie kindes doe for the most part all flower early, in the end of March, or beginning of Aprill at the furthest, and the first double, about the middle or end of April.

The Names.

All these Daffodils, except the first, haue had diuers Turkish names set vpon the packets, wherein they haue been sent, but there is small regard of certainty to be expected from them; for that the name Serincade, without any more addition, which is a single Daffodill, hath beene imposed vpon that parcell of rootes, that have borne most of them double flowers of diuers sorts; and the name Serincade Catamer lale which signifieth a double flowered Daffodill, hath had many single white flowers, with yellow cups, and some whose flowers have been wholly white, cuppe and all, and some purple ringed, and double also among them. Their names, whereby they are knowne and called with vs, are, as fitly as may be, imposed in their titles: And this I hope shall suffice, to have spoken of these sorts of Daffodils.

{True Daffodils: Narrow leaved}

Hauing finished the discourse of the former sort of broad leafed Daffodils, it is fit to proceede to the next, which are Angustifolios Narcissos, those Daffodils that have narrow leaures, and first to set down those that beare single flowers, whether one or many flowers vpon a stalke, and then those that beare double flowers in the same manner.

Narcissus Virginens. The Virginia Daffodill.

This plant I thought fittest to place here in the beginning of this Classis, not finding where better to shroud it. It hath two or three long, and very narrow leaues, as greene as the leaues of the great Leucoium bulbosum, and shining withall, which grow sometimes reddish, especially at the edges: the stalke riseth vp a spanne high, bearing one flower and no more on the head thereof, standing vpright like a little Lilly or Tulipa, made of six leaues, wholly white, both within and without, except that at the bottome next to the stalke, and a little on the backside of the three outer leaues, it hath a small dash or shew of a reddish purple colour: it hath in the middle a few chiues, standing about a small head pointed; which head groweth to bee small and long, containing small blackish flat seede: the roote is small, long, and round, a little blackish on the outside, and white on the inside.

[87]

The Place.

This bulbous plant was brought vs from Virginia, where they grow aboundantly; but they hardly thriue and abide in our Gardens to beare flowers.

The Time.

It flowreth in May, and seldome before.

The Names.

The Indians in Virginia do call it Attamusco, some among vs do call it Lilionarcissus Virginianus, of the likenesse of the flower to a Lilly, and the leaues and roote to a Daffodill. Wee for breuity doe called it Narcissus Virgineus, that is, The Daffodill of Virginia, or else you may call it according to the former Latine name, The Lilly Daffodill of Virginia, which you will; for both names may serue well to expresse the plant.

Narcissus angustifolius albidus præcox oblongo calice. The early white narrow leafed Daffodill with a long cup.

This Daffodill hath three or foure narrow, long, and very green leaues, a foot long for the most part: the stalke riseth not vp so high as the leaves, whereon standeth one flower, not altogether so great as the late flowring Daffodill, with a long cuppe, described before among the broad leafed ones, which consisteth of six pale coloured leaves, not pure white, but hauing a wash of light yellow among the white: the cuppe in the middle is round and long, yet not so long as to bee accounted a bastard Daffodill, within which is a middle pointell, compassed with six chiues, hauing yellow mealy pendents.

The Place.

The Daffodill groweth with the other sorts of broad leafed ones, on the Pyrenæan Mountaines, from whence they have beene brought vnto vs, to furnish our Gardens.

The Time.

It flowreth early, a month before the other sorts of the same fashion, that is, in the beginning of March, if the time be milde, which the other before spoken of the doe not.

The Names.

It hath no other name that I know, then is expressed in the title.

{Small Daffodils}
2. Narcissus mediocroceus tenuifolius. The small Daffodill with a Saffron crown.

This small Daffodill hath foure or fiue narrow leaues, about a spanne long, among which riseth vp a stalke some nine inches high, bearing at the toppe one small white flower, made of six leaues, with a small yellow cup in the middle, shadowed ouer at the brimmes with a Saffron colour: the roote is small, rounded, and little long withall, couered with a blackish skinne or coate.

3. Narcissus minimus mediopurpureus. The least purple ringed Daffodill.

This little Daffodill hath small narrow leaues, shorter by much then any of the purple ringed Daffodils, before described: the stalke and flower keepe an equal proportion to the rest of the plant, being in forme and colour of the flower, like vnto the[88] Starre Daffodill before recited, but vnlike in the greatnesse: this also is to bee obserued, that the purple colour that circleth the brimmes of the cuppe, is so small, that sometimes it is not well perceiued.

4. Narcissus minimus Iuncifolij flore. The least Daffodill of all.

This least Daffodill hath two or three whitish greene leaues, narrower then the two last recited Daffodils, and shorter by halfe, being but aboue two or three inches long, the stalke likewise is not aboue three or foure inches high, bearing one single flower at the toppe, somewhat bigger then the smalnesse of the plant should seeme to beare, very like vnto the least Rush Daffodill, and of the same bignesse, or rather somewhat bigger, being of a faint yellow colour, both leaues, and cup, or crowne, (if you please so to call it); for the middle part is spread very much, euen to the middle of the leaues almost, and lyeth flat open vpon the flower: the roote is small, euen the smallest of any Daffodill, and couered with a blackish skinne or coate.

The Place.

The first of these Daffodils haue beene brought vs from the Pyrenæan Mountaines, among a number of other rare plants, and the last by a French man, called Francis le Veau, the honestest roote-gatherer that euer came ouer to vs. The second was sent to Mʳ. Iohn de Franqueuille, before remembred, who imparted it to mee, as hee hath done many other good things; but his naturall place wee know not.

The Time.

They all flower about the latter end of Aprill.

The Names.

Being brought without names, wee haue giuen them their names according to their face and fashion, as they are set downe in their titles.

Narcissus Autumnalis minor albus. The little white Autumne Daffodill.

This little Autumne Daffodill riseth with his flowers first out of the ground, without any leaues at all. It springeth vp with one or two stalkes about a finger long, euery one bearing out of a small huske one small white flower, laid open abroad like vnto the Starre white Daffodill, before spoken of: in the middle of the flower is a small yellow cup of a meane size, and after the flower is past, there commeth in the same place a small head, containing small, round, blacke seede, like vnto the Autumne Hyacinth: the leaues come vp after the seede is ripe and gone, being small and narrow, not much bigger then the Autumne Hyacinth: the roote is small and blackish on the outside.

The Place.

This Daffodill groweth in Spaine, where Clusius saw it, and brought it into these parts.

The Time.

It flowreth in the beginning of Autumne, and his seede is ripe in the end of October in those hot Countries, but in ours it will scarce abide to shew a flower.

The Names.

The Spaniards, as Clusius reporteth, call it Tonada, and he vpon the sight [89]thereof, Narcissus Autumnalis minor albus, and wee in English thereafter, The little white Autumne Daffodill.

Page 89: Daffodil.
1Narcissus Virgineus. The Virginian Daffodill.
2Narcissus minimus Iuncifolij flore. The least Daffodill of all.
3Narcissus Autumnalis minor albus. The little white Autumne Daffodill.
4Narcissus albus Autumnalis medio obsoletus. The white Autumne Daffodill with a sullen crown.
5Narcissus Iuncifolius maximus amplo calice. The great Iunquilia with the largest flower or cup.
6Narcissus totus albus flore pleno Virginianus. The double white Daffodill of Virginia.

[90]

{The white Autumne Daffodill with a sullen crowne & The yellow Italian Daffodill of Caccini}
Narcissus albus Autumnalis medio obsoletus. The white Autumne Daffodill with a sullen crowne.

This Autumne Daffodill hath two or three leaues at the most, and very narrow, so that some doe reckon it among the Rush Daffodils, being somewhat broad at the bottome, and more pointed at the toppe, betweene these leaues commeth vp the stalke, bearing vsually two flowers and no more at the toppe, made of sixe white leaues a peece, pointed and not round: the cup is small and round like vnto the cup or crowne of the least Rush Daffodill, of a yellow colour at the bottome but toward the edge of a dunne or sullen colour.

Narcissus angustifolius luteus semper florens Caccini. The yellow Italian Daffodill of Caccini.

This Daffodill beareth a number of small, long, narrow, and very greene leaues, broader then the leaues of any Rush Daffodill, among which rise vp diuers stalkes, bearing at the head two or three flowers a peece, each of them being small and yellow, the cup or crowne is small also, of a deeper yellow then the flower. The Nobleman of Florence, who first sent this plant to Christian Porret at Leyden, after the death of Carolus Clusius, writeth that euery stalke doth beare with him more store of flowers, then are formerly set downe, and that it neuer ceaseth to beare flowers, but that after one or more stalkes haue been in flower together, and are past, there succeed other in their places.

The Place.

The first is naturall of Spain, the naturall place of the other is not known to vs.

The Time.

The times of the flowring, are set downe both in the title and in the descriptions; the one to be in Autumne, the other to be all the Summer long.

The Names.

The Latine names are imposed on them, as are fittest for them, and the last by that honourable man that sent it, which is most fit to continue, and not to bee changed. But wee, to let it bee knowne by an English name to English people, haue entituled it, The yellow Italian Daffodill of Caccini: if any man can giue it a more proper name, I shall bee therewith right well content.

Narcissus angustifolius, siue Iuncifolius maximus, amplo calice. The great Iunquilia with the large flower or cup.

Although this Daffodill importeth by his name, not to be of this family, but of the next, considering it is so like vnto them, but bigger; yet I haue thought good to place it in the end of these narrow leafed Daffodils, as being indifferent, whether it should bee referred to this or to that. For this carrieth diuers long green leaues, like vnto the other Rush Daffodils, but thicker and broader, so that it may without any great errour, bee reckoned among these narrow leafed Daffodils, bearing at the toppe two or three very faire large flowers, with a large and more open cuppe, then in any other of the Rush Daffodils, both of them of a faire yellow colour, yet the cuppe a little deeper then the flower, and a little crumpled about the edges, and both a pretty sharpe sent: the roote is greater and longer then the other Rush Daffodill, and couered likewise with a blackish coate.

[91]

The Place.

We haue this in Gardens onely, and haue not heard of his naturall place.

The Time.

It flowreth in Aprill.

The Names.

I leaue it indifferent, as I said, whether you will call it Narcissus angustifolius, or Iuncifolius magno calice, or maximus, because it is the greatest of all the rest of that kinde.

Narcissus totus albus flore pleno Virginianus. The double white Daffodill of Virginia.

The roote of this Daffodill, is very like vnto the former single Virginia Daffodill, set forth in the first place of this ranke of narrow leafed Daffodils, but that it is a little bigger and rounder, being a little long withall, and blackish also on the outside, as that is: from whence riseth vp two leaues, somewhat broader then the former: but of a like greennesse: the stalke riseth vp betweene these two leaues, about a span high, or not much higher, bearing one faire double snow white flower, very like in the fashion vnto the pale yellow double Daffodill, or bastard Daffodill of Robinus, hereafter described: For it is in the like manner laid open flat, and composed of six rowes of leaues, euery rowe lying in order iust opposite, or one before another, whereof those six leaues that make the first or outermost course, are the greatest, and all the rest lying, as I said, one vpon or before another, are euery rowe smaller then others from the middle of this flower, thrusteth forth a small long pointed forke or horne, white as the flower is.

The Place.

The place is named to be Virginia, but in what part it is not known to vs.

The Time.

It flowreth in the end of Aprill.

The Names.

It may be that this doth grow among the former single kinde, and called by the same name Attamusco, for that the plant is not much differing, yet hereof I am not certaine: But we, from the forme and countenance of the plant, do call it Narcissus Virginianus, The Virginian Daffodill, and because it beareth a double flower, it hath the title of double added vnto it.

{True Daffodils: Rush Daffodils}

The third order of Daffodils, I said in the beginning was of Iuncifolios, Rush Daffodils, which are now next to be entreated of, I shall herein keepe the same order I vsed in the former; but because I finde none of this order, that beare but one flower vpon a stalke, I must begin with those that beare many.

1. Narcissus Iuncifolius albus. The white Iunquilia.

This white Rush Daffodill hath small long leaues, a little broader, and of a whiter greene colour then the ordinary yellow Rush Daffodils: the stalke riseth vp halfe a foote high or more, bearing two or three small white flowers vpon a stalke, yet somewhat bigger then the common yellow Rush Daffodill, hauing a small round cuppe in the middle, white also as the leaues are. The seede is small,[92] blacke, and round, as other seedes of Daffodils are: the roote is small and round, couered with a blackish coate.

Narcissus Iuncifolius albus magno calice. The white Iunquilia with a great cup.

There is of this kinde another sort, that hath the cup in the middle of the flower, a little larger then the other, but in all other things alike.

2. Narcissus Iuncifolius flore albo reflexo. The white turning Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill.

This turning white Daffodill hath foure or fiue long greene leaues, yet shorter and broader then the ordinary yellow Iunquilia, and fully as greene also, from among which riseth vp a slender greene stalke, a foote high bearing out of a thinne skinnie huske, three or foure, or more snow white flowers, standing vpon long greene foot-stalkes, euery flower hanging downe his head, and turning vp his six narrow and long leaues, euen to the very foot-stalk againe: from the middle of the flower hangeth downe a long round cuppe, as white as the leaues, within which are contained three small white chiues, tipt with yellow, and a small long pointell, thrusting out beyond the brimmes of the cup: after the flowers are past, there come vp in their places small three square heads, wherein is contained very small, round, and blacke shining seede: the roote is small, round, and a little long withall, couered with a blackish browne coate or skin. The flower is quite without any good sent, or indeed rather none at all.

3. Narcissus Iuncifolius flore luteo reflexo. The yellow turning Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill.

The leaues of the Rush Daffodill are greater and longer then the former, and of a paler greene colour: the stalke riseth somewhat higher, bearing two or three flowers thereon wholly of a gold yellow colour, both the cuppe and the leaues that turne vp againe.

4. Narcissus Iuncifolius calice albo reflexis folijs luteis. The yellow turning Iunquilia with a white cup.

This Daffodill hath his long rush-like leaues standing vpright as the former, betweene which riseth vp a greene stalke, about a foote high or more, bearing two or three flowers thereon, whose turning leaues are of a faire pale yellow, and the cuppe pale white, and not so pure a white as the former.

5. Narcissus Iuncifolius calice luteo reflexis folijs albidis. The white turning Iunquilia with a yellow cup.

As the last had the leaues of the flower that turne vp againe yellow, and the cuppe whitish, so this hath contrariwise the turning leaues of a whitish yellow, and the long cup yellower, else in his long green leaues, or any other thing, there is small difference.

6. Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus magno calice. The Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill with a great cup.

This Rush Daffodill hath bigger leaues, and longer then the ordinary yellow Rush Daffodill, being a little flat on the one side, and round on the other, but of the same greennesse with all the rest: the stalke riseth vp two foote high, bearing two, and sometimes three flowers thereon, being of a faire yellow colour, with a large open cup in the middle, of a little deeper yellow colour, like vnto the great Iunquilia with the large flower, before set downe, whereof this is a kinde, no doubt; but that is larger and greater then this, both in leafe, flower, cup, &c. and this onely somewhat lesse in all parts then that.

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Page 93: Iunquilia.
1Narcissus Iuncifolius albus. The white Iunquilia.
2Narcissus Iuncifolius flore albo reflexo. The white turning Iunquilia.
3Narcissus Iuncifolius calice luteo reflexis folijs albis. The yellow turning Iunquilia.
4Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus magno calice. The yellow Iunquilia with a great cuppe.
5Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus maior vulgaris. The ordinary yellow Iunquilia.
6Narcissus Iuncifolius Autumnalis flore viridi. The greene Autumne Iunquilia.
7Narcissus angustifolius aureus multiplex. The golden double narrow leafed Daffodill.
8Narcissus Iuncifolius flore pleno. The double Iunquilia.

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7. Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus vulgaris maior. The ordinary Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill.

This ordinary Rush Daffodill hath foure or fiue long greene round leaues, like vnto Rushes, whereof it tooke the name: among these leaues riseth vp the stalke, round and greene, a foote and a halfe high very often, bearing at the toppe three or foure flowers all yellow, but much smaller then the last, and so is the cup also: the seede is small and blacke, inclosed in small cornered heads; the roote is blackish on the outside. The smell of the flower is very sweete in all these sorts of Rush Daffodils.

8. Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus medius. The smaller Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill are like vnto the former, but smaller and rounder, the stalke riseth vp so high, nor are the flowers so great, but the leaues of the flower are a little rounder, and not so pointed as in the former, in all things else alike, sauing lesser.

9. Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus minor. The least Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill.

This least Daffodill hath fiue or six small greene leaues, a little broader, and not so long as the last, among which riseth vp a stalke almost a foote high, bearing one or two small flowers at the toppe, of a paler yellow colour then the former, with a yellow open cuppe, or crowne rather in the middle, bigger then in either of the last two: the roote is very small and blacke, like vnto the last in roundnesse and colour.

10. Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus albicantibus lineis distinctus. The yellow Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill with white lines.

This Rush Daffodill, hath round, greene, and long leaues, like vnto the ordinary Rush Daffodill, with a stalke bearing two or three yellow flowers, hauing leaues somewhat round at the point or end, with a line or strake of white in the middle of euerie one of them, the cup is short, and crowne fashion, a little crumpled about the brims: the seede, roote, or anything else differeth not.

11. Narcissus Iuncifolius Autumnalis flore viridi. The Autumne Rush Daffodill with a greene flower.

This strange Rush Daffodill (I call it strange, not onely because it differeth from all others of this kinde, but also because there are but few in these parts that haue had it, and fewer that doe still enioy it, in that it is perished withall that had it) hath but one onely leafe, very long, round, and greene, in all that euer I saw growing, which beareth no flower while that greene leafe is fresh, and to bee seene: but afterwards the stalke riseth vp, being like vnto the former greene leafe, round, naked, and greene vp to the toppe, where two or three flowers breake forth out of a small thin skinne, euery one consisting of six small and narrow greene leaues, very sharpe pointed at the end, and as it were ending in a small pricke or thorne: in the middle whereof is a small round cup, or rather crowne, of the same colour with the leaues and stalke, which flower smelleth very sweete, somewhat like vnto the rest of the Rush Daffodils: this sheweth not his flower vntill October, and the frosts quickly following after their flowring, cause them soone to perish.

12. Narcissus angustifolius aureus multiplex. The golden double narrow leafed Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill are very narrow, and of a whitish greene colour, not aboue foure or fiue inches long, from among which riseth vp a stalke about a foote high, bearing at the top one flower, consisting of some outer leaues, which are of a yel[95]low colour, and of many other leaues in the middle being smaller, and set thicke and round together of a more yellow gold colour, but with some whiter leaues among them, the middle part a little pointing forth; the flower standeth long before it doth perfect his colour, and abideth long in flower before the colour decay: the roote is in fashion almost like the ordinary Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill. I acknowledge this Daffodill hath not his proper place; but because the figure is set in this table, let it thus passe at this time.

13. Narcissus Iuncifolius luteus flore pleno. The double Iunquilia, or Rush Daffodill.

The double Rush Daffodill hath his long greene leaues round, like the leaues of the common or ordinary Rush Daffodill, and of the same bignesse, among which riseth vp a long slender greene stalke, bearing two or three, seldome more small flowers, yellow and double, that is, with diuers rowes of leaues, hauing the yellow cup such as is in the single flower, broken into small threads or peeces, running among the leaues of the flower, which peeces in some flowers are not so easily seene, being smaller then in others, this beareth no button or head vnder the flower for seede, his roote is round and blackish, browne on the outside, so like vnto the common Rush Daffodill, that it is almost impossible to know the one from the other.

Alter minori flore.

There is another of this kinde, whose flowers are smaller, and not so double, one, two, or three at the most vpon a stalke, and of lesse beauty by much.

The Place.

All these Rush Daffodils, doe for the most part grow in Spaine and France, and on the Pyrenæan Mountaines, which are betweene Spaine and France, which Mountains are the Nourseries of many of the finest flowers, that doe adorne the Gardens of these louers of natures pride, and gathered in part by industrious, learned, generous men, inhabiting neare thereunto, and in part by such as make a gaine of their labours, bestowed vpon these things. Onely that with the greene flower was gathered in Barbary, and imparted vnto vs from France.

The Time.

They flower in the Spring, that is, in March and Aprill, except such whose time is set downe to be in Autumne.

The Names.

Their names are specified in their titles, and therefore I shall not need to set downe any further repetitions.

{True Daffodils: Sea Daffodils}

To conclude therefore this discourse of true Daffodils, there remaineth to speake of the Sea Daffodils, which (as I said in the beginning) is but one, that is frequent, and doth abide with vs. But there bee some others found about the Cape of good Hope, and in the West Indies, and brought vnto these parts rather for ostentation, then continuance, where they haue flowred onely once (if peraduenture so often) so that being such strangers, of so remote Countries, and of so diuers natures, I shall but shew you some of them, rather cursorily then curiously; and but onely for your satisfaction, giue you knowledge of two or three of them, that there haue beene seene such in flower, and that they are scarce to bee seene againe, except they bee fetcht a new euery yeare that they be seene.

{The great white Sea Daffodil}
Narcissus Marinus, siue tertius Matthioli. The great white Sea Daffodill, or Matthiolus his third Daffodill.

The roote of this Daffodill by long continuance, standing in one place without being remoued, groweth to be much greater and larger, than any other Daffodill wha[96]tsoeuer, and as bigge as any meane Squilla or Sea Onion roote, hauing many long, thicke, and white fibres, or long rootes, diuersly branched, and spread vnder the vpper part of the earth beside some others that grow downward, and perish not euery yeare, as the fibres of all, or most of the other Daffodils doe; and therefore this plant will not thriue, and beare flowers, if it be often transplanted, but rather desire to abide in one place without remouing, as I said, and that not to be ouershadowed, or couered with other herbes standing too neare it, which then will flourish, and beare aboundantly: from this roote, which is couered with many blackish coates, ariseth six or seuen, or more leaues, twice so broad almost, as any of the former Daffodils, but not so long by halfe as many of them, being but short, in comparison of the breadth, and of a white greene colour; from the middle of which leaues, as also from the sides sometimes, springeth vp one or two, or more stalkes, roundish and thicke, and sometimes a little flat and cornered, a foote high or somewhat more, bearing at the toppe, out of a skinnie huske, eight, ten, twelue, or more very large flowers, consisting of six white leaues a peece, spread or laid open, with a white short cuppe or crowne in the middle, lying flat vpon the leaues, cut or diuided into six corners (and not whole, as the cuppe or crowne of any other single Daffodill) from euery of which edges, or corners of this cup or crowne, standeth one white long thread, a little crooked or turning vp at the end, tipt with a yellow pendent, and some other white threads tipt with yellow pendents, standing also in the middle: after the flower is past, there come vp great three square heads, wherein the seede is contained, which is great, blacke, and round, like vnto the seede of other Daffodils, but greater: the flower hath a reasonable good sent, but not very strong.

The Place.

It was first found by the Sea side, in the Isle of Sardinia, and on the high Mountaines also of the same Isle, where it hath borne by report, thirty fiue flowers vpon a stalke: it groweth likewise about Illyricum, and in diuers other places.

The Time.

It springeth later out of the ground then any other Daffodill, that is to say, not vntill the later end of March, or beginning of Aprill, and flowreth in the end of May, or the beginning of Iune: the seede is ripe in the end of Iuly, or beginning of August.

The Names.

The first that hath made mention of this Daffodill, was Matthiolus, who placed it in the third place among his Daffodils, and is most vsually now adayes called Narcissus tertius Matthioli, Matthiolus his third Daffodill, the rather, because Clusius vpon a more mature deliberation, first referred it thereunto, but called it at the first, Lilionarcissus Hemerocallidis facie, and, as hee saith, Iacobus Plateau (who first sent him the figure hereof, with the description) called it Lilionarcissus Orientalis, but Clusius vpon certaine information, that it grew in the places aforesaid, misliked the name of Orientalis, and added Hemerocallis, which yet is not fit, for that his Hemerocallis Valentina, is a plaine Pancration or Sea bastard Daffodill, whose middle cup is longer then the cup of any true Daffodill, which (as I said in the beginning of this Chapter) is the chiefest note of difference, betweene a true and a bastard Daffodill. I receiued the seede of this Daffodill among many other seedes of rare plants, from the liberality of Mʳ. Doctor Flud, one of the Physitians of the Colledge in London, who gathered them in the Vniuersity Garden at Pisa in Italy, and brought them with him, returning home from his trauailes into those parts, by the name of Martagon rarissimum, (and hauing sowne them, expected fourteene yeares, before I saw them beare a flower, which the first yeare that it did flower, bore foure stalkes of [97]flowers, with euery one of them eight or ten flowers on them) which of all other names, doth least answer the forme or qualities of this plant. It may most fitly be called Narcissus marinus maximus, in English, The great Sea Daffodill, both because it is a true Daffodill, and the greatest of all other, and also because it hath not been found, but in Islands, or else in other places neare the Sea. Lobelius entituleth it Pancratium Indicum alterum vernum, siue Narcissus Indicus alter facie Pancratij Monspeliaci, but all this is wide from the matter, as may easily be known, by that that hath been said before. It is generally (as I said before) called of all Narcissus tertius Matthioli, Matthiolus his third Daffodill, which may either so passe with vs, or as I called it, The great Sea Daffodill, which you will, & so Clusius doth lastly entitle it.

Page 97: Daffodill
1Narcissus tertius Matthioli. The great white Sea Daffodill.
2Narcissus Indicus Autumnalis. The Indian Autumne Daffodill.
3Narcissus marinus Africanus. The Sea Daffodill of Africa.
4Narcissus marinus exoticus. The strange Sea Daffodill.

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{Sea Daffodils and the Indian Autumne Daffodill}
1. Pancratium Indicum, aut Narcissus Indicus Autumnalis quorundam Lobelij. The Indian Autumne Daffodill of Lobel.

This plant hath in my opinion, a farre nearer resemblance vnto an Hyacinthus, then vnto any Daffodill: But because Lobel hath so set it forth, I will so publish it vnto you, leauing it to iudgement. The roote is, as he saith, a span long, and of the thicknesse of a mans arme, couered with many white shells, whereof the outermost are of a darke red or Chestnut colour: the flowers rise vp in September and October, being eight or ten in number, euery one by it selfe vpon a small footstalke, made of six leaues a peece, somewhat long, narrow, and pointed, like vnto the flowers of the English Colchicum, or Medowe Saffron, of a whitish yellow dunne colour, with six long threads in the middle: the greene leaues are long and broad, and broad pointed.

2. Narcissus Marinus Africanus, siue Exoticus Lobelij. The Sea Daffodill of Africa.

The roote of this strange plant (which of some likenesse is called a Daffodill) is very great, made as it were of many scaly cloues, from whence riseth vp a small short stalke, bearing hard aboue the ground two faire broad greene pointed leaues, more long then broad, so compassing the stalke at the bottome, that it seemeth to run through them: the stalke is spotted with diuers discoloured spots, and is bare or naked from these two leaues vnto the toppe, where it beareth one faire double flower, like vnto a double Anemone, of a delayed reddish colour, tending to a blush, with many threads set about the middle head.

3. Narcissus Marinus Exoticus. The strange Sea Daffodill.

The strange Sea Daffodill, hath fiue or six large and long leaues of a pale greene colour, from among which riseth vp a strong and bigge stalke, bearing at the toppe, out of a thinne hose or skinne, many very large flowers, made of six long and pointed leaues apeece, of a blewish purple colour, with a large round open cup in the middle, of a sadder colour then the leaues: the roote is very great, yet like vnto other great Daffodils, the outer skins whereof are of a darke browne colour.

The Place.

The Indian Daffodils grew in the vpper part of Hispaniola in the West Indies, and brought hither, where they all soone perished.

The other grew neare the Cape of good Hope, and was brought into the parts of Holland and thereabouts, from whence we had it, & perished also.

The last is vnknowne where it was gathered.

The Time.

The first flowred in Autumne, as it is said.

The other in the first Summer of their bringing.

And so did the last, but the same rootes will not flower with vs againe.

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The Names.

So much hath been said of their names in their titles, as hath come to our knowledge; and therefore let that suffice.

{Bastard Daffodils}

Thus hauing gone through the whole Family of the true Daffodils, (for so much as hath come to our knowledge) and set them downe euery one by his name, and in this order; it is fit that we speake of their bastard brethern, and shew you them also, in the same order held with the former, as neare as the plenty of variety herein, which is not the like with the former, will giue leaue, that when you know them both by face and name, you may the better know to place or distinguish of others, that haue not passed vnder this rod.

{Bastard Daffodils: Broad leaves, Single flowers}
Pseudonarcissus aureus Hispanicus maximus. The great yellow Spanish bastard Daffodill.

The roote of this kinde of Daffodill is reasonable great, and blackish on the outside, desiring to be deepe in the ground; and therefore will runne downe, where it will then encrease into many of-sets, from whence rise vp many thicke, long, and stiffe leaues, of a grayish greene colour, among which riseth vp a round strong stalke, sometimes three foote high or better, bearing at the toppe one onely faire great yellow flower, standing forth right, and not pendulous, consisting of six short and somewhat broad leaues, with a very great, large, and long trunke, of an equall largenesse, but open at the mouth, and turning vp the brimmes a little, which are somewhat crumpled: after the flower is past, there commeth in the place a three square head, containing round, blacke seede, like vnto other Daffodils.

Pseudonarcissus Pyrenæus Hispanico & Anglico similis. The Mountaine bastard Daffodill of diuers kindes.

There is much variety in this kinde of bastard Daffodill: For one sort hath verie broad and whitish greene leaues, somewhat short in comparison of others, that are of that breadth: the flower is wholly yellow, but a little paler then the former Spanish kinde, hauing the leaues of his flower long, and somewhat narrow, standing like wings about the middle trunke, which is as long as the leaues, and smaller then in many other of this kinde, but a little yellower then the wings. Another sort hath narrower green leaues then this last, and longer, the flower is all yellow, but the trunke is larger, wider, and more open at the mouth then the former, and almost as large as the former Spanish, but not so high as the last. A third hath the wings of the flower of a Strawe colour, but the trunke is long and narrow, of a faire yellow. A fourth hath such like flowers, but that it is shorter, both the wings and the trunke: Some likewise haue the wings of the flower longer, then the long trunke, and some shorter. Some also are all yellow, and some haue their wings onely a little more pale or white, like the English kinde: Some againe haue their trunkes long and narrow, others haue them larger and wider open, and crumpled at the brimmes; so that it is needlesse, to spend a great deale of time and labour vpon such smally respected flowers, but that in the beholding of them, we may therein admire the worke of the Creatour, who can frame such diuersity in one thing: But this is beside the text, yet not impertinent.

Pseudonarcissus pallidus præcox. The early Strawe coloured bastard Daffodill.

The leaues of this Daffodill are of a meane size, betweene the broadest and the narrower kindes, of a grayish greene colour, and not very long: the stalke riseth vp a foot high or more, whereon standeth one large great flower, equalling the greatest Spanish bastard Daffodill, before described, in the largenesse of his trunke, and hauing the brimmes turned vp a little, which maketh it seeme the larger: the wings or outer leaues are in a manner as short, as they are in the greatest Spanish kinde, (and not long flagging down, like vnto the Mountain kinds) and stand straight outright: all the whole flower is[100] of one euen colour, that is, of a fine pale yellow, somewhat like vnto the colour of a Lemon peele or rinde, but somewhat whiter, which vsually we call a Strawe colour; the greatnesse of the flower, the earlinesse of the flowring, and the difference of colour from all the rest of this kinde, hath made me entreate of it apart by it selfe, as being no lesse worthy.

Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus flore albo maior. The great white Spanish bastard Daffodill.

This bastard Daffodill hath diuers leaues rising vp together, long and broad, somewhat like vnto the first Spanish kinde, but a little broader, and of a whiter greene colour, yet not so white, as in the lesser Spanish white kindes, hereafter described: among these leaues riseth vp a round strong stalke, about two foote high, bearing one white flower at the toppe, bending downe the head, as all these white kindes doe, but is not of so pure a white, as the lesser kindes that follow, yet whiter then the greatest white Spanish kinde, next of all to be described: the whole flower, as well trunke as wings, is much larger then the lesser white kindes, and almost equalling the first Spanish yellow, but a little longer and narrower, a little crumpled and turning vp at the brimmes: the head and seede are like the first; the roote is greater and thicker then the first Spanish, and doth not encrease so much, nor is couered with a blacke, but rather with a whitish coate.

Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus maximus albidus. The greatest Spanish white bastard Daffodill.

This kinde of bastard Daffodill is very like the last mentioned Daffodill, both in leaues and flowers, but larger in both: the flower of this is not full so white, but hath some shew of palenesse therein, and more vpon the first opening of the flower then afterwards, and is as great altogether, as the great Spanish yellow, at the least with a longer, and somewhat narrower trunke: the seede is like vnto the former, and so is the roote also, but greater, being white on the outside, and not blacke.

Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus flore albo medius & minor. The two lesser white Spanish bastard Daffodils.

There are two other of these kindes of white Spanish Daffodils, one greater or lesser then the other, but neither of them so great as the former. The leaues of both are of a whitish greene colour, one a little broader then the other: the flowers of both are pure white, and bending downe the heads, that they almost touch the stalke againe, the greater flower hath the longer and narrower trunke; and the lesser flower, the shorter and wider open, yet both a little crumpled at the edges or brimmes: the rootes of both are like one vnto another, but differ in the greatnesse. From the seede of these haue sprung much variety, few or none keeping either colour or height with the mother plants.

Pseudonarcissus Anglicus vulgaris. Our common English wilde bastard Daffodill.

This bastard Daffodill is so common in all England, both in Copses, Woods, and Orchards, that I might well forbeare the description thereof, and especially, in that growing wilde, it is of little respect in our Garden: but yet, lest I bee challenged of ignorance in common plants, and in regard of some variety therein worth the marking. I will set downe his description and variety as briefly as I may: It hath three or foure grayish greene leaues, long and somewhat narrow, among which riseth vp the stalke, about a span high or little higher, bearing at the toppe, out of a skinnie huske, as all other Daffodils haue, one flower (although sometimes I haue seene two together) somewhat large, hauing the six leaues that stand like wings, of a pale yellow colour, and the long trunke in the middle of a faire yellow, with the edges or brimmes a little crumpled or vneuen: after the flower is past, it beareth a round head, seeming three square, containing round blacke seede; the roote is somewhat blackish on the outside.

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But there is another of this kinde like vnto the former, whose further description you haue here before; the wings of which flower are much more white then the former, and in a manner of a milke white colour, the trunke remaining almost as yellow as the former, and not differing in any thing else.

Page 101: Bastard Daffodill.
1Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus maximus aureus. The great yellow Spanish bastard Daffodill.
2Pseudonarcissus Pyrenæus variformis. The Mountaine bastard Daffodill of diuers kindes.
3Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus maior albus. The greater white Spanish bastard Daffodill.
4Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus minor albus. The lesser Spanish white bastard Daffodill.
5Pseudonarcissus tubo sexangulari. The six cornered bastard Daffodill.
6Pseudonarcissus maximus aureus, siue Roseus Tradescanti. Iohn Tradescants great Rose Daffodill.
7Pseudonarcissus aureus Anglicus maximus. Master Wilmers great double Daffodill.
8Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus aureus flore pleno. The double Spanish Daffodill, or Parkinsons double Daffodill.
9Pseudonarcissus Gallicus maior flore pleno. The greater double French Daffodill.
10Pseudonarcissus Anglicus flore pleno. The double English Daffodill, or Gerrards double Daffodill.

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Pseudonarcissus tubo sexangulari. The six cornered bastard Daffodill.

This kinde of Daffodill hath two or three long, and somewhat broader leaues then the last, between which commeth forth a stalke, bearing one flower somewhat large hauing the six outer leaues of a pale yellow colour, and the long trunke plaited or cornered all along vnto the very edge into six parts, of a little deeper yellow then the wings.

The Place.

The first great Spanish kinde was brought out of Spaine. The rest from the Pyrenæan Mountaines, onely the last sauing one is plentifull in our owne Country, but the white sort of that kinde came with the rest from the same Mountaines.

The Time.

The pale or third kinde, and the English bee the most early, all the rest flower in Aprill, and the greatest yellow somewhat earlier, then the other greater or lesser white.

The Names.

Their seuerall names are expressed in their titles sufficient to distinguish them, and therefore there needeth no more to be said of them.

{Double flowered Bastard Daffodils}
1. Pseudonarcissus aureus maximus flore pleno, siue Roseus Tradescanti. The greatest double yellow bastard Daffodill, or Iohn Tradescant his great Rose Daffodill.

This Prince of Daffodils (belongeth primarily to Iohn Tradescant, as the first founder thereof, that we know, and may well bee entituled the Glory of Daffodils) hath a great round roote, like vnto other Daffodils, couered with a brownish outer skinne or peeling, from whence riseth vp foure or fiue somewhat large and broad leaues, of a grayish greene colour, yet not fully so long and large as the next following Daffodill: from the middle whereof riseth vp a stalke almost as high and great as it, bearing at the toppe (out of a skinnie huske) one faire large great flower (the budde, before it breake open, being shorter and thicker in the middle, and ending in a longer and sharper point then any of the other Daffodils) very much spread open, consisting of smaller and shorter leaues then the next, but more in number, and thicker and rounder set together, making it seeme as great and double as any Prouince Rose, and intermixt with diuers yellow and pale leaues, as it were on rowes one vnder another. It abideth long in flower, and spreadeth, by standing long, to be the broadest in compasse of any of the Daffodils, but falleth away at the last without giuing any seede, as all double Daffodils doe.

2. Pseudonarcissus aureus Anglicus maximus. Mʳ. Wilmers great double Daffodill.

The other great double Daffodill doth so neare resemble our ordinary English double kinde, that I doe not finde therein any greater difference, then the largenesse both of leaues and flowers, &c., and the statelinesse of growth. It beareth three or foure large, long, and broad leaues, somewhat longer and broader then the former, and of a whitish greene colour: the stalke riseth to bee two foote high, growing (in a fruitfull and fat soyle) strong, and somewhat round, bearing at the toppe, out of a thin skinne, one great and faire double flower, each leafe whereof is twice as large and[103] broad as the former, diuersly intermixt with a rowe of paler, and a rowe of deeper yellow leaues, wholly dispersed throughout the flower, the pale colour as well as the deeper yellow, in this as in the other small English kinde, growing deeper by standing: sometimes the leaues hereof are scattered, and spread wholly, making it shew a faire, broad, open flower: and sometimes the outer leaues stand separate from the middle trunke, which is whole and vnbroken, and very thicke of leaues: and sometimes the middle trunke, will bee halfe broken, neither expressing a full open double flower, nor a close double trunke, as it is likewise seene in the small English kinde, as shall bee declared in his place: this beareth no seede; the roote hereof is thicke and great, and encreaseth as well as any other Daffodill.

3. Pseudonarcissus aureas Hispanicus flore pleno. The great double yellow Spanish bastard Daffodill, or Parkinsons Daffodill.

This double Spanish Daffodill hath diuers leaues rising from the roote, stiffer, narrower, and not of so whitish a greene colour as the former, but more sullen or grayish, plainely resembling the leaues of the single great kinde, from whence this hath risen: the stalke hereof likewise riseth almost as high as it, and neare the height of the last recited double, bearing one double flower at the toppe, alwayes spread open, and neuer forming a double trunke like the former, yet not so faire and large as it, the outermost leaues whereof being of a greenish colour at the first, and afterward more yellow, doe a little turne themselues backe againe to the stalke, the other leaues are some of a pale yellow, and others of a more gold yellow colour, those that stand in the middle are smaller, and some of them shew as if they were hollow trunked, so that they seeme to be greenish, whitish, yellow, and gold yellow, all mixed one among another: the root is great, round, and whitish on the inside, couered with darke coloured skinnes or peelings. I thinke none euer had this kinde before my selfe, nor did I my selfe euer see it before the yeare 1618, for it is of mine own raising and flowring first in my Garden.

4. Pseudonarcissus Gallicus maior flore pleno. The greater double French bastard Daffodill.

This greater double Daffodill, hath his whitish greene leaues longer and broader then the smaller French kinde, hereafter following, to bee described, and broader, longer, and more limber then the double English kinde: the stalke riseth vp not much higher, then the smaller French kinde, but a little bigger, bearing at the top one great double flower, which when it is fully and perfectly blowne open (which is but seldome; for that it is very tender, the leaues being much thinner, and thereby continually subiect, vpon any little distemperature of the time, to cleaue so fast one vnto another, that the flower cannot blow open faire) is a faire and goodly flower, larger by halfe then the smaller kinde, and fuller of leaues, of the same pale whitish yellow, or Lemon colour, with the lesser, or rather a little whiter, and not set in the same order of rowes as it is, but more confusedly together, and turning backe the ends of the outermost leaues to the stalke againe, and hauing the bottome of the flower on the backside somewhat greene, neither of which is found in the lesser kinde: the roote is very like vnto the lesser kinde, but a little bigger and longer.

5. Pseudonarcissus Anglicus flore pleno. The double English bastard Daffodill, or Gerrards double Daffodill.

The leaues of this double Daffodill are very like vnto the single kinde, being of a whitish greene colour, and somewhat broad, a little shorter and narrower, yet stiffer then the former French kinde: the stalke riseth vp about a foote high, bearing at the toppe one very double flower, the outermost leaues being of the same pale colour, that is to bee seene in the wings of the single kinde; those that stand next them are some as deepe a yellow as the trunke of the single, and others of the same pale colour, with some greene stripes on the backe of diuers of the leaues: thus is the whole flower variably intermixt with pale and deepe yellow, and some greene stripes among them,[104] when it is fully open, and the leaues dispersed and broken. For sometimes the flower sheweth a close and round yellow trunke in the middle, separate from the pale outer wings, which trunke is very double, shewing some pale leaues within it, dispersed among the yellow: And sometimes the trunke is more open, or in part broken, shewing forth the same colours intermixt within it: the flower passeth away without giuing any seede, as all other bulbous rootes doe that beare double flowers: the roote is small, very like vnto the French double kindes, especially the lesser, that it is verie hard to know the one from the other.

The Place.

The first and greatest kinde, we had first from Iohn Tradescante (as I said before) whether raised from seed, or gained from beyond Sea, I know not.

The second we first had from Vincent Sion, borne in Flanders, dwelling on the Bank side, in his liues time, but now dead; an industrious and worthy louer of faire flowers, who cherished it in his Garden for many yeares, without bearing of any flowers vntill the yeare 1620, that hauing flowred with him, (and hee not knowing of whom hee receiued it, nor hauing euer seene the like flower before) he sheweth it to Mʳ. Iohn de Franqueuille, of whom he supposed he had receiued it, (for from beyond Sea he neuer receiued any) who finding it to bee a kinde neuer seene or knowne to vs before, caused him to respect it the more, as it is well worthy. And Mʳ. George Wilmer of Stratford Bowe Esquire, in his liues time hauing likewise receiued it of him (as my selfe did also) would needes appropriate it to himselfe, as if he were the first founder thereof, and call it by his owne name Wilmers double Daffodill, which since hath so continued.

The third is of mine owne fostering or raising, as I said before; for assuredly, it is risen from the seede of the great Spanish single kinde, which I sowed in mine owne Garden, and cherished it, vntill it gaue such a flower as is described.

The fourth is not certainly knowne where his originall should be: Some thinke it to be of France, and others of Germany.

The last is assuredly first naturall of our owne Countrey, for Mʳ. Gerrard first discouered it to the world, finding it in a poore womans Garden in the West parts of England, where it grew before the woman came to dwell there, and, as I haue heard since, is naturall of the Isle of Wight.

The Time.

They doe all flower much about one time, that is, from the middle or end of March, as the yeare is forward, vnto the middle of Aprill.

The Names.

Vpon the three first I haue imposed the names in Latine, as they are expressed in their titles: and for the English names, if you please, you may let them passe likewise as they are expressed there also, that thereby euery one may be truely distinguished, and not confounded. The fourth, besides the name in the title, is called of some Narcissus Germanicus, which whether it be of Germany, or no, I know not; but that the name should import so much. The last doth vsually carry Mʳ. Gerrards name, and called Gerrards double Daffodill.

{Bastard Daffodils: Narrow leaves}
1. Pseudonarcissus angustifolius flore flauescente tubo quasi abscisso. The narrow leafed bastard Daffodill with the clipt trunke.

This kinde of Daffodill hath long and narrow grayish greene leaues, bearing one single flower at the toppe of his stalke, like vnto the former single bastard kindes, be[105]fore specified, hauing his outer leaues of a pale yellow colour, and his trunke of a deeper yellow: the chiefe differences in this from the former, is in the leaues, being narrow, and then in the trunke of the flower, which is not crumpled or turned vp, as most of the other are; and that the brimmes or edges of the flower is as if it had been clipt off, or cut euen.

2. Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus medius & minor luteus. The two lesser Spanish yellow bastard Daffodils.

These two lesser kindes of Spanish Daffodils, doe but differ in greatnesse the one from the other, and not in any thing else; so that in declaring the one, you may vnderstand the other to bee a little greater. The lesser hath three or foure narrow short whitish greene leaues, from among which commeth forth a short stalke, not aboue an hand breadth, or halfe a foote high, bearing one single flower, not fully standing outright, but a little bending downe, consisting of six small leaues, standing as wings about a small, but long trunke, a little crumpled at the brimmes: the whole flower, as well leaues as trunke, are of one deepe yellow colour, like vnto the great Spanish kinde: the roote is but small, and couered with a darkish coate. The other is in all parts greater, and (as I said) differeth not else.

3. Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus luteus minimus. The least Spanish yellow bastard Daffodill.

The leaues of this small kinde are smaller and shorter then the former, seldome exceeding the length of three inches, and very narrow withall, but of the same grayish greene colour with the former: euery flower standeth vpon a small and short footestalke, scarce rising aboue the ground; so that his nose, for the most part, doth lye or touch the ground, and is made after the same fashion, and of the same colour with the former, but much smaller, as his roote is so likewise.

4. Pseudonarcissus Gallicus minor flore pleno. The lesser French double bastard Daffodill.

The rootes of this lesser French kinde (if I may lawfully call it, or the greater kinde before specified, a bastard Daffodill; for I somewhat doubt thereof, in that the flower of either is not made after the fashion of any of the other bastard Daffodils, but doth more nearely resemble the forme of the double white Daffodill, expressed before among the true Daffodils) are like vnto the double English kinde, as also to the former double great French kinde, and the leaues are of the same whitish greene colour also, but narrower and not longer: the stalke riseth a little higher then the English, and not fully so high as the greater French, bearing one faire double flower thereon, of a pale yellow or Lemon colour, consisting of six rowes of leaues, euery rowe growing smaller then other vnto the middle, and so set and placed, that euery leafe of the flower doth stand directly almost in all, one vpon or before another vnto the middle, where the leaues are smallest, the outermost being the greatest, which maketh the flower seeme the more beautifull: this and the greater kinde hath no trunke, or shew of any other thing in the middle, as all or most of the other former double bastard Daffodils haue, but are flowers wholly composed of leaues, standing double euen to the middle.

The Place.

The first is vndoubtedly a naturall of the Pyrenæan Mountaines.

The Spanish kindes grew in Spaine, and

The French double kinde about Orleance in France, where it is said to grow plentifully.

The Time.

The first flowreth at the end of March.

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The Spanish kindes are the most early, flowring betimes in March.

The French double doth flower presently after.

The Names.

More cannot bee said or added, concerning the names of any of these Daffodils, then hath been set downe in their titles: onely the French kinde is most vsually called Robinus his Daffodill.

{Bastard Rush Daffodils}
Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolius albus. The white bastard Rush Daffodill, or Iunquilia.

This bastard Rush Daffodill hath two or three long and very greene leaues, very like vnto the small yellow Rush Daffodill, formerly described, but not altogether so round, among which riseth vp a short stalke, seldome halfe a foote high, bearing at the toppe, out of a small skinnie huske, one small white flower, sometime declining to a pale colour, hauing six small and short leaues, standing about the middle of the trunke, which is long, and much wider open at the mouth, then at the bottome: the small outer leaues or wings are a little tending to greene, and the trunke (as I said) is either white, or whitish, hauing the brimmes a little vneuen: the seede is small, blacke, and round, like vnto other Rush Daffodils, but smaller.

Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolia, luteus maior. The greater yellow Iunquilia, or bastard Daffodill.

The leaues of this greater kinde are longer, greater, and a little broader then the former; the stalke also is higher, and the flower larger, more open at the mouth and crumpled, then the white, but wholly of a yellow colour: the seede and the roots are bigger, according to the proportion of the plant.

Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolius luteus minor. The lesser yellow bastard Iunquilia.

This is so like vnto the last in all things, that I shall not neede to trouble you with repetitions of the same things formerly spoken; the chiefest difference is the smallnesse of the plant in all parts.

Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolius luteus serotinus. The late yellow bastard Iunquilia.

There is likewise a third kinde, as great as the greater yellow, and in all his parts expressing and equalling it, but is accounted the fairer, and flowreth somewhat later.

The Place.

The Pyrenæan Hils haue afforded vs all these varieties, and wee preserue them carefully; for they are all tender.

The Time.

All these flower in Aprill, except the last, which is a moneth later.

The Names.

The French and Lowe-Countrey men call them Trompettes, that is, Trumpets, from the forme of the trunke; wee sometimes call them also by that name, but more vsually bastard Iunquilia’s.

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Page 107: Bastard Daffodill.
1Pseudonarcissus tubo quasi abscisso. The bastard Daffodill with the clipt trunke.
2Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus minor. The lesser Spanish bastard Daffodill.
3Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus minimus. The least Spanish bastard Daffodill.
4Pseudonarcissus Gallicus minor flore pleno. The lesser double French bastard Daffodil.
5Pancratium flore albo. The white Sea bastard Daffodil.
6Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolius luteus maior. The greater yellow bastard Iunquilia.
7Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolius luteus minor. The lesser yellow bastard Iunquilia.
8Pseudonarcissus Iuncifolius luteus serotinus. The late yellow bastard Iunquilia.
9Leucoium bulbosum præcox maius. The great early bulbous Violet.
Leucoium bulbosum præcox minus. The lesser early bulbous Violet.
10Leucoium bulbosum autumnale. The small Autumne bulbous Violet.
11Leucoium bulbosum maius serotinum. The great late flowring bulbous Violet.
Pseudonarcissus marinus albus, Pancratium vulgo. The white Sea bastard Daffodill.

The Sea bastard Daffodill (to conclude this Chapter, and the discourse of Daffodils)[108] hath diuers broad whitish greene leaues, but not very long, among which riseth vp a stiffe round stalke, at the top whereof breaketh out of a great round skinny huske, fiue or six flowers, euery one made somewhat of the fashion of the great bastard Rush Daffodill, but greater, and wholly white; the six leaues, being larger and longer then in the Rush kinde, and extending beyond the trunke, are tipt with greene at the point of each leafe, and downe the middle likewise on the backside. The trunke is longer, larger, and wider open at the mouth, cut in or indented at the brims or edges, and small at the bottome, with diuers white threeds in the middle, and is very sweet: vnder the flower is a round greene head, which groweth very great, hauing within it, when it is ripe, flat and blacke seede: the roote is great and white.

Flore luteo, & flore rubro.

It is reported, that there are found other sorts; some that beare yellow flowers, and others that beare red: but we haue seene none such, and therefore I can say no more of them.

The Place.

This kinde groweth neare the Sea side, both in Spaine, Italy, and France, within the Straights, and for the most part, vpon all the Leuant shoare and Islands also, but will seldome either flower, or abide with vs in these colder Countries, as I haue both seene by those that I receiued from a friend, and heard by others.

The Time.

It flowreth in the end of Summer, that is, in August and September.

The Name.

Diuers doe call it Pancratium, as the learned of Mompeher, and others, with the addition of flore Lilij, after they had left their old errour, in taking it to be Scylla, and vsing it for Scylla, in the Trochisces that go into Andromachus Treakle. The learned of Valentia in Spaine, as Clusius saith, doe call it Hemerocallis, thinking it to be a Lilly; and Clusius doth thereupon call it, Hemerocallis Valentina: but in my opinion, all these are deceiued in this plant; for it is neither a Lilly, to haue the name of Hemerocallis giuen vnto it, nor Scylla, nor Pancratium, as many doe yet call it: for certainly this is a kinde of Daffodill; the forme both of roote, leafe, and flower, doth assure me that haue seene it, and not Pancratium, which (as Dioscorides testifieth) is a kinde of Scylla, and in his time called Scylla, with a red roote, and a leafe like a Lilly, but longer, and was vsed both with the same preparation and quantity, and for the same diseases that Scylla was vsed, but that his force was weaker: all which doth plainly shew the errours that many learned men haue been conuersant in, and that all may see how necessary the knowledge of Herbarisme is to the practice of Physicke; And lest the roote of this Sea bastard Daffodill bee vsed in the stead of an wholesome remedy, which (as Clusius maketh mention) was deadly to him that did but cut his meate with that knife, which had immediately before cut this roote, and done in malice by him, that knew the force thereof, to kill his fellow, it working the more forceably by the euill attracting quality of the iron.

The Vertues of Daffodils in generall.

Howsoeuer Dioscorides and others, doe giue vnto some of them speciall properties, both for inward and outward diseases, yet know I not any in these dayes with vs, that apply any of them as a remedy for any griefe, whatsoeuer Gerrard or others haue written.


[109]

Chap. X.
Leucoium bulbosum. The bulbous Violet.

Hauing thus set downe the whole family, both of the true and bastard Daffodils, I should next set in hand with the Hyacinths; but because Leucoium bulbosum, The bulbous Violet is a plant that doth challenge a place next vnto the Daffodils, as most nearly partaking with them, and a little with the Hyacinthes, I must of necessity interpose them, and shew their descriptions and differences, whereof some are early, of the first Spring, others later, and some of the Autumne.

{Early bulbous Violets}

Leucoium bulbosum præcox maius. The greater early bulbous Violet.

This bulbous Violet hath three or foure very greene, broad, flat, and short leaues, among which riseth vp a naked greene stalke, bearing out of a small skinny hose (as the former Daffodils doe) one white flower, hanging downe his head by a very small foot-stalke, made of six leaues, of an equall length, euery one whereof is tipt at the end with a small greenish yellow spot: after the flower is past, the head or seed-vessell groweth to be reasonable great, somewhat long and round, wherein is contained hard round seede, which being dry, is cleare, and of a whitish yellow colour: the roote is somewhat like a Daffodill roote, and couered with a blackish outside or skinne.

Leucoium bulbosum præcox minus. The lesser early bulbous Violet.

This lesser kinde riseth vp with two narrow grayish greene leaues, between which commeth forth the stalke, fiue or six inches high, bearing one small pendulous flower, consisting of three white leaues, which are small and pointed, standing on the outside, and hauing three other shorter leaues, which seeme like a cup in the middle, being each of them round at the ends, and cut in the middle, making the forme of an heart, with a greene tippe or spot at the broad end or edge: the seede is whitish, inclosed in long and round heads, like the former, but lesser: the roote is like a small Daffodill, with a blackish gray coate, and quickly diuideth into many of-sets.

Minus Byzantinum.

There is another of this kinde, that came among other bulbous rootes from Constantinople, and differeth in nothing from it, but that it is a little greater, both in root, leafe, and flower.

The Place.

The two first are found in many places of Germany, and Hungary. The third, as I said, was brought from Constantinople.

The Time.

The two lesser sorts doe most commonly flower in February, if the weather be any thing milde, or at the furthest in the beginning of March, but the first is seldome in flower, before the other be well neare past, or altogether.

The Names.

Lobel and Dodonæus call the lesser kinde Leucoium triphyllum, and Leuconarcissolirion triphyllum, of the three leaues in the flower. Some doe call it Viola bulbosa alba. The first or greater kinde is called by Lobel, Leuconarcissolirion paucioribus floribus; and by Dodonæus, Leucoium bulbosum hexaphyllum. We doe most vsually call them, Leucoium bulbosum præcox maius, & minus, The greater, or the lesser early bulbous Violet. In Dutch, Somer Sottekens, and not Druiskens, which are Grape-flowers, as some haue thought.

[110]

{Late bulbous Violets}

1. Leucoium bulbosum Vernum minimum. The small bulbous Violet of the Spring.

This small Leucoium sendeth forth his small and long greene leaues, like haires in Autumne, and before Winter, which abide greene vntill Aprill, and then wither away quite, and about May there ariseth vp a naked slender stalke, at the toppe whereof breake forth two small white flowers, made of six leaues a peece, hanging downe their heads, the three inner leaues being a little larger then the three outward, a little reddish neare the stalke, and very sweete: the root is small and round, and couered with a darke coate.

2. Leucoium bulbosum Autumnale. The small Autumne bulbous Violet.

As the former small Leucoium sprang vp with his leaues without flowers in Autumne, so this contrariwise, riseth vp with his slender brownish stalke of flowers in Autumne, before any greene leaues appeare, whereon stand two or three very small snow white pendulous flowers, consisting of six leaues a peece, and a little reddish at the bottome of the flower next vnto the stalke, so like vnto the former, that one would take them to be both one: after which, there grow small browne heads, containing small, blacke, round seed; after the flower is past, and the seede is ripening, and sometimes after the heads are ripe, the leaues begin to spring vp, which when they are full growne, are long, greene, and as small, or smaller then the leaues of the Autumne Hyacinth, which abide all the Winter, and Spring following, and wither away in the beginning of Summer: the roote is small, long, and white.

3. Leucoium maius bulbosum serotinum. The great late flowring bulbous Violet.

The late bulbous Violet hath three or foure broad flat greene leaues, very like vnto the first, but longer, among which riseth vp a flattish stalke, being thicker in the middle then at both edges, on the toppe whereof stand three or foure flowers, hanging downe their heads, consisting of six leaues a peece, all of an equall length and bignesse, wholly white, except that each leafe hath a greene tippe at the end of them: the seede hereof is blacke and round; the roote is reasonable great and white.

The Place.

The two former small ones were first found in Spaine, and Portugall, and sent to me by Guillaume Boel; but the first was so tender, that scarce one of a score sprang with me, or would abide. The greatest haue beene found wilde in Germany and Austria.

The Time.

The small ones haue their times expressed in their titles and descriptions, the last flowreth not vntill May.

The Names.

These names that are set downe in their titles, doe passe with all Herbarists in these daies.

The Vertues.

Wee haue not knowne these plants vsed Physically, either inwardly or outwardly, to any purposes in these dayes.


[111]

Chap. XI.
Hyacinthus. The Hyacinth or Iacinth.

The Iacinths are next to be entreated of, whereof there are many more kindes found out in these later times, then formerly were knowne, which for order and method sake, I will digest vnder seuerall sorts, as neare as I can, that auoiding confusion, by enterlacing one among another, I may the better put euery sort vnder his owne kinde.

{Indian knobbed Iacinth}

Hyacinthus Indicus maior tuberosa radice. The greater Indian knobbed Iacinth.

I haue thought fittest to begin with this Iacinth, both because it is the greatest and highest, and also because the flowers hereof are in some likenesse neare vnto a Daffodill, although his roote be tuberous, and not bulbous as all the rest are. This Indian Iacinth hath a thicke knobbed roote (yet formed into seuerall heads, somewhat like vnto bulbous rootes) with many thicke fibres at the bottome of them; from the diuers heads of this roote arise diuers strong and very tall stalkes, beset with diuers faire, long, and broad leaues, ioyned at the bottome close vnto the stalke, where they are greatest, and grow smaller to the very end, and those that grow higher to the toppe, being smaller and smaller, which being broken, there appeare many threeds like wooll in them: the toppes of the stalkes are garnished with many faire large white flowers, each whereof is composed of six leaues, lying spread open, as the flowers of the white Daffodill, with some short threeds in the middle, and of a very sweete sent, or rather strong and headie.

Hyacinthus Indicus minor tuberosa radice. The smaller Indian knobbed Iacinth.

The roote of this Iacinth is knobbed, like the roote of Arum or Wake Robin, from whence doe spring many leaues, lying vpon the ground, and compassing one another at the bottome, being long and narrow, and hollow guttered to the end, which is small and pointed, no lesse woolly, or full of threeds then the former: from the middle of these leaues riseth vp the stalke, being very long and slender, three or foure foot long, so that without it be propped vp, it will bend downe, and lye vpon the ground, whereon are set at certaine distances many short leaues, being broad at the bottome, where they doe almost compasse the stalke, and are smaller toward the end where it is sharpe pointed: at the top of the stalke stand many flowers, with a small peece of a green leafe at the bottome of euery foot-stalke, which seeme to bee like so many white Orientall Iacinths, being composed of six leaues, which are much thicker then the former, with six chiues or threeds in the middle, tipt with pale yellow pendents.

The Place.

They both grow naturally in the West Indies, from whence being first brought into Spaine, haue from thence been dispersed vnto diuers louers of plants.

The Time.

They flower not in these cold Countries vntill the middle of August, or not at all, if they bee not carefully preserued from the iniury of our cold Winters; and then if the precedent Summer be hot, it may be flower a moneth sooner.

The Names.

Clusius calleth the lesser (for I thinke hee neuer saw the first) Hyacinthus[112] Indicus tuberosa radice, that is in English, The Indian Iacinth with a tuberous roote: Some would call these Hyacinthus Eriophorus Indicus, that is, The Indian woolly Iacinth, because they haue much wooll in them when they are broken; yet some doe doubt that they are not two plants seuerall, as of greater and lesser, but that the greatnesse is caused by the fertility of the soyle wherein it grew.

{Muske Grape-flower}

1. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Moschatus, siue Muscari flore flauo. The great yellow Muske Grape-flower, or yellow Muscari.

This Muske Iacinth or Grape-flower, hath fiue or six leaues spread vpon the ground in two or three heads, which at the first budding or shooting forth out of the ground, are of a reddish purple colour, and after become long, thicke, hollow, or guttered on the vpper side, of a whitish greene colour, and round and darke coloured vnderneath: in the middle of these heads of leaues, rise vp one or two hollow weake brownish stalkes, sometimes lying on the ground with the weight of the flowers, (but especially of the seede) yet for the most part standing vpright, when they are laden towards the toppe, with many bottle-like flowers, which at their first appearing, and vntill the flowers begin to blow open, are of a browne red colour, and when they are blowne, of a faire yellow colour, flowring first below, and so vpwards by degrees, euery one of these flowers is made like vnto a little pitcher or bottle, being bigge in the belly, and small at the mouth, which is round, and a little turned vp, very sweete in smell, like vnto Muske, whereof it tooke the name Muscari; after the flowers are past, there come three square thicke heads, puffed vp as if it were bladders, made of a spongie substance, wherein are here and there placed blacke round seed: the roote is long, round, and very thicke, and white on the outside, with a little woollinesse on them, being broken, and full of a slimie iuice, whereunto are annexed thicke, fat, and long fibres, which perish not as most of the other Iacinths; and therefore desireth not to bee often remoued, as the other sorts may.

2. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Moschatus, seu Muscari flore cineritio. The Ashcoloured Muske Grape-flower, or Muscari.

This Muscari differeth not in rootes, or forme of leaues or flowers from the former, the chiefe differences are these: the leaues hereof do not appeare so red at the first budding out of the ground, nor are so darke when they are fully growne; the stalke also most vsually hath more store of flowers thereon, the colour whereof at the first budding is a little duskie, and when they are full blowne, are of a bleake, yet bright ash-colour, with a little shew of purple in them, and by long standing change a little more gray; being as sweete, or as some thinke, more sweete then the former: the roote (as I said) is like the former, yet yeeldeth more encrease, and will better endure our cold clymate, although it doth more seldome giue ripe seede.

3. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Moschatus, siue Muscari flore rubro. The red Muske Grape-flower.

This kinde (if there be any such, for I am in some doubt thereof) doth chiefly differ in the colour of the flower from the first, in that this should beare flowers when they are blowne, of a red colour tending to yellownesse.

4. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Moschatus, siue Muscari flore albo. The white Muske Grape-flower.

This also is said to haue (if there bee such an one) his leaues like vnto the second kinde, but of a little whiter greene, and the flowers pale, tending to a white: the roots of these two last are said vsually not to grow to be so great as of the former two.

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Page 113: Iacinth, Muscari, Grape-flower.
1Hyacinthus Indicus maior tuberosa radice. The greater Indian knobbed Iacinth.
2Hyacinthus Indicus minor tuberosa radice. The lesser Indian knobbed Iacinth.
3Muscari flore flauo. The yellow Muscari.
4Muscari flore cineritio. The ashcoloured Muscari.
5Hyacinthus Botroides cæruleus amænus. The skie coloured Grape-flower.
6Hyacinthus Botroides flore albo. The white Grape-flower.
Hyacinthus Botroides ramosus. The branched Grape-flower.
The Place.

The rootes of the two first sorts, haue been often sent from Constantinople[114], among many other sorts of rootes, and it may be come thither from beyond the Bosphorus in Asia; we haue them in our Gardens.

The other two sorts are sprung (it is probable, if they be in rerum natura) from the seede of the two former; for we could neuer get such from Constantinople, as if the Turkes had neuer knowledge of any such.

The Time.

They flower in March or Aprill, as the yeare is temperate, but the first is soonest vp out of the ground.

The Names.

The two former haue beene sent from Turkie by the name of Muschoromi and Dipcadi. Matthiolus calleth it Bulbus vomitorius, saying that no root doth more prouoke vomit then it. Caspar Bauhinus doth most properly call it Hyacinthus Moschatus. It is most generally called Muscari, by all Herbarists and Florists, yet because it doth so neerely resemble the Grape-flower, I haue named it Hyacinthus Botroides maior Moschatus, to put a difference from the lesser Grape-flowers that follow; in English, The great Muske Grape-flower, or Muscari.

{Grape-flower}

Hyacinthus Botroides minor cæruleus obscurus. The darke blew Grape-flower.

This Grape-flower hath many small, fat, and weake leaues lying vpon the ground, which are somewhat brownish at their first comming vp, and of a sad greene afterwards, hollow on the vpperside, and round vnderneath, among which rise vp round, smooth, weake stalkes, bearing at the toppe many small heauie bottle-like flowers, in shape like the former Muscari, but very thicke thrust together, smaller, and of a very darke or blackish blew colour, of a very strong smell, like vnto Starch when it is new made, and hot: the root is round, and blackish without, being compassed with a number of small rootes, or of-sets round about it, so that it will quickly choke a ground, if it be suffered long in it. For which cause, most men doe cast it into some by-corner, if they meane to preserue it, or cast it out of the Garden quite.

Alter maior.

There is another of this kinde that is greater, both in leafe and flower, and differeth not in colour or any thing else.

Hyacinthus Botroides cæruleus amænus. The skie coloured Grape-flower.

This Iacinth springeth vp with fewer leaues then the first, and not reddish, but green at his first appearing; the leaues, when they are full growne, are long and hollow, like the former, but greener, shorter, and broader, standing vpright, and not lying along vpon the ground as they doe: the flowers grow at the toppe of the stalke, more sparsedly set thereon, and not so thicke together, but like a thinne bunch of grapes, and bottle-like as the former, of a perfect blew or skie colour, euery flower hauing some white spots about the brimmes of them: this hath a very sweete smell, nothing like the former: this roote is whiter, and doth not so much encrease as the former, yet plentifull enough.

Hyacinthus Botroides ramosus. The branched Grape-flower.

Of this kinde, there is another found to grow with many branches of flowers, breaking out from the sides of the greater stalkes or branches: the leaues as all the rest of the plant is greater then the former.

Hyacinthus Botroides flore albo. The white Grape-flower.

The white Grape-flower hath his green leaues a little whiter, then the blew or[115] skie coloured Grape-flower, his flowers are very pure white, alike sparsedly set on the stalkes, but a little lower and smaller then it, in all other things there is no difference.

Hyacinthus Botroides flore albo rubente. The blush Grape-flower.

The roote of this Grape-flower groweth greater, then either the skie coloured, or white Grape-flower, and seldome hath any small rootes or of-sets, as the other haue: his leaues also are larger, and somewhat broader; the flowers are of a pale, or bleake blush colour out of a white, and are a little larger, and grow a little higher and fuller of flowers then the white.

The Place.

They naturally grow in many places both of Germany and Hungary; in Spaine likewise, and on Mount Baldus in Italy, and Narbone in France, about the borders of the fields: we haue them in our Gardens for delight.

The Time.

These flower from the beginning of March, or sooner sometimes, vntill the beginning of May.

The Names.

They are most commonly called Botroides, but more truely Botryodes, of Βότρυς the Greeke word, which signifieth a bunch or cluster of grapes: Lobelius calleth the white one, Dipcadi flore albo, transferring the name Dipcadi, whereby the Muscari is called to this Iacinth, as if they were both one. Their seuerall names, whereby they are knowne, and called, are set downe in their titles. The Dutchmen call them Driuekens, as I said before. Some English Gentlewomen call the white Grape-flower Pearles of Spaine.

{Faire haired Iacinth}

1. Hyacinthus Comosus albus. The white haired Iacinth.

This Iacinth doth more neerly resemble the Grape-flowers, then the faire haired Iacinths that follow, whereof it beareth the name, in that it hath no haire or threeds at the toppe of the stalke or sides, as they: and therefore I haue placed it next vnto them, and the other to follow it, as being of another kinde. The root hereof is blackish, a little long and round, from whence rise vp three or foure leaues, being smooth and whitish, long, narrow, and hollow, like a trough or gutter on the vpperside: among which the stalke riseth vp a foote high or more, bearing at the toppe diuers small flowers, somewhat like the former, but not so thicke set together, being a little longer, and larger, and wider at the mouth, and as it were diuided into six edges, of a darke whitish colour, with some blacker spots about the brimmes on the inside: the heads or seede-vessels are three square, and somewhat larger, then the heads of any of the former lesser Grape-flowers, wherein is contained round blacke seede.

2. Hyacinthus Comosus Byzantinus. The Turkie faire haired Iacinth.

This other Iacinth which came from Constantinople, is somewhat like the former, but that it is bigger, both in roote, and leafe, and flower, and bearing greater store of flowers on the head of the stalke: the lower flowers, although they haue short stalkes at their first flowring, yet afterwards the stalkes grow longer, and those that are lower, stand out further then those that are highest, whose foot-stalkes are short, and almost close to the stemme, and of a more perfect purple then any below, which are of a duskie greenish purple colour: the whole stalke of flowers seem like a Pyramis, broad belowe, and small aboue, or as other compare it, to a water sprinkle; yet neither of both these Iacinths haue any threeds at the tops of the stalkes, as the other following haue.

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3. Hyacinthus Comosus maior purpureus. The great purple faire haired Iacinth.

This faire haired Iacinth hath his leaues softer, longer, broader, and lesse hollow then the former, lying for the most part vpon the ground: the stalke riseth vp in the midst of the leaues, being stronger, higher, and bearing a greater and longer head of flowers also then they: the flowers of this stand not vpon such long foote-stalkes, but are shorter below, and close almost to the stalke aboue, hauing many bright purplish blew threeds, growing highest aboue the flowers, as it were in a bush together, euery one of these threeds hauing a little head at the end of them, somewhat like vnto one of the flowers, but much smaller: the red of the flowers below this bush, are of a sadder or deader purple, and not so bright a colour, and the lowest worst of all, rather enclining to a greene, like vnto the last Turkie kinde: the whole stalke with the flowers vpon it, doth somewhat resemble a long Purse tassel, and thereupon diuers Gentlewomen haue so named it: the heads and seede are like vnto the former, but greater: the roote is great and white with some rednesse on the outside.

4. Hyacinthus Comosus ramosus purpureus. The faire haired branched Iacinth.

The leaues of this Iacinth are broader, shorter, and greener then of the last, not lying so weakly on the ground, but standing somewhat more vpright: the stalke riseth vp as high as the former, but branched out on euery side into many tufts of threeds, with knappes, as it were heads of flowers, at the ends of them, like vnto the head of threeds at the toppe of the former Iacinth, but of a little darker, and not so faire a blewish purple colour: this Iacinth doth somewhat resemble the next Curld haire Iacinth, but that the branches are not so fairely composed altogether of curled threeds, nor of so excellent a faire purple or Doue colour, but more duskie by much: the roote is greater and shorter then of the next, and encreaseth faster.

5. Hyacinthus Pennatus, siue Comosus ramosus elegantior. The faire Curld-haire Iacinth.

This admirable Iacinth riseth vp with three or foure leaues, somewhat like vnto the leaues of the Muske Grape-flower, but lesser; betweene which riseth vp the stalke about a foote high, or somewhat more, bearing at the toppe a bush or tuft of flowers, which at the first appearing, is like vnto a Cone or Pineapple, and afterwards opening it selfe, spreadeth into many branches, yet still retaining the forme of a Pyramis, being broad spread below, and narrow vp aboue: each of these branches is againe diuided into many tufts of threeds or strings, twisted or curled at the ends, and of an excellent purple or Doue colour, both stalkes and haires. This abideth a great while in his beauty, but afterwards all these flowers (if you will so call them) do fall away without any seede at all, spending it selfe as it should seeme in the aboundance of the flowers: the roote is not so great as the last, but white on the outside.

The Place.

The two first haue been sent diuers times from Constantinople, the third is found wilde in many places of Europe, and as well in Germany, as in Italy. The two last are onely with vs in Gardens, and their naturall places are not knowne vnto vs.

The Time.

The three former kindes doe flower in Aprill, the two last in May.

The Names.

The first and second haue no other names then are expressed in their titles.[117] The third is called of some onely Hyacinthus maior and of others Hyacinthus comosus maior: We call it in English, The purple faire haired Iacinth, because of his tuft of purple threeds, like haires at the toppe, and (as I said) of diuers Gentlewomen, purple tassels. The fourth is called by some as it is in the title, Hyacinthus Comosus ramosus, and of others Hyacinthus Calamistratus. And the last or fifth is diuersly called by diuers, Fabius Columna in his Phytobasanos the second part, calleth it Hyacinthus Sannesius, because hee first saw it in that Cardinals Garden at Rome. Robin of Paris sent to vs the former of the two last, by the name of Hyacinthus Pennatus, and Hyacinthus Calamistratus, when as others sent the last by the name Pennatus, and the other by the name of Calamistratus; but I thinke the name Cincinnatus is more fit and proper for it, in that the curled threeds which seeme like haires, are better expressed by the word Cincinnus, then Calamistrum, this signifying but the bodkin or instrument wherewith they vse to frisle or curle the haire, and that the bush of haire it selfe being curled. Some also haue giuen to both these last the names of Hyacinthus Comosus Parnassi, the one fairer then the other. Of all these names you may vse which you please; but for the last kinde, the name Cincinnatus, as I said, is the more proper, but Pennatus is the more common, and Calamistratus for the former of the two last.

Page 117: Iacinth.
1Hyacinthus Comosus albus. The white haired Iacinth.
2Hyacinthus Comosus Byzantinus. The Turkie faire haired Iacinth.
3Hyacinthus Comosus maior purpureus. The purple faire haired Iacinth, or Purse tassels.
4Hyacinthus Comosus ramosus, siue Calamistratus. The faire haired branched Iacinth.
5Hyacinthus Pennatus, siue Comosus elegantior. The faire curld haire Iacinth.

[118]

{Orientall Iacinth}

1. Hyacinthus Orientalis Brumalis, siue præcox flore albo. The white Winter Orientall Iacinth.

This early Iacinth riseth vp with his greene leaues (which are in all respects like to the ordinary Orientall Iacinths, but somewhat narrower) before Winter, and sometimes it is in flower also before Winter, and is in forme and colour a plaine white Orientall Iacinth, but somewhat lesser, differing onely in no other thing, then the time of his flowring, which is alwayes certaine to be long before the other sorts.

2. Hyacinthus Orientalis Brumalis, siue præcox flore purpureo. The purple Winter Orientall Iacinth.

The difference of colour in this flower causeth it to bee distinguished, for else it is of the kindred of the Orientall Iacinths, and is, as the former, more early then the rest that follow: Vnderstand then, that this is the same with the former, but hauing fine blewish purple flowers.

3. Hyacinthus Orientalis maior præcox, dictus Zumbul Indi. The greatest Orientall Iacinth, or Zumbul Indi.

The roote of this Orientall Iacinth, is vsually greater then any other of his kinde, and most commonly white on the outside, from whence rise vp one or two great round stalkes, spotted from within the ground, with the lower part of the leaues also vpward to the middle of the stalkes, or rather higher, like vnto the stalkes of Dragons, but darker; being set among a number of broad, long, and somewhat hollow greene leaues, almost as large as the leaues of the white Lilly: at the toppe of the stalkes stand more store of flowers, then in any other of this kinde, euery flower being as great as the greatest sort of Orientall Iacinths, ending in six leaues, which turne at the points, of a faire blewish purple colour, and all standing many times on one side of the stalkes, and many times on both sides.

4. Hyacinthus Orientalis vulgaris diuersorum colorum. The ordinary Orientall Iacinth.

The common Orientall Iacinth (I call it common, because it is now so plentifull in all Gardens, that it is almost not esteemed) hath many greene leaues, long, somewhat broad and hollow, among which riseth vp a long greene round stalke, beset from the middle thereof almost, with diuers flowers, standing on both sides[119] of the stalkes, one aboue another vnto the toppe, each whereof next vnto the foote-stalke is long, hollow, round, and close, ending in six small leaues laid open, and a little turning at the points, of a very sweete smell: the colours of these flowers are diuers, for some are pure white, without any shew of other colour in them: another is almost white, but hauing a shew of blewnesse, especially at the brims and bottomes of the flowers. Others againe are of a very faint blush, tending towards a white: Some are of as deepe a purple as a Violet; others of a purple tending to rednesse, and some of a paler purple. Some againe are of a faire blew, others more watchet, and some so pale a blew, as if it were more white then blew: after the flowers are past, there rise vp great three square heads, bearing round blacke seede, great and shining: the roote is great, and white on the outside, and oftentimes purplish also, flat at the bottome, and small at the head.

Flore purpureo violaceo lincis albicantis in dorso.

There is a kinde of these Iacinths, whose flowers are of a deepe purplish Violet colour, hauing whitish lines downe the backe of euery leafe of the flower, which turne themselues a little backwards at the points.

Floribus antrorsum respicientibus.

There is another, whose flowers stand all opening one way, and not on all sides, but are herein like the great Zumbul Indi, before set out.

Serotinus erectus floribus diuersorum colorum.

There is againe another kinde which flowreth later then all the rest, and the flowers are smaller, standing more vpright, which are either white or blew, or mixt with white and purple.

5. Hyacinthus Orientalis folioso caule. The bushy stalked Orientall Iacinth.

This strange Iacinth hath his rootes, leaues, and flowers, like vnto the former Orientall Iacinths: the onely difference in this is, that his stalke is not bare or naked, but hath very narrow long leaues, growing dispersedly, and without order, with the flowers thereon, which are blew, and hauing for the most part one leafe, and sometimes two at the foote, or setting on of euery flower, yet sometimes it happeneth, some flowers to be without any leafe at the bottome, as nature, that is very variable in this plant, listeth to play: the heads and seede are blacke and round, like the other also.

6. Hyacinthus Orientalis flore duplici. The bleake Orientall Iacinth once double.

This double Iacinth hath diuers long leaues, like vnto the other Orientall Iacinths, almost standing vpright, among which riseth vp a stalke, brownish at the first, but growing greene afterwards, bearing many flowers at the toppe, made like the flowers of the former Iacinths, and ending in six leaues, greene at the first, and of a blewish white when they are open, yet retaining some shew of greenesse in them, the brims of the leaues being white; from the middle of each flower standeth forth another small flower, consisting of three leaues, of the same colour with the other flower, but with a greene line on the backe of each of these inner leaues: in the middle of this little flower, there stand some threeds tipt with blacke: the smell of this flower is not so sweete as of the forme; the heads, seede, and rootes are like the former.

7. Hyacinthus Orientalis flore pleno cæruleo, vel purpuro violaceo. The faire double blew, or purple Orientall Iacinth.

The leaues of these Iacinths are smaller, then the leaues of most of the other former sorts; the stalkes are shorter, and smaller, bearing but three or foure flowers on the heads of them for the most part, which are not composed like the last, but are more faire, full, and double of leaues, where they shew out their full beauties, and of a faire blew colour in some, and purple in others, smelling pretty sweete; but these doe seldome beare out their flowers faire; and besides, haue diuers other flowers that will be either single, or very little double vpon the same stalke.

8. Hyacinthus Orientalis candidissimus flore pleno. The pure white double Orientall Iacinth.

This double white Iacinth hath his leaues like vnto the single white Orientall Ia[120]cinth; his stalke is likewise long, slender, and greene, bearing at the toppe two or three flowers at the most, very double and full of leaues, of a pure white colour, without any other mixture therein, hanging downe their heads a little, and are reasonable sweete. I haue this but by relation, not by sight, and therefore I can giue no further assurance as yet.

The Place.

All these Orientall Iacinths, except the last, haue beene brought out of Turkie, and from Constantinople: but where their true originall place is, is not as yet vnderstood.

The Time.

The two first (as is said) flower the earliest, sometimes before Christmas, but more vsually after, and abide a great while in flower, in great beauty, especially if the weather be milde, when as few or no other flowers at that time are able to match them. The other greatest kinde flowreth also earlier then the rest that follow, for the most part. The ordinary kindes flower some in March, and some in Aprill, and some sooner also; and so doe the double ones likewise. The bushy stalked Iacinth flowreth much about the same time.

The Names.

The former two sorts are called Hyacinthus Orientalis Brumalis, and Hyacinthus Orientalis præcox flore albo, or cæruleo. The third is called of many Zumbul Indicum, or Zumbul Indi, and corruptly Simboline; of others, and that more properly, Hyacinthus Orientalis maior præcox. The Turkes doe call all Iacinths Zumbul, and by adding the name of Indi, or Arabi, do shew from what place they are receiued. In English, The greatest Orientall Iacinth; yet some doe call it after the Turkish name Zumbul Indi, or Simboline, as is said before. The rest haue their names set downe in their titles, which are most fit for them.

Hyacinthus Hispanicus minor Orientalis facie. The little Summer Orientall Iacinth.

Flore cæruleo.

This little Iacinth hath foure or fiue long narrow greene leaues, lying vpon the ground, among which riseth vp a slender smooth stalke, about a spanne high or more, bearing at the toppe many slender bleake blew flowers, with some white stripes and edges to be seene in most of them, fashioned very like vnto the flowers of the Orientall Iacinth, but much smaller: the flower hath no sent at all; the seede is like the seede of the English Iacinth, or Hares-bels: the roote is small and white.

Flore albo.

There is another of this kinde, differing in nothing but in the colour of the flower, which is pure white.

Flore rubente.

There is also another, whose flowers are of a fine delayed red colour, with some deeper coloured veines, running along the three outer leaues of the flower, differing in no other thing from the former.

The Place.

These plants haue been gathered on the Pyrenæan Mountaines, which are next vnto Spaine, from whence, as is often said, many rare plants haue likewise been gathered.

The Time.

They flower very late, euen after all or most of the Iacinths, in May for the most part.

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The Names.

They are called eyther Hyacinthus Hispanicus minor Orientalis facie, as it is in the title, or Hyacinthus Orientalis facie, that is to say, The lesser Spanish Iacinth, like vnto the Orientall: yet some haue called them, Hyacinthus Orientalis serotinus minor, The lesser late Orientall Iacinth, that thereby they may be knowne from the rest.

Page 121: Iacinth.
1Hyacinthus Orientalis brumalis. The Winter Orientall Iacinth.
2Zumbul Indi. The greatest Orientall Iacinth.
3Hyacinthus Orientalis vulgaris. The ordinary Orientall Iacinth.
4Hyacinthus Orientalis folioso caule. The bushy stalked Orientall Iacinth.
5Hyacinthus Orientalis flore duplici. The Orientall Hyacinth once double.
6Hyacinthus Orientalis flore pleno cæruleo. The faire double blew Orientall Iacinth.

[122]

Hyacinthus Hispanicus obsoletus. The Spanish dunne coloured Iacinth.

This Spanish Iacinth springeth very late out of the ground, bearing foure or fiue short, hollow, and soft whitish greene leaues, with a white line in the middle of euery one of them, among which rise vp one or more stalkes, bearing diuers flowers at the toppes of them, all looking one way, or standing on the one side, hanging downe their heads, consisting of six leaues, three whereof being the outermost, lay open their leaues, and turne back the ends a little again: the other three which are innermost, do as it were close together in the middle of the flower, without laying themselues open at all, being a little whitish at the edges: the whole flower is of a purplish yellow colour, with some white and green as it were mixed among it, of no sent at all: it beareth blacke and flat seede in three square, great, and bunched out heads: the roote is reasonable great, and white on the outside, with many strong white fibres at it, which perish not yearely, as the fibres of many other Iacinths doe, and as it springeth late, so it holdeth his greene leaues almost vntill Winter.

Mauritanicus.

There hath been another hereof brought from about Fez and Marocco in Barbary, which in all respects was greater, but else differed little.

Maximus Æthiopicus.

There was another also brought from the Cape of good Hope, whose leaues were stronger and greener then the former, the stalke also thicker, bearing diuers flowers, confusedly standing vpon longer foote-stalkes, yet made after the same fashion, but that the three inner leaues were whitish, and dented about the edges, otherwise the flowers were yellow and greenish on the inside.

The Place.

These plants grow in Spaine, Barbary, and Ethiopia, according as their names and descriptions doe declare.

The Time.

The first flowreth not vntill Iune; for, as I said, it is very late before it springeth vp out of the ground, and holdeth his leaues as is said, vntill September, in the meane time the seede thereof ripeneth.

The Names.

They haue their names according to the place of their growing; for one is called Hyacinthus Hispanicus obsoletioris coloris. The other is called also Hyacinthus Mauritanicus. And the last, Hyacinthus Æthiopicus obsoletus. In English, The Spanish, Barbary, or Ethiopian Iacinth, of a dunne or duskie colour.

{Bell-flowered Iacinth}

Hyacinthus Anglicus Belgicus, vel Hispanicus. English Hares-bels, or Spanish Iacinth.

Our English Iacinth or Hares-bels is so common euery where, that it scarce needeth any description. It beareth diuers long and narrow greene leaues, not standing vpright, nor yet fully lying vpon the ground, among which springeth vp the stalke, bearing at the toppe many long and hollow flowers, hanging downe their heads all[123] forwards for the most part, parted at the brimmes into six parts, turning vp their points a little againe, of a sweetish, but heady sent, somewhat like vnto the Grape-flower: the heads for seede are long and square, wherein is much blacke seede; the colour of the flowers are in some of a deeper blew, tending to a purple; in others of a paler blew, or of a bleake blew, tending to an ash colour: Some are pure white, and some are party coloured, blew and white; and some are of a fine delayed purplish red or blush colour, which some call a peach colour. The rootes of all sorts agree, and are alike, being white and very slimie; some whereof will be great and round, others long and slender, and those that lye neare the toppe of the earth bare, will be greene.

Hyacinthus Hispanicus maior flore campanulæ instar. The greater Spanish bell-flowred Iacinth.

This Spanish bell-flowred Iacinth, is very like the former English or Spanish Iacinth, but greater in all parts, as well of leaues as flowers, many growing together at the toppe of the stalke, with many short greene leaues among them, hanging downe their heads, with larger, greater, and wider open mouths, like vnto bels, of a darke blew colour, and no good sent.

The Place.

The first groweth in many places of England, the Lowe-Countries, as we call them, and Spaine, but the last chiefly in Spaine.

The Time.

They flower in Aprill for the most part, and sometimes in May.

The Names.

Because the first is more frequent in England, then in Spaine or the Lowe-Countries, it is called with vs Hyacinthus Anglicus, The English Iacinth; but it is also called as well Belgicus, as Hispanicus: yet Dodonæus calleth it Hyacinthus non scriptus, because it was not written of by any Authour before himselfe. It is generally knowne in England by the name of Hare-bels. The other Spanish Iacinth beareth his name in his title.

Hyacinthus Eriophorus. The Woolly Iacinth.

This Woolly Iacinth hath many broad, long, and faire greene leaues, very like vnto some of the Iacinths, but stiffer, or standing more vpright, which being broken, doe yeeld many threeds, as if a little fine cotton wooll were drawne out: among these leaues riseth vp a long greene round stalke, a foote and a halfe high or more, whereon is set a great long bush of flowers, which blowing open by degrees, first below, and so vpwards, are very long in flowring: the toppe of the stalke, with the flowers, and their little footstalkes, are all blew, euery flower standing outright with his stalke, and spreading like a starre, diuided into six leaues, hauing many small blew threeds, standing about the middle head, which neuer gaue ripe seede, as farre as I can heare of: the root is white, somewhat like the root of a Muscari, but as full of wooll or threeds, or rather more, then the leaues, or any other part of it.

The Place.

This hath been sent diuers times out of Turkie into England, where it continued a long time as well in my Garden as in others, but some hard frosty Winters caused it to perish with me, and diuers others, yet I haue had it againe from a friend, and doth abide fresh and greene euery yeare in my Garden.

[124]

The Time.

This flowred in the Garden of Mʳ. Richard Barnesley at Lambeth, onely once in the moneth of May, in the yeare 1606, after hee had there preserued it a long time: but neither he, nor any else in England that I know, but those that saw it at that time, euer saw it beare flower, either before or since.

The Names.

It is called by diuers Bulbus Eriophorus, or Laniferus, that is, Woolly Bulbous; but because it is a Iacinth, both in roote, leafe, and flower, and not a Narcissus, or Daffodill, it is called Hyacinthus Eriophorus, or Laniferus, The Woolly Iacinth. It is very likely, that Theophrastus in his seuenth Book & thirteenth Chapter, did meane this plant, where hee declareth, that garments were made of the woolly substance of a bulbous roote, that was taken from between the core or heart of the roote (which, as he saith, was vsed to be eaten) and the outermost shels or peelings; yet Clusius seemeth to fasten this woolly bulbous of Theophrastus, vpon the next Iacinth of Spaine.

{Spanish starry Iacinth}

Hyacinthus Stellatus Bæticus maior, vulgò Perüanus. The great Spanish Starry Iacinth, or of Peru.

This Iacinth (the greatest of those, whose flowers are spread like a starre, except the two first Indians) hath fiue or six, or more, very broad, and long greene leaues, spread vpon the ground, round about the roote, which being broken are woolly, or full of threeds, like the former: in the middle of these leaues riseth vp a round short stalke, in comparison of the greatnesse of the plant (for the stalke of the Orientall Iacinth is sometimes twice so high, whose roote is not so great) bearing at the toppe a great head or bush of flowers, fashioned in the beginning, before they bee blowne or separated, very like to a Cone or Pineapple, and begin to flower belowe, and so vpwards by degrees, euery flower standing vpon a long blackish blew foote-stalke, which when they are blowne open, are of a perfect blew colour, tending to a Violet, and made of six small leaues, laid open like a starre; the threeds likewise are blewish, tipt with yellow pendents, standing about the middle head, which is of a deeper blew, not hauing any good sent to be perceiued in it, but commendable only for the beauty of the flowers: after the flowers are past, there come three square heads, containing round blacke seede: the roote is great, and somewhat yellowish on the outside, with a knobbe or bunch at the lower end of the roote, (which is called the seate of the roote) like vnto the Muscari, Scylla, and many other bulbous rootes, at which hang diuers white, thicke, and long fibres, whereby it is fastened in the ground, which perish not euery yeare, but abide continually, and therefore doth not desire much remouing.

Hyacinthus Stellatus Bæticus, siue Perüanus flore albo. The great white Spanish starry Iacinth.

This other Spanish Iacinth is in most parts like vnto the former, but that his leaues are not so large, nor so deep a greene: the stalks of flowers likewise hath not so thicke a head, or bush on it, but fewer and thinner set: the flowers themselues also are whitish, yet hauing a small dash of blush in them: the threeds are whitish, tipt with yellow pendents: the seede and rootes are like vnto the former, and herein consisteth the difference betweene this and the other sorts.

Hyacinthus Stellatus Bæticus, siue Perüanus flore carneo. The great blush coloured Spanish Starry Iacinth.

This likewise differeth little from the two former, but onely in the colour of the [125]flowers; for this being found growing among both the other, hath his head of flowers as great and large as the first, but the buds of his flowers, before they are open, are of a deepe blush colour, which being open, are more delayed, and of a pleasant pale purple, or blush colour, standing vpon purplish stalkes: the heads in the middle are whitish, and so are the threeds compassing it, tipt with yellow.

Page 125: Iacinth.
1Hyacinthus Orientalis facie. The little Summer Orientall Iacinth.
2Hyacinthus Mauritanicus. The Barbary Iacinth.
3Hyacinthus obsoletus Hispanicus. The Spanish duskie Iacinth.
4Hyacinthus Hispanicus flore campanula. The greater Spanish bel-flowred Iacinth.
5Hyacinthus Anglicus. The English Iacinth or Harebels.
6Hyacinthus Eriophorus. The Woolly Iacinth.
7Hyacinthus Stellaris Bæticus maior, siue Peruanus. The great Spanish Starry Iacinth, or of Peru.

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The Place.

These doe naturally grow in Spaine, in the Medowes a little off from the Sea, as well in the Island Gades, vsually called Cales, as likewise in other parts along the Sea side, as one goeth from thence to Porto Santa Maria, which when they be in flower, growing so thicke together, seeme to couer the ground, like vnto a tapistry of diuers colours, as I haue beene credibly enformed by Guillaume Boel, a Freeze-lander borne, often before and hereafter remembred, who being in search of rare plants in Spaine, in the yeare of our Lord 1607, after that most violent frosty Winter, which perished both the rootes of this, and many other fine plants with vs, sent mee ouer some of these rootes for my Garden, and affirmed this for a truth, which is here formerly set downe, and that himselfe gathered those he sent mee, and many others in the places named, with his owne hands; but hee saith, that both that with the white, and with the blush flowers, are farre more rare then the other.

The Time.

They flower in May, the seede is ripe in Iuly.

The Names.

This hath beene formerly named Eriophorus Peruanus, and Hyacinthus Stellatus Peruanus, The Starry Iacinth of Peru, being thought to haue grown in Peru, a Prouince of the West Indies; but he that gaue that name first vnto it, eyther knew not his naturall place, or willingly imposed that name, to conceale it, or to make it the better esteemed. It is most generally receiued by the name Hyacinthus Peruanus, from the first imposer thereof, that is, the Iacinth of Peru: but I had rather giue the name agreeing most fitly vnto it, and call it as it is indeede Hyacinthus Stellatus Bæticus, The Spanish Starry Iacinth; and because it is the greatest that I know hath come from thence, I call it, The great Starry Iacinth of Spaine, or Spanish Iacinth.

{Starry Iacinth}

Hyacinthus Stellatus vulgaris, siue Bifolius Fuchsij. The common blew Starry Iacinth.

This Starry Iacinth (being longest knowne, and therefore most common) riseth out of the ground, vsually but with two browne leaues, yet sometimes with three, inclosing within them the stalke of flowers, the buds appearing of a darke whitish colour, as soone as the leaues open themselues, which leaues being growne, are long, and hollow, of a whitish greene on the vpper side, and browne on the vnder side, and halfe round, the browne stalke rising vp higher, beareth fiue or sixe small starre-like flowers thereon, consisting of six leaues, of a faire deepe blew, tending to a purple. The seede is yellowish, and round, contained in round pointed heads, which by reason of their heauinesse, and the weaknesse of the stalke, lye vpon the ground, and often perish with wet and frosts, &c. The roote is somewhat long, and couered with a yellowish coate.

Hyacinthus stellatus flore albo. The white Starry Iacinth.

The white Starry Iacinth hath his leaues like the former, but greene and fresh, not browne, and a little narrower also: the buddes for flowers at the first appeare a little blush, which when they are blowne, are white, but yet retaine in them a small shew of that blush colour.

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Flore niueo.

We haue another, whose flowers are pure white, and smaller then the other, the leaues whereof are of a pale fresh greene, and somewhat narrower.

Hyacinthus Stellatus flore rubente. The blush coloured Starry Iacinth.

The difference in this from the former, is onely in the flowers, which are of a faire blush colour, much more eminent then in the others, in all things else alike.

Hyacinthus Stellatus Martius, siue præcox cæruleus. The early blew Starry Iacinth.

This Iacinth hath his leaues a little broader, of a fresher greene, and not browne at all, as the first blew Iacinth of Fuchsius last remembred: the buds of the flowers, while they are enclosed within the leaues, and after, when the stalke is growne vp, doe remaine more blew then the buds of the former: the flowers, when they are blowne open, are like the former, but somewhat larger, and of a more liuely blew colour: the roote also is a little whiter on the outside. This doth more seldome beare seede then the former.

Hyacinthus Stellatus præcox flore albo. The white early Starry Iacinth.

There is also one other of this kinde, that beareth pure white flowers, the green leafe thereof being a little narrower then the former, and no other difference.

Hyacinthus Stellatus præcox flore suaue rubente. The early blush coloured Starry Iacinth.

This blush coloured Iacinth is very rare, but very pleasant, his flowers being as large as the first of this last kinde, and somewhat larger then the blush of the other kinde: the leaues and rootes differ not from the last recited Iacinth.

The Place.

All these Iacinths haue beene found in the Woods and Mountaines of Germany, Bohemia, and Austria, as Fuchsius and Gesner doe report, and in Naples, as Imperatus and others doe testifie. Wee cherish them all with great care in our Gardens, but especially the white and the blush of both kindes, for that they are more tender, and often perish for want of due regard.

The Time.

The common kindes, which are first expressed, flower about the middle of February, if the weather bee milde, and the other kindes sometimes a fortnight after, that is, in March, but ordinarily much about the same time with the former.

The Names.

The first is called in Latine Hyacinthus Stellatus vulgaris, and Hyacinthus Stellatus bifolius, and Hyacinthus Stellaris Fuchsij and of some Hyacinthus Stellatus Germanicus; wee might very well call the other kinde, Hyacinthus Stellatus vulgaris alter, but diuers call it Præcox, and some Martius, as it is in the title. In English they may bee seuerally called: the first, The common; and the other, The early Starry Iacinth (notwithstanding the first flowreth before the other) for distinction sake.

The Hyacinthus, seemeth to be called Vacinium of Virgil in his Eclogues; for hee alwayes reckoneth it among the flowers that were vsed to decke Garlands, and neuer among fruits, as some would haue it. But in that hee calleth it Vacinium nigrum, in seuerall places, that doth very fitly answer the[128] common receiued custome of those times, that called all deepe blew colours, such as are purples, and the like, blacke; for the Violet it selfe is likewise called blacke in the same place, where he calleth the Vacinium blacke; so that it seemeth thereby, that he reckoned them to be both of one colour, and we know the colour of the Violet is not blacke, as we doe distinguish of blacke in these dayes. But the colour of this Starry Iacinth, being both of so deepe a purple sometimes, so neare vnto a Violet colour, and also more frequent, then any other Iacinth with them, in those places where Virgil liued, perswadeth me to thinke, that Virgil vnderstood this Starry Iacinth by Vacinium: Let others iudge otherwise, if they can shew greater probabilitie.

{Starry Iacinths of Constantinople}

1. Hyacinthus Stellatus Byzantinus nigra radice. The Starry Iacinth of Turkie with the blacke roote.

This Starry Iacinth of Constantinople hath three or foure fresh greene, thinne, and long leaues, of the bignesse of the English Iacinth, but not so long, betweene which riseth vp a slender lowe stalke, bearing fiue or six small flowers, dispersedly set thereon, spreading open like a starre, of a pale or bleake blew colour: the leaues of the flowers are somewhat long, and stand as it were somewhat loosly, one off from another, and not so compactly together, as the flowers of other kindes: it seldome beareth ripe seede with vs, because the heads are so heauie, that lying vpon the ground, they rotte with the wet, or are bitten with the frosts, or both, so that they seldome come to good: the roote is small in some, and reasonable bigge in others, round, and long, white within, but couered with deepe reddish or purplish peelings, next vnto it, and darker and blacker purple on the outside, with some long and thicke white fibres, like fingers hanging at the bottome of them, as is to be seene in many other Iacinths: the roote it selfe for the most part doth runne downewards, somewhat deep into the ground.

2. Hyacinthus Stellatus Byzantinus maior. The greater Starry Iacinth of Constantinople.

This Iacinth may rightly be referred to the former Iacinth of Constantinople, and called the greater, it is so like thereunto, that any one that knoweth that, will soone say, that this is another of that sort, but greater as it is in all his parts, bearing larger leaues by much, and more store, lying vpon the ground round about the roote: it beareth many lowe stalkes of flowers, as bleake, and standing as loosly as the former: onely the roote of this, is not black on the outside, as the other, but three times bigger.

3. Hyacinthus Stellatus Byzantinus alter, siue flore boraginis. The other Starry Iacinth of Constantinople.

This other Iacinth hath for the most part onely foure leaues, broader and greener then the first, but not so large or long as the second: the stalke hath fiue or six flowers vpon it, bigger and rounder set, like other starry Iacinths, of a more perfect or deeper blew then either of the former, hauing a whitish greene head or vmbone in the middle, beset with six blew chiues or threeds, tipt with blacke, so closly compassing the vmbone, that the threeds seeme so many prickes stucke into a clubbe or head; some therefore haue likened it to the flower of Borage, and so haue called it: after the flowers are past, come vp round white heads, wherein is contained round and white seede: the roote is of a darke whitish colour on the outside, and sometimes a little reddish withall.

The Place.

The first and the last haue beene brought from Constantinople; the first among many other rootes, and the last by the Lord Zouch, as Lobel witnesseth. The second hath been sent vs out of the Lowe-Countries, but from whence they had it, we do not certainly know. They growe with vs in our Gardens sufficiently.

[129]

The Time.

These flower in Aprill, but the first is the earliest of the rest, and is in flower presently after the early Starry Iacinth, before described.

The Names.

The former haue their names in their titles, and are not knowne vnto vs by any other names that I know; but as I said before, the last is called by some, Hyacinthus Boraginis flore. The first was sent out of Turkie, by the name of Susamgiul, by which name likewise diuers other things haue beene sent, so barren and barbarous is the Turkish tongue.

{Summer Starry Iacinths}

Hyacinthus Stellatus Æstivus maior. The greater Summer Starry Iacinth.

This late Iacinth hath diuers narrow greene leaues, lying vpon the ground, somewhat like the leaues of the English Iacinth, but stiffer and stronger; among which riseth vp a round stiffe stalke, bearing many flowers at the toppe thereof, and at euery foote-stalke of the flowers a small short leafe, of a purplish colour: the flowers are starre-like, of a fine delayed purplish colour, tending to a pale blew or ash colour, striped on the backe of euery leafe, and hauing a pointed vmbone in the middle, with some whitish purple threeds about it, tipt with blew: the seede is blacke, round, and shining, like vnto the seede of the English Iacinth, but not so bigge: the roote is round and white, hauing some long thicke rootes vnder it, besides the fibres, as is vsuall in many other Iacinths.

Hyacinthus Stellatus Æstivus minor. The lesser Summer Starry Iacinth.

This lesser Iacinth hath diuers very long, narrow, and shining greene leaues, spread vpon the ground round about the roote, among which riseth vp a very short round stalke, not aboue two inches high, carrying six or seuen small flowers thereon, on each side of the stalke, like both in forme and colour vnto the greater before described, but lesser by farre: the seede is blacke, contained in three square heads: the roote is small and white, couered with a browne coate, and hauing some such thicke rootes among the fibres, as are among the other.

The Place.

Both these Iacinths grow naturally in Portugall, and from thence haue been brought, by such as seeke out for rare plants, to make a gaine and profit by them.

The Time.

They both flower in May, and not before: and their seed is ripe in Iuly.

The Names.

Some doe call these Hyacinthus Lusitanicus, The Portugall Iacinth. Clusius, who first set out the descriptions of them, called them as is expressed in their titles; and therefore we haue after the Latine name giuen their English, according as is set downe. Or if you please, you may call them, The greater and the lesser Portugall Iacinth.

Hyacinthus Stellaris flore cinereo. The ash coloured Starry Iacinth.

This ash coloured Iacinth, hath his leaues very like vnto the leaues of the English Iacinth, and spreading vpon the ground in the same manner, among which rise vp one or two stalkes, set at the toppe with a number of small starre-like flowers, bushing big[130]ger below then aboue, of a very pale or white blew, tending to an ash colour, and very sweete in smell: the seede is blacke and round, like vnto the seede of the English Iacinth, and so is the roote, being great, round, and white; so like, I say, that it is hard to know the one from the other.

The Place.

The certaine originall place of growing thereof, is not knowne to vs.

The Time.

It flowreth in Aprill.

The Names.

Some doe call this Hyacinthus Someri, Somers Iacinth, because as Lobel saith, he brought it first into the Lowe-Countries, eyther from Constantinople, or out of Italy.

{Lilly leafed Starry Iacinths}

Hyacinthus Stellatus Lilifolio & radice cæruleo. The blew Lilly leafed Starre Iacinth.

This Iacinth hath six or seuen broad greene leaues, somewhat like vnto Lilly leaues, but shorter (whereof it tooke his name as well as from the roote) spread vpon the ground, and lying close and round: before the stalke riseth out from the middle of these leaues, there doth appeare a deepe hollow place, like a hole, to bee seene a good while, which at length is filled vp with the stalke, rising thence vnto a foote or more high, bearing many starre-like flowers at the toppe, of a perfect blew colour, neare vnto a Violet, and sometimes of paler or bleake blew colour, hauing as it were a small cuppe in the middle, diuided into six peeces, without any threeds therein: the seede is blacke and round, but not shining: the roote is somewhat long, bigge belowe, and small aboue, like vnto the small roote of a Lilly, and composed of yellow scales, as a Lilly, but the scales are greater, and fewer in number.

Hyacinthus Stellatus Lilifolius albus. The white Lilly leafed Starre Iacinth.

The likenesse of this Iacinth with the former, causeth me to be briefe, and not to repeate the same things againe, that haue already been expressed: You may therefore vnderstand, that except in the colour of the flower, which in this is white, there is no difference betweene them.

Flore carneo.

I heare of one that should beare blush coloured flowers, but I haue not yet seene any such.

The Place.

These Iacinths haue been gathered on the Pyrenæan Hils, in that part of France that is called Aquitaine, and in some other places.

The Time.

These flower in Aprill, and sometimes later.

The Names.

Because the roote is so like vnto a Lilly, as the leafe is also, it hath most properly beene called Hyacinthus Stellatus Lilifolio & radice, or for breuity Lilifolius, that is, The Starry Lilly leafed Iacinth. It is called Sarahug by the Inhabitants where it groweth, as Clusius maketh the report from Venerius, who further saith, that by experience they haue found the cattell to swell and dye, that haue eaten of the leaues thereof.

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Page 131: Iacinth.
1Hyacinthus stellatus præcox cæruleus. The early blew starry Iacinth.
2Hyacinthus stellatus præcox albus. The early white starry Iacinth.
3Hyacinthus stellatus Byzantinus nigra radice. The Turkie starry Iacinth with a blacke roote.
4Hyacinthus Byzantinus alter siue flore Boraginis. The other starry Iacinth of Constantinople.
5Hyacinthus æstivus maior. The greater Summer starry Iacinth.
6Hyacinthus stellatus flore cinereo. The ash coloured starry Iacinth.
7Hyacinthus stellatus Lilifolius. The Lilly leafed starre Iacinth.
8Hyacinthus Autumnalis. The Autumne Iacinth.
9Scilla alba siue Hyacinthus marinus. The Sea Onion or Squill.

[132]

{Autumne Starry Iacinths}

Hyacinthus Autumnalis maior. The greater Autumne Iacinth.

The greater Autumne Iacinth hath fiue or six very long and narrow greene leaues, lying vpon the ground; the stalkes are set at the toppe with many starre-like flowers, of a pale blewish purple colour, with some pale coloured threeds, tipt with blew, standing about the head in the middle, which in time growing ripe, containeth therein small blacke seede, and roundish: the roote is great and white on the outside.

Hyacinthus Autumnalis minor. The lesser Autumne Iacinth.

This lesser Iacinth hath such like long and small leaues, but narrower then the former: the stalke is not full so high, but beareth as many flowers on it as the other, which are of a pale or bleake purple colour, very like vnto it also: the roote and seed are like the former, but smaller. These both for the most part, beare their flowers and seede before the greene leaues rise vp much aboue the ground.

Flore albo.

There is a kinde hereof found that beareth white flowers, not differing in any other thing from the smaller purple kinde last mentioned.

The Place.

The first and last are onely kept in Gardens, and not knowne to vs where their naturall place of growing wilde may be.

The second groweth wilde in many places of England. I gathered diuers rootes for my Garden, from the foote of a high banke by the Thames side, at the hither end of Chelsey, before you come at the Kings Barge-house.

The Time.

The greatest flowreth in the end of Iuly, and in August.

The other in August and September, you shall seldome see this plant with flowers and greene leaues at one time together.

The Names.

They haue their names giuen them, as they are expressed in their titles, by all former Writers, except Daleschampius, or hee that set forth that great worke printed at Lyons; for hee contendeth with many words, that these plants can bee no Iacinths, because their flowers appeare before their leaues in Autumne, contrary to the true Iacinth, as he saith: and therefore he would faine haue it referred to Theophrastus bulbus in libro primo cap. 12. and calleth it his Tiphyum mentioned in that place, as also Bulbus astivus Dalechampij. Howsoeuer these things may carry some probability in them, yet the likenesse both of rootes, and flowers especially, hath caused very learned Writers to entitle them as is set downe, and therefore I may not but let them passe in the like manner.

The Vertues.

Both the rootes and the leaues of the Iacinths are somewhat cold and drying, but the seede much more. It stayeth the loosnesse of the belly. It is likewise said to hinder young persons from growing ripe too soone, the roote being drunke in wine. It helpeth them also whose vrine is stopt, and is auaileable for the yellow Iaundise; but as you heare some are deadly to cattell, I therefore wish all to bee well aduised which of these they will vse in any inward physicke.

{The Sea Onions or Squills}

Scilla alba. The Sea Onion or Squill.

As I ended the discourse of both the true and the bastard Daffodils, with the Sea[133] kindes of both sorts; so I thinke it not amisse, to finish this of the Iacinths with the description of a Sea Iacinth, which (as you see) I take to be the Scilla, or Sea Onion, all his parts so nearely resembling a Iacinth, that I know not where to ranke him better then in this place, or rather not any where but here. You shall haue the description thereof, and then let the iudicious passe their sentence, as they thinke meetest.

The Squill or Sea Onion (as many doe call it) hath diuers thicke leaues, broad, long, greene, and hollowish in the middle, and with an eminent or swelling ribbe all along the backe of the leafe, (I relate it as I haue seene it, hauing shot forth his leaues in the ship by the way, as the Mariners that brought diuers rootes from out of the Straights, did sell them to mee and others for our vse) lying vpon the ground, somewhat like vnto the leaues of a Lilly: these spring vp after the flowers are past, and the seed ripe, they abiding all the Winter, and the next Spring, vntill the heate of the Summer hath spent and consumed them, and then about the end of August, or beginning of September, the stalke with flowers ariseth out of the ground a foote and a halfe high, bearing many starre-like flowers on the toppe, in a long spike one aboue another, flowring by degrees, the lowest first, and so vpwards, whereby it is long in flowring, very like, as well in forme as bignesse, to the flowers of the great Starre of Bethlehem (these flowers I haue likewise seene shooting out of some of the rootes, that haue been brought in the like manner:) after the flowers are past, there come vp in their places thicke and three square heads, wherin is contained such like flat, black, and round seed, as the Spanish duskie Iacinth before described did beare, but greater: the root is great & white, couered with many peelings or couerings, as is plainly enough seen to any that know them, and that sometimes wee haue had rootes, that haue beene as bigge as a pretty childes head, and sometimes two growing together, each whereof was no lesse then is said of the other.

Scilla rubra siue Pancratium verum. The red Sea Onion.

The roote of this Squill, is greater oftentimes then of the former, the outer coates or peelings being reddish, bearing greater, longer, stiffer, and more hollow leaues, in a manner vpright: this bringeth such a like stalke and flowers, as the former doth, as Fabianus Ilges, Apothecary to the Duke of Briga, did signifie by the figure thereof drawne and sent to Clusius.

The Place.

They grow alwayes neare the Sea, and neuer farre off from it, but often on the very baich of the Sea, where it washeth ouer them all along the coasts of Spaine, Portugal, and Italy, and within the Straights in many places: it will not abide in any Garden farre from the Sea, no not in Italy, as it is related.

The Time.

The time wherein they flower, is expressed to be in August and September: this seede to be ripe in October and Nouember, and the greene leaues to spring vp in Nouember and December.

The Names.

These are certainly the true kindes of Scilla that should bee vsed in medicines, although (as Clusius reporteth) the Spaniards forbade him to taste of the red Squill, as of a most strong and present poison. Pliny hath made more sorts then can be found out yet to this day with vs: that Scilla that is called Epimenidia, because it might be eaten, is thought to be the great Ornithogalum, or Starre of Bethlehem. Pancratium is, I know, and as I said before, referred to that kinde of bastard Sea Daffodill, which is set forth before in the end of the history of the bastard Daffodils; and diuers also would make the Narcissus tertius Matthioli, which I call the true Sea Daffodill, to be a Pancratium; but seeing Dioscorides (and no other is against him)[134] maketh Pancratium to be a kinde of Squill with reddish rootes, I dare not vphold their opinion against such manifest truth.

The Vertues.

The Squill or Sea Onion is wholly vsed physically with vs, because wee can receiue no pleasure from the sight of the flowers. Pliny writeth, that Pithagoras wrote a volume or booke of the properties thereof, for the singular effects it wrought; which booke is lost, yet the diuers vertues it hath is recorded by others, to be effectual for the spleene, lungs, stomach, liuer, head and heart; and for dropsies, old coughs, Iaundise, and the wormes; that it cleareth the sight, helpeth the tooth-ache, cleanseth the head of scurfe, and running sores; and is an especiall Antidote against poison: and therefore is vsed as a principall ingredient into the Theriaca Andromachi, which we vsually call Venice Treakle. The Apothecaries prepare hereof, both Wine, Vinegar, and Oxymel or Syrupe, which is singular to extenuate and expectorate tough flegme, which is the cause of much disquiet in the body, and an hinderer of concoction, or digestion in the stomach, besides diuers other wayes, wherein the scales of the rootes, being dryed, are vsed. And Galen hath sufficiently explained the qualities and properties thereof, in his eight Booke of Simples.


Chap. XII.
Ornithogalum. Starre of Bethlehem.

After the Family of the Iacinths, must needes follow the kindes of Starre-flowers, or Starres of Bethlehem, as they are called, for that they doe so nearely resemble them, that diuers haue named some of them Iacinths, and referred them to that kindred: all of them, both in roote, leafe, and flower, come nearer vnto the Iacinths, then vnto any other plant. They shall therefore bee next described, euery one in their order, the greatest first, and the rest following.

Ornithogalum Arabicum. The great Starre-flower of Arabia.

This Arabian Starre-flower hath many broad, and long greene leaues, very like vnto the leaues of the Orientall Iacinth, but lying for the most part vpon the ground, among which riseth vp a round greene stalke, almost two foote high, bearing at the toppe diuers large flowers, standing vpon long foote-stalkes, and at the bottome of euery one of them a small short pointed greene leafe: these flowers are made of six pure white leaues a peece, laid open as large as an ordinary Daffodill, but of the forme of a Starre Iacinth, or Starre of Bethlehem, which close as they doe euery night, and open themselues in the day time, especially in the Sunne, the smell whereof is pretty sweete, but weake: in the middle of the flower is a blackish head, compassed with six white threeds, tipt with yellow pendents: the seede hath not beene obserued with vs: the roote is great and white, with a flat bottome, very impatient of our cold Winters, so that it seldome prospereth or abideth with vs; for although sometimes it doe abide a Winter in the ground, yet it often lyeth without springing blade, or any thing else a whole yeare, and then perisheth: or if it doe spring, yet many doe not beare, and most after their first bearing doe decay and perish. But if any be desirous, to know how to preserue the roote of this plant, or of many other bulbous rootes that are tender, such as the great double white Daffodill of Constantinople, and other fine Daffodils, that come from hot Countries; let them keepe this rule: Let either the roote be planted in a large pot, or tubbe of earth, and housed all the Winter, that so it may bee defended from the frosts; Or else (which is the easier way) keepe the roote out of the ground euery yeare, from September, after the leaues and stalkes are past, vntill February, in[135] some dry, but not hot or windy place, and then plant it in the ground vnder a South wall, or such like defended place, which will spring, and no doubt prosper well there, in regard the greatest and deepest frosts are past after February, so that seldome any great frosts come after, to pierce so deepe as the roote is to be set, or thereby to doe any great harme to it in such a place.

The Place.

This hath been often sent out of Turkie, and likewise out of Italy; I had likewise two rootes sent mee out of Spaine by Guillaume Boel before remembred, which (as hee said) hee gathered there, but they prospered not with me, for want of the knowledge of the former rule. It may be likely that Arabia is the place, from whence they of Constantinople receiue it.

The Time.

It flowreth in May, if it be of the first yeares bringing; or in Iune, if it haue been ordered after the manner before set downe.

The Names.

It hath been sent out of Italy by the name of Lilium Alexandrinum, The Lilly of Alexandria, but it hath no affinity with any Lilly. Others call it Hyacinthus Arabicus; and the Italians, Iacintho del pater nostro; but it is no Iacinth neither, although the flowers be like some of them. Some also would referre it to a Narcissus or Daffodill, and it doth as little agree with it, as with a Lilly, although his flowers in largenesse and whitenesse resemble a Daffodill. Clusius hath most fitly referred it to the stocke or kindred of Ornithogala, or Starres of Bethlehem, as wee call them in English, and from the Turkish name, Zumbul Arabi, entituled it Ornithogalum Arabicum, although Zumbul, as I haue before declared, is with them, a Iacinth, wee may call it in English, The Arabian Starre-flower, or Starre of Bethlehem, or the great Starre-flower of Arabia.

{Starre-flowers}

1. Ornithogalum maximum album. The greatest white Starre-flower, or Starre of Bethlehem.

This great Starre-flower hath many faire, broad, long, and very fresh green leaues, rising vp very early, and are greater, longer, and greener then the leaues of any Orientall Iacinth, which doe abide greene, from the beginning or middle of Ianuary, or before sometimes, vntill the end of May, at which time they begin to fade, and the stalke with the head of flowers beginneth to rise, so that it will haue either few or no leaues at all, when the flowers are blowne: the stalke is strong, round, and firme, rising two foote high or more, bearing at the toppe a great bush of flowers, seeming at the first to be a great greene eare of corne, for it is made spike-fashion, which when the flowers are blowne, doth rise to be very high, slender or small at the head aboue, and broad spread and bushing below, so that it is long in flowring; for they flower below first, and so vpwards by degrees: these flowers are snow white, without any line on the backside, and is therein like vnto the former, as also in whitenesse, but nothing so large, with a white vmbone or head in the middle, beset with many white threeds, tipt with yellow: the seede is blacke and round, contained in three square heads: the roote is great, thicke, and short, and somewhat yellowish on the outside, with a flat bottome, both like the former, and next that followeth.

2. Ornithogalum maius spicatum album. The great white spiked Starre-flower.

This spiked Starre-flower in his growing, is somewhat like vnto the last described,[136] but springeth not vp so early, nor hath his leaues so greene, or large, but hath broad, long, whitish greene hollow leaues, pointed at the end, among which riseth vp the stalke, which is strong and high, as the former, hauing a great bush of flowers at the toppe, standing spike-fashion, somewhat like the former, flowring in the same maner by degrees, first below, and so vpwards; but it is not so thicke set with flowers, nor so farre spread at the bottome as it, the flowers also are not so white, and each of the leaues of them haue a greene line downe the backe, leauing the edges on both sides white: after the flowers are past, the heads for seede grow three square, like the other, bearing such like blacke seede therein: the roote hereof is vsually bigger then the last, and whiter on the outside.

3. Ornithogalum Pannonicum. The Hungarian Starre-flower.

This Hungarian Starre-flower shooteth out diuers narrow, long, whitish greene leaues, spread vpon the ground before Winter, which are very like vnto the leaues of Gilloflowers, and so abide aboue the ground, hauing a stalke rising in the middle of them the next Spring, about halfe a foote high or thereabouts, bearing many white flowers at the toppe, with greene lines downe the backe of them, very like vnto the ordinary Starres of Bethlehem: the roote is greater, thicker, and longer then the ordinary Starres, and for the most part, two ioyned together, somewhat grayish on the outside.

4. Ornithogalum vulgare. The Starre of Bethlehem.

The ordinary Starre of Bethlehem is so common, and well knowne in all countries and places, that it is almost needlesse to describe it, hauing many greene leaues with white lines therein, and a few white flowers set about the toppe of the stalke, with greenish lines downe the backe: the roote is whitish, and encreaseth aboundantly.

5. Asphodelus bulbosus Galeni, siue Ornithogalum maius flore subuirescente. The bulbous Asphodill, or greene Starre-flower.

Diuers haue referred this plant vnto the Asphodils, because (as I thinke) the flowers hereof are straked on the backe, and the leaues long and narrow, like vnto the Asphodils; but the roote of this being bulbous, I rather (as some others doe) ioyne it with the Ornithogala, for they also haue strakes on the backe of the flowers. It hath many whitish greene leaues, long and narrow, spread vpon the ground, which spring vp in the beginning of the yeare, and abide vntill May, and then they withering, the stalke springeth vp almost as high as the first, hauing many pale yellowish greene flowers, but smaller, and growing more sparsedly about the stalke vpon short foot-stalkes, but in a reasonable long head spike-fashion: the seede is like vnto the second kinde, but smaller: the roote is somewhat yellowish, like the first great white kinde.

[137]

Page 137: Starre-flower.
1Ornithogalum Arabicum. The great starre-flower of Arabia.
2Ornithogalum maximum album. The greatest white starre-flower.
3Ornithogalum maius spicatum album. The great white spiked starre-flower.
4Ornithogalum Pannonicum album. The Hungarian starre-flower.
5Asphodelus bulbosus Galeni, siue Ornithogalum maius subuirescente flore. The bulbed Asphodill, or greene starre-flower.
6Ornithogalum Hispanicum minus. The little starre-flower of Spaine.
7Ornithogalum luteum. The yellow starre-flower of Bethlehem.
8Ornithogalum Neapolitanum. The starre-flower of Naples.
The Place.

The first is onely nursed in Gardens, his originall being not well knowne, yet some attribute it vnto Pannonia or Hungary. The second hath been found neare vnto Barcinone, and Toledo in Spaine. The third was found in Hungary by Clusius. Our ordinary euery where in the fields of Italy and France, and (as it is said) in England also. And the last groweth likewise by the corne fields in the vpper Hungary.

The Time.

They flower in Aprill and May, and sometimes in Iune.

The Names.

The first is called by Clusius Ornithogalum maximum album, because it is [138]greater then the next, which hee tooke formerly for the greatest: but it might more fitly, in my iudgement, bee called Asphodelus bulbosus albus (if there be any Asphodelus bulbosus at all) because this do so nearly resemble that, both in the early springing, and the decay of the greene leaues, when the stalkes of flowers doe rise vp. Diuers also doe call it Ornithogalum Pannonicum maximum album.

The second hath his name in his title, as most authors doe set it downe, yet in the great Herball referred to Dalechampius, it is called Ornithogalum magnum Myconi.

The third hath his name from the place of his birth, and the other from his popularity, yet Dodonæus calleth it Bulbus Leucanthemos.

The last is called by diuers Asphodelo-hyacinthinus, and Hyacintho-asphodelus Galeni. Dodonæus calleth it Asphodelus fæmina, and Asphodelus bulbosus. But Lobel, and Gerrard from him, and Dodonæus, doe make this to haue white flowers, whereas all that I haue seene, both in mine owne, and in others Gardens, bore greenish flowers, as Clusius setteth it truely downe. Lobel seemeth in the description of this, to confound the Ornithogalum of Mompelier with it, and calleth it Asphodelus hyacinthinus forte Galeni, and saith that some would call it Pancratium Monspeliense, and Asphodelus Galeni. But as I haue shewed, the Ornithogalum spicatum and this, doe plainly differ the one from the other, and are not both to be called by one name, nor to be reckoned one, but two distinct plants.

Ornithogalum Æthiopicum. The Starre-flower of Æthiopia.

The leaues of this plant are a foote long, and at the least an inch broad, which being broken, are no lesse woolly then the woolly Iacinth: the stalke is a cubit high, strong and greene; from the middle whereof vnto the toppe, stand large snow white flowers, vpon long, greene, thicke foot-stalkes, and yellowish at the bottome of the flower; in the middle whereof stand six white threeds, tipt with yellow chiues, compassing the head, which is three square, and long containing the seede: the roote is thicke and round, somewhat like the Asphodelus Galeni.

The Place.

This plant was gathered by some Hollanders, on the West side of the Cape of good Hope.

The Time.

It flowred about the end of August with those that had it.

The Names.

Because it came from that part of the continent beyond the line, which is reckoned a part of Æthiopia, it is thereupon so called as it is set downe.

Ornithogalum Neapolitanum. The Starre-flower of Naples.

This beautifull plant riseth out of the ground very early, with foure or fiue hollow pointed leaues, standing round together, of a whitish greene colour, with a white line downe the middle of euery leafe on the inside, somewhat narrow, but long, (Fabius Columna saith, three foot long in Italy, but it is not so with vs) in the middle of these leaues riseth vp the stalke, a foote and a halfe high, bearing diuers flowers at the toppe, euery one standing in a little cuppe or huske, which is diuided into three or foure parts, hanging downe very long about the heads for seede: after the flower is past, these flowers doe all hang downe their heads, and open one way, although their little foot-stalkes come forth on all sides of the greater stalke, being large, and composed of six long leaues, of a pure white on the inside, and of a blewish or whitish greene colour[139] on the outside, leauing the edges of euery leafe white on both sides: in the middle of these flowers stand other small flowers, each of them also made of six small white leaues a peece, which meeting together, seeme to make the shew of a cuppe, within which are contained six white threeds, tipt with yellow, and a long white pointell in the middle of them, being without any sent at all: after the flowers are past, come vp great round heads, which are too heauie for the stalke to beare; and therefore lye downe vpon the leaues or ground, hauing certaine lines or stripes on the outside, wherein is contained round, blacke, rough seede: the roote is great and white, and somewhat flat at the bottome, as diuers of these kindes are, and doe multiply as plentifully into small bulbes as the common or any other.

The Place.

This Starre-flower groweth in the Medowes in diuers places of Naples, as Fabius Columna, and Ferrantes Imperatus doe testifie, from whence they haue been sent. And Matthiolus, who setteth out the figure thereof among his Daffodills, had (it should seeme) seene it grow with him.

The Time.

It flowreth in May, although it begin to spring out of the ground oftentimes in Nouember, but most vsually in Ianuary: the seede is ripe in Iuly.

The Names.

Matthiolus reckoneth this (as is said) among the Daffodils, for no other respect, as I conceiue, then that he accounted the middle flower to bee the cuppe or trunke of a Daffodill, which it doth somewhat resemble, and setteth it forth in the fourth place, whereupon many doe call it Narcissus quartus Matthioli, The fourth Daffodill of Matthiolus. Fabius Columna calleth it Hyacinthus aruorum Ornithogali flore. Clusius (to whom Imperatus sent it, in stead of the Arabian which hee desired) calleth it of the place from whence he receiued it, Ornithogalum Neapolitanum, and we thereafter call it in English, The Starre-flower of Naples.

Ornithogalum Hispanicum minus. The little Starre-flower of Spaine.

Clusius hath set forth this plant among his Ornithogala or Starre-flowers, and although it doth in my minde come nearer to a Hyacinthus, then to Ornithogalum, yet pardon it, and let it passe as he doth. From a little round whitish roote, springeth vp in the beginning of the yeare, fiue or six small long green leaues, without any white line in the middle of them, among which rise vp one or two small stalkes, an hand length high or better, bearing seuen or eight, or more flowers, growing as it were in a tuft or vmbell, with small long leaues at the foote of euery stalke, the lower flowers being equall in length with the vppermost, of a pale whitish blew or ash colour, with a strake or line downe the backe of euery leafe of them, with some white threeds standing about a blewish head in the middle: these flowers passe away quickly, and giue no seed, so that it is not knowne what seede it beareth.

The Place.

This groweth in Spaine, and from thence hath been brought to vs.

The Time.

It flowreth in May.

The Names.

It hath no other name then is set down in the title, being but lately found out.

[140]

{Two other Starre-flowers}

1. Ornithogalum album vnifolium. The white starre-flower with one blade.

This little starre-flower I bring into this place, as the fittest in my opinion where to place it, vntill my minde change to alter it. It hath a very small round white roote, from whence springeth vp one very long and round greene leafe, like vnto a rush, but that for about two or three inches aboue the ground, it is a little flat, and from thence springeth forth a small stalke not aboue three or foure inches high, bearing at the top thereof three or foure small white flowers, consisting of six leaues a peece, within which are six white chiues, tipt with yellow pendents, standing about a small three square head, that hath a white pointell sticking as it were in the middle thereof: the flower is pretty and sweete, but not heady.

Ornithogalum luteum. The yellow Starre of Bethlehem.

This yellow Starre-flower riseth vp at the first, with one long, round, greenish leafe, which openeth it selfe somewhat aboue the ground, and giueth out another small leafe, lesser and shorter then the first, and afterward the stalke riseth from thence also, being foure or fiue inches high, bearing at the toppe three or foure small green leaues, and among them foure or fiue small yellow starre-like flowers, with a greenish line or streake downe the backe of euery leafe, and some small reddish yellow threeds in the middle: it seldome giueth seede: the roote is round, whitish, and somewhat cleare, very apt to perish, if it bee any little while kept dry out of the ground, as I haue twice tryed to my losse.

The Place.

The first grew in Portugall, and Clusius first of all others desciphers it.

The other is found in many places both of Germany and Hungary, in the moister grounds.

The Time.

The first flowreth in May: the other in Aprill, and sometimes in March.

The Names.

Carolus Clusius calleth the first Bulbus vnifolius, or Bolbine, but referreth it not to the stocke or kindred of any plant; but (as you see) I haue ranked it with the small sorts of Ornithogalum, and giue it the name accordingly.

The other is referred for likenesse of forme, and not for colour, vnto the Ornithogala, or Starres of Bethlehem. It is called by Tragus and Fuchsius Bulbus siluestris, because of the obuiousnesse. Cordus taketh it to be Sisyrinchium. Lacuna calleth it Bulbus esculentus. Lobel and others in these dayes generally, Ornithogalum luteum, and wee thereafter in English, The yellow Starre-flower, or Starre of Bethlehem.

The Vertues.

The first kinde being but lately found out, is not knowne to be vsed. The rootes of the common or vulgar, are (as Matthiolus saith) much eaten by poore people in Italy, either rawe or roasted, being sweeter in taste then any Chestnut, and seruing as well for a necessary food as for delight. It is doubtfull whether any of the rest may be so vsed; for I know not any in our Land hath made any experience.

{Conclusion}

There are many other sorts of Starre-flowers, which are fitter for a generall then this History; and therefore I referre them thereunto.


[141]

Chap. XIII.
Moly. Wilde Garlicke.

Vnto the former Starre-flowers, must needes bee ioyned another tribe or kindred, which carry their straked flowers Starre-fashion, not spikewise, but in a tuft or vmbell thicke thrust or set together. And although diuers of them smell not as the former, but most of their first Grandfathers house, yet all doe not so; for some of them are of an excellent sent. Of the whole Family, there are a great many which I must leaue, I will onely select out a few for this our Garden, whose flowers for their beauty of statelinesse, forme, or colour, are fit to bee entertained, and take place therein, euery one according to his worth, and are accepted of with the louers of these delights.

{The greatest Moly of Homer and the Indian Moly}

1. Moly Homericum, vel potius Theophrasti. The greatest Moly of Homer.

Homers Moly (for so it is most vsually called with vs) riseth vp most commonly with two, and sometimes with three great, thicke, long, and hollow guttered leaues, of a whitish greene colour, very neare the colour of the Tulipa leafe, hauing sometimes at the end of some of the leaues, and sometimes apart by it selfe, a whitish round small button, like vnto a small bulbe, the like whereof also, but greater, doth grow betweene the bottome of the leaues and the stalke neare the ground, which being planted when it is ripe, will grow into a roote of the same kinde: among these leaues riseth vp a round, strong, and tall stalke, a yard high or better, bare or naked vnto the toppe, where it beareth a great tuft or vmbell of pale purplish flowers, all of them almost standing vpon equall foot-stalkes, or not one much higher then another, consisting of fiue leaues a peece, striped downe the backe with a small pale line, hauing a round head or vmbone with some threeds about it in the midst: These flowers doe abide a great while blowne before they vade, which smell not very strong, like any Onion or Garlicke, but of a faint smell: and after they are past come the seede, which is blacke, wrapped in white close huskes: the roote groweth very great, sometimes bigger then any mans closed fist, smelling strong like Garlicke, whitish on the outside, and greene at the toppe, if it be but a while bare from the earth about it.

2. Moly Indicum siue Caucason. The Indian Moly.

The Indian Moly hath such like thicke large leaues, as the Homers Moly hath, but shorter and broader, in the middle whereof riseth vp a short weake stalke, almost flat, not hauing any flowers vpon it, but a head or cluster of greenish scaly bulbes, inclosed at the first in a large thinne skinne, which being open, euery bulbe sheweth it selfe, standing close one vnto another vpon his foot-stalke, of the bignesse of an Acorne, which being planted, will grow to bee a plant of his owne kinde: the roote is white and great, couered with a darke coate or skinne, which encreaseth but little vnder ground; but besides that head, it beareth small bulbes aboue the ground, at the bottome of the leaues next vnto the stalke, like vnto the former.

The Place.

Both these doe grow in diuers places of Spaine, Italy, and Greece; for the last hath been sent out of Turkie among other rootes. Ferrantes Imperatus a learned Apothecary of Naples, sent it to diuers of his friends in these parts, and hath described it in his naturall history among other plants, printed in the Italian tongue. It grew also with Iohn Tradescante at Canterbury, who sent me the head of bulbes to see, and afterwards a roote, to plant it in my Garden.

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The Time.

The first flowreth in the end of May, and abideth vnto the midst of Iuly, and sometimes longer. The other beareth his head of bulbes in Iune and Iuly.

The Names.

We haue receiued them by their names expressed in their titles, yet the last hath also been sent by the name of Ornithogalum Italicum, but as all may easily see, it is not of that kindred.

{Molyes}

1. Moly montanum Pannonicum bulbiferum primum. The first bulbed Moly of Hungary.

This first Hungarian Moly hath three or foure broad and long greene leaues, folded together at the first, which after open themselues, and are carried vp with the stalke, standing thereon one aboue another, which is a foote high; at the toppe whereof doe grow a few sad reddish bulbes, and betweene them long footstalkes, bearing flowers of a pale purplish colour; after which followeth blacke seede, inclosed in roundish heads: the roote is not great, but white on the outside, very like vnto the roote of Serpents Moly, hereafter described, encreasing much vnder ground, & smelling strong.

2. Moly montanum Pannonicum bulbiferum secundum. The second bulbed Moly of Hungary.

The second Moly hath narrower greene leaues then the former: the stalke is about the same height, and beareth at the toppe a great cluster of small greene bulbes, which after turne of a darker colour; from among which come forth long foot-stalks, whereon stand purplish flowers: the roote is couered with a blackish purple coate or skinne.

3. Moly Serpentinum. Serpents Moly.

This Moly must also be ioyned vnto the bulbous Molyes, as of kindred with them, yet of greater beauty and delight, because the bulbes on the heads of the small stalkes are redder, and more pleasant to behold: the stalke is lower, and his grassie winding leaues, which turne themselues (whereof it tooke the name) are smaller, and of a whiter greene colour: it beareth among the bulbes purplish flowers also, but more beautifull, the sent whereof is nothing so strong: the roote is small, round, and whitish, encreasing into a number of small rootes, no bigger then pease round about the greater roote.

4. Moly caule & folijs triangularibus. The three cornered Moly.

This three square Moly hath foure or fiue long, and somewhat broad pale greene leaues, flat on the vpper side, and with a ridge downe the backe of the leafe, which maketh it seeme three square: the stalke which riseth vp a foote and a halfe high or better, is three square or three cornered also, bearing at the toppe out of a skinnie huske diuers white flowers, somewhat large and long, almost bell-fashion, with stripes of greene downe the middle of euery leafe, and a few chiues tipt with yellow in the middle about the head, wherein when it is ripe, is inclosed small blacke seede: the roote is white on the outside, and very like the yellow Moly; both roote, leafe, and flower hath a smacke, but not very strong of Garlicke.

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Page 143: Moly.
1Moly Homericum vel potius Theophrasti. The greatest Moly of Homer.
2Moly Indicum siue Caucason. The Indian Moly.
3Moly Pannonicum bulbiferum. The bulbed Moly of Hungary.
4Moly Serpentinum. Serpents Moly.
5Moly purpureum Neapolitanum. The purplish Moly of Naples.
6Moly caule & folijs triangularibus. The three cornered Moly.
7Moly latifolium flore luteo. The yellow Moly.
8Moly Dioscorideum Hispanicum. The Spanish Moly of Dioscorides.
9Moly Zibettinum vel Moschatinum. The sweete smelling Moly of Mompelier.
10Moly serotinum Coniferum. The late Pine apple Moly.
5. Moly Narcissinis folijs. Daffodill leafed Moly.

This Moly hath many long, narrow, and flat greene leaues, very like vnto the leaues of a Daffodill, from whence it tooke his name (or rather of the early greater Leucoium [144]bulbosum, or bulbed Violet before described, ioyned next vnto the Daffodils, because it is so like them) among which riseth vp two or three stalkes sometimes, each of a foot and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe, inclosed in a skinny hose, as all the Molyes haue, a number of small purplish flowers, which doe not long abide, but quickly fade: the seede is blacke as others are; the roote is sometimes knobbed, and more often bulbed, hauing in the knobs some markes of the old stalkes to be seene in them, and smelleth somewhat like Garlicke, whereby it may be knowne.

6. Moly montanum latifolium luteo flore. The yellow Moly.

The yellow Moly hath but one long and broad leafe when it doth not beare flower, but when it will beare flower, it hath two long and broad leaues, yet one alwaies longer and broader then the other, which are both of the same colour, and neare the bignesse of a reasonable Tulipa leafe: betweene these leaues groweth a slender stalke, bearing at the toppe a tuft or vmbell of yellow flowers out of a skinnie hose, which parteth three wayes, made of six leaues a peece, laid open like a Starre, with a greenish backe or outside, and with some yellow threeds in the middle: the seede is blacke, like vnto others: the roote is whitish, two for the most part ioyned together, which encreaseth quickly, and smelleth very strong of Garlicke, as both flowers and leaues doe also.

7. Moly Pyrenæum purpureum. The purple mountaine Moly.

This purple Moly hath two or three leaues, somewhat like the former yellow Moly, but not so broad, nor so white: the stalke hath not so many flowers thereon, but more sparingly, and of an vnpleasant purple colour: the roote is whitish, smelling somewhat strongly of Garlicke, but quickly perisheth with the extremity of our cold Winters, which it will not abide vnlesse it be defended.

8. Moly montanum latifolium purpureum Hispanicum. The purple Spanish Moly.

This Moly hath two broad and very long greene leaues, like vnto the yellow Moly, in this, that they doe compasse one another at the bottome of them, between which riseth vp a strong round stalke, two foote high or more, bearing at the toppe, out of a thinne huske, a number of faire large flowers vpon long foot-stalkes, consisting of six leaues a peece, spread open like a Starre, of a fine delayed purple or blush colour, with diuers threeds of the same colour, tipt with yellow, standing about the middle head: betweene the stalke and the bottome of the leaues it hath some small bulbes growing, which being planted, will soone spring and encrease: the roote also being small and round, with many fibres thereat, hath many small bulbes shooting from them; but neither roote, leafe, nor flower, hath any ill sent of Garlicke at all.

9. Moly purpureum Neapolitanum. The purple Moly of Naples.

The Neapolitane Moly hath three of foure small long greene leaues set vpon the stalke after it is risen vp, which beareth a round head of very fine purple flowers, made of six leaues a peece, but so closing together at the edge, that they seeme like vnto small cuppes, neuer laying themselues open, as the other doe; this hath some sent of his originall, but the roote more then any part else, which is white and round, quickly encreasing as most of the Molyes doe.

10. Moly pyxidatum argenteum Hispanicum. The Spanish siluer cupped Moly.

This Spanish Moly hath two or three very long rush like leaues, which rise vp with the stalke, or rather vanish away when the stalke is risen vp to bee three foote high or more, bearing a great head of flowers, standing close at the first, but afterwards spreading much one from another, euery flower vpon a long foote-stalke, being of a white[145] siluer colour, with stripes or lines on euery side, and fashioned small and hollow, like a cuppe or boxe: the seede I could neuer obserue, because it flowreth so late, that the Winter hindereth it from bearing seede with vs: the roote is small and round, white, and in a manner transparent, at least so shining, as if it were so, and encreaseth nothing so much, as many of the other sorts: this hath no ill sent at all, but rather a pretty smell, not to bee misliked.

11. Moly serotinum Coniferum. The late Pineapple Moly.

This late Moly that was sent me with the last described, and others also from Spain, riseth vp with one long greene leafe, hollow and round vnto the end, towards this end on the one side, breaketh out a head of flowers, enclosed in a thinne skinne, which after it hath so stood a good while, (the leafe in the meane time rising higher, and growing harder, becommeth the stalke) breaketh, and sheweth a great bush or head of buds for flowers, thicke thrust together, fashioned very like vnto the forme of a Pineapple (from whence I gaue it the name) of the bigness of a Walnut: after this head hath stood in this manner a moneth or thereabouts, the flowers shew themselues to bee of a fine delayed or whitish purple colour, with diuers stripes in euery of them, of the same cup-fashion with the former, but not opening so plainly, so that they cannot bee discerned to bee open, without good heede and obseruation. It flowreth so late in Autume, that the early frosts doe quickly spoile the beauty of it, and soone cause it to rotte: the roote is small and round, and shining like the last, very tender also, as not able to abide our sharpe Winters, which hath caused it vtterly to perish with me.

12. Moly Dioscorideum. Dioscorides his Moly.

The roote of this small Moly is transparent within, but couered with a thicke yellowish skinne, of the bignesse of an Hasell Nut, or somewhat bigger, which sendeth forth three or foure narrow grassie leaues, long and hollow, and a little bending downwards, of a whitish greene colour, among which riseth vp a slender weake stalke, a foot and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe, out of a thinne skinne, a tuft of milke white flowers, very like vnto those of Ramsons, which stand a pretty while in their beauty, and then passe away for the most part without giuing any seede: this hath little or no sent of Garlicke.

We haue anothor of this sort that is lesser, and the flowers rounder pointed.

13. Moly Dioscorideum Hispanicum. The Spanish Moly of Dioscorides.

This Moly came vnto me among other Molyes from Spaine, and is in all things like vnto the last described, but fairer, larger, and of much more beauty, as hauing his white flowers twice as great as the former; but (as it seemeth) very impatient of our Winters, which it could not at any hand endure, but quickly perished, as some others that came with it also.

14. Moly Moschatinum vel Zibettinum Monspeliense. The sweete smelling Moly of Mompelier.

This sweete Moly, which I haue kept for the last, to close vp your senses, is the smallest, and the finest of all the rest, hauing foure or fiue small greene leaues, almost as fine as haires, or like the leaues of the Feather-grasse: the stalke is about a foote high, bearing fiue or six or more small white flowers, laid open like Starres, made of six leaues a peece, of an excellent sweete sent, resembling Muske or Ciuet; for diuers haue diuersly censured of it. It flowreth late in the yeare, so that if the precedent Summer bee either ouer moist, or the Autumne ouer early cold, this will not haue that sweete sent, that it will haue in a hot drie time, and besides must be carefully respected: for it will hardly abide the extremity of our sharpe Winters.

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The Place.

The places of these Molyes, are for the most part expressed in their titles, or in their descriptions.

The Time.

The time is set downe, for the most part to bee in Iune and Iuly, the rest later.

The Names.

To make further relation of names then are expressed in their titles, were needlesse; let these therefore suffice.

The Vertues.

All these sorts of Molyes are small kindes of wilde Garlicke, and are to be vsed for the same purposes that the great Garden Garlicke is, although much weaker in their effects. For any other especiall property is in any of these, more than to furnish a Garden of variety, I haue not heard at all.

{Conclusion}

And thus much may suffice of these kindes for our Garden, reseruing manie others that might be spoken of, to a generall worke, or to my Garden of Simples, which as God shall enable me, and time giue leaue, may shew it selfe to the world, to abide the iudicious and criticke censures of all.


Chap. XIIII.
Asphodelus. The Asphodill.

There remaine some other flowers, like vnto the last described, to be specified, which although they haue no bulbous rootes, yet I thinke them fittest to bee here mentioned, that so I may ioyne those of neerest similitude together, vntill I haue finished the rest that are to follow.

{Asphodills}

1. Asphodelus maior albus ramosus. The great white branched Asphodill.

The great white Asphodill hath many long, and narrow, hollow three square leaues, sharpe pointed, lying vpon the ground round about the roote: the stalke is smooth, round, and naked without leaues, which riseth from the midst of them, diuided at the toppe into diuers branches, if the plant bee of any long continuance, or else but into two or three small branches, from the sides of the maine great one, whereon doe stand many large flowers Starre-fashion, made of six leaues a peece, whitish on the inside, and straked with a purplish line downe the backside of euery leafe, hauing in the middle of the flowers some small yellow threeds: the seede is blacke, and three square, greater then the seede of Bucke wheate, contained in roundish heads, which open into three parts: the roote is composed of many tuberous long clogges, thickest in the middle, and smaller at both ends, fastened together at the head, of a darke grayish colour on the outside, and yellow within.

2. Asphodelus albus non ramosus. The white vnbranched Asphodill.

The vnbranched Asphodill is like vnto the former, both in leaues and flowers, but that the flowers of this are whiter, and without any line or strake on the backe side,[147] and the stalkes are without branches: the rootes likewise are smaller, and fewer, but made after the same fashion.

3. Asphodelus maior flore carneo. The blush coloured Asphodill.

This Asphodill is like to the last in forme of leaues and branches, and differeth in this, that his leaues are marked with some spots, and the flowers are of a blush or flesh colour, in all other things alike.

4. Asphodelus minimus albus. The least white Asphodill.

This least Asphodill hath foure or fiue very narrow long leaues, yet seeming three square like the greatest, bearing a small stalke, of about a foote high among them, without any branches, and at the toppe a few white flowers, straked both within and without, with a purplish line in the middle of euery leafe. The rootes are such like tuberous clogges as are in the former, but much lesser.

5. Asphodelus albus minor siue Fistulosus. The little hollow white Asphodill.

This little white Asphodill hath a number of leaues growing thicke together, thicker and greener then those of the small yellow Asphodill, or Kings Speare next following, among which riseth vp diuers round stalkes, bearing flowers from the middle to the toppe, Starre-fashion, with small greene leaues among them, which are white on the inside, and striped on the backe with purple lines like vnto the first described: the seede, and heads containing them, are three square, like the seede of the little yellow Asphodill: the rootes of this kinde are not glandulous, as the former, but stringie, long and white: the whole plant is very impatient of our cold Winters, and quickly perisheth, if it be not carefully preserued, both from the cold, and much wet in the Winter, by housing it; and then it will abide many yeares: for it is not an annuall plant, as many haue thought.

6. Asphodelus luteus minor, siue Hastula regia. The small yellow Asphodill, or Kings speare.

This small yellow Asphodill, which is vsually called the Kings speare, hath many long narrow edged leaues, which make them seeme three square, of a bluish or whitish greene colour: the stalke riseth vp three foote high oftentimes, beset with small long leaues vp vnto the very flowers, which grow thicke together spike-fashion one aboue another, for a great length, and wholly yellow, laid open like a Starre, somewhat greater then the last white Asphodill, and smaller then the first, which when they are past yeeld round heads, containing blacke cornered seede, almost three square: the rootes are many long yellow strings, which spreading in the ground, doe much encrease.

The Place.

All these Asphodils doe grow naturally in Spaine and France, and from thence were first brought vnto vs, to furnish our Gardens.

The Time.

All the glandulous rooted Asphodils doe flower some in May, and some in Iune; but the two last doe flower, the yellow or last, of them in Iuly, and the former white one in August and September, and vntill the cold and winter hinder it.

The Names.

Their seuerall names are giuen them in their titles, as much as is fit for[148] this discourse. For to shew you that the Greekes doe call the stalke of the great Asphodill Ανθερίκη, and the Latines Albucum, or what else belongeth to them, is fitter for another worke, vnto which I leaue them.

{Bastard Asphodils}

The bastard Asphodils should follow next in place, if this worke were fit for them; but because I haue tyed my selfe to expresse onely those flowers and plants, that for their beauty, or sent, or both, doe furnish a Garden of Pleasure, and they haue none, I leaue them to a generall History of plants, or that Garden of Simples before spoken of, and will describe the Lilly Asphodils, and the Phalangia or Spider-worts, which are remaining of those, that ioyne in name or fashion, and are to be here inserted, before I passe to the rest of the bulbous rootes.

{Day Lillies}

1. Liliasphodelus phœniceus. The gold red Day Lilly.

Because the rootes of this and the next, doe so nearely agree with the two last recited Asphodils, I haue set them in this place, although some doe place them next after the Lillies, because their flowers doe come nearest in forme vnto Lillies; but whether you will call them Asphodils with Lilly flowers, as I thinke it fittest, or Lillies with Asphodill rootes, or Lillies without bulbous rootes, as others doe, I will not contend.

The red Day Lilly hath diuers broad and long fresh greene leaues, folded at the first as it were double, which after open, and remaine a little hollow in the middle; among which riseth vp a naked stalke three foot high, bearing at the toppe many flowers, one not much distant from another, and flowring one after another, not hauing lightly aboue one flower blown open in a day, & that but for a day, not lasting longer, but closing at night, and not opening againe; whereupon it had his English name, The Lilly for a day: these flowers are almost as large as the flowers of the white Lilly, and made after the same fashion, but of a faire gold red, or Orange tawny colour. I could neuer obserue any seede to follow these flowers; for they seeme the next day after they haue flowred, (except the time be faire and dry) to bee so rotten, as if they had lyen in wet to rotte them, whereby I thinke no seede can follow: the rootes are many thicke and long yellow knobbed strings, like vnto the small yellow Asphodill rootes, but somewhat greater, running vnder ground in like sort, and shooting young heads round about.

2. Liliasphodelus luteus. The yellow Day Lilly.

I shall not neede to make a repetition of the description of this Day Lilly, hauing giuen you one so amply before, because this doth agree thereunto so nearely, as that it might seeme the same; these differences onely it hath, the leaues are not fully so large, nor the flower so great or spread open, and the colour thereof is of a faire yellow wholly, and very sweet, which abideth blowne many daies before it fade, and hath giuen blacke round seede, growing in round heads, like the heads of the small yellow Asphodill, but not so great.

Clusius hath set downe, that it was reported, that there should be another Liliasphodill with a white flower, but we can heare of none such as yet; but I rather thinke, that they that gaue that report might be mistaken, in thinking the Sauoye Spider-wort to be a white Liliasphodill, which indeede is so like, that one not well experienced, or not well regarding it, may soone take one for another.

[149]

Page 149: Asphodill and Lily.
1Asphodelus maior albus ramosus. The great white branched Asphodill.
2Asphodelus minor albus seu fistulosus. The little hollow white Asphodill.
3Asphodelus minor luteus, siue Hastula regia. The small yellow Asphodill, or Kings speare.
4Liliasphodelus luteus. The yellow Day Lilly.
5Liliasphodelus phœniceus. The gold red Day Lilly.
The Place.

Their originall is many moist places in Germany.

The Time.

They flower in May and Iune.

The Names.

They are called by some Liliago, and Lilium non bulbosum, and Liliaspho[150]delus. In English we call them both Day Lillies, but the name doth not so well agree with the last, as with the first, for the causes aboue specified.

The Vertues.

The rootes of Asphodill haue formerly beene had in great account, but now are vtterly neglected; yet by reason of their sharpnesse they open and cleanse, and therefore some haue of late vsed them for the yellow Iaundise. The Day Lillies haue no physicall vse that I know, or haue heard.


Chap. XV.
Phalangium. Spider-wort.

These plants doe so nearely resemble those that are last set forth, that I thinke none that knowes them, will doubt, but that they must follow next vnto them, being so like vnto them, and therefore of the fairest of this kinde first.

{Spider-worts}

1. Phalangium Allobrogicum. The Sauoye Spider-wort.

The Sauoye Spider-wort springeth vp with foure or fiue greene leaues, long and narrow, yet broader at the bottome, narrower pointed at the end, and a little hollow in the middle; among which riseth vp a round stiffe stalke, a foote and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe one aboue another, seuen or eight, or more flowers, euery one as large almost as the yellow Day Lilly last described, but much greater then in any other of the Spider-worts, of a pure white colour, with some threeds in the middle, tipt with yellow, and a small forked pointell: after the flowers are past, the heads or seede vessels grow almost three square, yet somewhat round, wherein is contained blackish seede: the rootes are many white, round, thicke, brittle strings, ioyned together at the head, but are nothing so long, as the rootes of the other Phalangia or Spider-worts.

2. Phalangium maius Italicum album. The great Italian Spider-wort.

This great Spider-wort hath diuers long and narrow leaues spread vpon the ground, and not rising vp as the former, and not so broad also as the former, but somewhat larger then those that follow: the stalke is bigger, but seldome riseth vp so high as the next, whereof this is a larger kinde, hauing a long vnbranched stalke of white flowers, laid open like starres as it hath, but somewhat greater: the rootes are long and white, like the next, but somewhat larger.

3. Phalangium non ramosum vulgare. Vnbranched Spider-wort.

The leaues of this Spider-wort doe seeme to bee little bigger or longer then the leaues of grasse, but of a more grayish green colour, rising immediately from the head or tuft of rootes; among which rise vp one or two stalkes, sometimes two or three foote long, beset toward the toppe with many white Starre-like flowers, which after they are past turne into small round heads, containing blacke seede, like vnto the seed of the little yellow Asphodill, but lesser: the rootes are long white strings, running vnder ground.

4. Phalangium ramosum. Branched Spider-wort.

The branched Spider-wort hath his leaues somewhat broader then the former, and of a more yellowish greene colour: the stalke hereof is diuersly branched at the top, bearing many white flowers, like vnto the former, but smaller: the seedes and rootes are like the former in all things.

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Page 151: Spider-wort.
1Phalangium Allobrogicum. The Sauoye Spider-wort.
2Phalangium non ramosum. Vnbranched Spider-wort.
3Phalangium ramosum. Branched Spider-wort.
4Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum. Iohn Tradescante’s Spider-wort.

[152]

The Place.

The first groweth on the Hils neare vnto Sauoye, from whence diuers, allured with the beauty of the flower, haue brought it into these parts.

The second came vp in my Garden, from the seede receiued out of Italy. The others grow in Spaine, France, &c.

The Time.

The vnbranched Spider-wort most commonly flowreth before all the other, and the branched a moneth after it: the other two about one time, that is, towards the end of May, and not much after the vnbranched kinde.

The Names.

The first (as I said before) hath beene taken to be a white Lilliasphodill, and called Liliasphodelus flore albo; but Clusius hath more properly entituled it a Phalangium, and from the place of his originall, gaue him his other denomination, and so is called of most, as is set downe in the title.

The other haue no other names then are expressed in their titles, but only that Cordus calleth them Liliago; and Dodonæus, lib. 4. hist. plant. would make the branched kinde to bee Moly alterum Plinij, but without any good ground.

The Vertues.

The names Phalangium and Phalangites were imposed on these plants, because they were found effectual, to cure the poyson of that kinde of Spider, called Phalangium, as also of Scorpions and other Serpents. Wee doe not know, that any Physitian hath vsed them to any such, or any other purpose in our dayes.

{The soon fading Spider-wort of Virginia}

5. Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum Ioannis Tradescant. The soon fading Spider-wort of Virginia, or Tradescant his Spider-wort.

This Spider-wort is of late knowledge, and for it the Christian world is indebted vnto that painfull industrious searcher, and louer of all natures varieties, Iohn Tradescant (sometimes belonging to the right Honourable Lord Robert Earle of Salisbury, Lord Treasurer of England in his time, and then vnto the right Honourable the Lord Wotton at Canterbury in Kent, and lastly vnto the late Duke of Buckingham) who first receiued it of a friend, that brought it out of Virginia, thinking it to bee the Silke Grasse that groweth there, and hath imparted hereof, as of many other things, both to me and others; the description whereof is as followeth:

From a stringie roote, creeping farre vnder ground, and rising vp againe in many places, springeth vp diuers heads of long folded leaues, of a grayish ouer-worne greene colour, two or three for the most part together, and not aboue, compassing one another at the bottome, and abiding greene in many places all the Winter; other-where perishing, and rising anew in the Spring, which leaues rise vp with the great round stalke, being set thereon at the ioynts, vsually but one at a ioynt, broad at the bottome where they compasse the stalke, and smaller and smaller to the end: at the vpper ioynt, which is the toppe of the stalke, there stand two or three such like leaues, but smaller, from among which breaketh out a dozen, sixteene, or twenty, or more round green heads, hanging downe their heads by little foot-stalkes, which when the flower beginneth to blow open, groweth longer, and standeth vpright, hauing three small pale greene leaues for a huske, and three other leaues within them for the flower, which lay themselues open flat, of a deepe blew purple colour, hauing an vmbone or small head in the middle, closely set about with six reddish, hairy, or feathered threeds, tipt with yellow pendents: this flower openeth it selfe in the day, & shutteth vsually at[153] night, and neuer openeth againe, but perisheth, and then hangeth downe his head againe; the greene huske of three leaues, closing it selfe againe into the forme of a head, but greater, as it was before, the middle vmbone growing to bee the seede vessell, wherein is contained small, blackish, long seede: Seldome shall any man see aboue one, or two at the most of these flowers blowne open at one time vpon the stalke, whereby it standeth in flowring a long time, before all the heads haue giuen out their flowers.

The Place.

This plant groweth in some parts of Virginia, and was deliuered to Iohn Tradescant.

The Time.

It flowreth from the end of May vntill Iuly, if it haue had greene leaues all the Winter, or otherwise, vntill the Winter checke his luxuriousnesse.

The Names.

Vnto this plant I confesse I first imposed the name, by considering duely all the parts thereof, which vntill some can finde a more proper, I desire may still continue, and to call it Ephemerum Virginianum Tradescanti, Iohn Tradescante’s Spider-wort of Virginia, or Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, The soone fading or Day Spider-wort of Virginia.

The Vertues.

There hath not beene any tryall made of the properties since wee had it, nor doe we know whether the Indians haue any vse thereof.


Chap. XVI.
Colchicum. Medowe Saffron.

To returne to the rest of the bulbous and tuberous rooted plants, that remaine to bee entreated of, the Colchica or Medowe Saffrons are first to bee handled, whereof these later dayes haue found out more varieties, then formerly were knowne; some flowring in the Spring, but the most in Autumne, and some bearing double, but the greatest part single flowers: whereof euery one in their order, and first of our owne Country kindes.

1. Colchicum Anglicum album. The white English Medowe Saffron.

It is common to all the Medowe Saffrons, except that of the Spring, and one other, to beare their flowers alone in Autumne or later, without any green leaues with them, and afterwards in February, their greene leaues: So that I shall not neede to make manie descriptions, but to shew you the differences that consist in the leaues, and colours of the flowers; and briefly to passe (after I haue giuen you a full description of the first) from one vnto another, touching onely those things that are note worthy. The white English Medowe Saffron then doth beare in Autumne three or foure flowers at the most, standing seuerally vpon weake foote-stalkes, a fingers length or more aboue the ground, made of six white leaues, somewhat long and narrow, and not so large as most of the other kindes, with some threeds or chiues in the middle, like vnto the Saffron flowers of the Spring, wherein there is no colour of Saffron, or vertue to that effect: after the flowers are past and gone, the leaues doe not presently follow, but the roote remaineth in the ground without shew of leafe aboue ground, most part of the Winter, and then in February there spring vp three or foure large and long greene[154] leaues, when they are fully growne vp, standing on the toppe of a round, weake, green, and short foote-stalke, somewhat like the leaues of white Lillies, but not so large, and in the middest of these leaues, after they haue been vp some time, appeare two or three loose skinny heads, standing in the middle of the leaues vpon short, thicke, greene stalkes, and being ripe, conteine in them round small brownish seede, that lye as it were loose therein, and when the head is dry, may bee heard to rattle being shaken: the roote is white within, but couered with a thicke blackish skinne or coate, hauing one side thereof at the bottome longer then the other, with an hollownesse also on the one side of that long eminence, where the flowers rise from the bottome, and shooting downe from thence a number of white fibres, whereby it is fastened in the ground: the greene leaues afterwards rising from the top or head of the roote.

2. Colchicum Anglicum purpureum. The purple English Medowe Saffron.

There is no difference at all in this Medowe Saffron from the former, but only in the colour of the flowers, which as they were wholly white in the former, so in this they are of a delayed purple colour, with a small shew of veines therein.

3. Colchicum Pannonicum album. The white Hungary Medowe Saffron.

The greatest difference in this Colchicum from the former English white one, is, that it is larger both in roote, leafe, and flower, and besides, hath more store of flowers together, and continuing longer in beauty, without fading so soone as the former, and are also somewhat of a fairer white colour.

4. Colchicum Pannonicum purpureum. The purple Hungary Medowe Saffron.

This purple Medowe Saffron is somewhat like vnto the white of this kinde, but that it beareth not so plentifully as the white, nor doth the roote grow so great; but the flowers are in a manner as large as they, and of the like pale delayed purple colour, or somewhat deeper, as is in the purple English, with some veines or markes vpon the flowers, making some shew of a checker on the out side, but not so conspicuous, as in the true checkerd kindes. Wee haue a kinde hereof is party coloured with white streakes and edges, which abide constant, and hath been raised from the seede of the former.

5. Colchicum Byzantinum. Medowe Saffron of Constantinople.

This Medowe Saffron of Constantinople hath his leaues so broad and large, that hardly could any that neuer saw it before, iudge it to be a Colchicum; for they are much larger then any Lilly leaues, and of a darke greene colour: the flowers are correspondent to the leaues, larger and more in number then in any of the former purple kindes, of the same colour with the last purple kinde, but of a little deeper purple on the inside, with diuers markes running through the flowers, like vnto it, or vnto checkers, but yet somewhat more apparently: the roote is in the middle greater and rounder then the others, with a longer eminence, whereby it may easily bee knowne from all other sorts.

6. Colchicum Lusitanicum Fritillaricum. The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Portugall.

The flowers of this Medowe Saffron are larger and longer then the flowers of either the English or Hungarian, and almost as large as the last before mentioned, and of the same colour, but a little deeper, the spots and markes whereof are somewhat more easie to be seene euen a farre off, like vnto the flower of a Fritillaria, from whence it tooke his significatiue name: the leaues of this Medowe Saffron doe rise vp sooner then in any other of the Autumne kindes, for they are alwayes vp before Winter, and are foure or fiue in number, short rather then long, broad belowe, and pointed at the end, canaled or hollow, and standing round aboue the ground, one encompassing another at the bottome, like the great Spanish Starre Iacinth, called the Iacinth of Peru,[155] but shorter, and of a pale or grayish greene colour, differing from the colour of all the other Medowe Saffrons: the roote is like the roote of the English or Hungarian without any difference, but that it groweth somewhat greater. It is one of the first Medowe Saffrons that flower in the Autumne.

Page 155: Medowe Saffron.
1Colchicum Pannonicum. The Hungarian Medow Saffron.
2Colchicum Byzantinum. Medowe Saffron of Constantinople.
3Colchicum Lusitanicum Fritillaricum. The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Portugall.
4Colchicum Neapolitanum Fritillaricum. The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Naples.
5Colchicum Fritillaricum Chiense. The Checkerd Medowe Saffron of Chio or Sio.
6Colchicum Hermodactylum. Physicall Medowe Saffron.

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7. Colchicum Neapolitanum Fritillaricum. The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Naples.

This checkerd Medowe Saffron of Naples, is very like vnto the last recited checkerd Saffron of Portugall, but that the flower is somewhat larger, yet sometimes very little, or not at all: the greatest marke to distinguish them is, that the flowers of this are of a deeper colour, and so are the spots on the flowers likewise, which are so conspicuous, that they are discerned a great way off, more like vnto the flowers of a deepe Fritillaria, then the former, and make a goodlier and a more glorious shew: the leaues of this doe rise vp early after the flowers, and are somewhat longer, of a darker greene colour, yet bending to a grayish colour as the other, not lying so neatly or round, but stand vp one by another, being as it were folded together: neither of both these last named checkerd Medowe Saffrons haue giuen any seede in this Countrey, that euer I could learne or heare of, but are encreased by the roote, which in this is like the former, but a little bigger.

8. Colchicum Fritillaricum Chiense. The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Chio or Sio.

This most beautifull Saffron flower riseth vp with his flowers in the Autumne, as the others before specified doe, although not of so large a size, yet farre more pleasant and delightfull in the thicke, deepe blew, or purple coloured beautifull spots therein, which make it excell all others whatsoeuer: the leaues rise vp in the Spring, being smaller then the former, for the most part three in number, and of a paler or fresher greene colour, lying close vpon the ground, broad at the bottome, a little pointed at the end, and twining or folding themselues in and out at the edges, as if they were indented. I haue not seene any seede it hath borne: the roote is like vnto the others of this kinde, but small and long, and not so great: it flowreth later for the most part then any of the other, euen not vntill Nouember, and is very hard to be preserued with vs, in that for the most part the roote waxeth lesse and lesse euery yeare, our cold Country being so contrary vnto his naturall, that it will scarce shew his flower; yet when it flowreth any thing early, that it may haue any comfort of a warme Sunne, it is the glorie of all these kindes.

9. Colchicum versicolor. The party coloured Medowe Saffron.

The flowers of this Medowe Saffron most vsually doe not appeare, vntill most of the other Autumne sorts are past, except the last, which are very lowe, scarce rising with their stalkes three fingers breadth aboue the ground, but oftentimes halfe hid within the ground: the leaues whereof are smaller, shorter, and rounder, then in any of the other before specified, some being altogether white, and others wholly of a very pale purple, or flesh colour; and some againe parted, the one halfe of a leafe white, and the other halfe of the same purple, and sometimes striped purple and white, in diuers leaues of one and the same flower: and againe, some will be the most part of the leafe white, and the bottome purple, thus varying as nature list, that many times from one roote may bee seene to arise all these varieties before mentioned: these flowers doe stand long before they fade and passe away; for I haue obserued in my Garden some that haue kept their flower faire vntill the beginning of Ianuary, vntill the extremitie of the Winter frosts and snowes haue made them hide their heads: the leaues therefore accordingly doe rise vp after all other, and are of a brownish or darke greene colour at their first springing vp, which after grow to be of a deepe greene colour: the roote is like the former English or Hungarian kindes, but thicker and greater for the most part, and shorter also.

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10. Colchicum variegatum alterum. Another party coloured Medowe Saffron.

There is another, whose party coloured flowers rise a little higher, diuersly striped and marked, with a deeper purple colour, and a pale or whitish blush throughout all the leaues of the flower.

11. Colchicum montanum Hispanicum minus. The little Spanish Medowe Saffron.

The flowers of this little Medowe Saffron are narrower and smaller then any of the former, and of a deeper reddish purple colour then either the English or Hungarian kindes: the greene leaues also are smaller then any other, lying on the ground, of a deepe or sad greene colour, rising vp within a while after the flowers are past, and doe abide greene all the Winter long: the roote is small and long, according to the rest of the plant, and like in forme to the others.

12. Colchicum montanum minus versicolore flore. The small party coloured Medowe Saffron.

This little kinde differeth not from the Spanish kinde last set forth, but in the varietie of the flower, which is as small as the former; the three inner leaues being almost all white, and the three outer leaues some of them pale or blush, and some party coloured, with a little greene on the backe of some of them.

13. Colchicum Hermodactilum. Physicall Medowe Saffron.

This Physicall Medowe Saffron springeth vp with his leaues in Autumne, before his flowers appeare beyond the nature of all the former kindes, yet the flower doth, after they are vp, shew it selfe in the middle of the greene leaues, consisting of six white leaues, with diuers chiues in the middle, and passeth away without giuing any seede that euer I could obserue: the greene leaues abide all the Winter and Spring following, decaying about May, and appeare not vntill September, when (as I said) the flowers shew themselues presently after the leaues are sprung vp.

14. Colchicum atropurpureum. The darke purple Medowe Saffron.

The greatest difference in this kinde consisteth in the flower, which at the first appearing is as pale a purple, as the flower of the former Hungarian kinde: but after it hath stood in flower two or three dayes, it beginneth to change, and will after a while become to bee of a very deepe reddish purple colour, as also the little foote-stalke whereon it doth stand: the flower is of the bignesse of the Hungarian purple, and so is the greene leafe: the seede and roote is like the English purple kinde.

15. Colchicum atropurpureum variegatum. The party coloured darke purple Medowe Saffron.

We haue of late gained another sort of this kinde, differing chiefly in the flower, which is diuersly striped thorough euery leafe of the flower, with a paler purple colour, whereby the flower is of great beauty: this might seeme to bee a degeneration from the former, yet it hath abiden constant with me diuers yeares, and giueth seede as plentifully as the former.

16. Colchicum flore pleno. Double flowred Medowe Saffron.

The double Medowe Saffron is in roote and leafe very like unto the English kinde: the flowers are of a fine pale or delayed purple colour, consisting of many leaues set thicke together, which are somewhat smaller, as in the English flower, being narrow and long, and as it were round at the points, which make a very double flower, hauing[158] some chiues with their yellow tips, dispersed as it were among the leaues in the middle: it flowreth in September, a little after the first shew of the earlier Medowe Saffrons are past.

17. Colchicum variegatum pleno flore. The party coloured double Medowe Saffron.

We haue another of these double kinds (if it be not the very same with the former, varying in the flower as nature pleaseth oftentimes; for I haue this flower in my garden, as I here set it forth, euery yeare) whose flowers are diuersified in the partition of the colours, as is to be seene in the single party coloured Medowe Saffron before described, hauing some leaues white, and others pale purple, and some leaues halfe white and halfe purple, diuersly set or placed in the double flower, which doth consist of as many leaues as the former, yet sometime this party coloured flower doth not shew it selfe double like the former, but hath two flowers, one rising out of another, making each of them to be almost but single flowers, consisting of eight or ten leaues a peece: but this diuersity is not constant; for the same roote that this yeare appeareth in that manner, the next yeare will returne to his former kinde of double flowers againe.

18. Colchicum Vernum. Medowe Saffron of the Spring.

This Medowe Saffron riseth vp very early in the yeare, that is, in the end of Ianuarie sometimes, or beginning, or at the furthest the middle of February, presently after the deepe Frosts and Snowes are past, with his flowers inclosed within three greene leaues, which opening themselues as soone almost as they are out of the ground, shew their buds for flowers within them very white oftentimes, before they open farre, and sometimes also purplish at their first appearing, which neuer shew aboue two at the most vpon one roote, and neuer rise aboue the leaues, nor the leaues much higher then they, while they last: the flower consisteth of six leaues, long and narrow, euery leafe being diuided, both at the bottome and toppe, each from other, and ioyned together onely in the middle, hauing also six chiues, tipt with yellow in the middle, euery chiue being ioyned to a leafe, of a pale red or deepe blush colour, when it hath stood a while blowne, and is a smaller flower then any Medowe Saffron, except the small Spanish kindes onely, but continueth in his beauty a good while, if the extremity of sharpe Frosts and Windes doe not spoile it: the leaues wherein these flowers are enclosed, at their first comming vp, are of a brownish greene colour, which so abide for a while, especially on the outside, but on the inside they are hollow, and of a whitish or grayish greene colour, which after the flowers are past, grow to bee of the length of a mans longest finger, and narrow withall: there riseth vp likewise in the middle of them the head or seede vessell, which is smaller and shorter, and harder then any of the former, wherein is contained small round browne seede: the roote is small, somewhat like vnto the rootes of the former, but shorter, and not hauing so long an eminence on the one side of the bottome.

19. Colchicum vernum atropurpureum. Purple Medowe Saffron of the Spring.

The flower of this Medowe Saffron, is in the rising vp of his leaues and flowers together, and in all things else, like vnto the former, onely the flowers of this sort are at their first appearing of a deeper purple colour, and when they are blowne also are much deeper then the former, diuided in like manner, both at the bottome and toppe as the other, so that they seeme, like as if six loose leaues were ioyned in the middle part, to make one flower, and hath his small chiues tipt with yellow, cleauing in like manner to euery leafe.

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Page 159: Medowe Saffron.
1Colchicum montanum Hispanicum. The little Spanish Medowe Saffron.
2Colchicum montanum minus versicolore flore. The small party coloured Medowe Saffron.
3Colchicum versicolor. The party coloured Medowe Saffron.
4Colchicum variegatum alterum. Another party coloured Medowe Saffron.
5Colchicum atropurpureum. The darke purple Medowe Saffron.
6Colchicum atropurpureum variegatum. The variable darke purple Medowe Saffron.
7Colchicum vernum. Medowe Saffron of the spring.
8Colchicum flore pleno. Double Medowe Saffron.

The Place.

All these Medowe Saffrons, or the most part of them, haue their places expressed in their titles; for some grow in the fields and medowes of the champion grounds, others on the mountaines and hilly grounds. The English kindes grow in the West parts, as about Bathe, Bristow, Warmister[160], and other places also. The double kindes are thought to come out of Germany.

The Time.

Their times likewise are declared in their seuerall descriptions: those that are earliest in Autumne, flower in August and September, the later in October, and the latest in the end of October, and in November. The other are said to bee of the Spring, in regard they come after the deepe of Winter (which is most vsually in December and Ianuary) is past.

The Names.

The generall name to all these plants is Colchicum, whereunto some haue added Ephemerum, because it killeth within one dayes space; and some Strangulatorium. Some haue called them also Bulbus Agrestis, and Filius ante Patrem, The Sonne before the Father, because (as they thinke) it giueth seede before the flower: but that is without due consideration; for the root of this (as of most other bulbous plants) after the stalke of leaues and seede are dry, and past, may be transplanted, and then it beginneth to spring and giue flowers before leaues, (and therein onely it is differing from other plants) but the leaues and seede follow successiuely after the flowers, before it may be remoued againe; so that here is not seede before flowers, but contrarily flowers vpon the first planting or springing, and seede after, as in all other plants, though in a diuers manner.

The Colchicum Hermodactilum may seeme very likely to bee the Colchicum Orientale of Matthiolus, or the Colchicum Alexandrinum of Lobelius: And some thinke it to be the true Hermodactilus, and so call it, but it is not so. We doe generally call them all in English Medowe Saffrons, or Colchicum, according to the Latine, giuing to euery one his other adiunct to know it by.

The Vertues.

None of these are vsed for any Physicall respect, being generally held to be deadly, or dangerous at the least. Only the true Hermodactile (if it be of this tribe, and not this which is here expressed) is of great vse, for paines in the ioynts, and of the hippes, as the Sciatica, and the like, to be taken inwardly. Costæus in his Booke of the nature of plants, saith, that the rootes of our common kindes are very bitter in the Spring of the yeare, and sweet in Autumne, which Camerarius contradicteth, saying, that he found them bitter in Autumne, which were (as he saith) giuen by some imposters to diuers, as an antidote against the Plague.


Chap. XVII.
Crocus. Saffron.

There are diuers sorts of Saffrons, whereof many doe flower in the Spring time, and some in Autumne, among whom there is but one onely kinde, that is called tame or of the Garden, which yeeldeth those blades or chiues that are vsed in meates and medicines, and many wayes profitable for other respects, none of the rest, which are all wilde kindes, giuing any blade equall vnto those of the tame kinde, or for any other vse, then in regard of their beautifull flowers of seuerall varieties, and as they haue been carefully sought out, and preserued by diuers, to furnish a Garden of dainty curiosity. To entreate therefore of these, I must, to obserue an orderly declaration, diuide them into two primary families: the former shall be of those that yeeld their pleasant flowers in the Spring of the yeare, and the other that send out[161] their colours in the Autumne, among whom that Rex pomarij (as I may so call it) the tame or manured kinde, properly called of the Garden, is to be comprehended, for that it giueth his pleasant flowers at that time among others. I shall againe distribute those of the Spring time into three chiefe colours, that is, into white, purple, and yellow, and vnder euery one of them, comprehend the seuerall varieties that doe belong vnto them; which course I will also hold with those of the Autumne, that thus being rightly ranked, they may the more orderly be described.

{Spring Saffron flowers}

1. Crocus Vernus albus purus minor. The smaller pure white Saffron flower of the Spring.

This small Saffron flower springeth vp in the beginning of the yeare, with three or foure small greene leaues, somewhat broader, but much shorter then the true Saffron leaues, with a white line downe the middle of euery leafe: betweene these leaues, out of a white skinne, riseth vp one or two small flowers, made of six leaues a peece, as all the rest in generall are, of a pure white colour, without any mixture in it, which abide not in flower aboue a weeke, or rather lesse, so sodainly is the pleasure of this, and the purple lost: it flowreth not for the most part, vntill a moneth after the yellow Crocus appeareth in flower, and the ordinary stript Crocus is past: the seede is small, round, and reddish, yet not so red as the seede of the yellow, contained in three square heads, yet seldome beareth, but encreaseth by the roote plentifully enough, which is small, round, and flat at the bottome, somewhat white on the outside, but whiter within, shooting out small sprouts on euery side of the roote, which is the best note to know this kinde and the lesser purple, which are both alike, from all other rootes of Saffron flowers.

2. Crocus albus maior multiflorus. The great snow white Crocus.

This greater Saffron flower riseth vp vsually with three or foure greene leaues, larger then the former, with a white line in euery one of them: the flowers are greater, and more in number, rising together, but flowring one after another, of a pure snow white colour, and abiding but little longer in flower then the former.

3. Crocus albus maior alter dictus Mæsiacus. The great white Saffron flower or Crocus of Mesia.

This great white Crocus of Mesia, riseth vp out of the ground, almost as early as the first sort of the yellow, with foure or fiue leaues, being very like vnto the leaues of the yellow Crocus, and as large, with white lines in them: the flowers also are as large as the flowers of the yellow, and many also rising one after another like vnto it, but not of so pure a white colour, as the former or last described, but rather tending to a Milky or Creame colour: the roote is not couered with any reddish, but rather pale skinnes or coates.

4. Crocus albus Mæsiacus fundo violaceo. The great white Crocus of Mesia with a blew bottome.

There is another of this kinde, like vnto the former in all things, sauing that the bottomes of the flowers of this kinde, with some part of the stalke next the flower, are of a pale shining purple colour, and rising vp a pretty way into the flower; whereas another also of this kind, hath a little shew or marke of blew, and not purple, at the bottome of the flower onely, which maketh a difference.

5. Crocus albus fundo purpureo. The white Crocus with a purple bottome.

This Saffron flower is of the same kinde with the first, both in roote, leafe, and flower, in none of them differing from it, but in that the bottome of this flower, with that part of the short foote-stalke next vnto it, is of violet or purple colour, and sometimes hauing here and there some purple small lines, or spots on the white leaues: it flowreth also with the first white, or somewhat later.

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6. Crocus vernus albus striatus. The white stript Crocus.

This stript Saffron flower is likewise neare the same first kind, or first white Crocus, hauing the like leaues and flowers, somewhat larger, but as soone fading almost as it: but herein this flower differeth, that it hath pale blewish lines and spots in all the leaues thereof, and more principally in the three outer leaues: the root is also white on the outside, like the first white, but greater, with young ones growing round about it.

7. Crocus vernus albus polyanthos versicolor. The greater party coloured white Crocus.

The greater party coloured Saffron flower, hath his greene leaues like vnto the second great white Crocus before mentioned, hauing more flowers then any of the former, except the first great white, the leaues whereof haue greater stripes then the last recited Crocus, but of a purple Violet colour, making each leafe seeme oftentimes to haue as much purple as white in them: the roote hereof is somewhat like the second white, but of a little more duskie colour on the outside, and not budding out on the sides at all, or very little.

8. Crocus vernus albus versicolor. The lesser party coloured white Crocus.

The leaues and flowers of this other party coloured Crocus, are for bignesse in a manner equall with the last, but hath not so many flowers rising together from the roote: the flower is finely marked with blew strakes on the white flower, but nothing so much as in the former: the roote also is like the last.

9. Crocus Episcopalis. The Bishops Crocus.

This party coloured or Bishops Saffron flower, is very like both in leaues and rootes vnto the Neapolitane blew Crocus, but somewhat greater: the flowers doe abide not so long time blowne, and hath all the leaues either wholly white, with blew stripes on both sides of them, or wholly of a fine delayed blew Violet colour, and the three innermost more blew and finely striped, both on the inside and outside of them, and sometimes it hath been seen to haue three leaues white, and three leaues of a pale blew.

10. Crocus vernus striatus vulgaris. The ordinary stript Crocus.

There is another sort of stript Saffron flower, which is most common and plentifull in most Gardens, which I must needes bring vnder the ranke of these white kinds, although it differre very notably, both in roote, leafe, and flower, from all of them: the leaues of this rise vp sooner then the yellow or white Crocus, lying spread vpon the ground for the most part, but narrower then any of the former: among these leaues spring vp diuers flowers, almost as large as the former great white Crocus, of a very bleake or pale purple colour, tending to white on the inside, and in many almost white, with some small whitish chiues tipt with yellow in the middle: the three outer leaues are of a yellowish white colour on the backe side of them, stript euery one of them with three broad stripes, of a darke murrey or purple colour, and a little sprinkled with some small purple lines, on both sides of those stripes; but on the inside, of the same pale purple or white colour with the rest: the seede hereof is somewhat darker coloured then of the white, and is more liberall in bearing: the roote is differing from all the former, being rounder and bigger then any of them, except the kindes of Misia, yet somewhat flat withall, not hauing any shootes from the sides, but setting off into rootes plentifully, hauing a round circle compassing the bottome of the roote, which easily falleth away, when it is taken vp out of the ground, and couered with a browne coate, somewhat neare the colour of the yellow Crocus, but not altogether so bright: it flowreth vsually the first of all these sorts, or with the first of the early yellowes.

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Page 163: Crocus.
1Crocus vernus albus minor. The small white Saffron flower of the spring.
2Crocus vernus Mæsiacus albus. The great white Crocus of Misia.
3Crocus vernus albus striatus. The white stript Crocus.
4Crocus vernus albus polyanthos versicolor. The party coloured white Crocus.
5Crocus albus fundo purpureo. The white Crocus with a purple bottome.
6Crocus vernus Neapolitanus. The great blew Crocus of Naples.
7Crocus vernus purpureus maximus. The great purple Crocus.
8Crocus vernus purpureus striatus. The purple stript Crocus.
9Crocus vernus purpureus Capillarifolio. The purple Crocus with small leaues.
10Crocus vernus flavus striatus. The yellow stript Crocus.
11Crocus vernus luteus versicolor. The cloth of gold Crocus.

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11. Crocus vernus striatus Turcitus. The Turkie stript Crocus.

There is another of this kinde, whose flower is a little larger, and of a deeper purple colour, both on the inside and outside; the greene leafe also is bigger, and of a more whitish colour.

12. Crocus vernus Capillarifolio albus. The white Crocus with small leaues.

This white Crocus is in all things like vnto the purple of the same kinde, but that the flower of this is wholly white: the full description therefore hereof, you shall haue in that purple with small leaues, of this kinde hereafter set downe, whereunto I referre you.

13. Crocus vernus purpureus minor. The smaller purple Crocus.

The smaller purple Saffron flower of the Spring, hath his greene leaues so like vnto the first white flowred Saffron, that they can hardly be distinguished, onely they seem to bee a little narrower: the flower is also much about the same bignesse, or a little bigger, and seldome beareth aboue one flower from a roote, euen as the first doth, of a deepe purple Violet colour, the bottome of the flower, with the vpper part of the stalke next thereunto, being of a deeper or blacker purple; in the middle of the flower are some pale chiues tipt with yellow pendents, and a longer pointell, diuided or forked at the toppe: the roote of this is in all things so like vnto the first white, that it is impossible for the most cunning and conuersant in them, to know the one from the other. This beareth seede very sparingly, as the white doth, and is reddish like vnto it, but recompenseth that defect with a plentifull encrease by the roote: it likewise flowereth at the very same time with the white, and endureth as small a time.

14. Crocus vernus purpureus maximus. The greatest purple Crocus.

This great purple Crocus is of the same kinde with the next described, as well in roote as leafe, but greater; for the greene leaues hereof are the greatest and broadest of all other Crocus, with a large white line in the middle of euery one: it springeth vp much later then the former, and doth not shew his flower vntill the other bee past a good while: the flowers also are the largest of all these Crocus of the Spring time, and equalling, if not surpassing that purple kinde that flowreth in Autumne, hereafter set forth, of a very faire and deepe Violet colour, almost as deepe as the former: the seed vessels are large also and white, wherein is contained pale reddish seede, like vnto the next blew kinde, but somewhat greater: the roote is (as I said before) like vnto the next, that is, flat and round, with a duskie coloured outside, whose head for springing in it is as hardly discerned.

Alter Apicibus albidis.

We haue one of this kinde, the toppes onely of whose purple flower are whitish, for the breadth of halfe the naile of a mans hand, which abideth constant euery yeare in that manner, and therefore is a difference fit to be remembred.

15. Crocus vernus Neapolitanus siue cæruleus maior. The greater blew Crocus of Naples.

This great blew Crocus riseth vp with diuers greene leaues, broader then any of the former (except the last) with a white line running downe the inside of euery leafe, as in the former, among which riseth vp, out of diuers great long white skinnes, diuers large flowers, but not fully so great as the former, consisting of six leaues, of a paler blew or Violet colour then in the former, hauing in the middle of the flowers a few pale threeds, tipt with yellow, and a longer pointell of a gold yellow colour, forked or diuided at the toppe, smelling sweeter then in the former, and abiding a great while longer, being in flower vsually euen with the stript yellow Crocus, or before the former purple, and yeelding more plenty of seede: the roote hereof is not very great, but a little darke on the outside, being round and flat withall, that one can hardly know which is the vpperside thereof.

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Crocus Neapolitanus præcocior.

This kinde differeth very little from the former, either in roote, leafe, or flower, for the bignesse or colour, but that it seemeth to be a little bleaker or paler blew, because it flowreth a little earlier.

16. Crocus vernus purpureus striatus. The stript purple Crocus.

The leaues of this stript purple Saffron flower, are as large and broad as the last, or rather a little longer: the flowers also are as plentifull, and as large, of a fine delayed purple colour on the outside, with three broad strakes or lines downe the backe of the three outer leaues, and of a little deeper purple on the inside, as the other three leaues are also of a deeper purple colour, and are striped with the same deepe purple about the ground, or bottome of the leaues: this sometimes yeeldeth three square heads, containing in them brownish seede: the roote is like vnto the last, and flowreth much about the time of the former.

17. Crocus vernus purpureus versicolor. The siluer stript purple Crocus.

This stript Saffron flower, is in leaues and flowers somewhat like vnto the last stript purple, but a little smaller: the flowers are of a little deeper purple through the whole leaues, striped with white lines, both on the leaues, and towards the edges, which maketh a peculiar difference from all the rest: the roote of this is not so flat, though like it, and couered with a darke ash coloured skinne: it flowreth about the same time.

18. Crocus purpureus flammeus maior. The greater purple flame coloured Crocus.

The greene leaues of this Crocus or Saffron flower, are of a reasonable breadth and length, and of a pleasant fresh greenesse, with a faire broad white line downe the middle of them, but rising not out of the ground so early as the next described Crocus: the flowers are likewise of a meane bignesse, of a pale purple on the outside, somewhat whitish, especially the three outer leaues; but on the inside of a deeper purple, and striped with great stripes like flames, hauing some chiues in the middle, and a longer one also feathered a little at the toppe: the roote is white on the outside, somewhat flat and round, but not so flat as the Neapolitane Crocus before described.

19. Crocus purpureus flammeus minor. The lesser purple flame coloured Crocus.

This Crocus hath almost as broad and long greene leaues as the former, and of the same verdure, which rise vp earlier then it, and is in flower likewise somewhat before it, being smaller for size by a little, but of as deepe a purple on the outside, as on the inside, flamed with faire broad stripes from the middle of the leaues, or somewhat lower vnto the edges: each of these giue seed that is of a pale reddish colour: the root is very like vnto the former, but a little lesser.

20. Crocus vernus purpureus Capillarifolio. The purple Crocus with small leaues.

This small kinde of Saffron flower riseth out of the ground, with two or three long and small green leaues, very like vnto the leaues of the fine Fether-Grasse hereafter described, standing vpright at the first, but afterwards lying vpon the ground; among which come the flowers, sometimes three, but most vsually two vpon one stalke, if the roote be not young, which then will beare but one on a stalke, which is very short, so that the flowers scarce arise aboue the ground, yet laying themselues open in the day time, if it be faire, and the Sunne doe shine, otherwise they keepe close, and doe not open at all: and after one flower is past, which doth not last aboue three or foure dayes at the most, the others follow, which are of a bleake blewish purple in the middle of the flower, and of a deeper purple towards the ends or points or the leaues, but of a more sullen or darke purple on the outside of them, and yellowish at the bottome, with some yellow chiues in the middle: the seede is small and darker coloured then any of the former Crocus, contained also in smaller heads, standing one by another[166] vpon the same short foote-stalke, which then riseth vp a little higher, shewing the maner of the standing of the flowers, which in their flowring time could not so easily bee discerned: the roote is very small and round, hauing one side at the bottome lower then the other, very like the roote of a Colchicum or Medowe Saffron, and somewhat neare resembling also the hoofe of an horse foote, couered with a very thicke skinne, of a darke or blackish browne colour: this flowreth the last of all the former sorts of Saffron flowers, euen when they are all past.

21. Crocus vernus purpureus striatus Capillarifolio. The stript purple Crocus with small leaues.

This small stript purple Saffron flower hath such like leaues, as the last described hath, betweene which riseth the flower vpon as short a foote-stalke, consisting of six leaues like the former, of a faire purple colour on the outside of the three outer leaues, with three lines or strakes downe euery leafe, of a deeper purple colour, and on the inside of a paler purple, as the other three leaues are also, with some chiues tipt with yellow pendents, and a forked pointell in the middle: the roote of this is somewhat bigger then the former, and rounder, but couered with as thicke and as browne a skinne: it flowreth about the same time with the former.

22. Crocus vernus luteus siue Mæsiacus. The yellow Crocus.

The yellow Crocus or Saffron flower, riseth vp with three or foure leaues out of the ground, being somewhat neare the breadth of the great purple kindes, with a white line in them, as in most of the rest: the flowers stand in the middle of these leaues, and are very large, of a gold yellow colour, with some chiues, and a forked point in the middle: the seede hereof is of a brighter colour then in any of the other: the roote is great and round, as great or greater then a Wall Nut sometimes, and couered with reddish skinnes or coates, yeelding more store of flowers then most of the former, and beginning to blowe with the first sorts, or presently after, but outlast many of them, and are of a pleasant good sent.

Flore aureo.

Of this kinde we haue some, whose flowers are of a deeper gold yellow colour then others, so that they appeare reddish withall.

Flore pallido.

And we haue also another sort, whose flowers are very pale, betweene a white and a yellow, not differing in any thing else.

Flore viridante luteo.

And another smaller, whose flower hath a shew of greennesse in the yellow, and more greene at the bottome.

23. Crocus vernus flavus striatus. The yellow stript Crocus.

This kinde of yellow stript Crocus or Saffron flower, riseth vp with more store of narrower and greener leaues then the former, and after the leaues are spread, there rise vp many yellow flowers from among them, which are not of so faire and bright a yellow colour, but more dead and sullen, hauing on the backside of each of the three outtermost leaues, three small stripes, of an ouer-worne or dull purple colour, with some chiues and a pointell in the middle: the roote of this kinde, is very like the roote of the former yellow, but somewhat smaller and shorter, and couered with the like reddish skinnes, but a little sadder: it flowreth not so early as the former yellow, but abideth almost as long as it.

24. Crocus vernus luteus versicolor primus. The best cloth of gold Crocus.

The fairest cloth of gold Crocus or Saffron flower, riseth vp very early, euen with the first, or the first of all other Crocus, with three or foure very narrow and short leaues, of a whiter colour then any of the former, which by and by after doe shew forth the flowers, rising from among them out of the same white skinne, which includeth the leaues, but are not so plentifull as the former yellow, being but two or three at the most, of a faire gold yellow colour, yet somewhat paler then the first, ha[167]uing on the backe of euery of the three outer leaues, three faire and great stripes, of a faire deepe purple colour, with some small lines at the sides or edges of those purple stripes; on the inside of these flowers, there is no signe or shew of any line or spot, but wholly of a faire gold yellow, with chiues and a fethertopt pointell in the middle: the seede hereof is like the former, but not so red: the roote of this kinde is easily knowne from the roote of any other Saffron flower, because the outer peelings or shels being hard, are as it were netted on the outside, hauing certaine ribbes, rising vp higher then the rest of the skinnes, diuided in the forme of a net-worke, of a darke browne colour, and is smaller and rounder then the former yellow, and not encreasing so plentifully by the roote.

25. Crocus vernus luteus versicolor alter. The second cloth of gold, or Duke Crocus.

There is no difference either in roote, leafe, or colour of flower, or time of flowring in this sort from the last before mentioned; for the flower of this is of the same bignesse and colour, the only note of difference is in the marking of the three outer leaues, which haue not three stripes like the former, but are wholly of the same deepe purple colour on the backe of them, sauing that the edges of them are yellow, which is the forme of a Duke Tulipa, and from thence it tooke the name of a Duke Crocus.

26. Crocus vernus versicolor pallideluteus. The pale cloth of gold Crocus.

We haue a third sort of this kinde of cloth of gold Crocus, which hath leaues and flowers like the former, but differeth in this, that the colour of the flower is of a paler yellow by much, but stript in the same manner as the first, but with a fainter purple colour: the roote also is netted like them, to shew that this is but a variation of the same kinde.

27. Crocus vernus versicolor albidoluteus. The cloth of siluer Crocus.

The chiefest note of difference in this Saffron flower is, that being as large a flower as any of the former of this kinde, it is of so pale a yellowish white, that it is more white then yellow, which some doe call a butter colour: the three outer leaues are striped on the backe of them, with a paler purple blew shining colour, the bottome of the flower, and the vpper part of the stalke, being of the same purple blew colour: the roote of this is also netted as the other, to shew it is a variety of the same kinde.

{Autumn Saffron flowers}

And thus much for those Saffron flowers that come in the Spring time; now to those that flower in Autumne onely: and first of the true Saffron.

1. Crocus verus sativus Autumnalis. The true Saffron.

The true Saffron that is vsed in meates and medicines, shooteth out his narrow long greene leaues first, and after a while the flowers in the middle of them appeare about the end of August, in September and October, according to the soile, and climate where they growe; these flowers are as large as any of the other former or late sorts, composed of six leaues a peece, of a murrey or reddish purple colour, hauing a shew of blew in them: in the middle of these flowers there are some small yellow chiues standing vpright, which are as vnprofitable, as the chiues in any other of the wilde Saffrons, before or hereafter specified; but besides these, each flower hath two, three, or foure greater and longer chiues, hanging downe vpon or betweene the leaues, which are of a fierie red colour, and are the true blades of Saffron, which are vsed physically or otherwise, and no other: All these blades being pickt from the seuerall flowers, are laid and pressed together into cakes, and afterwards dryed very warily on a Kill to preserue them; as they are to be seene in the shops where they are sold. I neuer heard that euer it gaue seede with any: the roote groweth often to be as great, or greater then a green Wall Nut, with the outer shell on it, couered with a grayish or ash-coloured skin, which breaketh into long haire threeds, otherwise then in any other roote of Crocus.

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2. Crocus Byzantium argenteus. The siluer coloured Autumne Crocus.

This Saffron flower springeth vp in October, and seldome before, with three or foure short greene leaues at the first, but growing longer afterwards, and in the midst of them, presently after they haue appeared, one flower for the most part, and seldome two, consisting of six leaues, the three outermost whereof are somewhat larger then the other three within, and are of a pale bleake blew colour, almost white, which many call a siluer colour, the three innermost being of a purer white, with some yellow chiues in the middle, and a longer pointell ragged or fethered at the toppe: this very seldome beareth seede, but when the yeare falleth out to bee very milde; it is small, round, and of a darke colour: the roote is pretty bigge, and rounder then any other Crocus, without any flat bottome, and couered with a darke russet skinne.

3. Crocus Pyrenæus purpureus. The purple mountaine Crocus.

This purple Saffron flower of the Autumne, riseth vp but with one flower vsually, yet sometimes with two one after another, without any leaues at all, in September, or sometimes in August, standing vpon a longer foote-stalke then any kinde of Saffron flower, either of the Spring or Autumne, and is as large as the flower of the greatest purple Saffron flower of the Spring, of a very deepe Violet purple colour, which decayeth after it hath stood blowne three or foure dayes, and becommeth more pale, hauing in the middle some yellow chiues, and a long fether topt pointell, branched, and rising sometimes aboue the edges of the flowers: about a moneth after the flowers are past, and sometimes not vntill the first of the Spring, there riseth vp three or foure long and broad greene leaues, with a white line in euery one of them, like vnto the first purple Vernall kindes, which abide vntill the end of May or Iune: the roote is small and white on the outside, so like vnto the roote of the lesser Vernall purple or white Crocus, that it cannot be distinguished, vntill about the end of August, when it doth begin to shoot, and then by the early shooting vp a long white sprout for flower, it may be knowne. I neuer could obserue it to giue any seede, the Winter (as I thinke) comming on it so quickly after the flowring, being the cause to hinder it.

4. Crocus montanus Autumnalis. The Autumne mountaine Crocus.

The mountaine Saffron flower springeth vp later then any of the former, and doth not appeare vntill the middle or end of October, when all the flowers of the former are past, appearing first with three or foure short greene leaues, like vnto the Byzantine Crocus, and afterwards the flowers betweene them, which are of a pale or bleake blew tending to a purple, the foote-stalkes of them being so short, that they scarce appeare aboue ground at the first, but after two or three dayes they grow a little higher: the roote is very great and flat bottomed, couered with a grayish duskie coate or skinne, and encreaseth very little or seldome.

The Place.

The seuerall places of these Saffron flowers, are in part set downe in their titles; the others haue beene found out, some in one Countrey, and some in another, as the small purple and white, and stript white in Spaine: the yellow in Mesia about Belgrade, the great purple in Italy; and now by such friends helpes as haue sent them, they prosper as well in our Gardens, as in their naturall places. Yet I must giue you this to vnderstand, that some of these formerly expressed, haue been raised vp vnto vs by the sowing of their seede.

The Time.

Their seuerall times are likewise expressed in their descriptions; for some shew forth their pleasant flowers in the Spring, wherein for the three first moneths, our Gardens are furnished with the varietie of one sort or another: the rest in Autumne, that so they might procure the more delight, in yeelding their beauty both early and late, when scarce any other flowers are found to adorne them.

The Names.

I shall not neede to trouble you with an idle tale of the name of Crocus, which were to little purpose, nor to reiterate the former names imposed vpon them; let it suffice that the fittest names are giuen them, that may distinguish them one from another; onely this I must giue you to vnderstand, that the gold yellow Crocus or Saffron flower, is the true Crocus Mæsiacus, as I shewed before; and that neither the yellow stript, or cloth of gold (which wee so call after the Dutch name Gaud Laken) is the true Mæsiacus, as some suppose; and that the great white Saffron flower, by reason of his likenesse vnto the gold yellow, is called Crocus albus Mæsiaci facie, or facie lutei, that is, The white Saffron flower that is like the Mæsiacus or yellow.

The Vertues.

The true Saffron (for the others are of no vse) which wee call English Saffron, is of very great vse both for inward and outward diseases, and is very cordiall, vsed to expell any hurtfull or venomous vapours from the heart, both in the small Pockes, Measels, Plague, Iaundise, and many other diseases, as also to strengthen and comfort any cold or weake members.

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Page 169: Crocus.
1Crocus vernus luteus vulgaris. The common yellow spring Crocus.
2Crocus verus sativus Autumnalis. The true Saffron.
3Crocus Byzantinus argenteus. The siluer coloured Autumne Crocus.
4Crocus Pyrenæus purpureus. The purple mountaine Crocus.
5Crocus montanus Autumnalis. The Autumne mountaine Crocus.
6Sisyrinchium maius. The greater Spanish Nut.

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Chap. XVIII.
Sisyrinchium. The Spanish Nut.

I can doe no otherwise then make a peculiar Chapter of this plant, because it is neither a Crocus, although in the roote it come somewhat neare vnto that kinde that is netted; but in no other part agreeing with any the delineaments of a Saffron flower, and therefore could not be thrust into the Chapter amongst them: neither can I place it in the forefront of the Chapter of the Iris bulbosa, or bulbous Flowerdeluces, because it doth not belong to that Family: and although the flower thereof doth most resemble a Flowerdeluce, yet in that no other parts thereof doe fitly agree thereunto, I haue rather chosen to seate it by it selfe betweene them both, as partaking of both natures, and so may serue in stead of a bridge, to passe from the one to the other, that is, from the Crocus or Saffron flower, to the Iris bulbosa or bulbous rooted Flowerdeluce, which shall follow in the next Chapter by themselues.

The Spanish Nut hath two long and narrow, soft and smooth greene leaues, lying for the most part vpon the ground, and sometimes standing vp, yet bending downewards; betweene these leaues riseth vp a small stalke, halfe a foote high, hauing diuers smooth soft greene leaues vpon it, as if they were skinnes, through which the stalke passeth; at the toppe whereof stand diuers flowers, rising one after another, and not all flowring at once: for seldome shall you haue aboue one flower blowne at a time, each whereof doth so quickly passe and fade away, that one may well say, that it is but one dayes flower, or rather the flower of a few houres: the flower it selfe hath nine leaues, like vnto a Flowerdeluce, whereof the three that fall downe, haue in each of them a yellow spot: the other three, which in the Flowerdeluces are hollow and ridged, couering the other three that fall downe, in this stand vpright, and are parted at the ends: the three that stand vp in the middle are small and short: the whole flower is smaller then any Flowerdeluce, but of sundry colours; for some are of an excellent skie colour blew, others of a Violet purple, others of a darker purple colour, and some white, and many others mixed, either pale blew and deepe purple, or white and blew[171] mixed or striped together very variably, quickly fading as I said before: the seede is enclosed in small cods, so thinne and transparent that one may easily see, and tell the seeds as they lye, which are of a brownish red colour: the roote is small, blackish and round, wrapped in a thicke skinne or huske, made like vnto a net, or somewhat like vnto the roote of the cloth of gold Crocus: when the plant is in flower, it is found to haue two rootes one aboue another, whereof the vppermost is firme and sound, and the vndermost loose and spongie, in like manner as is found in the rootes of diuers Orchides or Satyrions, Bee-flowers and the like, and without any good taste, or sweetnesse at all, although Clusius saith otherwise.

Sisyrinchium Mauritanicum. The Barbary Nut.

There is another of this kinde, not differing from the former in any other notable part, but in the flower, which in this is of a delayed purplish red colour, hauing in each of the three lower leaues a white spot, in stead of the yellow in the former, but are as soone fading as they.

The Place.

The former doe grow very plentifully in many parts both of Spaine and Portugall, where Guillaume Boel, a Dutch man heretofore remembred often in this Booke, found them; of the sundry colours specified, whereas Clusius maketh mention but of one colour that he found.

The other was found in that part of Barbary, where Fez and Morocco do stand, and brought first into the Lowe-Countries: but they are both very tender, and will hardly abide the hard Winters of these colder regions.

The Time.

The first flowreth in May and Iune, the last not vntill August.

The Names.

The name Sisyrinchium is generally imposed vpon this plant, by all authors that haue written thereof, thinking it to bee the right Sisyrinchium of Theophrastus: but concerning the Spanish name Nozelha, which Clusius saith it is called by in Spaine, I haue beene credibly enformed by the aforenamed Boel, that this roote is not so called in those parts; but that the small or common stript Crocus is called Nozelha, which is sweete in taste, and desired very greedily by the Shepheards and Children, and that the roote of this Sisyrinchium or Spanish Nut, is without any taste, and is not eaten. And againe, that there is not two kindes, although it grow greater, and with more flowers, in those places that are neare the Sea, where both the washing of the Sea water, and the moisture and ayre of the Sea, causeth the ground to bee more fertile. This I thought good, from the true relation of a friend, to giue the world to vnderstand, that truth might expell errour.

The Vertues.

These haue not beene knowne to bee vsed to any Physicall purpose, but wholly neglected, vnlesse some may eate them, as Clusius reporteth.


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Chap. XIX.
Iris bulbosa. The bulbous Flowerdeluce.

The Flowerdeluces that haue bulbous rootes are of two sorts, the one greater then the other: the greater bearing larger and broader leaues and flowers, and the lesser narrower. But before I giue you the descriptions of the vsuall greater kindes, I must needes place one or two in the fore-front that haue no fellowes; the one is called of Clusius, his broad leafed Flowerdeluce, and the other a Persian, somewhat like vnto it, which although they differ notably from the rest, yet they haue the nearest resemblance vnto those greater kindes, that come next after them.

{Two that have no fellows}

Iris bulbosa prima latifolia Clusij. Clusius his first great bulbous Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce hath diuers long and broad leaues, not stiffe, like all the other, but soft and greenish on the vpperside, and whitish vnderneath; among which rise vp sometimes seuerall small, short, slender stalkes, and sometimes but one, not aboue halfe a foote high, bearing at the top one flower a peece, somewhat like vnto a Flowerdeluce, consisting of nine leaues, whereof those three that stand vpright, are shorter and more closed together, then in other sorts of Flowerdeluces; the other three that fall downe, turne vp their ends a little, and those three, that in other Flowerdeluces doe couer them at the bottome, stand like the vpright leaues of other Flowerdeluces, but are parted into two ends, like vnto two small eares: the whole flower is of a faire blew, or pale skie colour in most, with a long stripe in the middle of each of the three falling leaues, and in some white, but more seldome: the roote is reasonable great, round and white, vnder the blackish coates wherewith it is couered, hauing many long thicke white rootes in stead of fibres, which make them seeme to be Asphodill rootes. The flower is very sweete.

Iris bulbosa Persica. The Persian bulbous Flowerdeluce.

This Persian Flowerdeluce is somewhat like vnto the former, both in roote and in leafe, but that the leaues are shorter and narrower, and the flower being much about the same fashion, is of a pale blew russetish colour, each of the three lower falling leaues are almost wholly of a browne purple colour, with a yellow spot in the middle of them: this as it is very rare, so it seldome beareth flowers with vs.

The Place.

The first groweth in many places of Spaine and Portugall, from whence I and others haue often had it for our Gardens, but by reason of the tendernesse thereof, it doth hardly endure the sharpnesse of our cold Winters, vnlesse it be carefully preserued.

The other is said to come from Persia, and therefore it is so entituled, and is as tender to be kept as the other.

The Time.

The first flowreth most vsually not vntill May with vs, yet many times sooner: but in Ianuary and February, as Clusius saith, in the naturall places thereof.

The other is as early oftentimes when it doth flower with vs.

The Names.

Because Clusius by good iudgement referreth the first to the greater [173]kindes of Flowerdeluces, and placeth it in the fore ranke, calling it Iris bulbosa latifolia prima, that is, The first broad leafed Flowerdeluce, and all others doe the like, I haue (as you see) in the like manner put it before all the other, and keepe the same name. The Spaniards, as he saith, called it Lirio espadanal, and they of Corduba, Lirios azules.

The other hath no other name then as it is in the title.

{Bulbous Flowerdeluce with broader leaves}

1. Iris bulbosa maior siue Anglica cærulea. The blew English bulbous Flowerdeluce.

This bulbous Flowerdeluce riseth vp early, euen in Ianuary oftentimes, with fiue or six long and (narrow, in comparison of any great breadth, but in regard of the other kinde) broad whitish green leaues, crested or straked on the backside, and halfe round, being hollow like a trough or gutter, white all along the inside of the leafe, and blunt at the end; among which riseth vp a stiffe round stalke, a cubit or two foot high, at the toppe whereof, out of a skinnie huske, commeth forth one or two flowers, consisting of nine leaues a peece, three whereof that are turned downewards, are larger and broader then the other, hauing in each of them a yellow spot, about the middle of the leafe, other three are small, hollow, ridged or arched, couering the lower part next the stalke of those falling leaues, turning vp their ends, which are diuided into two parts, other three stand vpright, and are very small at the bottome of them, and broader toward the toppe: the whole flower is of a faire blew colour; after the flowers are past, come vp three square heads, somewhat long, and lanke, or loose, containing in them round yellowish seede, which when it is ripe, will rattle by the shaking of the winde in the dry huskes: the roote of this kinde is greater and longer then any of the smaller kindes with narrow leaues, couered with diuers browne skinnes, which seeme to be fraught with long threeds like haires, especially at the small or vpper end of the roote, which thing you shall not finde in any of the smaller kindes.

2. Iris bulbosa maior purpurea & purpuro violacea. The paler or deeper purple great bulbous Flowerdeluce.

These purple Flowerdeluces differ not from the last described, either in roote or leafe: the chiefest difference consisteth in the flowers, which in these are somewhat larger then in the former, and in the one of a deepe blew or Violet purple colour, and in the other of a deepe purple colour, in all other things alike.

Flore cinereo.

There is also another, in all other things like vnto the former, but only in the flower, which is of a pale or bleake blew, which we call an ash-colour.

3. Iris bulbosa maior purpurea variegata siue striata. The great purple stript bulbous Flowerdeluce.

There is another of the purple kinde, whose flower is purple, but with some veines or stripes of a deeper Violet colour, diuersly running through the whole leaues of the flower.

Flore cinereo striata purpureo.

And another of that bleake blew or ash-colour, with lines and veines of purple in the leaues of the flowers, some more or lesse then other.

Flore purpureo orbe cinereo.

And againe another, whose flower is of a purple colour like vnto the second, but that round about that yellow spot, in the middle of each of the three falling leaues (as is vsuall in all the bulbous Flowerdeluces) there is a circle of a pale blew or ash-colour, the rest of the leafe remaining purple, as the other parts of the flower is.

4. Iris bulbosa maior flore rubente. The great peach coloured bulbous Flowerdeluce.

There is another of these greater kindes, more rare then any of the former, not differing in roote, leafe, or flower, from the former, but onely that the flower in this is of a pale reddish purple colour, comming somewhat neare vnto the colour of a peach blossome.

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5. Iris bulbosa maior siue latifolia alba. The great white bulbous Flowerdeluce.

The great white bulbous Flowerdeluce, riseth not vp so early out of the ground as the blew or purple doth, but about a moneth or more after, whose leaues are somewhat larger, and broader then of the others: the stalke is thicker and shorter, bearing vsually two very large and great flowers, one flowring a little before the other, yet oftentimes both in flower together in the end, of a bleake blewish white colour, which wee call a siluer colour, while they are in the budde, and before they be blowne open, but then of a purer white, yet with an eye or shew of that siluer colour remaining in them, the three falling leaues being very large, and hauing that yellow spot in the middle of each of them: the seedes are likewise inclosed in heads, like vnto the blew or purple kindes, but larger, and are of a reddish yellow colour like them: the roote likewise is not differing, but greater.

6. Iris bulbosa maior alba variegata. The great white stript bulbous Flowerdeluce.

This white stript Flowerdeluce, is in roote, leafe, and flower, and in manner of growing, like vnto the former white Flowerdeluce; the onely difference is in the marking of the flower, being diuers from it: for this hath in the white flower great veines, stripes, or markes, of a Violet blew colour, dispersed through the leaues of the flower very variably, which addeth a superexcellent beauty to the flower.

7. Iris bulbosa maior siue latifolia versicolor. The great party coloured bulbous Flowerdeluce.

There is no difference in this from the former, but in the flower, which is of a whitish colour in the three falling leaues, hauing a circle of ash-colour about the yellow spot, the three rigged leaues being likewise whitish, but ridged and edged with that ash-colour, and the three vpright leaues of a pale blewish white colour, with some veines therein of a blewish purple.

Varietas.

There hath beene brought vnto vs diuers rootes of these kindes, with the dryed flowers remaining on them, wherein there hath beene seene more varieties, then I can well remember to expresse, which variety it is very probable, hath risen by the sowing of the seeds, as is truely obserued in the narrower leafed kinde of Flowerdeluce, in the Tulipa, and in some other plants.

Flore luteo.

Wee haue heard of one of this kinde of broad leafed Flowerdeluces, that should beare a yellow flower, in the like manner as is to be seene in the narrow leafed ones: but I haue not seene any such, and therefore I dare report no further of it, vntill time hath discouered the truth or falshood of the report.

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Page 175: Flowerdeluce.
1Iris bulbosa latifolia prima Clusii. Clusius his first great bulbous Flowerdeluce.
2Iris bulbosa maior cærulea siue Anglica. The great blew of English bulbous Flowerdeluce.
3Iris bulbosa maior purpurea variegata. The great purple stript bulbous Flowerdeluce.
4Iris bulbosa angustifolia maior alba. The greater white narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce.
5Iris bulbosa angustifolia versicolor. The party coloured narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce.
6Iris bulbosa angustifolia Africana. The purple African bulbous narrow leafed Flowerdeluce.
The Place.

Lobelius is the first reporter, that the blew Flowerdeluce or first kinde of these broad leafed Flowerdeluces, groweth naturally in the West parts of England; but I am in some doubt of the truth of that report: for I rather thinke, that some in their trauels through Spaine, or other parts where it groweth, being delighted with the beauty of the flower, did gather the rootes, and bring them ouer with them, and dwelling in some of the West parts of England, planted them, and there encreasing so plentifully as they doe, they were imparted to many, thereby in time growing common in all Countrey folkes Gardens thereabouts. They grow also, and all the other, and many more varieties, about Tholouse, from whence Plantinianus Gassanus both sent and brought vs them, with many other bulbous rootes, and rare plants gathered thereabouts.

[176]

The Time.

These doe flower vsually in the end of May, or beginning of Iune, and their seede is ripe in the end of Iuly or August.

The Names.

Lobel calleth the first English blew Flowerdeluce, Hyacinthus Poetarum flore Iridis, & propter Hyacinthinum colorem, id est violaceum dictus: but I know not any great good ground for it, more then the very colour; for it is neither of the forme of a Lilly, neither hath it those mourning markes imprinted in it, which the Poet faineth to bee in his Hyacinth. It is most truely called an Iris, or Flowerdeluce (and there is great difference betweene a Lilly and a Flowerdeluce, for the formes of their flowers) because it answereth thereunto very exactly, for the flower, and is therefore called vsually by most, either Iris bulbosa Anglica, or Iris bulbosa maior siue latifolia, for a difference betweene it, and the lesser with narrow leaues: In English, eyther The great English bulbous Flowerdeluce, or the great broad leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce, which you will, adding the other name, according to the colour.

{Bulbous Flowerdeluce with narrow leaves}

And thus much for these broad leafed bulbous Flowerdeluces, so much as hath come to our knowledge. Now to the seuerall varieties of the narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluces, so much likewise as we haue been acquainted with.

Iris bulbosa minor siue angustifolia alba. The smaller white or narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce.

This first Flowerdeluce, which beareth the smaller flower of the two white ones, that are here to bee described, springeth out of the ground alwaies before Winter, which after breaketh forth into foure or fiue small and narrow leaues, a foote long or more, of a whitish greene on the inside, which is hollow and chanalled, and of a blewish greene colour on the outside, and round withall: the stalke of this kinde is longer and slenderer then the former, with some shorter leaues vpon it, at the toppe whereof, out of short skinny leaues, stand one or two flowers, smaller, shorter, and rounder then the flowers of the former broad leafed Flowerdeluces, but made after the same proportion with nine leaues, three falling downewards, with a yellow spot in the middle, other three are made like a long arch, which couer the lower part next the stalke of those falling leaues, and turne vp at the ends of them, where they are diuided into two parts: the other three stand vpright, betweene each of the three falling leaues, being somewhat long and narrow: the flower is wholly, (sauing the yellow spot) of a pure white colour, yet in some hauing a shew of some blew throughout, and in others towards the bottome of the three vpright leaues: after the flowers are past, there rise vp so many long cods or seede vessels, as there were flowers, which are longer and smaller then in the former, and a little bending like a Corner, with three round squares, and round pointed also, which diuiding it selfe when the seede is ripe into three parts, doe shew six seuerall cells or places, wherein is contained such like round reddish yellow seedes, but smaller then the former: the roote is smaller and shorter then the former, and without any haires or threeds, couered with browne thin skinnes, and more plentifull in giuing encrease.

Iris bulbosa angustifolia alba flore maiore. The greater white narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce.

I shall not neede to make a seuerall description to euery one of these Flowerdeluces that follow, for that were but to make often repetition of one thing, which being once done, as it is, may well serue to expresse all the rest, and but onely to adde the espe[177]ciall differences, either in leafe or flower, for bignesse, colour, or forme, as is expedient to expresse and distinguish them seuerally. This greater white bulbous Flowerdeluce is like vnto the last described in all parts, sauing that it is a little larger and higher, both in leafe, stalke, and flower, and much whiter then any of these mixed sorts that follow, yet not so white as the former: the roote hereof is likewise a little bigger and rounder in the middle.

Albescens.
Milke white.

There is another, whose falling leaues haue a little shew of yellownesse in them, and so are the middle ridges of the arched leaues, but the vpright leaues are more white, not differing in roote or leafe from the first white.

Argentea.
Siluer colour.

And another, whose falls are of a yellowish white, like the last, the arched leaues are whiter, and the vpright leaues of a blewish white, which we call a siluer colour.

Albida.
Whitish.

Another hath the fals yellowish, and sometimes with a little edge of white about them, and sometimes without; the vpright leaues are whitish, as the arched leaues are, yet the ridge yellower.

Albida labris luteis.
White with yellow fals.

Another hath his fals yellow, and the vpright leaues white, all these flowers are about the same bignesse with the first.

Albida angustior.
The narrow white.

But we haue another, whose flower is smaller, and almost as white as the second, the lower leaues are small, and doe as it were stand outright, not hauing almost any fal at all, so that the yellow spot seemeth to be the whole leafe, the arched leaues are not halfe so large as in the former, and the vpright leaues bowe themselues in the middle, so that the tops doe as it were meete together.

And another of the same, whose falling leaues are a little more eminent and yellow, with a yellower spot.

Aurea siue lutea Hispanica.
The Spanish yellow.

We haue another kinde that is called the Spanish yellow, which riseth not vp so high, as ordinarily most of the rest doe, and is wholly of a gold yellow colour.

Pallide lutea.
Straw colour.

There is another, that vsually riseth higher then the former yellow, and is wholly of a pale yellow, but deeper at the spot.

Albida lutea.
Pale Straw colour.

There is also another like vnto the pale yellow, but that the falling leaues are whiter then all the rest of the flower.

Mauritanica flaua serotina minor.
The small Barbary yellow.

There is a smaller or dwarfe kinde, brought from the backe parts of Barbary, neare the Sea, like vnto the yellow, but smaller and lower, and in stead of vpright leaues, hath small short leaues like haires: it flowreth very late, after all others haue almost giuen their seede.

Versicolor Hispanica cærulea labris albis.
The party coloured Spanish.

We haue another sort is called the party coloured Spanish bulbous Flowerdeluce, whose falling leaues are white, the arched leaues of a whitish siluer colour, and the vpright leaues of a fine blewish purple.

Diuersitas.
The diuersity or variation of this flower.

Yet sometimes this doth vary; for the falling leaues will haue either an edge of blew, circling the white leaues, the arched leaues being a little blewer, and the vpright leaues more purple.

Or the fals will be almost wholly blew, edged with a blewer colour, the arched leaues pale blew, and the vpright leaues of a purplish blew Violet colour.

Or the fals white, the arched leaues pale white, as the vpright leaues are.

Of not of so faire a blewish purple, as the first sort is.

Some of them also will haue larger flowers then others, and be more liberall in bearing flowers: for the first sort, which is the most ordinary, seldome beareth aboue one flower on a stalke, yet sometimes two. And of the others there are some that will beare vsually two and three flowers, yet some againe will beare but one. All these kindes smell sweeter then many of the other, although the most part are without sent.

Cærulea siue purpurea minor Lusitanica præcox.
The small early purple Portugall.

There is another kinde, that is smaller in all the parts thereof then the former, the stalke is slender, and not so high, bearing at the toppe one or two small flowers, all wholly of a faire, blewish purple, with a yellow spot[178] in euery one of the three falling leaues, this vsually flowreth early, euen with the first bulbous Flowerdeluces.

Purpurea maior.
The greater purple.

We haue another purple, whose flower is larger, and stalke higher, and is of a very reddish purple colour, a little aboue the ground, at the foote or bottome of the leaues and stalke: this flowreth with the later sort of Flowerdeluces.

Purpurea serotina.
The late purple.

There is another, whose flower is wholly purple, except the yellow spot, and flowreth later then any of the other purples.

Purpurea rubescens labris cæruleis.
A reddish purple with blew fals.

There is yet another purple, whose vpright leaues are of a reddish purple, and the falling leaues of a blew colour.

Purpurea rubescens labris albido cæruleis.
A reddish purple with whitish blew fals.

And another of a reddish purple, whose falling leaues are of a whitish blew colour, in nothing else differing from the last.

Purpurea labris luteis.
Party coloured purple & yellow.

Another hath his falling leaues of a faire gold yellow, without any stripe, yet in some there are veines running through the yellow leaues, and some haue an edge of a sullen darke colour about them: the vpright leaues in euery of these, are a Violet purple.

Purpurea labris ex albido cærulea & luteo mixtis.
Party coloured purple with stript yellow fals.

Another is altogether like this last, but that the falling leaues are of a pale blew and yellow, trauersing one the other, and the arched leaues of a pale purplish colour.

Subpurpurea labris luteis.
Pale purple with yellow fals.

Another hath his vpright leaues of a paler purple, and the falling leaues yellow.

A paler purple.

And another little differing from it, but that the arched leaues are whitish.

Subcærulea labris luteis.
Party coloured blew and yellow.

Another whose vpright leaues are of a pale blew, and the falling leaues yellow.

And another of the same sort, but of a little paler blew.

Crinis coloris elegantioris.
A faire haire colour.

We haue another sort, whose vpright leaues are of a faire brownish yellow colour, which some call a Fuille mort, and others an haire colour; the falling leaues yellow.

Altera obsoletior.
A dull haire colour.

And another of the same colour, but somewhat deader.

Iris bulbosa Africana serpentriæ caule. The purple or murrey bulbous Barbary Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce as it is more strange (that is, but lately knowne and possessed by a few) so it is both more desired, and of more beauty then others. It is in all respects, of roote, leafe, and flower, for the forme like vnto the middle sort of these Flowerdeluces, onely the lowest part of the leaues and stalke, for an inch or thereabouts, next vnto the ground, are of a reddish colour, spotted with many spots, and the flower, being of a meane size, is of a deepe purplish red or murrey colour the whole flower throughout, except the yellow spot in the middle of the three lower or falling leaues, as is in all others.

Purpurea cærulea obsoleta labris fuscis.
The duskie party coloured purple.

And lastly, there is another sort, which is the greatest of all these narrow leafed Flowerdeluces, in all the parts of it; for the roote is greater then any of the other, being thicke and short: the leaues are broader and longer, but of the same colour: the stalke is stronger and higher then any of them, bearing two or three flowers, larger also then any of the rest, whose falling leaues are of a duskie yellow, and sometimes with veines and borders about the brimmes, of another dunne colour, yet hauing that yellow spot that is in all: the arched leaues are of a sullen pale purplish yellow, and the vpright leaues of a dull or duskie blewish purple colour: the heads or hornes for seede are likewise greater, and so is the seede also a little.

The Place.

These Flowerdeluces haue had their originall out of Spaine and Portugall, as it is thought, except those that haue risen by the sowing, and those which are named of Africa.

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The Time.

These flower in Iune, and sometimes abide vnto Iuly, but vsually not so early as the former broad leafed kindes, and are soone spoiled with wet in their flowring.

The Names.

The seuerall names, both in Latine and English, are sufficient for them as they are set downe; for we know no better.

The Vertues.

There is not any thing extant or to be heard, that any of these kindes of Flowerdeluces hath been vsed to any Physicall purposes, and serue onely to decke vp the Gardens of the curious.

{Conclusion}

And thus much for these sorts of bulbous Flowerdeluces, and yet I doubt not, but that there are many differences, which haue risen by the sowing of the seede, as many may obserue from their owne labours, for that euery yeare doth shew forth some variety that is not seene before. And now I will conuert my discourse a while likewise, to passe through the seuerall rankes of the other kindes of tuberous rooted Flowerdeluces, called Flagges.


Chap. XX.
Iris latifolia tuberosa. The Flagge or Flowerdeluce.

There are two principall kindes of tuberous or knobby rooted Flowerdeluces, that is, the tall and the dwarfe, or the greater and the lesser; the former called Iris maior or latifolia, and the other Iris minor, or rather Chamæiris; and each of these haue their lesser or narrow leafed kindes to bee comprehended vnder them: Of all which in their order. And first of that Flowerdeluce, which for his excellent beautie and raritie, deserueth the first place.

{Turkie Flowerdeluce}

Iris Chalcedonica siue Susiana maior. The great Turkie Flowerdeluce.

The great Turkie Flowerdeluce, hath diuers heads of long and broad fresh greene leaues, yet not so broad as many other of those that follow, one folded within another at the bottome, as all other of these Flowerdeluces are: from the middle of some one of those heads (for euery head of leaues beareth not a flower) riseth vp a round stiffe stalke, two foote high, at the toppe whereof standeth one flower (for I neuer obserued it to beare two) the largest almost, but rarest of all the rest, consisting of nine leaues, like the others that follow, but of the colour almost of a Snakes skinne, it is so diuersly spotted; for the three lower falling leaues are very large, of a deepe or darke purple colour, almost blacke, full of grayish spots, strakes, and lines through the whole leaues, with a blacke thrume or freeze in the middle of each of them: the three arched leaues that couer them, are of the same darke purple colour, yet a little paler at the sides, the three vpper leaues are very large also, and of the same colour with the lower leaues, but a little more liuely and fresh, being speckled and straked with whiter spots and lines; which leaues being laid in water, will colour the water into a Violet colour, but if a little Allome be put therein, and then wrung or pressed, and the iuice of these leaues dryed in the shadow, will giue a colour almost as deepe as Indico, and may serue for shawdowes in limming excellent well: the flower hath no sent that can be perceiued, but is onely commendable for the beauty and rarity thereof: it seldome beareth seedes in these cold Countries, but when it doth, it is contained in great heads,[180] being brownish and round, but not so flat as in other sorts, the roots are more browne on the outside, and growing tuberous thicke, as all other that are kept in Gardens.

Iris Chalcedonica siue Susiana minor. The lesser Turkie Flowerdeluce.

There is another hereof little differing, but that the leafe is of a more yellowish greene colour, and the flower neither so large or faire, nor of so perspicuous markes and spots, nor the colour of that liuely (though darke) lustre.

The Place.

These haue been sent out of Turkie diuers times among other things, and it should seeme, that they haue had their originall from about Susis, a chiefe Citie of Persia.

The Time.

They flower in May most vsually, before any of the other kindes.

The Names.

They haue been sent vnto vs, and vnto diuers other in other parts, from Constantinople vnder the name of Alaia Susiana, and thereupon it hath been called, both of them and vs, either Iris Chalcedonica, or Susiana, and for distinction maior or minor: In English, The Turkie Flowerdeluce, or the Ginnie Hen Flowerdeluce, the greater or the lesser.

{Tuberous Flowerdeluces}

Iris alba Florentina. The white Flowerdeluce.

The great white Flowerdeluce, hath many heads of very broad and flat long leaues, enclosing or folding one within another at the bottome, and after a little diuided one from another toward the top, thin edged, like a sword on both sides, and thicker in the middle: from the middle of some of these heads of leaues, riseth vp a round stiffe stalk, two or three foot high, bearing at the top one, two, or three large flowers, out of seuerall huskes or skins, consisting of nine leaues, as all the other do, of a faire white colour, hauing in the middle of each of the three falling leaues, a small long yellow frize or thrume, as is most vsuall in all the sorts of the following Flowerdeluces, both of the greater and smaller kindes: after the flowers are past, come the seed, inclosed in thicke short pods, full fraught or stored with red roundish and flat seede, lying close one vpon another: the roote is tuberous or knobby, shooting out from euery side much like tuberous heads, lying for the most part vpon or aboue the ground, and fastened within the ground with long white strings or fibres, which hold them strongly, and encreaseth fast. There Flore pallido. is another like vnto this last in all things, sauing that the colour of the flower is of a more yellowish white, which we vsually call a Straw colour.

Iris alba maior versicolor. The white party coloured Flowerdeluce.

This variable Flowerdeluce is like vnto the former, but that the leaues are not so large and broad, the flower hereof is as large almost, and as white as the former, but it hath a faire list or line of a blewish purple downe the backe of euery one of the three vpright leaues, and likewise round about the edges, both of the vpper and lower leaues, and also a little more purplish vpon the ridge of the arched leaues, that couer the falling leaues: the roote hereof is not so great as of the former white, but a little slenderer and browner.

Iris Dalmatica maior. The great Dalmatian Flowerdeluce.

This greater Flowerdeluce of Dalmatia, hath his leaues as large and broad as any of the Flowerdeluces whatsoeuer, his stalke and flower doe equall his other propor[181]tion, onely the colour of the flower is differing, being of a faire watchet or bleake blew colour wholly, with the yellow frize or thrum downe the middle of the lower or falling leaues, as before is said to be common to all these sorts of Flowerdeluces; in all other parts it little differeth, sauing onely this is obserued to haue a small shew of a purplish red about the bottome of the greene leaues.

Iris purpurea siue vulgaris. The common purple Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce, which is most common in Gardens, differeth nothing at all from those that are formerly described, either in roote, leafe, or flower for the forme of them, but onely that the leaues of this are not so large as the last, and the flower it selfe is of a deep purple or Violet colour, and sometimes a little declining to rednesse, especially in some places.

Purpurea pallidior versicolor.

Sometimes this kinde of Flowerdeluce will haue flowers of a paler purple colour, comming neare vnto a blew, and sometimes it will haue veines or stripes of a deeper blew, or purple, or ash-colour, running through all the vpper and lower leaues.

Cærulea labris purpureis.

There is another like vnto this, but more purple in the fals, and more pale in the vpright leaues.

Iris Asiatica cærulea. The blew Flowerdeluce of Asia.

This Flowerdeluce of Asia, is in largenesse of leaues like vnto the Dalmatian, but beareth more store of flowers on seuerall branches, which are of a deeper blew colour, and the arched leaues whitish on the side, and purplish on the ridges, but in other things like vnto it.

Purpurea.

There is another neare vnto this, but that his leaues are a little narrower, and his flowers a little more purple, especially the vpper leaues.

Iris Damascena. The Flowerdeluce of Damasco.

This is likewise altogether like the Flowerdeluce of Asia, but that it hath some white veines in the vpright leaues.

Iris Lusitanica biflora. The Portugall Flowerdeluce.

This Portugall Flowerdeluce is very like the common purple Flowerdeluce, but that this is not so large in leaues, or flowers, and that it doth often flower twice in a yeare, that is, both in the Spring, and in the Autumne againe, and besides, the flowers haue a better or sweeter sent, but of the like purple or Violet colour as it is, and comming forth out of purplish skins or huskes.

Iris Camerarij siue purpurea versicolor maior. The greater variable coloured purple Flowerdeluce.

The greater of the variable purple Flowerdeluces, hath very broad leaues, like vnto the leaues of the common purple Flowerdeluce, and so is the flower also, but differing in colour, for the three lower leaues are of a deepe purple colour tending to rednesse, the three arched leaues are of the colour with the vpper leaues, which are of a pale or bleake colour tending to yellownesse, shadowed ouer with a smoakie purplish colour, except the ridges of the arched leaues, which are of a more liuely purple colour.

Iris purpurea versicolor minor. The lesser variable purple Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce differeth not in any thing from the last, but onely that it hath narrower greene leaues, and smaller and narrower flowers, else if they be both conferred together, the colours will not seeme to varie the one from the other any whit at all.

Altera minus fuliginea.

There is another somewhat neare vnto these two last kindes, whose huskes from[182] whence the flowers doe shoote forth, haue purple veines in them, and so haue the falling purplish leaues, and the three vpright leaues are not so smoakie, yet of a dun purple colour.

Iris cærulea versicolor. The blew party coloured Flowerdeluce.

This party coloured Flowerdeluce hath his leaues of the same largenesse, with the lesser variable purple Flowerdeluce last described, and his flowers diuersly marked: for some haue the fals blew at the edges, and whitish at the bottome, the arched leaues of a yellowish white, and the vpright leaues of a whitish blew, with yellowish edges. Some againe are of a darker blew, with brownish spots in them. And some are so pale a blew, that we may well call it an ash-colour: And lastly, there is another of this sort, whose vpright leaues are of a faire pale blew, with yellowish edges, and the falling leaues parted into two colours, sometimes equally in the halfe, each side sutable to the other in colour: And sometimes hauing the one leafe in that manner: And sometimes but with a diuers coloured list in them; in the other parts both of flower and leafe, like vnto the other.

Iris lutea variegata. The yellow variable Flowerdeluce.

This yellow variable Flowerdeluce loseth his leaues in Winter, contrary to all the former Flowerdeluces, so that his roote remaineth vnder ground without any shew of leafe vpon it: but in the beginning of the Spring it shooteth out faire broad leaues, falling downwards at the points or ends, but shorter many times then any of the former, and so is the stalke likewise, not rising much aboue a foote high, whereon are set two or three large flowers, whose falling leaues are of a reddish purple colour, the three that stand vpright of a smoakie yellow, the arched leaues hauing their ridges of a bleake colour tending to purple, the sides being of the former smoakie yellow colour, with some purplish veines at the foote or bottome of all the leaues: the roote groweth somewhat more slender and long vnder ground, and of a darker colour then manie of the other.

Another sort hath the vpright leaues of a reasonable faire yellow, and stand more vpright, not bowing downe as most of the other, and the purple fals haue pale edges. Some Varietas. haue their greene leaues party coloured, white and greene, more or lesse, and so are the huskes of the flowers, the arched leaues yellow, as the vpright leaues are, with purplish veines at the bottome. And some haue both the arched and vpright leaues of so pale a yellow, that we may almost call it a straw colour, but yellower at the bottome, with purple veines, and the falling leaues purple, with two purple spots in them.

And these are the sorts of the greater tuberous or Flagge Flowerdeluces that haue come to our knowledge: the next hereunto are the lesser or narrow leafed kindes to be described; and first of the greatest of them.

1. Iris angustifolia Tripolitana aurea. The yellow Flowerdeluce of Tripoly.

This Flowerdeluce I place in the forefront of the narrow leafed Flowerdeluces, for the length of the leaues, compared with the breadth of them; it may fitly bee called a narrow leafed Flowerdeluce, although they be an inch broad, which is broader then any of them that follow, or some of those are set downe before, but as I said, the length make them seem narrow, and therefore let it take vp his roome in this place, with the description that followeth. It beareth leaues a yard long, or not much lesse, and an inch broad, as is said before, or more, of a sad greene colour, but not shining: the stalke riseth vp to be foure of fiue foote high, being strong and round, but not very great, bearing at the toppe two or three long and narrow gold yellow flowers, of the fashion of the bulbous Flowerdeluces, as the next to bee described is, without any mixture or variation therein: the heads for seede are three square, containing within them many flat cornered seedes: the roote is long and blackish, like vnto the rest that follow, but greater and fuller.

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Page 183: Flowerdeluce.
1Iris Chalcedonica siue Susiana maior. The great Turkie Flowerdeluce.
2Iris alba Florentina. The white Flowerdeluce.
3Iris latifolia variegata. The variable Flowerdeluce.
4Chamæiris latifolia maior. The greater dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

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2. Iris angustifolia maior cærulea. The greater blew Flowerdeluce with narrow leaues.

This kinde of Flowerdeluce hath his leaues very long and narrow, of a whitish greene colour, but neither so long or broad as the last, yet broader, thicker and stiffer then any of the rest with narrow leaues that follow: the stalke riseth sometimes no higher then the leaues, and sometimes a little higher, bearing diuers flowers at the top, successiuely flowring one after another, and are like vnto the flowers of the bulbous Flowerdeluces, but of a light blew colour, and sometimes deeper: after the flowers are past, rise vp six cornered heads, which open into three parts, wherein is contained browne seede, almost round: the roote is small, blackish and hard, spreading into many long heads, and more closely growing or matting together.

3. Iris angustifolia purpurea marina. The purple narrow leafed Sea Flowerdeluce.

This Sea Flowerdeluce hath many narrow hard leaues as long as the former, and of a darke greene colour, which doe smell a little strong: the stalke beareth two or three flowers like the former, but somewhat lesse, and of a darke purple or Violet colour: in seede and roote it is like the former.

4. Iris angustifolia purpurea versicolor. The variable purple narrow leafed Flowerdeluce.

The leaues of this Flowerdeluce are very like the former Sea Flowerdeluce, and do a little stinke like them; the flowers are differing, in that the vpper leaues are wholly purple or violet, and the lower leaues haue white veines, and purple running one among another: the seede and rootes differ not from the former purple Sea kinde.

5. Iris angustifolia minor Pannonica siue versicolor Clusij. The small variable Hungarian Flowerdeluce of Clusius.

This Hungarian Flowerdeluce (first found out by Clusius, by him described, and of him tooke the name) riseth vp with diuers small tufts of leaues, very long, narrow, and greene, growing thicke together, especially if it abide any time in a place; among which riseth vp many long round stalkes, higher then the leaues, bearing two or three, or foure small flowers, one aboue another, like the former, but smaller and of greater beauty: for the lower leaues are variably striped with white and purple, without any thrume or fringe at all; the vpper leaues are of a blewish fine purple or Violet colour, & so are the arched leaues, yet hauing the edges a little paler: the heads for seede are smaller, and not so cornered as the other, containing seedes much like the former, but smaller: the roote is blacke and small, growing thicker and closer together then any other, and strongly fastened in the ground, with a number of hard stringie rootes: the flowers are of a reasonable good sent.

6. Iris angustifolia maior flore duplici. The greater double blew Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce, differeth not either in roote or leafe from the first great blew Flowerdeluce of Clusius, but onely in that the leaues grow thicker together, and that the flowers of this kinde are as it were double with many leaues confusedly set together, without any distinct parts of a Flowerdeluce, and of a faire blew colour with many white veines and lines running in the leaues; yet oftentimes the stalke of flowers hath but two or three small flowers distinctly set together, rising as it were out of one huske.

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Page 185: Flowerdeluce.
1Iris angustifolia Tripolitana. The yellow Flowerdeluce of Tripoli.
2Iris angustifolia maior cærulea. The greater blew Flowerdeluce with narrow leaues.
3Iris angustifolia minor Pannonica siue versicolor Clusii. The small variable Hungarian Flowerdeluce of Clusius.
4Iris angustifolia maior flore duplici. The greater double blew Flowerdeluce.
5Chamæiris angustifolia minor. The lesser Grasse Flowerdeluce.
6Iris tuberosa. The veluet Flowerdeluce.
7. Iris angustifolia minor alba Clusij. The small white Flowerdeluce of Hungary.

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This likewise differeth little from the former Hungarian Flowerdeluce of Clusius, but that the leafe is of a little paler greene colour, and the flower is of a faire whitish colour, with some purple at the bottome of the leaues.

Next after these narrow leafed Flowerdeluces, are the greater and smaller sorts of dwarfe kindes to follow; and lastly, the narrow or grasse leafed dwarfe kindes, which will finish this Chapter of Flowerdeluces.

1. Chamæiris latifolia maior alba. The greater white dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

This dwarfe Flowerdeluce hath his leaues as broad as some of the lesser kindes last mentioned, but not shorter; the stalke is very short, not aboue halfe a foote high or thereabouts, bearing most commonly but one flower, seldome two, which are in some of a pure white, in others paler, or somewhat yellowish through the whole flower, except the yellow frize or thrume in the middle of euery one of the falling leaues: after the flowers are past, come forth great heads, containing within them round pale seed: the roote is small, according to the proportion of the plant aboue ground, but made after the fashion of the greater kindes, with tuberous peeces spreading from the sides, and strong fibres or strings, whereby they are fastened in the ground.

2. Chamæiris latifolia maior purpurea. The greater purple dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

There is no difference either in roote, leafe, or forme of flower in this from the former dwarfe kinde, but onely in the colour of the flower, which in some is of a very deepe or blacke Violet purple, both the toppes and the fals: in others the Violet purple is more liuely, and in some the vpper leaues are blew, and the lower leaues purple, yet all of them haue that yellow frize or thrume in the middle of the falling leaues, that the other kindes haue.

Altera.

There is another that beareth purple flowers, that might be reckoned, for the smalnesse and shortnesse of his stalke, to the next kinde, but that the flowers and leaues of this are as large as any of the former kindes of the smaller Flowerdeluces.

3. Chamæiris latifolia minor alba. The lesser white dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

There is also another sort of these Flowerdeluces, whose leaues and flowers are lesse, and wherein there is much variety. The leaues of this kinde, are all for the most part somewhat smaller, narrower, and shorter then the former: the stalke with the flower vpon it scarce riseth above the leaues, so that in most of them it may be rather called a foote-stalke, such as the Saffron flowers haue, and are therefore called of manie ἄκαυλοι, without stalkes; the flowers are like vnto the first described of the dwarfe kindes, and of a whitish colour, with a few purplish lines at the bottome of the vpper leaues, and a list of greene in the falling leaues.

Straminea.

Another hath the flowers of a pale yellow, called a Straw colour, with whitish stripes and veines in the fals, and purplish lines at the bottome of the vpper leaues.

4. Chamæiris latifolia minor purpurea. The lesser purple dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

The difference of this from the former, consisteth more in the colour then forme of the flower, which is of a deep Violet purple, sometimes paler, and sometimes so deep, that it almost seemeth blacke: And sometimes the fals purplish, and the vpper leaues blew. Some of these haue a sweete sent, and some none.

Cærulea.

There is another of a fine pale or delayed blew colour throughout the whole flower.

5. Chamæiris latifolia minor suauerubens. The lesser blush coloured dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce hath the falling leaues of the flower of a reddish colour, and the thrumes blew: the vpper and arched leaues of a fine pale red or flesh colour, called a blush colour; in all other things it differeth not, and smelleth little or nothing at all.

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6. Chamæiris latifolia minor lutea versicolor. The lesser yellow variable dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

The falling leaues of this Flowerdeluce are yellowish, with purple lines from the middle downewards, sometimes of a deeper, and sometimes of a paler colour, and white thrumes in the middle, the vpper leaues are likewise of a yellowish colour, with purple lines in them: And sometimes the yellow colour is paler, and the lines both in the vpper and lower leaues of a dull or dead purple colour.

7. Chamæiris latifolia minor cærulea versicolor. The lesser blew variable dwarfe Flowerdeluce.

The vpper leaues of this flower are of a blewish yellow colour, spotted with purple in the broad part, and at the bottome very narrow: the falling leaues are spread ouer with pale purplish lines, and a small shew of blew about the brimmes: the thrume is yellow at the bottome, and blewish aboue: the arched leaues are of a blewish white, being a little deeper on the ridge.

And sometimes the vpper leaues are of a paler blew rather whitish, with the yellow: both these haue no sent at all.

8. Chamæiris marina purpurea. The purple dwarfe Sea Flowerdeluce.

This small Flowerdeluce is like vnto the narrow leafed Sea Flowerdeluce before described, both in roote, leafe, and flower, hauing no other difference, but in the smalnesse and lownesse of the growing, being of the same purple colour with it.

9. Chamæiris angustifolia maior. The greater Grasse Flowerdeluce.

This Grasse Flowerdeluce hath many long and narrow darke greene leaues, not so stiffe as the former, but lither, and bending their ends downe againe, among which rise vp diuers stalkes, bearing at the toppe two or three sweete flowers, as small as any of them set downe before, of a reddish purple colour, with whitish yellow and purple strakes downe the middle of the falling leaues: the arched leaues are of a horse flesh colour all along the edges, and purple vpon the ridges and tips that turne vp againe: vnder these appeare three browne aglets, like vnto birds tongues: the three vpper leaues are small and narrow, of a perfect purple or Violet colour: the heads for seede haue sharper and harder cornered edges then the former: the seedes are somewhat grayish like the former, and so are the rootes, being small, blacke, and hard, growing thicke together, fastened in the ground with small blackish hard strings, which hardly shoote againe if the roote be remoued.

10. Chamæiris angustifolia minor. The lesser Grasse Flowerdeluce.

This Flowerdeluce is in leaues, flowers, and rootes so like the last described, that but onely it is smaller and lower, it is not to be distinguished from the other. And this may suffice for these sorts of Flowerdeluces, that furnish the Gardens of the curious louers of these varieties of nature, so farre forth as hath passed vnder our knowledge. There are some other that may be referred hereunto, but they belong to another history; and therefore I make no mention of them in this place.

The Place.

The places of most of these are set downe in their seuerall titles; for some are out of Turkie, others out of Hungaria, Dalmatia, Illyria, &c. as their names doe import. Those that grow by the Sea, are found in Spaine and France.

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The Time.

Some of these do flower in Aprill, some in May, and some not vntill Iune.

The Names.

The names expressed are the fittest agreeing vnto them, and therefore it is needlesse againe to repeate them. Many of the rootes of the former or greater kindes, being dryed are sweete, yet some more then other, and some haue no sent at all: but aboue all the rest, that with the white flower, called of Florence, is accounted of all to be the sweetest root, fit to be vsed to make sweete powders, &c. calling it by the name of Orris rootes.

Iris tuberosa. The Veluet Flowerdeluce.

Vnto the Family of Flowerdeluces, I must needes ioyne this peculiar kinde, because of the neare resemblance of the flower, although it differ both in roote and leafe; lest therefore it should haue no place, let it take vp a roome here in the end of the Flowerdeluces, with this description following. It hath many small and foure square leaues, two foote long and aboue sometimes, of a grayish greene colour, stiffe at the first, but afterwards growing to their full length, they are weak and bend downe to the ground: out of the middle, as it were of one of these leaues, breaketh out the stalke, a foot high and better, with some leaues thereon, at the toppe whereof, out of a huske riseth one flower, (I neuer saw more on a stalke) consisting of nine leaues, whereof the three that fall downe are of a yellowish greene colour round about the edges, and in the middle of so deepe a purple, that it seemeth to be blacke, resembling blacke Veluet: the three arched leaues, that couer the lower leaues to the halfe, are of the same greenish colour that the edges and backside of the lower leaues are: the three vppermost leaues, if they may be called leaues, or rather short peeces like eares, are green also, but wherein a glimpse of purple may be seene in them: after the flower is past, there followeth a round knob or whitish seede vessell, hanging downe by a small foote-stalke, from betweene the huske, which is diuided as it were into two leaues, wherein is contained round white seede. The roote is bunched or knobbed out into long round rootes, like vnto fingers, two or three from one peece, one distant from another, and one longer then another, for the most part of a darkish gray colour, and reddish withall on the outside, and somewhat yellowish within.

The Place.

It hath beene sent out of Turkie oftentimes (as growing naturally thereabouts) and not knowne to grow naturally any where else.

The Time.

It flowreth in Aprill or May, sometimes earlier or later, as the Spring falleth out to be milde or sharpe.

The Names.

Matthiolus contendeth to make it the true Hermodadactylus, rather from the shew of the rootes, which (as is said) are like vnto fingers, then from any other good reason: for the rootes hereof eyther dry or greene, do nothing resemble the true Hermodactyli that are vsed in Physicke, as any that knoweth them may easily perceiue, either in forme or vertue. It is more truely referred to the Flowerdeluces, and because of the tuberous rootes, called Iris tuberosa, although all the Flowerdeluces in this Chapter haue tuberous [189]rootes, yet this much differing from them all. In English it is vsually called, The Veluet Flowerdeluce, because the three falling leaues seeme to be like smooth blacke Veluet.

The Vertues.

Both the rootes and the flowers of the great Flowerdeluces, are of great vse for the purging and cleansing of many inward, as well as outward diseases, as all Authors in Physicke doe record. Some haue vsed also the greene rootes to cleanse the skinne, but they had neede to be carefull that vse them, lest they take more harme then good by the vse of them. The dryed rootes called Orris (as is said) is of much vse to make sweete powders, or other things to perfume apparrell or linnen. The iuice or decoction of the green roots doth procure both neezing to be snuft vp into the nostrils, and vomiting very strongly being taken inwardly.


Chap. XXI.
Gladiolus. Corne Flagge.

Next vnto the Flagges or Flowerdeluces, come the Gladioli or Corne Flagges to bee entreated of, for some resemblance of the leaues with them. There are hereof diuers sorts, some bigger and some lesser, but the chiefest difference is in the colour of the flowers, and one in the order of the flowers. Of them all in their seuerall orders.

Gladiolus narbonensis. The French Corne Flagge.

The French Corne Flagge riseth vp with three or foure broad, long, and stiffe greene leaues, one as it were out of the side of another, being ioyned together at the bottome, somewhat like vnto the leaues of Flowerdeluces, but stiffer, more full of ribbes, and longer then many of them, and sharper pointed: the stalke riseth vp from among the leaues, bearing them on it as it riseth, hauing at the toppe diuers huskes, out of which come the flowers one aboue another, all of them turning and opening themselues one way, which are long and gaping, like vnto the flowers of Foxegloue, a little arched or bunching vp in the middle, of a faire reddish purple colour, with two white spots within the mouth thereof, one on each side, made like vnto a Lozenge that is square and long pointed: after the flowers are past, come vp round heads or seede vessels, wherein is contained reddish flat seede, like vnto the seede of the Fritillaria, but thicker and fuller: the roote is somewhat great, round, flat, and hard, with a shew as if it were netted, hauing another short spongie one vnder it, which when it hath done bearing, and the stalke dry, that the roote may be taken vp, sticketh close to the bottome, but may be easily taken away, hauing vsually a number of small rootes encreased about it, the least whereof will quickly grow, so that if it be suffered any long time in a Garden, it will rather choake and pester it, then be an ornament vnto it.

Gladiolus Italicus binis florum ordinibus. The Italian Corne Flagge.

The Italian Corne Flagge is like vnto the French in roote, leafe, and flower, without any other difference, then that the roote is smaller and browner, the leafe and stalke of a darker colour, and the flowers (being of a little darker colour like the former, and somewhat smaller) stand out on both sides of the stalke.

Gladiolus Byzantinus. Corne Flagge of Constantinople.

This Corne Flagge that came first from Constantinople, is in all things like vnto the French Corne Flagge last described, but that it is larger, both in rootes, leaues, and [190]flowers, and likewise that the Flowers of this, which stand not on both sides, are of a deeper red colour, and flower later, after all the rest are past: the roote hereof being netted as plainly as any of the former, is as plentifull also to giue encrease, but is more tender and lesse able to abide our sharpe cold Winters.

Gladiolus flore rubente. Blush Corne Flagge.

This blush kinde is like vnto the French Corne Flagge in all respects, sauing onely that the flowers are of a pale red colour, tending to whitenesse, which wee vsually call a blush colour.

Gladiolus flore albo. White Corne Flagge.

This white Corne Flagge also differeth not from the last, but onely that the rootes are whiter on the outside, the leaues are greener, without any brownesse or darknesse as in the former, and the flowers are snow white.

Gladiolus purpureus minor. The small purple Corne Flagge.

This also differeth not from any of the former, but onely in the smallnesse both of leafe, stalke, and flowers, which stand all on the one side, like vnto the French kinde, and of the same colour: the roote of this kinde is netted more then any other.

The Place.

They grow in France and Italy, the least in Spaine, and the Byzantine, as it is thought, about Constantinople, being (as is said) first sent from thence. Iohn Tradescante assured mee, that hee saw many acres of ground in Barbary spread ouer with them.

The Time.

They all flower in Iune and Iuly, and the Byzantine latest, as is said before.

The Names.

It hath diuers names; for the Latines call it Gladiolus, of the forme of a sword, which the leafe doth resemble. The Romanes Segetalis, because it groweth in the Corne fields. Some call it Victorialis rotunda, to put a difference between it, and the longa, which is a kinde of Garlicke. Plinie saith, that Gladiolus is Cypirus, but to decide that controuersie, and many others, belongeth to another discourse, this being intended only for pleasure. Gerrard mistaketh the French kinde for the Italian.

The Vertues.

The roote being bruised, and applyed with Frankinsense (and often of it selfe without it) in the manner of a pultis or plaister, is held of diuers to be singular good to draw out splinters, thornes, and broken bones out of the flesh. Some take it be effectuall to stirre vp Venerie, but I somewhat doubt thereof: For Galen in his eighth Booke of Simples, giueth vnto it a drawing, digesting and drawing faculty.

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Page 191: Flagg, Orchis, Violet.
1Gladiolus Narbonensis. The French Corne Flagge.
2Gladiolus Italicus. The Italian Corne Flagge.
3Gladiolus Byzantinus. Corne Flagge of Constantinople.
4Palma Christi mas. The great male handed Satyrion.
5Orchis Hermaphroditica candida. The white Butterflie Orchis.
6Orchis Melitias siue apifera. The Bee flower or Bee Orchis.
7Dens Caninus flore purpurante. Dogges tooth Violet with a pale purplish flower.
8Dens Caninus flore albo. Dogges tooth Violet with a white flower.

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Chap. XXII.
Orchis siue Satyrium. Bee flowers.

Although it is not my purpose in this place, to giue a generall history of all the sorts of Orchides, Satyrions, and the rest of that kinde; yet because many of them are very pleasant to behold, and, if they be planted in a conuenient place, will abide some time in Gardens, so that there is much pleasure taken in them: I shall intrude some of them for curiosities sake, to make vp the prospect of natures beautifull variety, and only entreate of a few, leauing the rest to a more ample declaration.

1. Satyrium Basilicum siue Palma Christi mas. The greater male handed Satyrion.

This handed Satyrion hath for the most part but three faire large greene leaues, neare vnto the ground, spotted with small blackish markes: from among which riseth vp a stalke, with some smaller leaues thereon, bearing at the toppe a bush or spike of flowers, thicke set together, euery one whereof is made like a body, with the belly broader belowe then aboue, where it hath small peeces adioyned vnto it: the flower is of a faire purple colour, spotted with deeper purple spots, and hauing small peeces like hornes hanging at the backes of the flowers, and a small leafe at the bottome of the foote-stalke of euery flower: the rootes are not round, like the other Orchides, but somewhat long and flat, like a hand, with small diuisions belowe, hanging downe like the fingers of a hand, cut short off by the knockles, two alwayes growing together, with some small fibres or strings aboue the heads of these rootes, at the bottome of the stalke.

2. Satyrium Basilicum siue Palma Christi fæmina. The female handed Satyrion.

This female Satyrion hath longer and narrower leaues then the former, and spotted with more and greater spots, compassing the stalke at the bottome like the other: this beareth likewise a bush of flowers, like vnto the other, but that each of these haue heads like hoods, whereas the former haue none: in some they are white with purple spots, and in others of a reddish purple, with deepe or darke coloured spots: the roots are alike.

3. Orchis Hermaphroditica candida. The white Butterflie Orchis.

The rootes of this kinde take part with both the sorts of Orchis and Satyrium, being neither altogether round, nor fully handed, and thereupon it tooke the name, to signifie both kindes: the leaues are two in number, seldome more, being faire and broad, like vnto the leaues of Lillies, without any spot at all in them: at the toppe of the stalke stand many white flowers, not so thicke set as the first or second, euery one being fashioned like vnto a white Butterflie, with the wings spread abroad.

4. Orchis Melitias siue apifera. The Bee flower or Bee Orchis.

This is a small and lowe plant for the most part, with three or foure small narrow leaues at the bottome: the stalke is seldome above halfe a foote high, with foure or fiue flowers thereon one aboue another, hauing round bodies, and somewhat flat, of a kind of yellowish colour, with purple wings aboue them, so like vnto an honey Bee, that it might soone deceiue one that neuer had seene such a flower before: the roots are two together, round and white, hauing a certaine muccilaginesse or clamminesse within them, without any taste almost at all, as all or the most part of these kindes haue.

5. Orchis Sphegodes. Gnats Satyrion.

The leaues of this Orchis are somewhat larger then of the Bee flower, the stalke also [193]somewhat higher: the flowers are fewer on the toppe, but somewhat larger then of the Bee flowers, made to the resemblance of a Gnat or great long Flie: the rootes are two round bulbes, as the other are.

6. Orchis Myodes. Flie Orchis.

The Flie Orchis is like vnto the last described, both in leafe and roote, the difference is in the flower, which is neither so long as the Gnat Satyrion, nor so great as the Bee Orchis, but the neather part of the Flie is blacke, with a list of ash-colour crossing the backe, with a shew of legges hanging at it: the naturall Flie seemeth so to bee in loue with it, that you shall seldome come in the heate of the day, but you shall finde one sitting close thereon.

The Place.

These grow in many places of England, some in the Woods, as the Butterflie, and the two former handed Satyrions: others on dry bankes and barren balkes in Kent, and many other places.

The Time.

They flower for the most part in the beginning or middle of May, or thereabouts.

The Names.

Their seuerall names are expressed in their titles, so much as may suffice for this discourse.

The Vertues.

All the kindes of Orchis are accounted to procure bodily lust, as well the flowers distilled, as the rootes prepared.

The rootes boyled in red Wine, and afterwards dryed, are held to bee a singular good remedie against the bloody Flixe.


Chap. XXIII.
Dens Caninus. Dogs tooth Violet.

Vnto the kindes of Orchides, may fitly be ioyned another plant, which by many is reckoned to be a Satyrium, both from the forme of roote and leafe, and from the efficacy or vertue correspondent thereunto. And although it cannot be the Satyrium Erythronium of Dioscorides, as some would entitle it, for that as I haue shewed before, his Satyrium tryphillum is the Tulipa without all doubt; yet because it differeth very notably, and carrieth more beauty and respect in his flower then they, I shall entreate thereof in a Chapter by it selfe, and set it next vnto them.

Dens Caninus flore albo. Dogs tooth Violet with a white flower.

The white Dogs tooth hath for his roote a white bulbe, long and small, yet vsually greater then either of the other that follow, bigger belowe then aboue, with a small peece adioyning to the bottome of it, from whence rise vp in the beginning of the Spring, after the Winter frosts are past, two leaues for the most part (when it will flower, or else but one, and neuer three together that euer I saw) closed together when they first come vp out of the ground, which inclose the flower betweene them: the leaues when they are opened do lay themselues flat on the ground, or not much aboue it, one opposite vnto the other, with the stalke and the flower on it standing betweene them, which leaues are of a whitish greene colour, long and narrow, yet broader in the[194] middle then at both ends, growing lesse by degrees each way, spotted and striped all ouer the leaues with white lines and spots: the stalke riseth vp halfe a foote high or more, bearing at the toppe one flower and no more, hanging downe the head, larger then any of the other of this kinde that follow, made or consisting of six white long and narrow leaues, turning themselues vp againe, after it hath felt the comfort of the Sunne, that they doe almost touch the stalke againe, very like vnto the flowers of Cyclamen or Sowebread: it hath in the middle of the flower six white chiues, tipt with darke purple pendents, and a white three forked stile in the middle of them: the flower hath no sent at all, but commendable onely for the beauty and forme thereof: after the flower is past, commeth in the place a round head seeming three square, containing therein small and yellowish seede.

Dens Caninus flore purpurascente. Dogs tooth with a pale purple flower.

This other Dogs tooth is like vnto the former, but lesser in all parts, the leafe whereof is not so long, but broad and short, spotted with darker lines and spots: the flower is like the other, but smaller, and of a delayed purple colour, very pale sometimes, and sometimes a little deeper, turning it selfe as the other, with a circle round about the vmbone or middle, the chiues hereof are not white, but declining to purple: the roote is white, and like vnto the former, but lesser, as is said before.

Dens Caninus flore rubro. Dogs tooth with a red flower.

This is in all things like vnto the last, both for forme and bignesse of flower and leafe: the chiefe difference consisteth in this, that the leaues hereof are of a yellowish mealy greene colour, spotted and streaked with redder spots and stripes, and the flower of a deeper reddish purple colour, and the chiues also more purplish then the last, in all other things it is alike.

The Place.

The sorts Dens Caninus doe growe in diuers places; some in Italy on the Euganean Hils, others on the Apenine, and some about Gratz, the chiefe Citie of Stiria, and also about Bayonne, and in other places.

The Time.

They flower in March most vsually, and many times in Aprill, according to the seasonablenesse of the yeare.

The Names.

Clusius did call it first Dentali, and Lobel, and from him some others Satyrium, and Erythronium, but I haue said enough hereof in the beginning of the Chapter. It is most commonly called Dens Caninus, and we in English, either Dogs tooth, or Dogs tooth Violet. Gesner called it Hermodactylus, and Matthiolus Pseudohermodactylus.

The Vertues.

The roote hereof is held to bee of more efficacy for venerous effects, then any of the Orchides and Satyrions.

They of Stiria vse the rootes for the falling sicknesse.

Wee haue had from Virginia a roote sent vnto vs, that wee might well iudge, by the forme and colour thereof being dry, to be either the roote of this, or of an Orchis, which the naturall people hold not onely to be singular to procure lust, but hold it as a secret, loth to reueale it.


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Chap. XXIIII.
Cyclamen. Sowebread.

The likenesse of the flowers, and the spotting of the leaues of the Dens Caninus, with these of the Cyclamen or Sowebread, maketh mee ioyne it next thereunto: as also that after the bulbous rooted plants I might begin with the tuberous that remaine, and make this plant the beginning of them. Of this kinde there are diuers sorts, differing both in forme of leaues and time of flowring: for some doe flower in the Spring of the yeare, others afterwards in the beginning of Summer: but the most number in the end of Summer, or beginning of Autumne or Haruest, whereof some haue round leaues, others cornered like vnto Iuie, longer or shorter, greater or smaller. Of them all in order, and first of those that come in the Spring.

1. Cyclamen Vernum flore purpureo. Purple flowred Sowebread of the Spring.

This Sowebread hath a smaller roote then most of the others, yet round and blackish on the outside, as all or most of the rest are (I speake of them that I haue seene; for Clusius and others doe report to haue had very great ones) from whence rise vp diuers round, yet pointed leaues, and somewhat cornered withall, greene aboue, and spotted with white spots circlewise about the leafe, and reddish vnderneath, which at their first comming vp are folded together; among which come the flowers, of a reddish purple colour and very sweete, euery one vpon a small, long, and slender reddish foote-stalke, which hanging downe their heads, turne vp their leaues againe: after the flowers are past, the head or seede vessel shrinketh downe, winding his footestalke, and coyling it selfe like a cable, which when it toucheth the ground, there abideth hid among the leaues, till it be growne great and ripe, wherein are contained a few small round seedes, which being presently sowne, will growe first into round rootes, and afterwards from them shoote forth leaues.

2. Cyclamen Vernum flore albo. White flowred Sowebread of the Spring.

The white flowring Sowebread hath his leaues like the former, but not fully so much cornered, bearing small snow white flowers, as sweete as the other: and herein consisteth the chiefest difference, in all other things it is alike.

3. Cyclamen Vernum Creticum flore albo. White Candy Sowebread of the Spring.

This Sowebread is somewhat like the former white kinde, but that the leaues grow much larger and longer, with more corners at the edges, and more eminent spots on them: the flowers also somewhat longer and larger, and herein consisteth the whole difference.

4. Cyclamen Æstivum. Summer Sowebread.

Summer Sowebread hath round leaues like vnto the Romane Sowebread, but somewhat cornered, yet with shorter corners then the Iuie leafed Sowebread, full of white spots on the vpperside of the leaues, and very purple vnderneath, sometimes they haue fewer spots, and little or no purple vnderneath: the flowers hereof are as small, as purple, and as sweete, as the purple Sowebread of the Spring time: the roote hereof is likewise small, blacke, and round.

5. Cyclamen Romanum rotundifolium. Romane Sowebread with round leaues.

The Romane Sowebread hath round leaues, somewhat like vnto the common Sowebread, but not fully so round pointed at the ends, a little cornered sometimes also, or as it were indented, with white spots round about the middle of the leaues,[196] and very conspicuous, which make it seeme the more beautifull: the flowers appeare in Autumne, and are shorter, and of a deeper purplish red colour then the Iuie Sowebread, rising vp before the leaues for the most part, or at least with them, and little or nothing sweete: the roote is round and blacke, vsually not so flat as it, but growing sometimes to bee greater then any other kinde of Sowebread. There is sometimesVarietas. some variety to be seene, both in the leaues and flowers of this kinde; for that sometime the leaues haue more corners, and either more or lesse spotted with white; the flowers likewise of some are larger or lesser, longer or rounder, paler or deeper coloured one then another. This happeneth most likely from the sowing of the seede, causing the like variety as is seene in the Iuie leafed Sowebread. It doth also many times happen from the diuersity of soyles and countries where they grow: the seed of this, as of all the rest, is small and round, contained in such like heads as the former, standing almost like the head of a Snake that is twined or folded within the body thereof. This and the other Autumnall kindes, presently after their sowing in Autumne, shoote forth leaues, and so abide all the Winter, according to their kinde.

6. Cyclamen folio hederæ autumnale. Iuie leafed Sowebread.

The Iuie leafed Sowebread groweth in the same manner that the former doth, that is, bringeth forth flowers with the leaues sometimes, or most commonly before them, whose flowers are greater then the common round leafed Sowebread, somewhat longer then the former Romane or Italian Sowebreads, and of a paler purple colour, almost bluish, without that sweete sent as is in the first kinde of the Spring: the greene leaues hereof are more long then round, pointed at the ends, and hauing also one or two corners on each side, sometimes much spotted on the vpperside with white spots and marks, and sometimes but a little or not at all; and so likewise sometimes more or lesse purple vnderneath: all the leaues and flowers doe stand vsually euery one seuerally by themselues, vpon their owne slender foote-stalkes, as most of all the other kindes doe:Varietas. but sometimes it happeneth, that both leaues and flowers are found growing from one and the same stalke, which I rather take to be accidentall, then naturall so to continue: the seede hereof is like the former kindes, which being sowne produceth variety, both in the forme of the leaues, and colour and smell of the flowers: some being paler or deeper, and some more or lesse sweete then others: the leaues also, some more or lesse cornered then others: the root groweth to be great, being round and flat, and of a blackish browne colour on the outside.

7. Cyclamen autumnale hederæ folio flore albo. Iuie leafed Sowebread with white flowers.

There is one of this kinde, whose leaues are rounder, and not so much cornered as the former, flowring in Autumne as the last doth, and whose flowers are wholly white, not hauing any other notable difference therein.

8. Cyclamen autumnale angustifolium. Long leafed Sowebread.

This kinde of Sowebread may easily be knowne from all the other kindes, because his leafe is longer and narrower then others, fashioned at the bottome thereof with points, somewhat like vnto Arum or Wake Robin leaues: the flowers are like the former sorts for forme, but of a purple colour. There is also another of this kinde in all things like the former, but that the flowers are white.

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Page 197: Sowebread.
1Cyclamen Vernum flore purpureo. Purple flowred Sowebread of the Spring.
2Cyclamen astivum. Summer Sowebread.
3Folium Cyclaminis Cretici vernalis flore candido. A leafe of Candie Sowebread.
4Cyclamen Romanum Autumnale. Romane Sowebread of the Autumne.
5Cyclamen hederæfolio Autumnale. Iuie leafed Autumne Sowebread.
6Folium Cyclaminis Autumnalis flore albo. A leafe of the Autumne Sowebread with a white flower.
7Folium Cyclaminis angustifolij Autumnalis. A leafe of the long leafed Sowebread.
8Cyclamen Antiochenum Autumnale flore amplo purpureo duplici. The double flowred Sowebread of Antioch.
9Cyclamen vulgare folio rotundo. The common round leafed Sowebread.

9. Cyclamen Antiochenum Autumnale flore purpureo duplici. Double flowred Sowebread of Antioch.

This Sowebread of Antioch with double flowers, hath his leaues somewhat round, like vnto the leaues of the Summer Sowebread, but with lesse notches or corners, & full of white spots on them: it beareth flowers on stalks, like vnto others, & likewise some stalks that haue two or three flowers on them, which are very large, with ten or twelue[198] leaues a peece, of a faire Peach colour, like vnto the flowers of purple Sowebread of the Spring, and deeper at the bottome.

There are of this kinde some, whose flowers appeare in the Spring, and are as large and double as the former, but of a pure white colour.

There are of these Sowebreads of Antioch, that haue but single flowers, some appearing in the Spring, and others in Autumne.

10. Cyclamen vulgare folio rotundo. The common Sowebread.

The common Sowebread (which is most vsed in the Apothecaries Shops) hath many leaues spread vpon the ground, rising from certaine small long heads, that are on the greater round rootes, as vsually most of the former sorts doe, being in the like manner folded together, and after spread themselues into round greene leaues, somewhat like vnto the leaues of Asarum, but not shining, without any white spots on the vpperside for the most part, or but very seldome, and reddish or purplish vnderneath, and very seldome greener: the flowers stand vpon small foot-stalkes, and shew themselues open for the most part, before any leaues doe appeare, being smaller and shorter then those with Iuie leaues, and of a pale purple colour, yet sometimes deeper, hanging downe their heads, and turning vp their leaues againe, as all others doe, but more sweete then many other of the Autumne flowers: after the flowers are past, come the heads turning or winding themselues downe in like manner as the other doe, hauing such like seede, but somewhat larger, and more vneuen, or not so round at the least: the roote is round, and not flat, of a browner colour, and not so blacke on the outside as many of the others.

The Place.

The Sowebreads of the Spring doe both grow on the Pyrenæan Mountaines in Italy, and in Candy, and about Mompelier in France; Antioch in Syria also hath yeelded some both of the Spring and Autumne. Those with round and Iuie leaues grow in diuers places both of France and Italy: and the common in Germany, and the Lowe-Countries. But that Autumne Sowebread with white flowers, is reported to grow in the Kingdome of Naples. I haue very curiously enquired of many, if euer they found them in any parts of England, neare or further off from the places where they dwell: but they haue all affirmed, that they neuer found, or euer heard of any that haue found of any of them. This onely they haue assured, that there groweth none in the places, where some haue reported them to grow.

The Time.

Those of the Spring doe flower about the end of Aprill, or beginning of May. The other of the Summer, about the end of Iune or in Iuly. The rest some in August, and September, others in October.

The Names.

The Common Sowebread is called by most Writers in Latine, Panis Porcinus, and by that name it is knowne in the Apothecaries shops, as also by the name Arthanita, according to which name, they haue an ointment so called, which is to be made with the iuice hereof. It is also called by diuers other names, not pertinent for this discourse. The most vsuall name, whereby it is knowne to most Herbarists, is Cyclamen (which is the Greeke word) or as some call it Cyclaminus adding thereunto their other seuerall titles. In English, Sowebread.

The Vertues.

The leaues and rootes are very effectuall for the spleene, as the Ointment before remembred plainly proueth, being vsed for the same purpose, [199]and that to good effect. It is vsed also for women in long and hard trauels, where there is danger, to accelerate the birth, either the roote or the leafe being applyed. But for any amorous effects, I hold it meere fabulous.


Chap. XXV.
Anemone. Windeflower and his kindes.

The next tuberous rooted plants that are to follow (of right in my opinion) are the Anemones or Windeflowers, and although some tuberous rooted plants, that is, the Asphodils, Spiderworts, and Flowerdeluces haue beene before inserted, it was, both because they were in name or forme of flowers sutable to them whom they were ioyned vnto, and also that they should not be seuered and entreated of in two seuerall places: the rest are now to follow, at the least so many of them as be beautifull flowers, fit to furnish a Florists Garden, for natures delightsome varieties and excellencies. To distinguish the Family of Anemones I may, that is, into the wilde kindes, and into the tame or mannured, as they are called, and both of them noursed vp in Gardens; and of them into those that haue broader leaues, and into those that haue thinner or more iagged leaues: and of each of them, into those that beare single flowers, and those that beare double flowers. But to describe the infinite (as I may so say) variety of the colours of the flowers, and to giue to each his true distinction and denomination, Hic labor, hoc opus est, it farre passeth my ability I confesse, and I thinke would grauell the best experienced this day in Europe (and the like I said concerning Tulipas, it being as contingent to this plant, as is before said of the Tulipa, to be without end in yeelding varieties:) for who can see all the varieties that haue sprung from the sowing of the seede in all places, seeing the variety of colours risen from thence, is according to the variety of ayres & grounds wherein they are sowne, skill also helping nature in ordering them aright. For the seede of one and the same plant sowne in diuers ayres and grounds, doe produce that variety of colours that is much differing one from another; who then can display all the mixtures of colours in them, to set them downe in so small a roome as this Book? Yet as I haue done (in the former part of this Treatise) my good will, to expresse as many of each kinde haue come to my knowledge, so if I endeauour the like in this, I hope the courteous wil accept it, and hold me excused for the rest: otherwise, if I were or could be absolute, I should take from my self and others the hope of future augmentation, or addition of any new, which neuer will be wanting. To begin therefore with the wilde kinds (as they are so accounted) I shall first entreate of the Pulsatillas or Pasque flowers, which are certainly kindes of wilde Anemones, both in leafe and flower, as may well be discerned by them that are iudicious (although some learned men haue not so thought, as appeareth by their writings) the rootes of them making one speciall note of difference, from the other sorts of wilde Anemones.

{Pasque flowers}

1. Pulsatilla Anglica purpurea. The purple Pasque flower.

The Pasque or Passe flower which is of our owne Country, hath many leaues lying on the ground, somewhat rough or hairie, hard in feeling, and finely cut into many small leaues, of a darke greene colour, almost like the leaues of Carrets, but finer and smaller, from among which rise vp naked stalkes, rough or hairie also, set about the middle thereof with some small diuided leaues compassing them, and rising aboue these leaues about a spanne, bearing euery one of them one pendulous flower, made of six leaues, of a fine Violet purple colour, but somewhat deepe withall, in the middle whereof stand many yellow threads, set about a middle purple pointell: after the flower is past, there commeth vp in the stead thereof a bushie head of long seedes, which are small and hoarie, hauing at the end of euery one a small haire, which is gray likewise: the roote is small and long, growing downewards into the ground, with a tuft of haire at the head thereof, and not lying or running vnder the vpper crust thereof, as the other wilde Anemones doe.

[200]

2. Pulsatilla Danica. The Passe flower of Denmarke.

There is another that was brought out of Denmarke, very like vnto the former, but that it is larger both in roote and leafe, and flower also, which is of a fairer purple colour, not so deepe, and besides, will better abide to bee mannured then our English kinde will, as my selfe haue often proued.

Viriusque flore albo & flore duplici.

Of both these sorts it is said, that some plants haue bin found, that haue borne white flowers. And likewise one that bore double flowers, that is, with two rowes of leaues.

3. Pulsatilla flore rubro. The red Passe flower.

Lobel, as I take it, did first set forth this kinde, being brought him from Syria, the leaues whereof are finer cut, the flower smaller, and with longer leaues, and of a red colour.

4. Pulsatilla flore luteo. The yellow Passe flower.

The yellow Passe flower hath his leaues cut and diuided, very like vnto the leaues of the first kinde, but somewhat more hairie, greene on the vpperside, and hairie vnderneath: the stalke is round and hoary, the middle whereof is beset with some small leaues, as in the other, from among which riseth vp the stalke of the flower, consisting of six leaues of a very faire yellow colour on the inside, and of a hoary pale yellow on the outside; after which followeth such an head of hairie thrummes as in the former: the roote is of the bignesse of a mans finger.

5. Pulsatilla flore albo. The white Passe flower.

The white Passe flower (which Clusius maketh a kinde of Anemone, and yet as hee saith himselfe, doth more nearely resemble the Pulsatilla) hath, from amongst a tuft or head of haires, which grow at the toppe of a long blacke roote, many leaues standing vpon long stalkes, which are diuided as it were into three wings or parts, and each part finely cut and diuided, like vnto the Passe flower of Denmarke, but somewhat harder in handling, greenish on the vpperside, and somewhat gray vnderneath, and very hairie all ouer: among these leaues rise vp the stalkes, beset at the middle of them with three leaues, as finely cut and diuided as those belowe, from aboue which standeth the flower, being smaller, and not so pendulous as the former, but in the like manner consisting of six leaues, of a snow white colour on the inside, and a little browner on the outside, with many yellow thrums in the middle: after the flower is past, riseth vp such a like hoary head, composed as it were of many haires, each whereof hath a small seede fastened vnto it, like as the former Passe flowers haue.

The Place.

The first is found in many places of England, vpon dry bankes that lye open to the Sunne.

The second was first brought, as I take it, by Doctor Lobel from Denmarke, & is one of the two kinds, that Clusius saith are common in Germanie, this bearing a paler purple flower, and more early then the other, which is the same with our English, whose flower is so darke, that it almost seemeth blacke.

The red kinde, as Lobel saith, came from Syria.

The yellow Passe flower, which Clusius maketh his third wilde Anemone, was found very plentifully growing at the foote of St. Bernards Hill, neare vnto the Cantons of the Switzers.

The white one groweth on the Alpes neare Austria, in France likewise and other places.

[201]

Page 201: Pasque flower, Windflower.
1Pulsatilla purpurea cum folio, semine, & radice. The purple Pasque flower with leafe, seed, and root.
2Pulsatilla luteo flore. The yellow Pasque flower.
3Pulsatilla rubra Syriaca Lobelij. Red Pasque flower of Lobel.
4Pulsatilla rubra Swertij. Swertz his red Pasque flower.
5Pulsatilla flore albo. White Pasque flower.
6Anemone siluestris albo Matthioli. The wilde white broad leafed Windflower.
7Anemone siluestris tenuifolia alba. The wilde single white Windflower.
8Anemone siluestris tenuifolia luteo. The yellow wilde thin leafed Windflower.
9Anemone siluestris trifolia Dodonæi. The three-leafed wilde Windflower.
10Anemone siluestris flore pleno albo. The double white wilde Windflower.
11Anemone siluestris flore pleno purpureo. The double purple wilde Windeflower.
*Semen seperatim divulsum. The seed separated.
Radice cum folio inferiore. The roote with a lower leafe.

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The Time.

All of them doe flower early in the yeare, that is, in the beginning of Aprill, about which time most commonly Easter doth fall.

The Names.

Their proper names are giuen to each in their seuerall titles, being all of them kindes of wilde Anemones, as I said in the beginning of the Chapter, and so for the most part all Authors doe acknowledge them. We call them in English, because they flower about Easter, Pasque flower, which is the French name for Easter, or Euphoniæ gratia, Pasque flower, which may passe currant, without any further descant on the name, or else Pulsatilla, if you will, being growne old by custome.

The Vertues.

The sharpe biting and exulcerating quality of this plant, causeth it to be of little vse, notwithstanding Ioachimus Camerarius saith in his Hortus Medicus, that in Borussia, which is a place in Italy, as I take it, the distilled water hereof is vsed with good successe, to be giuen to them that are troubled with a Tertian Ague; for he saith that it is medicamentum ὀκφρακτικὸν, that is, a medicine of force to helpe obstructions.

{Wilde Windflowers}

Anemone siluestris latifolia alba siue tertia Matthioli. The white wilde broad leafed Windflower.

This Windflower hath diuers broad greene leaues, cut into diuisions, and dented, about, very like vnto a broad leafed Crowfoote, among which riseth vp a stalke, hauing some such like cut leaues in the middle thereof, as growe below, but smaller; on the toppe whereof standeth one large white flower, consisting of fiue leaues for the most part, with some yellow threads in the middle, standing about such a greene head as is in the tame or garden Anemones, which growing greater after the flower is past, is composed of many small seedes, wrapped in white wooll, which as soone as they are ripe, raise themselues vp from the bottome of the head, and flye away with the winde, as the other tame or garden kindes doe: the roote is made of a number of long blacke strings, encreasing very much by running vnder ground, and shooting vp in diuers places.

Anemone siluestris tenuifolia lutea. The yellow wilde thin leafed Windflower.

The yellow wilde Anemone riseth vp with one or two small round naked stalkes, bearing about the middle of them, small, soft, and tender iagged leaues, deeply cut in and indented on the edges about, from aboue which, doth grow the stalke, bearing small yellow flowers, standing vpon weake foote-stalks, like vnto a small Crowfoot, with some threads in the middle: the roote is long and small, somewhat like vnto the roote of Pollipodie, creeping vnder the vpper crust of the earth: this kinde is lower, and springeth somewhat earlier then the other wilde kindes that follow.

Anemone siluestris tenuifolia alba simplex. The single white thin leafed wilde Windflower.

This white wilde Anemone riseth vp with diuers leaues vpon seuerall long stalkes; which are somewhat like vnto the former, but that they are somewhat harder, and not so long, nor the diuisions of the leaues so finely snipt about the edges, but a little broader, and deeper cut in on euery side: the flowers hereof are larger and broader then the former, white on the inside, and a little purplish on the outside, especially at [203]the bottome of the flower next vnto the stalke: the roote of this is very like vnto the last.

Purpurea.

There is another of this kinde, whose flowers are purple, in all other things it is like vnto the white.

Coccinea siue suave rubens.

And likewise another, with a blush or carnation coloured flower.

Peregrina alba.

There is one that is onely nursed vp with vs in Gardens, that is somewhat like vnto these former wilde Anemones in roote and leafe, but that the flower of this, being pure white within, and a little purplish without, consisting of eight or nine small round pointed leaues, hath sometimes some leaues vnder the flower, party coloured white and greene: the flower hath likewise a greene head, like a Strawberry, compassed about with white threads, tipt with yellow pendents.

Peregrina viridis.

And another of the same kinde with the last, whose flower consisting of eight or nine leaues, is of a greenish colour, except the foure outermost leaues, which are a little purplish, and diuided at the points into three parts; the middle part is of a greenish white colour, with a greene head in the middle as the other.

Anemone siluestris trifolia Dodonæi. The three leafed wilde Windflower.

This wilde Anemone hath his rootes very like vnto the former kindes; the leaues are alwaies three set together at the toppe of slender stalkes, being small and indented about, very like vnto a three leafed Grasse, but smaller: the flower consisteth of eight small leaues, somewhat like vnto a Crowfoote, but of a whitish purple or blush colour, with some white threads, and a greene rough head in the middle.

Anemone siluestris flore pleno albo. The double white wilde Windflower.

This double kinde is very like vnto the single white kinde before described, both in his long running rootes, and thin leaues, but somewhat larger: the flowers hereof are very thicke and double, although they be small, and of a faint sweete sent, very white after it is full blowne for fiue or six dayes, but afterwards it becommeth a little purplish on the inside, but more on the outside: this neuer giueth seede (although it haue a small head in the middle) like as many other double flowers doe.

Anemone siluestris flore pleno purpureo. The double purple wilde Windflower.

This double purple kinde hath such like iagged leaues as the last described hath, but more hoarie vnderneath: the flower is of a fine light purple toward the points of the leaues, the bottomes being of a deeper purple, but as thicke, and full of leaues as the former, with a greene head in the middle, like vnto the former: this kinde hath small greene leaues on the stalkes vnder the flowers, cut and diuided like the lower leaues.

The Place.

The first broad leafed Anemone groweth in diuers places of Austria and Hungary. The yellow in diuers woods in Germany, but not in this Countrey that euer I could learne. The other single wilde kindes, some of them are very frequent throughout the most places of England, in Woods, Groues, and Orchards. The double kindes were found, as Clusius saith, in the Lowe-Countries, in a Wood neare Louaine.

The Time.

They flower from the end of March (that is the earliest) and the beginning of Aprill, vntill May, and the double kindes begin within a while after the single kinds are past.

The Names.

They are called Ranunculi siluarum, and Ranunculi nemorum, and as Clu[204]sius would haue them, Leimonia of Theophrastus; they are generally called of most Herbarists Anemones siluestres, Wilde Anemones or Windflowers. The Italians call them Gengeuo saluatico, that is, Wilde Ginger, because the rootes are, besides the forme, being somewhat like small Ginger, of a biting hot and sharpe taste.

{Garden Anemones or Windflowers}

Anemone Lusitanica siue hortensis latifolia flore simplici luteo. The single Garden yellow Windflower or Anemone.

This single yellow Anemone or Windflower hath diuers broad round leaues, somewhat diuided and endented withall on the edges, brownish at the first rising vp out of the ground, and almost folded together, and after of a sad greene on the vpperside, and reddish vnderneath; among which rise vp small slender stalkes, beset at the middle of them with two or three leaues, more cut and diuided then those belowe, with small yellow flowers at the toppe of them, consisting of ten or twelue leaues a peece, hauing a few yellow threads in the middle of them, standing about a small greene head, which in time growing ripe hath small flat seede, inclosed within a soft wooll or downe, which is easily blowne away with the winde: the roote groweth downeward into the ground, diuersly spread with branches here and there, of a brownish yellow on the outside, and whitish within, so brittle, that it can hardly bee touched without breaking.

Anemone latifolia flore luteo duplici. The double yellow Anemone or Windflower.

This double yellow Anemone hath such broad round leaues as the single kinde hath, but somewhat larger or ranker: the stalkes are beset with larger leaues, more deeply cut in on the edges: the flowers are of a more pale yellow, with some purplish veines on the outside, and a little round pointed; but they are all on the inside of a faire yellow colour, consisting of two rowes of leaues, whereof the innermost is the narrower, with a small greene head in the middle, compassed with yellow threads as in the former: the roote is like the roote of the single; neither of these haue any good sent, and this springeth vp and flowreth later then the single kinde.

Anemone latifolia purpurea stellata siue papaveracea. The purple Starre Anemone or Windflower.

The first leaues of this purple Anemone, which alwayes spring vp before Winter, (if the roote be not kept too long out of the ground,) are somewhat like the leaues of Sanicle or Selfe-heale, but the rest that follow are more deeply cut in and iagged; among which rise vp diuers round stalkes, beset with iagged leaues as all other Anemones are, aboue which leaues, the stalkes rising two or three inches high, beare one flower a peece, composed of twelue leaues or more, narrow and pointed, of a bleake purple or whitish ash-colour, somewhat shining on the outside, and of a fine purple colour tending to a murrey on the inside, with many blackish blew threads or thrummes in the middle of the flower, set about a head, whereon groweth the seede, which is small and blacke, inclosed in soft wooll or downe, which flieth away with the winde, carrying the seede with it, if it be not carefully gathered: the roote is blackish on the outside, and white within, tuberous or knobby, with many fibres growing at it.

Anemone purpurea Stellata altera. Another purple Starre Anemone.

There is so great diuersity in the colours of the flowers of these broad leafed kinds of Anemones or Windflowers, that they can very hardly be expressed, although in their leaues there is but little or no difference. I shall not neede therefore to make seuerall descriptions of euery one that shall be set downe; but it will be sufficient, I thinke, to giue you the distinctions of the flowers: for as I said, therein is the greatest and chiefest difference. This other Starre Anemone differeth not from the former in leafe or flower, but onely that this is of a more pale sullen colour on the outside, and of a paler purple colour on the inside.

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Page 205: Anemone.
1Anemone latifolia flore luteo simplici. The single yellow Anemone.
2Anemone latifolia flore luteo duplici. The double yellow Anemone.
3Anemone latifolia flore purpureo Stellato. The purple Starre Anemone.
4Anemone latifolia purpurea dilutior. The pale purple Starre Anemone.
5Anemone latifolia flore miniato diluto. The pale red Anemone.
6Anemone latifolia coccinea Cardinalis dicta. The Cardinall Anemone.
7Anemone latifolia incarnata Hispanica. The Spanish incarnate Anemone.
8Anemone latifolia Pauo simplex dicta. The lesser Orenge tawney Anemone.
9Anemone latifolia flore carneo. The carnation Anemone.
10Anemone latifolia Arantiaca siue Pauo maior. The double Orenge tawney Anemone.
11Anemone Superitica siue Cyparissia. The double Anemone of Cyprus.
12Anemone latifolia flore pleno albicante. The double pale blush Anemone.
13Anemone Chalcedonica maxima. The great Spanish Marigold Anemone.
14Anemone Cacumeni siue Persica. The double Persian Anemone.
Anemonis latifoliæ radice. The roote of a great Anemone.

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Viola purpurea.

There is another, whose flower hath eight leaues, as many of them that follow haue (although diuers sorts haue but six leaues in a flower) and is of a Violet purple, and therefore is called, The Violet purple Anemone.

Varietas.

Of all these three sorts last described, there be other that differ only in hauing white bottomes, some smaller and some larger.

Purpurea striata.

There is also another of the same Violet purple colour with the former, but a little paler, tending more to rednesse, whose flowers haue many white lines and stripes through the leaues, and is called, The purple stript Anemone.

Carnea vivacissima simplex.

There is another, whose greene leaues are somewhat larger, and so is the flower likewise, consisting of eight leaues, and sometimes of more, of the colour of Carnation silke, sometimes pale and sometimes deeper, with a whitish circle about the bottome of the leaues, which circle in some is larger, and more to be seene then in others, when the flower layeth it selfe open with the heate of the Sunne, hauing blewish threads in the middle. This may be called, the Carnation Anemone.

Persiciviolacea.

We haue another, whose flower is betweene a Peach colour and a Violet, which is vsually called a Gredeline colour.

Cochenille.

And another of a fine reddish Violet or purple, which we call, The Cochenille Anemone.

Cardinalis.

And another of a rich crimson red colour, and may be called, The Cardinall Anemone.

Sanguinea.

Another of a deeper, but not so liuely a red, called, The bloud red Anemone.

Cramesina.

Another of an ordinary crimson colour, called, The crimson Anemone.

Coccinea.

Another of a Stamell colour, neare vnto a Scarlet.

Incarnata.

Another of a fine delayed red or flesh colour, and may bee called, The Incarnidine Anemone.

Incarnata Hispanica.

Another whose flower is of a liuely flesh colour, shadowed with yellow, and may be called, The Spanish Incarnate Anemone.

Rubescens.

Another of a faire whitish red, which we call, The Blush Anemone.

Moschutella.

Another whose flower consisteth of eight leaues, of a darke whitish colour, stript all ouer with veines of a fine blush colour, the bottomes being white, this may be called, The Nutmegge Anemone.

Enfumata.

Another whose flower is of a pale whitish colour, tending to a gray, such as the Monkes and Friers were wont to weare with vs, and is called, A Monkes gray.

Pauo maior simplici flore.

There is another, whose leafe is somewhat broader then many or most of the Anemones, comming neare vnto the leafe of the great double Orenge coloured Anemone; the flower whereof is single, consisting of eight large or broad leaues, very neare vnto the same Orenge colour, that is in the double flower hereafter described, but somewhat deeper. This is vsually called in Latine, Pauo maior simplici flore, and we in English, The great single Orenge tawnie Anemone.

Pauo minor.

There is likewise of this kinde another, whose flower is lesser, and called, The lesser Orenge tawnie Anemone.

Varietas magna ex seminio.

There is besides these expressed, so great a variety of mixt colours in the flowers of this kinde of Anemone with broad leaues, arising euery yeare from the sowing of the seede of some of the choisest and fittest for that purpose, that it is wonderfull to obserue, not onely the variety of single colours, but the mixture of two or three colours in one flower, besides the diuersity of the bottomes of the flowers, some hauing white or yellowish bottomes, and some none, and yet both of the same colour; and likewise in the thrums or threads in the middle: But the greatest wonder of beauty is in variety of double flowers, that arise from among the other single ones, some hauing two or three rowes of leaues in the flowers, and some so thicke of leaues as a double Marigold, or double Crowfoote, and of the same seuerall colours that are in the single flowers, that it is almost impossible to expresse them seuerally, and (as is said before) some falling out to bee double in one yeare, which will proue single or lesse double in an[207]other, yet very many abiding constant double as at the first; and therefore let this briefe recitall be sufficient in stead of a particular of all the colours.

Anemone Chalcedonica maxima versicolor. The great double Windflower of Constantinople.

This great Anemone of Constantinople hath broader and greener leaues then any of the former kindes, and not so much diuided or cut in at the edges, among which rise vp one or two stalkes, (seldome more from one roote) hauing some leaues about the middle of the stalke, as other Anemones haue, and bearing at the toppes of the stalkes one large flower a peece, very double, whose outermost leaues being broadest, are greenish at the first, but afterwards red, hauing sometimes some greene abiding still in the leaues, and the red striped through it: the other leaues which are within these are smaller, and of a perfect red colour; the innermost being smallest, are of the same red colour but turned somewhat inward, hauing no thrummes or threads in the middle, as the former haue, and bearing no seede: the roote is blackish on the outside, and white within, thicke and tuberous as the other kindes, but thicker set and close together, not shooting any long slender rootes as others doe. Some Gentlewomen call this Anemone, The Spanish Marigold.

Anemone Chalcedonica altera siue Pauo maior flore duplici. The great double Orenge tawney Anemone.

This other great Anemone of Constantinople hath his large leaues so like vnto the last, that one can hardly distinguish them asunder; the stalke hath also such like leaues set vpon it, bearing at the toppe a faire large flower, consisting of many leaues set in two or three rowes at the most, but not so thicke or double as the last, yet seeming to be but one thicke rowe of many small and long leaues, of an excellent red or crimson colour, wherein some yellow is mixed, which maketh that colour is called an Orenge tawney; the bottomes of the leaues are red, compassed with a whitish circle, the thrummie head in the middle being beset with many darke blackish threads: the roote is like the former.

Anemone Superitica siue Cyparissia. The double Anemone of Cyprus.

This Anemone (which the Dutchmen call Superitz, and as I haue beene enformed, came from the Isle of Cyprus) hath leaues very like the last double Anemone, but not altogether so large: the flower consisteth of smaller leaues, of colour very neare vnto the last double Orenge coloured Anemone, but more thicke of leaues, and as double as the first, although not so great a flower, without any head in the middle, or thrums about it as is in the last, and differeth not in the roote from either of them both.

Somewhat like vnto this kinde, or as it were betweene this and the first kinde of these great double Anemones, we haue diuers other sorts, bearing flowers very thicke and double; some of them being white, or whitish, or purple, deepe or paler, and some of a reddish colour tending to Scarlet or a Carnation colour, and some also of a blush or flesh colour, and diuers other colours, and all of them continue constant in their colours.

Anemone Cacumeni Maringi siue Persica. The double Persian Anemone.

This rare Anemone, which is said to come out of Persia to Constantinople, and from thence to vs, is in leafe and roote very like vnto the former double Anemones before described; onely the flower hereof is rather like vnto the second great double Orenge coloured Anemone, vsually called Pauo maior flore pleno, being composed of three rowes of leaues, the outermost rowe consisting of ten or twelue larger leaues, and those more inward lesser and more in number, but all of them variably mixed with white, red, and yellow, having the bottomes of the leaues white: but instead of a middle head with thrums about it, as the other hath, this hath a few narrow leaues, or a deepe yellow colour in the middle of the flower, standing vpright.

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Hauing thus farre proceeded in the two parts of the kindes of Anemones or Windflowers, it remaineth to entreate of the rest, which is those Anemones which haue thin cut leaues, whereof some haue reckoned vp thirty sorts with single flowers, which I confesse I haue not seene; but so many as haue come to my knowledge, I shall here set downe.

Anemone tenuifolia siue Geranifolia cærulea. The Watchet Anemone or Storkes bill leafed Windflower.

This first Windflower with thin cut leaues, riseth not out of the ground vntil the great Winter frosts be past, that is, about the middle or end of February, and are somewhat brownish at their first appearing, but afterwards spread into wings of greene leaues, somewhat broader then the rest that follow, diuided into three parts, & each part into three leaues, euery one cut in about the edges, one standing against another vpon a long slender foote-stalke, and the end leafe by it selfe: among these riseth vp two or three greene stalkes, garnished with such like thin leaues as are at the bottome, from aboue which rise the flowers, but one vpon a stalke, consisting of fourteene or fifteene small pale blew or watchet leaues, lesser then any of the single kindes that follow, compassing many whitish threads, and a small greene head in the middle, somewhat like the head of the wilde Crowfoote, wherein is contained such like seede: the roote is blackish without, thrusting out into long tuberous peeces, somewhat like vnto some of the broad leafed Anemones.

Alba.

Of this kinde there is another, whose leaues are not browne at their first rising, but greene, and the flowers are white, in other things not differing.

Anemone tenuifolia purpurea vulgaris. The ordinary purple Anemone with thin leaues.

This purple Anemone which is most common, and therefore the lesse regarded, hath many winged leaues standing vpon seuerall stalkes, cut and diuided into diuers leaues, much like vnto the leaues of a Carrot; among which rise vp stalkes with some leaues thereon (as is vsuall to the whole Family of Anemones, both wilde and tame, as is before said;) at the toppes whereof stand the flowers, made of six leaues most vsually, but sometimes they will haue seuen or eight, being very large, and of a perfect purple Violet colour, very faire and liuely: the middle head hath many blackish thrums or threads about it, which I could neuer obserue in my Gardens to beare seed: the roote is smaller, and more spreading euery way into small long flat tuberous parts, then any other kindes of single or double Anemones.

Carneapallida.

There is another very like in leafe and roote vnto the former, but the flower is nothing so large, and is whitish, tending to a blush colour, and of a deeper blush colour toward the bottome of the flower, with blackish blew thrums in the middle, and giueth no seede that I could euer obserue.

Carnea viuida vnguibus albis.

There is likewise another like vnto the last in leafe and flower, but that the flower is larger then it, and is a of liuely blush colour, the leaues hauing white bottomes.

Alba venis purpureis.

And another, whose flower is white, with purple coloured veines and stripes through euery leafe, and is a lesser flower then the other.

Anemone tenuifolia coccinea simplex. The single Scarlet Anemone with thin leaues.

The leaues of this Scarlet Windflower are somewhat like vnto the former, but a little broader, and not so finely cut and diuided: the flower consisteth of six reasonable large leaues, of an excellent red colour, which we call a Scarlet; the bottomes of the leaues are large and white, and the thrums or threads in the middle of a blackish purple colour: the roote is tuberous, but consisting of thicker peeces, somewhat like vnto the rootes of the broad leafed Anemones, but somewhat browne and not so blacke, and most like vnto the roote of the double Scarlet Anemone.

Coccinea absq; vnguibus.

There is another of this kinde, whose flower is neare vnto the same colour, but this hath no white bottomes at all in his leaues.

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Flore holosericeo.

We haue another which hath as large a flower as any single, and is of an Orient deepe red crimson Veluet colour.

Sanguinea.

There is another of a deeper red colour, and is called, The bloud red single Anemone.

Rubra fundo luteo.

And another, whose flower is red with the bottome yellow.

Coccinea dilutior.

Another of a perfect crimson colour, whereof some haue round pointed leaues, and others sharpe pointed, and some a little lighter or deeper then others.

Alba staminibus purpureis.

There is also one, whose flower is pure white with blewish purple thrums in the middle.

Carnea Hispanica.

And another, whose flower is very great, of a kinde of sullen blush colour, but yet pleasant, with blewish threads in the middle.

Alba carneis venis.

And another with blush veines in euery leafe of the white flower.

Alba purpureis vnguibus.

And another, the flower whereof is white, the bottomes of the leaues being purple.

Purpurascens.

Another whose flower consisteth of many small narrow leaues, of a pale purple or blush colour on the outside, and somewhat deeper within.

Facie florum pomi simplex.

There is another like in leafe and roote vnto the first Scarlet Anemone, but the flower hereof consisteth of seuen large leaues without any bottomes, of a white colour, hauing edges, and some large stripes also of a carnation or flesh colour to bee seene in them, marked somewhat like an Apple blossome, and thereupon it is called in Latine, Anemone tenuifolia simplex alba instar florum pomi, or facie florum pomi, that is to say in English, The single thin leafed Anemone with Apple blossome flowers.

Multiplex.

I haue heard that there is one of this kinde with double flowers.

1. Anemone tenuifolia flore coccineo pleno vulgaris. The common double red or Scarlet Anemone.

The leaues of this double Anemone are very like vnto the leaues of the single Scarlet Anemone, but not so thin cut and diuided as that with the purple flower: the flower hereof when it first openeth it selfe, consisteth of six and sometimes of seuen or eight broad leaues, of a deepe red, or excellent Scarlet colour, the middle head being thick closed, and of a greenish colour, which after the flower hath stood blowne some time, doth gather colour, and openeth it selfe into many small leaues, very thicke, of a more pale red colour, and more Stamell like then the outer leaues: the root of this is thicke and tuberous, very like vnto the root of the single Scarlet Anemone.

2. Anemone tenuifolia flore coccineo pleno variegata. The party coloured double Crimson Anemone.

We haue a kinde hereof, varying neither in roote, leafe, or forme of flower from the former, but in the colour, in that this will haue sometimes the outer broad leaues party coloured, with whitish or blush coloured great streakes in the red leaues both inside and outside; as also diuers of the middle or inner leaues striped in the same manner: the roote hereof giueth fairer flowers in some yeares then in others, and sometimes giue flowers all red againe.

3. Anemone tenuifolia flore coccineo saturo pleno. The double crimson Veluet Anemone.

Wee haue another also, whose flower is of a deepe Orenge tawny crimson colour, neare vnto the colour of the outer leaues, of the lesser French Marigold, and not differing from the former in any thing else.

4. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno suauerubente. The greater double blush Anemone.

There is small difference to be discerned, either in the roote or leaues of this from[210] the former double Scarlet Anemone, sauing that the leaues hereof are a little broader, and seeme to bee of a little fresher greene colour: the flower of this is as large almost, and as double as the former, and the inner leaues likewise almost as large as they, being of a whitish or flesh colour at the first opening of them, but afterwards become of a most liuely blush colour; the bottomes of the leaues abiding of a deeper blush, and with long standing, the tops of the leaues will turne almost wholly white againe.

5. Anemone tenuifolia flore albo pleno. The double white Anemone.

This double white Anemone differeth little from the former blush Anemone, but in that it is smaller in all the parts thereof, and also that the flower hereof being wholly of a pure white colour, without any shew of blush therein, hath the middle thrummes much smaller and shorter then it, and not rising vp so high, but seeme as if they were chipped off euen at the toppes.

6. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno albicante. The lesser double blush Anemone.

This small double blush Anemone differeth very little from the double white last recited, but onely in the colour of the flower: for they are both much about the bignesse one of another, the middle thrums likewise being as small and short, and as euen aboue, onely the flower at the first opening is almost white, but afterwards the outer leaues haue a more shew of blush in them, and the middle part a little deeper then they.

7. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno purpureo violaceo. The double purple Anemone.

This double purple Anemone is also of the same kindred with the first double red or Scarlet Anemone for the form or doublenesse of the flower, consisting but of six or seuen leaues at the most in this our Country, although in the hotter it hath ten or twelue, or more as large leaues for the outer border, and as large small leaues for the inner middle also, and almost as double, but of a deepe purple tending toward a Violet colour, the outer leaues being not so deepe as the inner: the roote and leafe commeth neare vnto the single purple Anemone before described, but that the roote spreadeth not so small and so much.

8. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno purpureo cæruleo. The double blew Anemone.

This Anemone differeth not in any thing from the former double purple, but onely that the flower is paler, and more tending to a blew colour.

9. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno roseo. The double Rose coloured Anemone.

The double Rose coloured Anemone differeth also in nothing from the former double purple, but onely in the flower, which is somewhat smaller, and not so thicke and double, and that it is of a reddish colour, neare vnto the colour of a pale red Rose, or of a deepe coloured Damaske.

10. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno carneo viuacissimo. The double Carnation Anemone.

This Anemone, both in roote, leafe, and flower, commeth nearest vnto the former double white Anemone, for the largenesse and doublenesse of the flower, and in the smalnesse of the middle thrums, and euennesse at the toppes of them, being not so large and great a flower as the double purple, either in the inner or outer leaues, but yet is very faire, thicke and double, and of a most liuely Carnation silke colour, very deepe, both the outer leaues and middle thrums also so bright, that it doth as it were amaze, and yet delight the minde of the beholder, but by long standing in the Sun, waxe a little paler, and so passe away as all the most beautifull flowers doe.

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Page 211: Anemone.
1Anemone tenuifolia simplex purpurea. The single purple Anemone with thin cut leaues.
2Anemone tenuifolia simplex alba pura. The single pure white Anemone.
3Anemone tenuifolia simplex chermesina. The single bright Crimson Anemone.
4Anemone tenuifolia simplex sanguinea. The single bloud red Anemone.
5Anemone tenuifolia simplex facie florum pomi. The single Apple bloome Anemone.
6Anemone tenuifolia simplex purpurascens. The single purplish blush Anemone.
7Anemone tenuifolia simplex alba vnguibus carneis. The single white Anemone with blush bottomes.
8Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno coccineo. The double red or ordinary Scarlet Anemone.
9Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno rubrofusca coma Amarantina. The double purple Veluet Anemone.
10Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno purpura violaceo. The double blewish purple Anemone.
11Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno incarnedini coloris sericei vivacissimi. The double Carnation Anemone, or of a liuely Carnation silke colour[212].
11. Anemone tenuifolia flore rubrofusco pleno coma Amarantina. The double purple Veluet Anemone.

This double Veluet Anemone is in all things like the last described Carnation Anemone, but somewhat larger, the difference consisteth in the colour of the flower, which in this is of a deep or sad crimson red colour for the outer leaues and of a deep purple Veluet colour in the middle thrums, resembling the colour of the lesser Amaranthus purpureus, or Purple flower gentle hereafter described, whereof it tooke the name, which middle thrums are as fine and small, and as euen at the toppes as the white or last Carnation Anemones.

12. Anemone tenuifolia flore pleno tricolor. The double purple Veluet Anemone of three colours.

This double Anemone also is very like the last described Anemone, but that in the middle of the purple thrums, there thrusteth forth a tuft of threads or leaues of a more light crimson colour.

And thus much for the kindes of Anemones or Windflowers, so farre forth as haue hitherto come to our knowledge; yet I doubt not, but that more varieties haue beene elsewhere collected, and will be also in our Countrey daily and yearly obserued by diuers, that raise them vp from sowing the seede, wherein lyeth a pretty art, not yet familiarly knowne to our Nation, although it be very frequent in the Lowe-Countries, where their industry hath bred and nourished vp such diuersities and varieties, that they haue valued some Anemones at such high rates, as most would wonder at, and none of our Nation would purchase, as I thinke. And I doubt not, if wee would be as curious as they, but that both our ayre and soyle would produce as great variety, as euer hath been seene in the Lowe-Countries; which to procure, if any of our Nation will take so much paines in sowing the seedes of Anemones, as diuers haue done of Tulipas: I will set them downe the best directions for that purpose that I haue learned, or could by much search and tryall attaine vnto; yet I must let them vnderstand thus much also, that there is not so great variety of double flowers raised from the seede of the thin leafed Anemones, as from the broad leafed ones.

First therefore (as I said before) concerning Tulipas, there is some speciall choice to be made of such flowers, whose seed is fittest to be taken. Of the Latifolias, the double Orenge tawney seede being sowne, yeeldeth pretty varieties, but the purples, and reds, or crimsons, either Latifolias or Tenuifolias, yeeld small variety, but such as draw nearest to their originall, although some be a little deeper or lighter then others. But the light colours be they which are the chiefe for choice, as white, ash-colour, blush or carnation, light orenge, simple or party coloured, single or double, if they beare seede, which must bee carefully gathered, and that not before it bee thorough ripe, which you shall know by the head; for when the seede with the wollinesse beginneth to rise a little of it selfe at the lower end, it must bee then quickly gathered, lest the winde carry it all away. After it is thus carefully gathered, it must be laid to dry for a weeke or more, which then being gently rubbed with a little dry sand or earth, will cause the seede to be somewhat better separated, although not thoroughly from the woollinesse or downe that compasseth it.

Within a moneth at the most after the seede is thus gathered and prepared, it must be sowne; for by that meanes you shall gaine a yeare in the growing, ouer that you should doe if you sowed it in the next Spring.

If there remaine any woollinesse in the seede, pull it in sunder as well as you can, and then sowe your seede reasonable thin, and not too thicke, vpon a plaine smooth bed of fine earth, or rather in pots or tubbes, and after the sowing, sift or gently straw ouer them some fine good fresh mould, about one fingers thicknesse at the most for the first time: And about a moneth after their first springing vp, sift or straw ouer them in like manner another fingers thicknesse of fine earth, and in the meane time if the weather proue dry, you must water them gently and often, but not to ouerglut them with moisture; and thus doing, you shall haue them spring vp before Winter, and[213] grow pretty strong, able to abide the sharpe Winter in their nonage, in vsing some little care to couer them loosely with some fearne, or furse, or beane hame, or straw, or any such, which yet must not lye close vpon them, nor too farre from them neither.

The next Spring after the sowing, if you will, but it is better if you stay vntill August, you may then remoue them, and set them in order by rowes, with sufficient distance one from another, where they may abide, vntill you see what manner of flower each plant will beare, which you may dispose of according to your minde.

Many of them being thus ordered (if your mould be fine, loose, and fresh, not stonie, clayish, or from a middin) will beare flowers the second yeare after the sowing, and most or all of them the third yeare, if the place where you sowe them, be not annoyed with the smoake of Brewers, Dyers, or Maultkils, which if it be, then will they neuer thriue well.

Thus much haue I thought good to set downe, to incite some of our owne Nation to be industrious; and to helpe them forward, haue giuen such rules of directions, that I doubt not, but they will vpon the tryall and view of the variety, proceede as well in the sowing of Anemones as of Tulipas.

I cannot (Gentlewomen) withold one other secret from you, which is to informe you how you may so order Anemones, that after all others ordinarily are past, you may haue them in flower for two or three moneths longer then are to be seene with any other, that vseth not this course I direct you.

The ordinary time to plant Anemones, is most commonly in August, which will beare flower some peraduenture before Winter, but most vsually in February, March, and Aprill, few or none of them abiding vntill May; but it you will keepe some roots out of the ground vnplanted, vntill February, March, and Aprill, and plant some at one time, and some at another, you shall haue them beare flower according to their planting, those that shall be planted in February, will flower about the middle or end of May, and so the rest accordingly after that manner: And thus may you haue the pleasure of these plants out of their naturall seasons, which is not permitted to be enioyed in any other that I know, Nature being not so prone to bee furthered by art in other things as in this. Yet regard, that in keeping your Anemone rootes out of the ground for this purpose, you neither keep them too dry, nor yet too moist, for sprouting or rotting; and in planting them, that you set them not in too open a sunny place, but where they may be somewhat shadowed.

The Place.

I shall not need to spend much time in relating the seuerall places of these Anemones, but onely to declare that the most of them that haue not beene raised from seed, haue come from Constantinople to vs; yet the first broad leafed or yellow Anemone, was first found in Portugall, and from thence brought into these parts. And the first purple Starre Anemone in Germanie, yet was the same sent among others from Constantinople also. And the first thin cut leafed Anemone came first out of Italy, although many of that sort haue come likewise from Constantinople. And so haue the double red or Scarlet Anemones, and the great double blush, which I first had by the gift of Mʳ. Humfrey Packington of Worcestershire Esquire, at Haruington.

The Time.

The times of their flowring are sufficiently expressed in the descriptions, or in the rules for planting.

The Names.

The Turkish names whereby the great double broad leafed kindes haue beene sent vnto vs, were Giul Catamer, and Giul Catamer lale; And Binizade, Binizante, and Galipoli lale for the thinne cut leafed Anemones. All Authors haue called them Anemones, and are the true Herbæ venti. [214]Wee call them in English eyther Anemones, after the Greeke name, or Windflowers, after the Latine.

The Vertues.

There is little vse of these in Physicke in our dayes, eyther for inward or outward diseases; onely the leaues are vsed in the Ointment called Marciatum, which is composed of many other hot herbes, and is vsed in cold griefes, to warme and comfort the parts. The roote, by reason of the sharpenesse, is apt to drawe downe rheume, if it be tasted or chewed in the mouth.


Chap. XXVI.
Aconitum. Wolfebane.

There be diuers sorts of Wolfebanes which are not fit for this booke, but are reserued for a generall History or Garden of Simples, yet among them there are some, that notwithstanding their euill quality, may for the beauty of their flowers take vp a roome in this Garden, of whom I meane to entreate in this place: And first of the Winter Wolfesbane, which for the beauty, as well as the earlinesse of his flowers, being the first of all other, that shew themselues after Christmas, deserueth a prime place; and therefore for the likenesse of the rootes vnto the Anemones, I ioyne it next vnto them.

1. Aconitum Hyemale. The Winters Wolfesbane.

This little plant thrusteth vp diuers leaues out of the ground, in the deepe of Winter oftentimes, if there be any milde weather in Ianuary, but most commonly after the deepe frosts, bearing vp many times the snow vpon the heads of the leaues, which like vnto the Anemone, doe euery leafe rise from the roote vpon seuerall short foote-stalkes, not aboue foure fingers high, some hauing flowers in the middle of them, (which come vp first most vsually) and some none, which leaues stand as it were round, the stalke rising vp vnder the middle of the leafe, deeply cut in and gashed to the middle stalke almost, of a very faire deepe greene colour, in the middle whereof, close vnto the leafe, standeth a small yellow flower, made of six leaues, very like a Crowfoote, with yellow threads in the middle: after the flower is fallen, there rise vp diuers small hornes or cods set together, wherein are contained whitish yellow round seede. The roote is tuberous, so like both for shape and colour vnto the rootes of Anemones, that they will easily deceiue one not well experienced, but that it is browner and smooth without, and yellow within, if it be broken.

2. Aconitum flore albido, siue Aconitum luteum Ponticum. The whitish yellow Wolfesbane.

This Wolfesbane shooteth not out of the ground vntill the Spring be well begun, and then it sendeth forth great broad greene leaues, deeply cut in about the edges, not much vnlike the leaues of the great wilde Crowfoote, but much greater; from among which leaues riseth vp a strong stiffe stalke, three foote high, hauing here and there leaues set vpon it, like vnto the lowest, but smaller; the toppe of the stalke is diuided into three or foure branches, whereon are set diuers pale yellow flowers, which turne at the last to be almost white, in fashion like almost vnto the flowers of the Helmet flower, but much smaller, and not gaping so wide open: after the flowers are past come vp diuers short poddes, wherein is contained blacke seede: the roote is made of a number of darke browne strings, which spread and fasten themselues strongly in the ground.

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3. Napellus verus flore cæruleo. Blew Helmet flower or Monkes hood.

The Helmet flower hath diuers leaues of a fresh greene colour on the vpperside, and grayish vnderneath, much spread abroad and cut into many slits and notches, more then any of the Wolfebanes; the stalke riseth vp two or three foot high, beset to the top with the like leaues, but smaller: the toppe is sometimes diuided into two or three branches, but more vsually without, whereon stand many large flowers one aboue another, in forme very like vnto a Hood or open Helmet, being composed of fiue leaues, the vppermost of which and the greatest, is hollow, like vnto an Helmet or Headpeece, two other small leaues are at the sides of the Helmet, closing it like cheekes, and come somewhat vnder, and two other which are the smallest hang down like labels, or as if a close Helmet were opened, and some peeces hung by, of a perfect or faire blew colour, (but grow darker, hauing stood long) which causeth it be so nourished vp in Gardens, that their flowers, as was vsuall in former times, and yet is in many Countrey places, may be laid among greene herbes in windowes and roomes for the Summer time: but although their beauty may be entertained for the vses aforesaid, yet beware they come not neare your tongue or lippes, lest they tell you to your cost, they are not so good as they seeme to be: in the middest of the flower, when it is open and gapeth wide, are seene certaine small threads like beards, standing about a middle head, which when the flower is past, groweth into three or foure, or more small blackish pods, containing in them blacke seede: the rootes are brownish on the outside, and white within, somewhat bigge and round aboue, and small downewards, somewhat like vnto a small short Carrot roote, sometimes two being ioyned at the head together. But the name Napellus anciently giuen vnto it, doth shew they referred the forme of the roote vnto a small Turnep.

Anthora. The wholsome Helmet flower, or counterpoison Monkes hood.

This wholsome plant I thought good to insert, not onely for the forme of the flower, but also for the excellent properties thereof, as you shall haue them related hereafter. The rootes hereof are small and tuberous, round and somewhat long, ending for the most part in a long fibre, and with some other small threads from the head downeward: from the head whereof riseth vp diuers greene leaues, euery one seuerally vpon a stalke, very much diuided, as finely almost as the leaues of Larkes heeles or spurres: among which riseth vp a hard round stalke, a foote high and better, with some such leaues thereon as grow belowe, at the toppe whereof stand many small yellowish flowers, formed very like vnto the former whitish Wolfesbane, bearing many blacke seedes in pods afterwards in the like manner.

Many more sorts of varieties of these kindes there are, but these onely, as the most specious, are noursed vp in Florists Gardens for pleasure; the other are kept by such as are Catholicke obseruers of all natures store.

The Place.

All these grow naturally on Mountaines, in many shadowie places of the Alpes, in Germany, and elsewhere.

The Time.

The first flowreth (as is said) in Ianuary, and February, and sometimes vntill March be well spent, and the seede soone ripe after.

The other three flower not vntill Iune and Iuly.

The Names.

The first is vsually called Aconitum hyemale Belgarum. Lobelius, calleth it [216]Bulbosus vnifolius Batrachoides, Aconitum Elleboraceum, and Ranunculus Monophyllos, and some by other names. Most Herbarists call it Aconitum hyemale, and we in English thereafter, Winters Wolfesbane; and of some, Yellow Aconite.

The second is called by most Writers, Aconitum luteum Ponticum: Some also Lupicida, Luparia and Canicida, of the effect in killing Wolues and Dogs: And some, because the flower is more white then yellow, doe call it Aconitum flore albido, we call it in English, The whitish yellow Aconite, or Wolfesbane, but some after the Latine name, The yellow Wolfesbane.

The third is called generally Napellus, and Verus, because it is the true Napellus of the ancient Writers, which they so termed from the forme of a Turnep, called Napus in Latine.

The fourth is called Aconitum Salutiferum, Napellus Moysis, Antora and Anthora, quasi Antithora, that is, the remedy against the poisonfull herbe Thora, in English according to the title, eyther wholsome Helmet flower, or counterpoison Monkes hood.

The Vertues.

Although the first three sorts of plants be very poisonfull and deadly, yet there may bee very good vse made of them for sore eyes (being carefully applyed, yet not to all sorts of sore eyes neither without discretion) if the distilled water be dropped therein.

The rootes of the counterpoison Monkes hood are effectuall not onely against the poison of the poisonfull Helmet flower, and all others of that kinde, but also against the poison of all venemous beasts, the plague or pestilence, and other infectious diseases, which raise spots, pockes, or markes in the outward skinne, by expelling the poison from within, and defending the heart as a most soueraigne Cordiall. It is vsed also with good successe against the wormes of the belly, and against the paines of the Wind collick.


Chap. XXVII.
Ranunculus. The Crowfoote.

Next vnto the Aconites, of right are to follow the Ranunculi or Crowfeete, for the nearenesse both of forme, of leaues, and nature of the plants, although lesse hurtfull, yet all of them for the most part being sharpe and exulcerating, and not without some danger, if any would be too bold with them. The whole Family of the Ranunculi is of a very large extent, and I am constrained within the limits of a Garden of Pleasure; I must therefore select out onely such as are fit for this purpose, and set them here downe for your knowledge, leauing the rest for that other generall worke, which time may perfect and bring to light, if the couetous mindes of some that should be most affected towards it, doe not hinder it: or if the helpe of generous spirits would forward it.

1. Ranunculus montanus albus humilior. The lowe white mountaine Crowfoot.

This lowe Crowfoote hath three or foure broad and thicke leaues, almost round, yet a little cut in and notched about the edges, of a fine greene and shining colour on the vpperside, and not so green vnderneath, among which riseth a small short stalke, bearing one snow white flower on the toppe, made of fiue round pointed leaues, with diuers yellow threads in the middle, standing about a greene head, which in time groweth to be full of seede, in forme like vnto a small greene Strawberry: the roote is composed of many white strings.

Duplici flore.

There is another of this lowe kinde, whose leaues are somewhat more deeply cut in on the edges, and the flower larger, and sometimes a little double, as it were with two rowes of leaues, in other things not differing from the former.

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2. Ranunculus montanus albus maior vel elatior. The great single white mountaine Crowfoote.

The leaues of this Crowfoote are large and greene, cut into three, and sometimes into fiue speciall diuisions, and each of them besides cut or notched about the edges, somewhat resembling the leaues of the Globe Crowfoote, but larger: the stalke is two foote and a halfe high, hauing three small leaues set at the ioynt of the stalke, where it brancheth out into flowers, which stand foure or fiue together vpon long foote-stalkes, made of fiue white leaues a peece, very sweete, and somewhat larger then the next white Crowfoote, with some yellow threads in the middle compassing a greene head, which bringeth seede like vnto other wilde Crowfeete: the roote hath many long thicke whitish strings, comming from a thicke head.

3. Ranunculus montanus albus minor. The lesser single white Crowfoote.

This Crowefoote hath faire large spread leaues, cut into fiue diuisions, and somewhat notched about the edges, greene on the vpperside, and paler vnderneath, hauing many veines running through the leaues: the stalke of this riseth not so high as the former, although this be reasonable tall, as being neare two foote high, spread into many branches, bearing such like white flowers, as in the former, but smaller: the seede of this is like the former, and so are the rootes likewise.

4. Ranunculus albus flore pleno. The double white Crowfoote.

The double white Crowfoote is of the same kinde with the last single white Crowfoote, hauing such like leaues in all respects: the onely difference is in the flowers, which in this are very thicke and double. Some doe make mention of two sorts of double white Crowfeete, one somewhat lower then another, and the lower likewise bearing more store of flowers, and more double then the higher: but I confesse, I haue neuer seene but one sort of double, which is the same here expressed, not growing very high, and reasonably well stored with flowers.

5. Ranunculus præcox Rutæfolio siue Coriandrifolio. The early Coriander leafed Crowfoote.

This Crowfoote hath three or foure very greene leaues, cut and diuided into many small peeces, like vnto the wing of leaues of Rue, or rather like the lower leaues of the Coriander (for they well resemble either of them) euery of them standing vpon a long purplish stalke, at the toppe whereof groweth the flower alone, being composed or made of twelue small white leaues, broad pointed, and a little endented at the ends, somewhat purplish on the outside, and white on the inside, sustained by diuers small greene leaues, which are in stead of a cup or huske: in the middle of the flower are many small white threads, tipt with yellow pendents, standing about a small greene head, which after groweth to bee full of seedes like a Strawberry, which knobs giue small blackish seede: the roote is white and fibrous.

6. Ranunculus Thalictrifolio maior. The great colombine leafed Crowfoot.

The lower leaues of this Crowfoote haue long stalkes, and are very like vnto the smaller leaues of Colombines, or the great Spanish Thalictrum, which hath his leaues very like vnto a Colombine, foure or fiue rising from the roote: the stalke riseth about a foote and a halfe high, somewhat reddish, beset here and there with the like leaues, at the toppe whereof stand diuers small white flowers, made of fiue leaues a peece, with some pale white threads in the middle: the seede is round and reddish, contained in small huskes or hornes: the roote is made of a bush or tuft of white strings.

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7. Ranunculus Thalictrifolio minor Asphodeli radice. The small white Colombine leafed Crowfoote.

This small Crowfoote hath three or foure winged leaues spread vpon the ground, standing vpon long stalkes, and consisting of many small leaues set together, spreading from the middle ribbe, euery leafe somewhat resembling both in shape and colour the smallest and youngest leaues of Colombines: the flowers are white, standing at the toppe of the stalkes, made of fiue round leaues: the root hath three or foure thick, short, and round yellowish clogs hanging at the head, like vnto the Asphodill roote. The great Herball of Lyons, that goeth vnder the name of Daleschampius, saith, that Dʳ. Myconus found it in Spaine, and sent it vnder the name of Oenanthe; and therefore Ioannes Molineus who is thought to haue composed that booke, set it among the vmbelliferous plants, because the Oenanthes beare vmbels of flowers and seede, and haue tuberous or cloggy rootes; but with what iudgement, let others say, when they haue compared the vmbels of flowers and seede of the Oenanthes, with the flowers and seede of this plant, and whether I haue not more properly placed it among the Ranunculi or Crowfeete, and giuen it a denomination agreeable to his forme.

8. Ranunculus Globosus. The Globe Crowfoot.

This Crowfoote (which in the Northerne countries of England where it groweth plentifully, is called Locker goulons) hath many faire, broad, darke greene leaues next the ground, cut into fiue, sixe, or seuen diuisions, and iagged besides at the edges; among which riseth vp a stalke, whereon are set such like leaues as are belowe, but smaller, diuided toward the toppe into some branches, on the which stand seuerall large yellow flowers, alwayes folded inward, or as a close flower neuer blowing open, as other flowers doe, consisting of eleuen leaues for the most part, set or placed in three rowes, with many yellow threads in the middle, standing about a greene rough head, which in time groweth to be small knops, wherein are contained blacke seede: the roote is composed of many blackish strings.

9. Ranunculus pratensis flore multiplici. The double yellow field Crowfoot.

There is little or no difference in the leaues of this double Crowfoot, from those of the single kindes that growe in euery medowe, being large and diuided into foure or fiue parts, and indented about the edges, but they are somewhat smaller, and of a fresher greene: the flowers stand on many branches, much diuided or separated, being not very great, but very thicke and double: the roote runneth and creepeth vnder ground like as the single doth.

10. Ranunculus Anglicus maximus multiplex. The Garden double yellow Crowfoot or Batchelours buttons.

This great double Crowfoote, which is common in euery Garden through England, hath many great blackish greene leaues, iagged and cut into three diuisions, each to the middle ribbe: the stalkes haue some smaller leaues on them, and those next vnder the branches long and narrow: the flowers are of a greenish yellow colour, very thicke and double of leaues, in the middle whereof riseth vp a small stalke, bearing another double flower, like to the other, but smaller: the roote is round, like vnto a small white Turnep, with diuers other fibres annexed vnto it.

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Page 219: Wolfesbane. Monkes hood, Crowfoot.
1Aconitum Hyemale. Winter Wolfesbane.
2Aconitum flore albido siue luteum Ponticum. The whitish yellow Wolfesbane.
3Napellus verus. Blew Helmets or Monkes hood.
4Anthora. The counterpoison Monkes hood.
5Ranunculus humilis albus simplex. The single white low Crowfoot.
6Ranunculus humilis albus duplici flore. The double lowe white Crowfoot.
7Ranunculus Coriandrifolio. The early Coriander leafed Crowfoot.
8Ranunculus montanus elatior albus. The great single white mountain Crowfoot.
9Ranunculus montanus albus flore pleno. The double white mountain Crowfoot.
10Ranunculus Thalictrifolio minor. The lesser Colombine leafed Crowfoot.
11Ranunculus globosus. The globe Crowfoot.

11. Ranunculus Gramineus. Grasse leafed Crowfoot

The leaues of this Crowfoote are long and narrow, somewhat like vnto Grasse, or rather like the leaues of single Gilloflowers or Pinckes, being small and sharpe pointed, a little hollow, and of a whitish greene colour; among these leaues rise vp diuers slender stalkes, bearing one small flower at the toppe of each, consisting of fiue yellow leaues, with some threads in the middle: the roote is composed of many thicke, long, round white strings.

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There is another of this kinde that beareth flowers with two rowes of leaues, as if it were double, differing in nothing else.

12. Ranunculus Lusitanicus Autumnalis. The Portugall Autumne Crowfoot.

This Autumne Crowfoote hath diuers broad round leaues lying on the ground, set vpon short foote-stalkes, of a faire greene colour aboue, and grayish vnderneath, snipt all about the edges, hauing many veines in them, and sometimes swelling as with blisters or bladders on them; from among which rise vp two or three slender and hairy stalkes, bearing but one small yellow flower a peece, consisting of fiue and sometimes of six leaues, and sometimes of seuen or eight, hauing a few threads in the middle, set about a small greene head, like vnto many of the former Crowfeete, which bringeth small blacke seede: the roote is made of many thicke short white strings, which seeme to be grumous or kernelly rootes, but that they are somewhat smaller, and longer then any other of that kinde.

13. Ranunculus Creticus latifolius. The broad leafed Candy Crowfoot.

This Crowfoote of Candy, hath the greatest and broadest leaues of all the sorts of Crowfeete, being almost round, and without any great diuisions, but onely a few notches about the edges here and there, as large or larger sometimes then the palme of a mans hand; among which riseth vp the stalke, not very high when it doth first flower, but afterwards, as the other flowers doe open themselues, the stalke groweth to be a foote and a halfe high, or thereabouts, hauing some leaues on it, deeply cut in or diuided, and bearing many faire yellow flowers, consisting of fiue leaues a peece, being somewhat whitish in the middle, when the flower hath stood blowne a little time: the roote is composed of a number of small kernelly knobs, or long graines, set thicke together. This flowreth very early, being vsually in flower before the end of March, and oftentimes about the middle thereof.

14. Ranunculus Creticus albus. The white Candy Crowfoote.

The leaues of this Crowfoote are very like vnto the leaues of the red Crowfoote of Tripoli or Asia, hereafter set downe, being somewhat broad and indented about the edges, some of the leaues being also cut in or gashed, thereby making it as it were three diuisions, of a pale greene colour, with many white spots in them: the stalke riseth vp a foote high, with some leaues on it, more diuided then the lower, and diuided at the toppe into two and sometimes into three branches, each of them bearing a faire snow white flower, somewhat large, included at the first in a brownish huske or cup of leaues, which afterwards stand vnder the flowers, consisting of fiue white large round pointed leaues, in the middle whereof is set many blackish purple thrums, compassing a small long greene head, composed of many scales or chaffie whitish huskes, when they are ripe, which are the seede, but vnprofitable in all that euer I could obserue: the rootes are many small graines or kernels, set together as in the former, and much about the same colour, that is, of a darke or duskie grayish colour, but much smaller.

Alba purpureis oris & venis.

There is another of this kinde, whose flowers haue purple edges, and sometimes some veines of the same purple in the leaues of the flowers, not differing in any other thing from the former.

Alba oris rubris.

And another, whose edges of the flowers are of a bright red colour.

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Page 221: Crowfoot.
1Ranunculus gramineus flore simplici & duplici. The single and the double grasse Crowfoot.
2Ranunculus Lusitanicus Autumnalis. The Portugall Autumne Crowfoot.
3Ranunculus Creticus latifolius. The broad leafed Candy Crowfoot.
4Ranunculus Anglicus maximus multiplex. The double English Crowfoot.
5Ranunculus pratensis flore multiplici. The double yellow field Crowfoot.
6Ranunculus Creticus albus. The white Candy Crowfoot.
7Ranunculus Asiaticus flore albo vel pallido vario. The white or the straw coloured Crowfoot with red tops or edges.
8Ranunculus Tripolitanus flore rubro simplici. The single red Crowfoot of Tripoli.
9Ranunculus Asiaticus flore rubro amplo. The large single red Crowfoot of Asia.
10Ranunculus Asiaticus flore rubro pleno. The double red Crowfoot of Asia.
11Caltha palustris flore pleno. Double Marsh Marigold or Batchelours buttons.

15. Ranunculus Creticus flore argenteo. The Argentine, or cloth of siluer Crowfoot.

The greene leaues of this Crowfoote are as small and thinne, cut in or diuided on the edges, as the last two sorts; the stalke riseth vp somewhat higher, and diuided into some branches, bearing at the toppe of euery of them one flower, somewhat smaller then the former, composed of six, seuen, and sometimes of eight small round pointed [222]leaues, of a whitish yellow blush colour on the inside wholly, except sometimes a little stript about the edges: but the outside of euery leafe is finely stript with crimson stripes, very thicke, somewhat like vnto a Gilloflower: in the middle riseth vp a small blacke head, compassed about with blackish blew threads or thrums, which head is as vnfruitfull for seede in our Countrey as the former. This flower hath no such greene leaues vnder it, or to enclose it before it be blowne open as the former: the rootes are in all things like the former.

16. Ranunculus Asiaticus siue Tripolitanus flore rubro. The single red Crowfoote of Asia or Tripoli.

The lower leaues of this red Crowfoote are alwayes whole without diuisions, being onely somewhat deeply indented about the edges, but the other that rise after them are more cut in, sometimes into three, and sometimes into fiue diuisions, and notched also about the edges: the stalke riseth higher then any of the former, and hath on it two or three smaller leaues, more cut in and diuided then those belowe: at the toppe whereof standeth one large flower, made of fiue leaues, euery one being narrower at the bottome then at the toppe, and not standing close and round one to another, but with a certaine distance betweene, of a duskie yellowish red colour on the outside, and of a deepe red on the inside, the middle being set with many thrums of a darke purple colour: the head for seede is long, and scaly or chaffie, and idle in like manner as the rest: the roote is made of many graines or small kernels set together, and closing at the head, but spreading it selfe, if it like the ground, vnder the vpper crust of the earth into many rootes, encreasing from long strings, that runne from the middle of the small head of graines, as well as at the head it selfe.

17. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore amplo rubro. The large single red Crowfoot of Asia.

There hath come to vs out of Turkie, together with the former, among many other rootes, vnder the same title, a differing sort of this Crowfoote, whose leaues weare broader, and much goaler; the flower also larger, and the leaues thereof broader, sometimes eight in a flower, standing round and close one to another, which maketh the fairer shew: in all other things it is like the former.

18. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore rubro vario simplici. The red stript single Crowfoote of Asia.

This party coloured Crowfoote differeth not eyther in roote or leafe from the former, the chiefest difference is in the flower, which being red, somewhat like the former, hath yet some yellow stripes or veines through euery leafe, sometimes but little, and sometimes so much, that it seemeth to bee party coloured red and yellow: this sort is very tender; for we haue twice had it, and yet perished with vs.

19. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore luteo vario simplici. The yellow stript single Crowfoote of Asia.

There is little difference in the roote of this Crowfoote from the last described, but the leaues are much different, being very much diuided, and the flower is large, of a fine pale greenish yellow colour, consisting of six and seuen, and sometimes of eight or nine round leaues; the toppes whereof haue reddish spots, and the edges sometimes also, with such purplish thrums in the middle that the other haue. None of these former Crowfeete with kernelly rootes, haue euer beene found to haue giuen so good seed in England, as that being sowne, any of them would spring vp; for hereof tryall hath been often made, but all they haue lost their labour, that haue bestowed their paines therein, as farre as I know.

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20. Ranunculus Asiaticus flore rubro pleno. The double red Crowfoote of Asia.

The double red Crowfoote hath his rootes and leaues so like vnto the single red kinde, that none can perceiue any difference, or know the one from the other, vntill the budde of the flower doe appeare, which after it is any thing forward, may be perceiued to be greater and fuller then the budde of the single kinde. This kinde beareth most vsually but one faire large double flower on the toppe of the stalke, composed of many leaues, set close together in three or foure rowes, of an excellent crimson colour, declining to Scarlet, the outter leaues being larger then the inner; and instead of thrummes, hath many small leaues set together: it hath likewise six small narrow greene leaues on the backside of the flower, where the stalke is fastened to the flower.

Prolifero flore.

There is of this double kinde another sort, whose flower is of the same colour with the former, but out of the middle of the flower ariseth another double flower, but smaller.

The Place.

These plants grow naturally in diuers Countries; some in France, and Germany, and some in England, some in Spaine, Portugall, and Italy, and some haue been sent out of Turkie from Constantinople, and some from other parts, their titles for the most part descrying their Countries.

The Time.

Some of them flower early, as is set downe in their descriptions, or titles. The others in Aprill and May. The white Candy Crowfoote, and the other single and double sorts of Asia, about the same time, or somewhat later, and one in Autumne, as it is set downe.

The Names.

The names that are giuen seuerally to them may well serue this worke, that thereby they may bee distinguished one from another: For to set downe any further controuersie of names, how fitly or vnfitly they haue beene called, and how variably by diuers former Writers, is fitter for a generall History, vnto which I leaue what may be said, both concerning these and the rest: Onely this I would giue you to vnderstand, that the Turkie kindes haue been sent to vs vnder the names of Terobolos for the single, and Terobolos Catamer lale for the double, and yet oftentimes, those that haue been sent for double, haue proued single, so little fidelity is to bee found among them.

The Vertues.

All or most of these plants are very sharpe and exulcerating, yet the care and industry of diuers learned men haue found many good effects in many of them. For the rootes and leaues both of the wilde kindes, and of some of these of the Garden, stamped and applyed to the wrists, haue driuen away the fits in Feuers. The roote likewise of the double English kinde is applyed for pestilent sores, to helpe to breake them, by drawing the venome to the place. They helpe likewise to take away scarres and markes in diuers places of the body.


[224]

Chap. XXVIII.
Caltha palustris flore pleno. Double Marsh Marigold.

As an appendix to the Crowfeete, I must needes adde this plant, yet seuerally by it selfe, because both it and his single kinde are by most adioyned thereunto, for the neare resemblance both in shape and sharpnesse of quality. The single kinde I leaue to the Ditch sides, and moist grounds about them, as the fittest places for it, and onely bring the double kinde into my Garden, as fittest for his goodly proportion and beauty to be entertained, and haue place therein.

The double Marsh Marigold hath many broad and round greene leaues, a little endented about the edges, like vnto the single kinde, but not altogether so large, especially in a Garden where it standeth not very moist: the stalkes are weake, round, hollow, and greene, diuided into three or foure branches at the toppe, with leaues at the seuerall ioynts, whereon stand very double flowers, of a gold yellow colour: the fiue outer leaues being larger then any of the rest that are encompassed by them, which fall away after they haue stood blowne a great while (for it endureth in flower a moneth or more, especially if it stand in a shadowie place) without bearing any seed: the rootes are composed of many thicke, long, and round whitish strings, which runne downe deep into the ground, and there are fastened very strongly.

The Place.

This plant groweth naturally in diuers Marshes, and moist grounds in Germany, yet in some more double then in others; it hath long agoe beene cherished in our Gardens.

The Time.

It flowreth in Aprill or May, as the yeare proueth earlier or later: all his leaues doe in a manner quite perish in Winter, and spring anew in the end of February, or thereabouts.

The Names.

There is great controuersie among the learned about the single kinde, but thereof I shall not neede to speake in this place; if God permit I may in a fitter. This is called generally in Latine, Caltha palustris multiplex, or flore pleno. And wee in English (after the Latine, which take Caltha to be that which wee vsually call Calendula, a Marigold) The double Marsh Marigold.

The Vertues.

The roote hereof is sharpe, comming neare vnto the quality of the Crowfeete, but for any speciall property, I haue not heard or found any.


[225]

Chap. XXIX.
Hepatica nobilis siue trifolia. Noble Liuerwort.

Next vnto the Crowfeete are to follow the Hepaticas, because of the likenesse with them, seeming to be small Crowfeete in all their parts, but of another and more wholsome kinde. Their diuersity among themselues consisteth chiefly in the colour of the flowers, all of them being single, except one which is very thicke and double.

1. Hepatica flore cæruleo simplici maior. The great single blew Hepatica or noble Liuerwort.

The flowers of this Hepatica doe spring vp, blow open, and sometimes shed and fall away, before any leaues appeare or spread open. The rootes are composed of a bush of blackish things, from the seuerall heads or buttons whereof, after the flowers are risen and blowne, arise many fresh greene leaues, each seuerally standing vpon his foot-stalke, folded together, and somewhat browne and hairy at their first comming, which after are broad, and diuided at the edges into three parts: the flowers likewise stand euery one vpon his owne seuerall foote-stalke, of the same height with the leaues for the most part, which is about foure or fiue fingers breadth high, made of six leaues most vsually, but sometimes it will haue seuen or eight, of a faire blew colour, with many white chiues or threads in the middle, standing about a middle green head or vmbone, which after the flower is fallen groweth greater, and sheweth many small graines or seede set close together (with three small greene leaues compassing them vnderneath, as they did the flower at the bottome) very like the head of seed of manie Crowfeete.

2. Hepatica minor flore pallido cæruleo. The small blew Hepatica.

The leaues of this Hepatica are smaller by the halfe then the former, and grow more aboundantly, or bushing thicke together: the flowers (when it sheweth them, for I haue had the plant halfe a score yeares, and yet neuer saw it beare flower aboue once or twice) are of a pale or bleake blew colour, not so large as the flowers of the former.

3. Hepatica flore purpureo. Purple Hepatica or noble Liuerwort.

This Hepatica is in all things like vnto the first, but onely the flowers are of a deeper blew tending to a Violet purple: and therefore I shall not neede to reiterate the former description.

4. Hepatica flore albo minor. The lesser white Hepatica.

The flowers of this Hepatica are wholly white, of the bignesse of the red or purple, and the leaues somewhat smaller, and of a little whiter of paler greene colour, else in all other things agreeing with the former.

5. Hepatica alba magno flore. The great white Hepatica.

There is no other difference herein from the last, but that the flower being as white, is as large as the next.

6. Hepatica albida siue argentea. Ash-coloured of Argentine Hepatica.

Both the leaues and the flowers of this Hepatica are larger then any of the former, except the last: the flowers hereof at the first opening seeme to bee of a blush ash-colour, which doe so abide three or foure dayes, decaying still vntill it turne almost[226] white, hauing yet still a shew of that blush ash-colour in them, till the very last.

7. Hepatica alba straminibus rubris. White Hepatica with red threads.

There is no difference between this Hepatica and the first white one, sauing that the threads in the middle of the flower, being white, as in the former, are tipt at the ends with a pale reddish colour, which adde a great beauty to the flowers.

8. Hepatica flore rubro. Red Hepatica or noble Liuerwort.

The leaues of this Hepatica are of a little browner red colour, both at their first comming vp, and afterwards, especially in the middle of the leafe more then any of the former: the flowers are in forme like vnto the rest, but of a bright blush, or pale red colour, very pleasant to behold, with white threads or chiues in the middle of them.

9. Hepatica flore purpureo multiplici siue pleno. The double purple Hepatica.

The double Hepatica is in all things like vnto the single purple kinde, sauing onely that the leaues are larger, and stand vpon longer foote-stalkes, and that the flowers are small buttons, but very thicke of leaues, and as double as a flower can be, like vnto the double white Crowfoote before described, but not so bigge, of a deepe blew or purple colour, without any threads or head in the middle, which fall away without giuing any seede.

10. Hepatica flore cæruleo pleno. The double blew Hepatica.

In the colour of this flower, consisteth the chiefest difference from the last, except one may say it is a little lesse in the bignesse of the flower, but not in doublenesse of leaues.

The Place.

All these plants with single flowers grow naturally in the Woods, and shadowie Mountaines of Germany in many places, and some of them in Italy also. The double kinde likewise hath been sent from Alphonsus Pantius out of Italy, as Clusius reporteth, and was also found in the Woods, neare the Castle of Starnbeg in Austria, the Lady Heusenstains possession, as the same Clusius reporteth also.

The Time.

These plants doe flower very early, and are of the first flowers that shew themselues presently after the deepe frosts in Ianuary, so that next vnto the Winter Wolfesbane, these making their pride appeare in Winter, are the more welcome early guests. The double kinde flowreth not altogether so early, but sheweth his flower, and abideth when the others are past.

The Names.

They haue obtained diuers names; some calling them Hepatica, Hepatica nobilis, Hepaticum trifolium, Trifolium nobile, Trifolium aureum, and some Trinitas, and Herba Trinitatis. In English you may call them either Hepatica, after the Latine name, as most doe, or Noble Liuerwort, which you please.

The Vertues.

These are thought to coole and strengthen the liuer, the name importing as much; but I neuer saw any great vse of them by any the Physitians of our London Colledge, or effect by them that haue vsed them in Physicke in our Country.

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Page 227: Hepatica, Cranes bill.
1Hepatica flore albo amplo simplici. The large white Hepatica.
2Hepatica flore rubro simplici. The red Hepatica.
3Hepatica flore purpureo pleno. The double purple Hepatica.
4Geranium tuberosum. Knobbed Cranes bill.
5Geranium Batrachoides flore albo vel cæruleo. The blew or white Crowfoote Cranes bill.
6Geranium Hematodes. The red Rose Cranes bill.
7Geranium Romanum striatum. The variable stript Cranes bill.
8Geranium Creticum. Candy Cranes bill.

[228]

Chap. XXX.
Geranium. Storkes bill or Cranes bill.

As was said before concerning the Crowfeet, of their large extent and restraint, the like may be said of the Storkes bils or Cranes bils; for euen of these as of them, I must for this worke set forth the descriptions but of a few, and leaue the rest to a generall worke.

1. Geranium tuberosum vel bulbosum. Bulbous or knobbed Cranes bill.

The knobbed Cranes hath three or foure large leaues spread vpon the ground, of a grayish or rather dusty greene colour, euery one of them being as it were of a round forme, but diuided or cut into six or seuen long parts or diuisions, euen vnto the middle, which maketh it seeme to be so many leaues, each of the cuts or diuisions being deeply notched or indented on both sides; among which riseth vp a stalke a foote high or better, bearing thereon diuers pale but bright purple flowers, made of fiue leaues a peece, after which come small heads with long pointed beakes, resembling the long bill of a Storke or Crane, or such like bird, which after it is ripe, parteth at the bottome where it is biggest, into foure or fiue seedes, euery one whereof hath a peece of the beake head fastened vnto it, and falleth away if it bee not gathered: the roote is tuberous and round, like vnto the roote of the Cyclamen or ordinary Sowbread almost, but smaller, and of a darke russet colour on the outside, and white within, which doth encrease vnder ground, by certaine strings running from the mother root into small round bulbes, like vnto the rootes of the earth Chesnut, and will presently shoote leaues, and quickly grow to beare flowers, but will not abide to be kept long dry out of the ground, without danger to be vtterly spoiled.

2. Geranium Batrachoides flore cæruleo. The blew Crowfoote Cranes bill.

This Crowfoote Cranes bill hath many large leaues, cut into fiue or fix parts or diuisions, euen to the bottome, and iagged besides on the edges, set vpon very long slender foote-stalkes, very like the leaues of the wilde Crowfoot; from among which rise vp diuers stalkes with great ioynts, somewhat reddish, set with leaues like the former: the toppes of the stalkes are spread into many branches, whereon stand diuers flowers, made of fiue leaues a peece, as large as any of the wilde or field Crowfeete, round pointed, of a faire blew or watchet colour, which being past, there doe arise such heads or bils, as other of the Cranes bils haue: the roote is composed of many reddish strings, spreading in the ground, from a head made of diuers red heads, which lye oftentimes eminent aboue the ground.

3. Geranium Batrachoides flore albo. The white Crowfoote Cranes bill.

This Cranes bill is in leafe and flower altogether like the former, the onely difference betweene them consisteth in the colour of the flower, which in this is wholly white, and as large as the former: but the roote of this hath not such red heads as the other hath.

4. Geranium Batrachoides flore albo & cæruleo vario. The party coloured Crowfoote Cranes bill.

The flowers of this Cranes bill are variably striped and spotted, and sometimes diuided, the one halfe of euery leafe being white, and the other halfe blew, sometimes with lesser or greater spots of blew in the white leafe, very variably, and more in some years then in others, that it is very hard to expresse all the varieties that may be obserued in the flowers, that blow at one time. In all other parts of the plant, it is so like vnto the former, that vntill it be in flower, the one cannot be knowne from the other.

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5. Geranium Batrachoides alterum flore purpureo. Purple Crowfoote Cranes bill.

This purple Cranes bill hath many leaues rising from the roote, set vpon long foot-stalkes, somewhat like vnto the other, yet not so broad, but more diuided or cut, that is, into seuen or more slits, euen to the middle, each whereof is likewise cut in on the edges more deeply then the former; the stalkes are somewhat knobbed at the ioynts, set with leaues like vnto the lower, and bearing a great tuft of buds at the toppes of the branches, which breake out into faire large flowers, made of fiue purple leaues, which doe somewhat resemble the flower of a Mallow, before it be too full blowne, each whereof hath a reddish pointell in the middle, and many small threads compassing it, this vmbell or tuft of buds doe flower by degrees, and not all at once, and euery flower abideth open little more then one day, and then sheddeth, so that euery day yeeldeth fresh flowers, which because they are so many, are a long while before they are all past or spent: after the flowers are past, there arise small beake heads or bils, like vnto the other Cranes bils, with small turning seede: the roote is composed of a great tuft of strings, fattened to a knobby head.

6. Geranium Romanum versicolor siue striatum. The variable stript Cranes bill.

This beautifull Cranes bill hath many broad yellowish greene leaues arising from the roote, diuided into fiue or six parts, but not vnto the middle as the first kindes are: each of these leaues hath a blackish spot at the bottome corners of the diuisions, the whole leafe as well in forme as colour and spots, is very like vnto the leafe of the Geranium fuscum, or spotted Cranes bill, next following to be described, but that the leaues of this are not so large as the other: from among these leaues spring vp sundry stalkes a foote high and better, ioynted and knobbed here and there, bearing at the tops two or three small white flowers, consisting of fiue leaues a peece, so thickly & variably striped with fine small reddish veines, that no green leafe that is of that bignesse can shew so many veines in it, nor so thick running as euery leafe of this flower doth: in the middle of the flower standeth a small pointell, which when the flower is part doth grow to be the seed vessell, whereon is set diuers small seeds, like vnto the small seedes of other Cranes bils: the root is made of many small yellow threads or strings.

7. Geranium fuscum siue maculatum. Swart tawny or spotted Cranes bill.

The leaues of this Cranes bill are in all points like the last described, as well in the forme and diuisions as colour of the leaues, being of a yellowish greene colour, but larger and stronger by much: the stalkes of this rise much higher, and are ioynted or knobbed with reddish knees or ioynts, on the tops whereof stand not many although large flowers, consisting of fiue leaues a peece, each whereof is round at the end, and a little snipt round about, and doe bend or turne themselues backe to stalkewards, making the middle to be highest or most eminent; the colour of the flower is of a darke or deepe blackish purple, the bottome of euery leafe being whiter than the rest; it hath also a middle pointell standing out, which afterwards bring forth seede like vnto others of his kinde: the roote consisteth of diuers great strings, ioyned to a knobby head.

8. Geranium Hematodes. The red Rose Cranes bill.

This Cranes bill hath diuers leaues spread vpon the ground, very much cut in or diuided into many parts, and each of them againe slit or cut into two or three peeces, standing vpon slender long foote-stalkes, of a faire greene colour all the Spring and Summer, but reddish in Autumne: among these leaues spring vp slender and weake stalkes, beset at euery ioynt (which is somewhat reddish) with two leaues for the most part, like vnto the lower: the flowers grow seuerally on the toppe of the stalkes, and not many together in bunches or branches, as in all other Cranes bils, euery flower being as large as a single Rose Campion flower, consisting of fiue large leaues, [230]of a deeper red colour then in any other Cranes bill at the first opening, and will change more blewish afterwards: when the flower is past, there doth arise such like beakes as are in others of the same kinde, but small: the roote is hard, long, and thicke, with diuers branches spreading from it, of a reddish yellow colour on the outside, and whitish within, which abideth and perisheth not, but shooteth forth some new greene leaues, which abide all the Winter, although those that turne red doe fall away.

Geranium Creticum. Candy Cranes bill.

Candy Cranes bill beareth long and tender stalkes, whereon growe diuers broad and long leaues, cut in or iagged on the edges: the toppes of the stalkes are branched into many flowers, made of fiue leaues of a reasonable bignesse, and of a faire blew or watchet colour, with a purplish pointell in the middle, which being past, there follow beake heads like other Cranes bils, but greater, containing larger, greater, and sharper pointed seede, able to pierce the skinne, if one be not warie of it: the roote is white and long, with some fibres at it, and perisheth when it hath perfected his seede, and will spring of it owne sowing many times, if the Winter be not too sharpe, otherwise (being annuall) it must be sowne in the Spring of the yeare.

The Place.

Most of these Cranes bils are strangers vnto vs by nature, but endenizond in our English Gardens. It hath beene reported vnto mee by some of good credit, that the second or Crowfoot Cranes bill hath been found naturally growing in England, but yet I neuer saw it, although I haue seen many sorts of wilde kindes in many places. Matthiolus saith that the first groweth in Dalmatia and Illyria very plentifully. Camerarius, Clusius, and others, that most of the rest grow in Germany, Bohemia, Austria, &c. The last hath his place recorded in his title.

The Time.

All these Cranes bils doe for the most part flower in Aprill, and May, and vntill the middle of Iune. The variable or stript Cranes bill is vsually the latest of all the rest.

The Names.

The first is vsually called Geranium tuberosum, of some Geranium bulbosum, of the likenesse of the roote vnto a bulbe: It is without controuersie Geranium primum of Dioscorides. The second is called Geranium Gratia Dei, of others, Geranium cæruleum. The blew Cranes bill Lobel calleth it Batrachoides, because both leafe and flower are like vnto a Crowfoote; and the affinity with the Cranes bils in the seede causeth it rather to be referred to them then to the Crowfeete. The stript Cranes bill is called by some Geranium Romanum. The last sauing one is called Geranium Hæmatodes, or Sanguineum, of Lobel Geranium Gruinale Hæmatodes supinum radice repente. In English it may be called after the Greek and Latine, The bloudy Cranes bill, but I rather call it, The Rose Cranes bill, because the flowers are as large as single Roses, or as the Rose Campion. Some of them are called in many places of England Bassinets.

The Vertues.

All the kindes of Cranes bils are accounted great wound herbes, and effectuall to stay bleedings, yet some more than others. The Emperickes of Germanie, as Camerarius saith, extoll it wonderfully, for a singular remedie against the Stone, both in the reines and bladder.


[231]

Chap. XXXI.
Sanicula guttata maior. Spotted Sanicle.

Hauing long debated with my selfe, where to place this & the other plants that follow in the two next Chapters, I haue thought it not amisse for this worke to set them downe here, both before the Beares eares, which are kindes of Sanicle, as the best Authors doe hold, and after the Cranes bils, both for some qualities somewhat resembling them, and for some affinity of the flowers with the former.

The spotted Sanicle hath many small round leaues, bluntly endented about the edges, somewhat like vnto the leaues of our white Saxifrage, of a full greene colour aboue, and whitish hairy, and somewhat reddish withall vnderneath: the stalkes are set here and there with the like leaues, rising a foote and a halfe high or more, very much diuided at the toppe into sundry small branches, bearing many very small white flowers, consisting of fiue small leaues, wherein are many small red spots to be seene, as small as pins points, of a pretty sweete sent, almost like Hawthorne flowers, in the middle whereof are many small threads compassing a head, which when it is ripe containeth small blacke seede: the roote is scaly, or couered with a chaffie matter, hauing many small white fibres vnderneath, whereby it is fastened in the ground.

Minor non guttata.

There is another of this kinde, like both in roote, leafe, and flower to the former, the onely difference is, that this is lesser then the former, and hath no spots in the flower, as the other hath.

Minus guttata.

We haue also another smaller kinde then the last, both in leafe and flower, the leaues whereof are smaller, but rounder, and more finely snipt or indented about the edges, like the teeth of a fine sawe: the stalke is little aboue a span high, hauing many small white flowers spotted as the first, but with fewer spots.

The Place.

These growe in the shadowie Woods of the Alpes, in diuers places, and with vs they more delight in the shade then the sunne.

The Time.

All these Sanicles doe flower in May, and continue flowring vntill Iune, and the seede soone ripeneth after: the rootes abide all the Winter, with some leaues on them, springing a fresh in the beginning of the yeare.

The Names.

The former two are called by Clusius Sanicula montana, and by others Sanicula guttata: by Lobel Geum Alpinum. The third or last hath been sent vs vnder the name of Sanicula montana altera minor.

The Vertues.

The name imposed on these plants doe certainly assure vs of their vertues, from the first founders, that they are great healers, and from their taste, that they are great binders.


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Chap. XXXII.
Cotyledon altera Matthioli. Spotted Nauelwort.

This spotted Nauelwort, as many doe call it, hath many thicke small leaues, not so broad as long, of a whitish greene colour, lying on the ground in circles, after the manner of the heads of Houseleeke, and dented about the edges; from the middle whereof sometimes (for it doth not flower euery yeare in many places) ariseth vp a stalke, scarce a foote high, beset with such like leaues as are belowe, but somewhat longer: from the middle of the stalke vp to the top it brancheth forth diuersly, with a leafe at euery ioynt, bearing three or foure flowers on euery branch, consisting of fiue white leaues, spotted with small red spots, like vnto the spotted Sanicle, but with fewer and greater spots, hauing a yellowish circle or eye in the bottome of euery flower, and many whitish threads with yellowish tips in it: the seede is small and blacke, contained in small round heads: the roote is small, long, and threadie, shooting out such heads of leaues, which abide all the Winter, those that beare flower perishing.

Cotyledon altera minor. Small dented Nauelwort.

There is another like vnto that before described in most things, the differences be these: It hath shorter leaues then the former, and dented about the edges in the like manner: the flowers hereof are white, but greater, made of six leaues, and most vsually without any spots at all in them, some are seene to haue spots also: the heads or seede vessels are more cornered then the former.

Cotyledon altera flore rubro stellato. Small red flowred Nauelwort.

This hath also many heads of leaues, but more open, which are longer, greener, and sharper pointed then eyther of the former, somewhat reddish also, and not dented about the edges, but yet a little rough in handling: the stalke ariseth from among the leaues, being somewhat reddish, and the leaues thereon are reddish pointed, diuided at the toppe into many branches, with diuers flowers thereon, made of twelue small long leaues, standing like a starre, of a reddish purple colour, with many threads therein, set about the middle head, which is diuided at the toppe into many small ends, like pods or hornes, containing therein very small seede: the roote is small like the former.

Sedum serratum flore rubente maculato. The Princes Feather.

This kinde of Sengreene is composed of heads of larger, broader, and thinner leaues then any of the former, of a sadder greene colour, somewhat vneuenly endented about the edges, and not so close set together, but spreading forth into seuerall heads like as the former sorts doe, although not so plentifully; from the middle of diuers of which heads rise vp brownish or reddish stalkes, set with smaller leaues thereon to the middle thereof, and then brancheth forth into seuerall sprigs, set with diuers small reddish flowers consisting of fiue leaues a peece, the innerside of which are of a pale red, somewhat whitish, spotted with many small bloud red spots, as small almost as pins points, with some small threads in the middle, standing about a small greene head, which turneth into the seede vessell, parted foure wayes at the head, wherein is contained small blackish seede: the rootes are small threads, which spread vnder the ground, and shoote vp seuerall heads round about it.

The Place.

All these growe in Germany, Hungarie, Austria, the Alpes, and other such like places, where they cleaue to the rocke it selfe, that hath but a crust of earth on it to nourish them. They will abide in Gardens reasonable well, if they be planted in shadowie places, and not in the sun.

[233]

Page 233: Sanicle, Nauelwort, Sedum, Moonwort.
1Sanicula guttata. Spotted Sanicle.
2Cotyledon altera Matthioli. Spotted Nauelwort.
3Cotyledon altera minor. Small dented Nauelwort.
4Cotyledon altera flore rubro stellato. Small red flowred Nauelwort.
5Sedum serratum flore rubente maculato. The Princes Feather.
6Soldanella Alpina. Blew Moonwort.

[234]

The Time.

They flower for the most part in the end of May, and sometimes sooner or later, as the yeare falleth out.

The Names.

The first is called by Matthiolus, Cotyledon altera Dioscoridis, and Vmbilicus alter, but it is not the true Cotyledon altera of Dioscorides; for Sedum vulgare maius, Our common Houseleeke, by the consent of the best moderne Writers, is the true Cotyledon altera of Dioscorides, or Vmbilicus Veneris alter. I hold it rather to bee a kinde of small Houseleeke, as the other two likewise are. The second is called by some Aizoum or Sedum minus serratum. The third hath his name in his title. Wee doe call them Nauelworts in English rather then Houseleekes, Euphoniæ gratia. The last may be called dented Sengreene with reddish spotted flowers, but some of our English Gentlewomen haue called it, The Princes Feather, which although it be but a by-name, may well serve for this plant to distinguish it, and whereby to be knowne.

The Vertues.

They are all held to be cold and moist, like vnto other Houseleekes.


Chap. XXXIII.
Soldanella Alpina. Mountaine Soldanella or blew Moonewort.

This beautifull plant hath many round and hard leaues, set vpon long foote-stalkes, a little vneuenly cut about the edges, greene on the vpperside, and of a grayish greene vnderneath, and sometime reddish like the leaues of Sowbread, which because they doe somewhat resemble the leaues of Soldanella marina, which is the Sea Bindweede, tooke the name thereof: the stalkes are slender, small, round, and reddish, about a span high, bearing foure or fiue flowers at the toppe, euery one hanging downe their heads, like vnto a Bell flower, consisting but of one leafe (as most of the Bindweeds doe) plated into fiue folds, each of them ending in a long point, which maketh the flower seem to haue fiue leaues, each whereof is deeply cut in on the edges, and hauing a round greene head in the middle, with a pricke or pointell at the end thereof: the flower is of a faire blew colour, sometimes deeper or paler, or white, as nature listeth without any smell at all: the middle head, after the flower is fallen, riseth to be a long round pod, bearing that pricke it had at the end thereof, wherein is contained small greenish seede: the roote hath many fibres shooting from a long round head or roote.

The Place.

This groweth on the Alpes, which are couered with snow the greatest part of the yeare, and will hardly abide transplanting.

The Time.

In the naturall places it flowreth not vntill the Summer moneths, Iune, Iuly, and August, after the snow is melted from the Hils, but being brought into Gardens, it flowreth in the beginning of Aprill or thereabouts.

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The Names.

This plant, by reason of the likenesse of leaues with Soldanella, as was before said, is called by many Soldanella, but yet is no Bindweede; and therefore I rather call it in English a Mountaine Soldanella, then as Gerrard doth, Mountaine Bindweede. It is likewise called by some, Lunaria minor cærulea, The lesser blew Lunary or Moonwort, and so I would rather haue it called.

The Vertues.

They that imposed the name of Lunaria vpon this plant, seeme to referre it to the wound or consolidating herbes, but because I haue no further relation or experience, I can say no more thereof vntill tryall hath taught it. Some also from the name Soldanella, which is giuen it, because of the likenesse of the leaues, haue vsed it to help the Dropsie, for which the Sea plant is thought to be effectuall.


Chap. XXXIIII.
Auricula Vrsi. Beares eares.

There are so many sundry and seuerall sorts of Beares eares, the variety consisting as well in the differing colours of the flowers, as the forme and colour of the leaues, that I shall not comprehend and set downe vnto you all the diuersities by many, that are risen vp to those that haue beene industrious in the sowing of the seedes of the seuerall sorts of them; yet if you accept of these that I doe here offer vnto you, I shall giue you the knowledge of others, as time, occasion, and the view of them shall enable me. And because they are without all question kinds of Cowslips, I haue set them downe before them in the first place, as being of more beautie and greater respect, or at the least of more rarity vnto vs. To dispose them therefore into order, I shall ranke them vnder three principall colours, that is to say, Red or Purple, White, and Yellow, and shew you the varieties of each of them (for so many as are come to my knowledge) apart by themselues, and not promiscuously as many others haue done.

{Beares eares}

1. Auricula Vrsi flore purpureo. Purple Beares eare, or The Murrey Cowslip.

This purple Beares eare or Cowslip hath many greene leaues, somewhat long and smooth, narrow from the bottome of the leafe to the middle, and broad from thence to the end, being round pointed, and somewhat snipt or endented about the edges; in the middle of these leaues, and sometimes at the sides also, doe spring round greene stalkes foure or fiue fingers high, bearing at the top many flowers, the buds whereof, before they are blowne, are of a very deepe purple colour, and being open, are of a bright, but deepe purple, vsually called a Murrey colour, consisting of fiue leaues a peece, cut in at the end as it were into two, with a whitish ring or circle at the bottome of each flower, standing in small greene cups, wherein after the flowers are fallen, are contained very small heads, not rising to the height of the cups, bearing a small pricke or pointell at the toppe of them, wherein is little blackish seede: the roote hath many whitish strings fastened to the maine long roote, which is very like vnto a Primrose or Cowslip roote, as it is in all other parts besides.

2. Auricula Vrsi purpurea absque orbe. The murrey Cowslip without eyes.

There is another of this kinde, whose leafe is somewhat lesse, as the flower is also, [236]but of the same colour, and sometimes somewhat redder, tending to a Scarlet, without any circle at the bottome of the flower, in no other things differing from it.

3. Auricula Vrsi minor flore tannetto. Tawney Beares eares.

The leaues of this kinde haue a greater shew of mealinesse to be seene in them, and not much smaller then the former, yet snipt or endented about the ends like vnto them: the flowers are many, of the same fashion with the former, but smaller, each whereof is of as deepe a murrey or tawnie colour when it is blowne, as the buds of the former are before they are blowne, hauing a white circle at the bottome of the flower, and yellowish in the middle belowe the circle.

4. Auricula Vrsi flore rubro saturo orbe luteo. Deepe or bloud red Beares eares with eyes.

This kinde hath small and long greene leaues, nothing mealy, but snipt about the edges, from the middle of the leaues forwards to the ends: the flowers hereof are of a deepe red colour, tending to a bloud red, with a deepe yellow circle, or rather bottome in the middle.

Auricula Vrsi flore rubro saturo absque orbe.

There is another of this kinde, whose leaues are somewhat mealy, and smaller then any (that I haue seene) that haue mealy leaues: the flowers are of the same deepe red colour with the last described, yet hath no circle or bottome of any other colour at all.

5. Auricula Vrsi flore purpuro cæruleo. The Violet coloured Beares eare.

We haue another, whose leaues are somewhat mealy and large; the flowers whereof are of a paler purple then the first, somewhat tending to a blew.

6. Auricula Vrsi flore obsoleto magno. The Spaniards blush Beares eare.

This great Beares eare hath as large leaues as any other of this kindred whatsoeuer, and whitish or mealy withall, somewhat snipt about the edges, as many other of them are: the flowers stand at the toppe of a strong and tall stalke, larger then any of the other that I haue seene, being of a duskie blush colour, resembling the blush of a Spaniard, whose tawney skinne cannot declare so pure a blush as the English can; and therefore I haue called it the Spaniards blush.

7. Auricula Vrsi flore rubello. Scarlet or light red Beares eares.

The leaues of this kinde are very like the leaues of the first purple kinde, but that they are not so thicke; of a little paler greene colour, and little or nothing snipt about the edges: the flowers are of a bright, but pale reddish colour, not halfe so deepe as the two last with white circles in the bottomes of them, in other things this differeth not from others.

8. Auricula Vrsi roseo colore. The Rose coloured Beares eare.

We haue another, whose leafe is a little mealy, almost as large as any of the former, whose flowers are of a light red colour, very neare the colour of an ordinary Damaske Rose, with a white eye at the bottome.

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Page 237: Bears eares.
1Auricula Vrsi flore purpureo. Purple Cowslips or Beares eares.
2Auricula Vrsi flore tannetto. Tawney Beares eare.
3Auricula Vrsi flore & folio Boraginis. Blew Beares eares with Borage leaues.
4Auricula Vrsi flore carneo. Blush Beares eare.
5Auricula Vrsi maxima lutea flore eleganti. The greatest faire yellow Beares eares with eyes.
6Auricula Vrsi altera flore luteo. The yellow Beares eare.
7Auricula Vrsi crinis coloris siue flore fusco. The haire coloured Beares eare.
8Cortusa Matthioli. Beares eare Sanicle.
9. Auricula Vrsi flore cæruleo folio Boraginis. Blew Beares eares with Borage leaues.

This plant is referred to the kindred or family of the Beares eares, onely for the forme of the flower sake, which euen therein it doth not assimilate to the halfe; but because it hath passed others with that title, I am content to insert it here, to giue you[238] the knowledge thereof, and rather to satisfie others then my selfe with the place thereof: the description whereof is as followeth: It hath diuers broad rough hairy leaues spread vpon the ground, somewhat like vnto the leaues of Borage for the roughnesse, but not for the largenesse; the leaues hereof being somewhat rent in some places at the edges: from among these leaues rise vp one, or two, or more brownish, round, and hairy stalkes, a span high or thereabouts, bearing at the toppes three or foure flowers a peece, consisting of fiue large pointed leaues, of a faire blew or light azur colour, with some small yellow threads in the middle, standing in small greene cups: the roote is long and brownish, hauing many small fibres annexed vnto it.

10. Auricula Vrsi maior flore albo. The great white Beares eare.

This white Beares eare hath many faire whitish greene leaues, somewhat paler then the leaues of any of the kindes of Beares eares, and a little snipt about the ends, as manie other are: among these leaues rise vp stalkes foure or fiue inches high, bearing at the toppe many flowers like vnto the small yellow Beares eare hereafter set downe, of a pale whitish colour, tending to yellow at the first opening of the flower, which after two or three dayes change into a faire white colour, and so continue all the while it flowreth: the roote is like the purple kinde, as all or most of the rest are, or very little differing.

11. Auricula Vrsi minor flore albo. The lesser white Beares eare.

The lesser Beares eare hath smaller leaues, of a little darker green colour: the stalke and flowers are likewise lesser then the former, and haue no shew of yellownesse at all, eyther in budde or flower, but is pure white, differing not in other things from the rest.

12. Auricula Vrsi maxima lutea flore eleganti. The greatest faire yellow Beares eare with eyes.

This yellow Beares eare hath many faire large thicke leaues, somewhat mealy or hoary vpon the greennesse, being larger then any other kinde, except the sixth, and the next yellow that followeth, smooth about the edges, and without any endenting at all: the stalke is great, round, and not higher then in other of the former, but bearing manie more flowers thereon then in any other kinde, to the number of thirty many times, standing so round and close together, that they seeme to be a Nosegay alone, of the same fashion with the former, but that the leaues are shorter and rounder, yet with a notch in the middle like the rest, of a faire yellow colour, neither very pale nor deepe, with a white eye or circle in the bottome, about the middle of euery flower, which giueth it the greater grace: the seede is of a blackish browne colour, like vnto others, but contained in greater round heads then any other, with a small pointell sticking in the middle: the roote is greater and thicker then any other, with long strings or fibres like vnto the other sorts, but greater.

13. Auricula Vrsi maior lutea folio incano. The greater yellow Beares eare.

This greater yellow Beares eare hath his leaues larger, and more mealy or hoarie then the last, or any other of these kindes: the flowers are not so many, but longer, and not so thicke thrusting together as the first, but of a deeper yellow colour, without any eye or circle in the middle.

14. Auricula Vrsi maior flore pallido. The great Straw coloured Beares eare.

This hath almost as mealy leaues as the last, but nothing so large; the flowers are of a faire strawe colour, with a white circle at the bottome of them, these three last haue no shew or shadow of any other colour in any part of the edge, as some others that follow haue.

[239]

15. Auricula Vrsi minor flore pallente. The lesser straw coloured Beares eare.

We haue another, whose leafe is lesse mealy, or rather pale green, and a little mealy withall; the flowers whereof are of a paler yellow colour then the last, and beareth almost as many vpon a stalke as the first great yellow.

16. Auricula Vrsi minor lutea. The lesser yellow Beares eares.

The leaues of this Beares eare are nothing so large as either of the three former yellow kindes, but rather of the bignesse of the first white kinde, but yet a little larger, thicker, and longer then it, hauing vnder the greennesse a small shew of mealinesse, and somewhat snipt about the edges: the flowers are of a pale yellow colour, with a little white bottome in them: the seed and rootes are like vnto the other kindes.

17. Auricula Vrsi flore flauo. The deepe yellow or Cowslip Beares eare.

This kinde hath somewhat larger leaues then the last, of a yellowish greene colour, without any mealinesse on them, or endenting about the edges, but smooth and whole: the flowers are not larger but longer, and not laide open so fully as the former, but of as deepe a yellow colour as any Cowslip almost, without any circle in the bottome: neither of these two last haue any shew of other colour then yellow in them, sauing the white in the eye.

18. Auricula Vrsi versicolor prima siue flore rubescente. The blush Beares eare.

The blush Beares eare hath his leaues as large, and as hoary or mealy as the third greater yellow, or straw coloured Beares eare; among which riseth vp a stalke about foure inches high, bearing from six to twelue, or more faire flowers, somewhat larger then the smaller yellow Beares eare before described, hauing the ground of the flower of a darke or dunne yellow colour, shadowed ouer a little with a shew of light purple, which therefore we call a blush colour, the edges of the flower being tipt with a little deeper shew of that purple colour, the bottome of the flower, abiding wholly yellow, without any circle, and is of very great beauty, which hath caused me to place it in the forefront of the variable coloured Beares eares. And although some might thinke it should be placed among the first ranke of Beares eares, because it is of a blush colour, yet seeing it is assuredly gained from some of the yellow kindes by sowing the seede, as many other sorts are, as may be seene plainly in the ground of the flower, which is yellow, and but shadowed ouer with purple, yet more then any of the rest that follow; I thinke I haue giuen it his right place: let others of skill & experience be iudges herein.

19. Auricula Vrsi crinis coloris. Haire coloured Beares eares.

The leaues of this kinde are more mealy like then the last blush kinde, but somewhat longer and larger, and snipt about the edges in the same manner, from the middle of the leafe forwards: the flower is vsually of a fine light browne yellow colour, which wee doe vsually call an Haire colour, and sometimes browner, the edges of the flower haue a shew or shadow of a light purple or blush about them, but more on the outside then on the inside.

20. Auricula Vrsi versicolor lutea. The yellow variable Beares eare.

This variable Beares eare hath his greene leaues somewhat like vnto the deepe yellow, or Cowslip Beares eare before described, but somewhat of a fresher greene, more shining and smaller, and snipt about the edges towards the ends, as many of those before are: the flowers are of a faire yellow colour, much laid open when it is full blowne, that it seemeth almost flat, dasht about the edges onely with purple, being more yellow in the bottome of the flower, then in any other part.

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21. Auricula Vrsi versicolor lutescente viridi flore. The variable greene Beares eare.

This kinde of Beares eare hath greene leaues, very like vnto the last described, and snipt in the like manner about the edges, but in this it differeth, that his leaues do turne or fold themselues a little backwards: the flowers are of a yellowish greene colour, more closed then the former, hauing purplish edges, especially after they haue stood blowne some time, and haue little or none at the first opening: these haue no circles at all in them.

Many other varieties are to be found, with those that are curious conseruers of these delights of nature, either naturally growing on the mountaines in seuerall places, from whence they (being searched out by diuers) haue been taken and brought, or else raised from the seede of some of them, as it is more probable: for seuerall varieties haue beene obserued (and no doubt many of these before specified) to bee gotten by sowing of the seedes, euery yeare lightly shewing a diuersity, not obserued before, either in the leafe, diuers from that from whence it was taken, or in the flowers. I haue onely set downe those that haue come vnder mine owne view, and not any by relation, euen as I doe with all or most of the things contained in this worke.

The Place.

Many of these goodly plants growe naturally on mountaines, especially the Alpes, in diuers places; for some kindes that growe in some places, doe not in others, but farre distant one from the other. There hath likewise some beene found on the Pyrenæan mountaines, but that kinde with the blew flower and Borage leafe, hath beene gathered on the mountaines in Spaine, and on the Pyrenæans next vnto Spaine.

The Time.

They all flower in Aprill and May, and the seede is ripe in the end of Iune, or beginning of Iuly, and sometimes they will flower againe in the end of Summer, or in Autumne, if the yeare proue temperate, moist, and rainie.

The Names.

It is very probable, that none of these plants were euer knowne vnto the ancient Writers, because we cannot be assured, that they may be truely referred vnto any plant that they name, vnlesse we beleeue Fabius Columna, that it should be Alisma of Dioscorides, for thereunto hee doth referre it. Diuers of the later Writers haue giuen vnto them diuers names, euery one according to his owne conceit. For Gesner calleth it Lunaria arthritica, and Paralytica Alpina. Matthiolus accounteth it to bee of the kindred of the Sanicles, and saith, that in his time it was called by diuers Herbarists, Auricula Vrsi, which name hath since bin receiued as most vsuall. We in English call them Beares eares, according to the Latine, or as they are called by diuers women, French Cowslips; they may be called Mountaine Cowslips, if you will, for to distinguish betweene them and other Cowslips, whereof these are seuerall kindes.

Sanicula Alpina siue Cortusa Matthioli. Beares eare Sanicle.

I cannot chuse but insert this delicate plant in the end of the Beares eares, for that it is of so neare affinity, although it differ much in the forme of the leaues, the description whereof is in this manner: The leaues that spring vp first are much crumpled, and as it were folded together, which afterwards open themselues into faire, broad, and roundish leaues, somewhat rough or hairy, not onely cut into fine diuisions, but somewhat notched also about the edges, of a darke greene colour on the vpperside, and[241] more whitish greene vnderneath; amongst these leaues riseth vp one or two naked round stalkes, fiue or six inches high, bearing at the toppes diuers small flowers, somewhat sweete, like vnto the first purple Beares eare, hanging downe their heads, consisting of fiue small pointed leaues a peece, of a darke reddish purple colour, with a white circle or bottome in the middle, and some small threads therein: after the flowers are past, there come small round heads, somewhat longer then any of the Beares eares, standing vpright vpon their small foot-stalkes, wherein is contained small round and blackish seede: the roote consisteth of a thicke tuft of small whitish threads, rather then rootes, much enterlaced one among another: the leaues of this plant dye downe euery yeare, and spring vp a new in the beginning of the yeare, whereas all the Beares eares doe hold their leaues greene all the Winter, especially the middlemost, which stand like a close head, the outermost for the most part perishing after seed time.

The Place.

This groweth in many shadowie Woods both of Italy and Germany; for both Clusius hath described it, finding it in the Woods of Austria and Stiria; and Matthiolus setteth it downe, hauing receiued it from Anthonius Cortusus, who was President of the Garden at Padua, and found it in the woody mountaines of Vicenza, neare vnto Villestagna; whereon (as Matthiolus saith) there is found both with white flowers as well as with blew, but such with white flowers or blew we neuer could see or heare further of.

The Time.

It flowreth much about the time of the Beares eares; or rather a little later, and the seede is ripe with them.

The Names.

Clusius calleth it Sanicula montana, and Sanicula Alpina, and referreth it to the Auricula Vrsi, or Beares eare, which it doth most nearly resemble: but Matthiolus referreth it to the Cariophyllata or Auens, making it to be of that tribe or family, and calleth it Cortusa of him that first sent it him. Wee may call it eyther Cortusa, as for the most part all Herbarists doe, or Beares eare Sanicle as Gerrard doth.

The Vertues.

All the sorts of Beares eares are Cephalicall, that is, conducing helpe for the paines in the head, and for the giddinesse thereof, which may happen, eyther by the sight of steepe places subiect to danger, or otherwise. They are accounted also to be helping for the Palsey, and shaking of the ioynts; and also as a Sanicle or wound-herbe. The leaues of the Cortusa taste a little hot, and if one of them bee laide whole, without bruising, on the cheeke of any tender skind woman, it will raise an orient red colour, as if some fucus had beene laide thereon, which will passe away without any manner of harme, or marke where it lay: This is Cortusus his obseruation Camerarius in his Hortus Medicus saith, that an oyle is made thereof, that is admirable for to cure wounds.


[242]

Chap. XXXV.
Primula veris & Paralysis. Primroses and Cowslips.

We haue so great variety of Primroses and Cowslips of our owne Country breeding, that strangers being much delighted with them, haue beene often furnished into diuers Countries, to their good content: And that I may set them downe in some methodicall manner, as I haue done other things, I will first set downe all the sorts of those we call Primroses, both single and double, and afterwards the Cowslips with their diuersities, in as ample manner as my knowledge can direct me. And yet I know, that the name of Primula veris or Primrose, is indifferently conferred vpon those that I distinguish for Paralyses or Cowslips. I doe therefore for your better vnderstanding of my distinction betweene Primroses and Cowslips, call those onely Primroses that carry but one flower vpon a stalke, be they single or double, except that of Master Hesket, and that with double flowers many vpon a stalke, set out in Gerards Herball, which is his onely, not found (as I thinke) in rerum natura, I am sure, such a one I could neuer heare of: And those Cowslips, that beare many flowers vpon a stalke together constantly, be they single or double also. I might otherwise distinguish them also by the leafe; that all the Primroses beare their long and large broad yellowish greene leaues, without stalkes most vsually; and all the Cowslips haue small stalkes vnder the leaues, which are smaller, and of a darker greene, as vsually, but that this distinction is neither so certaine and generall, nor so well knowne.

1. Primula veris flore albo. The single white Primrose.

The Primrose that groweth vnder euery bush or hedge, in all or most of the Woods, Groues, and Orchards of this Kingdome, I may well leaue to his wilde habitation, being not so fit for a Garden, and so well knowne, that I meane not to giue you any further relation thereof: But we haue a kinde hereof which is somewhat smaller, and beareth milke white flowers, without any shew of yellownesse in them, and is more vsually brought into Gardens for the rarity, and differeth not from the wilde or ordinary kinde, either in roote or leafe, or any thing else, yet hauing those yellow spots, but smaller, and not so deepe, as are in the other wilde kinde.

2. Primula veris flore viridi simplici. The single greene Primrose.

The single greene Primrose hath his leaues very like vnto the greater double Primrose, but smaller, and of a sadder greene colour: the flowers stand seuerally vpon long foot-stalkes, as the first single kinde doth, but larger then they, and more laide open, of the same, or very neare the same yellowish greene colour that the huske is of, so that at the first opening, the huske and the flower seeme to make one double greene flower, which afterwards separating themselues, the single flower groweth aboue the huske, and spreadeth it selfe open much more then any other single Primrose doth, growing in the end to be of a paler greene colour.

3. Primula veris flore viridante & albo simplici. The single greene and white Primrose.

The leaues of this differ in a manner nothing from the former, neither doth the flower but only in this, that out of the large yellowish green huskes, which contain the flowers of the former, there commeth forth out of the middle of each of them either a small peece of a whitish flower, or else a larger, sometimes making vp a whole flower, like an ordinary Primrose.

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Page 243: Primrose, Cowslip.
1Primula veris flore albo. The white Primrose.
2Primula veris flore viridi & albo simplici. The green and white Primrose.
3Primula veris flore viridi duplici. The double green Primrose.
4Primula veris Hesketi. Master Heskets double Primrose.
5Primula veris flore pleno vulgaris. The ordinary double Primrose.
6Paralysis veris flore viridante simplici. The single green Cowslip.
7Paralysis flore geminato odorato. Double Cowslips or hose in hose.
8Paralysis inodora flore geminato. Double Oxelips hose in hose.
9Paralysis hortensis flore & calice crispo. Curld Cowslips or Gaskins.
10Paralysis minor angustifolia flore rubro. Red Birds eyen.
11Paralysis hortensis flore pleno vulgaris. Double Paigles.
12Paralysis fatuo. The foolish Cowslip or Iacke an Apes on horse backe.
13Paralysis flore viridi roseo calamistrato. The double greene feathered Cowslip.

4. Primula veris flore viridi duplici. The double greene Primrose.

This double Primrose is in his leaues so like the former single greene kindes, that[244] the one cannot be knowne from the other vntill it come to flower, and then it beareth vpon euery stalke a double green flower, of a little deeper green colour then the flower of the former single kinde consisting but of two rowes of short leaues most vsually, and both of an equall height aboue the huske, abiding a pretty time in flower, especially if it stand in any shadowed place, or where the Sun may come but a while vnto it.

5. Primula veris Hesketi flore multiplici separatim diviso. Master Heskets double Primrose.

Master Heskets double Primrose is very like vnto the small double Primrose, both in leafe, roote, and height of growing, the stalke not rising much higher then it, but bearing flowers in a farre different manner; for this beareth not only single flowers vpon seuerall stalkes, but sometimes two or three single flowers vpon one stalk, and also at the same time a bigger stalke, and somewhat higher, hauing one greene huske at the toppe thereof, sometimes broken on the one side, and sometimes whole, in the middle whereof standeth sometimes diuers single flowers, thrust together, euery flower to be seene in his proper forme, and sometimes there appeare with some whole flowers others that are but parts of flowers, as if the flowers were broken in peeces, and thrust into one huske, the leaues of the flowers (being of a white or pale Primrose Colour, but a little deeper) seldome rising aboue the height of the very huske it selfe; and sometimes, as I haue obserued in this plant, it will haue vpon the same stalke, that beareth such flowers as I haue here described vnto you, a small flower or two, making the stalke seeme branched into many flowers, whereby you may perceiue, that it will vary into many formes, not abiding constant in any yeare, as all the other sorts doe.

6. Primula hortensis flore pleno vulgaris. The ordinary double Primrose.

The leaues of this Primrose are very large, and like vnto the single kind, but somewhat larger, because it growth in gardens: the flowers doe stand euery one seuerally vpon slender long footestalkes, as the single kinde doth, in greenish huskes of a pale yellow colour, like vnto the field Primrose, but very thicke and double, and of the same sweete sent with them.

7. Primula veris flore duplici. The small double Primrose.

This Primrose is both in leafe, roote, and flower, altogether like vnto the last double Primrose, but that it is smaller in all things; for the flower riseth not aboue two or three fingers high, and but twice double, that is, with two rowes of leaues, yet of the very same Primrose colour that the former is of.

8. Paralysis vulgaris pratensis flore flauo simplici odorato. The Common field Cowslip.

The common fielde Cowslip I might well forbeare to set downe, being so plentifull in the fields: but because many take delight in it, and plant it in their gardens, I will giue you the description of it here. It hath diuers green leaues, very like vnto the wilde Primrose, but shorter, rounder, stiffer, rougher, more crumpled about the edges, and of a sadder greene colour, euery one standing vpon his stalke, which is an inch or two long: among the leaues rise vp diuers round stalkes, a foote or more high, bearing at the toppe many faire yellow single flowers, with spots of a deeper yellow, at the bottome of each leafe, smelling very sweete. The rootes are like to the other Primroses, hauing many fibres annexed to the great roote.

9. Paralysis altera odorata flore pallido polyanthos. The Primrose Cowslip.

The leaues of this Cowslip are larger then the ordinary fielde Cowslip, and of a darke yellowish greene colour; the flowers are many, standing together, vpon the toppes of the stalkes, to the number of thirty sometimes vpon one stalke, as I haue counted them in mine owne Garden, and sometimes more, euery one hauing a longer[245] foote stalke then the former, and of as pale a yellowish colour almost as the fielde Primrose, with yellow spots at the bottome of the leaues, as the ordinary hath, and of as sweet a sent.

10. Paralysis flore viridante simplici. The single greene Cowslip.

There is little difference in leafe or roote of this from the first Cowslip, the chiefest varietie in this kinde is this, that the leaues are somewhat greener, and the flowers being in all respects like in forme vnto the first kinde, but somewhat larger, are of the same colour with the greene huskes, or rather a little yellower, and of a very small sent; in all other things I finde no diuersitie, but that it standeth much longer in flower before it fadeth, especially if it stand out of the Sunne.

11. Paralysis flore & calice crispo. Curl’d Cowslips or Gallegaskins.

There is another kinde, whose flowers are folded or crumpled at the edges, and the huskes of the flowers bigger than any of the former, more swelling out in the middle, as it were ribbes, and crumpled on the sides of the huskes, which doe somewhat resemble mens hose that they did weare, and tooke the name of Gallegaskins from thence.

12. Paralysis flore geminato odorato. Double Cowslips one within another, or Hose in Hose.

The only difference of this kinde from the ordinary field Cowslip is, that it beareth one single flower out of another, which is as a greene huske, of the like sent that the first hath, or somewhat weaker.

13. Paralysis flore flauo simplici inodoro absque calicibus. Single Oxe lippes.

This kinde of Cowslip hath leaues much like the ordinary kinde, but somewhat smaller: the flowers are yellow like the Cowslip, but smaller, standing many vpon a stalke, but bare or naked, that is, without any huske to containe them, hauing but little or no sent at all; not differing in any thing else from the ordinary Cowslip.

14. Paralysis flore geminato inodora. Double Oxelips Hose in Hose.

As the former double Cowslip had his flowers one within another, in the very like manner hath this kinde of Cowslip or Oxelippe, sauing that this hath no huske to containe them, no more then the former single Oxelippe hath, standing bare or naked, of the very same bignesse each of them, and of the same deepe yellow colour with it, hauing as small a sent as the former likewise.

Flore pallidiora.

Wee haue another of this kinde, whose leaues are somewhat larger, and so are the flowers also, but of a paler yellow colour.

15. Paralysis inodora calicibus dissectis. Oxelips with iagged huskes.

This kinde differeth not from the first Oxelip in the smalnesse of the greene leaues, but in the flower, which standing many together on a reasonable high stalke, and being very small and yellow, scarce opening themselues or layde abroade as it, hath a greene huske vnder each flower, but diuided into sixe seuerall small long peeces.

16. Paralysis flore fatuo. The Franticke, or Foolish Cowslip: Or Iacke an apes on horse backe.

Wee haue in our gardens another kinde, not much differing in leaues from the former Cowslip, and is called Fantasticke or Foolish, because it beareth at the toppe of the stalke a bush or tuft of small long greene leaues, with some yellow leaues, as it were peeces of flowers broken, and standing among the greene leaues. And sometimes[246] some stalkes among those greene leaues at the toppe (which are a little larger then when it hath but broken peeces of flowers) doe carry whole flowers in huskes like the single kinde.

17. Paralysis minor flore rubro. Red Birds eyes.

This little Cowslippe (which will hardly endure in our gardens, for all the care and industrie we can vse to keepe it) hath all the Winter long, and vntill the Spring begin to come on, his leaues so closed together, that it seemeth a small white head of leaues, which afterwards opening it selfe, spreadeth round vpon the ground, and hath small long and narrow leaues, snipt about the edges, of a pale greene colour on the vpperside, & very white or mealy vnderneath, among these leaues rise vp one or two stalks, small & hoary, halfe a foot high, bearing at the top a bush or tuft of much smaller flowers, standing vpon short foot stalkes, somewhat like vnto Cowslips, but more like vnto the Beares eares, of a fine reddish purple colour, in some deeper, in others paler, with a yellowish circle in the bottomes of the flowers, like vnto many of the Beares eares, of a faint or small sent: the seede is smaller than in any of the former kindes, and so are the rootes likewise, being small, white and threddy.

18. Paralysis minor flore albo. White Birds eyes.

This kinde differeth very little or nothing from the former, sauing that it seemeth a little larger both in leafe and flower, and that the flowers hereof are wholly white, without any great appearance of any circle in the bottome of them, vnlesse it be well obserued, or at least being nothing so conspicuous, as in the former.

Flore geminato.

These two kindes haue sometimes, but very seldome, from among the middle of the flowers on the stalke, sent out another small stalke, bearing flowers thereon likewise.

19. Paralysis hortensis flore pleno. Double Paigles or Cowslips.

The double Paigle or Cowslip hath smaller and darker greene leaues then the single kinde hath, and longer stalkes also whereon the leaues doe stand: it beareth diuers flowers vpon a stalke, but not so many as the single kinde, euery one whereof is of a deeper and fairer yellow colour then any of the former, standing not much aboue the brimmes of the huskes that hold them, consisting of two or three rowes of leaues set round together, which maketh it shew very thicke and double, of a prettie small sent, but not heady.

20. Paralysis flore viridante pleno. Double greene Cowslips.

This double greene Cowslip is so like vnto the single greene kinde formerly expressed, that vntill they be neare flowring, they can hardly be distinguished; but when it is in flower, it hath large double flowers, of the same yellowish greene colour with the single, and more laid open then the former double Paigle.

21. Paralysis flore viridante siue calamistrato. The greene Rose Cowslip, or double greene feathered Cowslip.

There is small difference in the leaues of this double kinde from the last, but that they are not of so darke a greene: the chiefest difference consisteth in the flowers, which are many, standing together at the toppes of the stalkes, but farre differing from all other of these kindes: for euery flower standing vpon his owne stalke, is composed of many very small and narrow leaues, without any huske to containe them, but spreading open like a little Rose, of a pale yellowish greene colour, and without any sent at all, abiding in flower, especially if it stand in a shadowie place out of the sunne, aboue two moneths, almost in as perfect beauty, as in the first weeke.

The Place.

All those kindes as they haue been found wilde, growing in diuers places[247] in England, so they haue been transplanted into Gardens, to be there nourished for the delight of their louers, where they all abide, and grow fairer then in their naturall places, except the small Birds eyes, which will (as I said) hardly abide any culture, but groweth plentifully in all the North Countries, in their squally or wet grounds.

The Time.

These doe all flower in the Spring of the yeare, some earlier and some later, and some in the midst of Winter, as they are defended from the colds and frosts, and the mildnesse of the time will permit; yet the Cowslips doe alwayes flower later then the Primroses, and both the single and double greene Cowslips latest, as I said in their descriptions, and abide much after all the rest.

The Names.

All these plants are called most vsually in Latine, Primulæ veris, Primulæ pratenses, and Primulæ siluarum, because they shew by their flowring the new Spring to bee comming on, they being as it were the first Embassadours thereof. They haue also diuers other names, as Herba Paralysis, Arthritica, Herba Sancti Petri, Claues Sancti Petri, Verbasculum odoratum, Lunaria arthritica, Phlomis, Alisma siluarum, and Alismatis alterum genus, as Fabius Columna calleth them. The Birds eyes are called of Lobel in Latine, Paralytica Alpina, Sanicula angustifolia, making a greater and a lesser. Others call them Sanicula angustifolia, but generally they are called Primula veris minor. I haue (as you see) placed them with the Cowslips, putting a difference betweene Primroses and Cowslips. And some haue distinguished them, by calling the Cowslips, Primula veris Elatior, that is, the Taller Primrose, and the other Humilis, Lowe or Dwarfe Primroses. In English they haue in like manner diuers names, according to seuerall Countries, as Primroses, Cowslips, Oxelips, Palsieworts, and Petty Mulleins. The first kindes, which are lower then the rest, are generally called by the name of Primroses (as I thinke) throughout England. The others are diuersly named; for in some Countries they call them Paigles or Palsieworts, or Petty Mulleins, which are called Cowslips in others. Those are vsually called Oxelips, whose flowers are naked, or bare without huskes to containe them, being not so sweete as the Cowslip, yet haue they some little sent, although the Latine name doth make them to haue none. The Franticke, Fantasticke, or Foolish Cowslip, in some places is called by Country people, Iacke an Apes on horse-backe, which is an vsuall name with them, giuen to many other plants, as Daisies, Marigolds, &c. if they be strange or fantasticall, differing in the forme from the ordinary kinde of the single ones. The smallest are vsually called through all the North Country, Birds eyen, because of the small yellow circle in the bottomes of the flowers, resembling the eye of a bird.

The Vertues.

Primroses and Cowslips are in a manner wholly vsed in Cephalicall diseases, either among other herbes or flowers, or of themselues alone, to ease paines in the head, and is accounted next vnto Betony, the best for that purpose. Experience likewise hath shewed that they are profitable both for the Palsie, and paines of the ioynts, euen as the Beares eares are, which hath caused the name of Arthritica, Paralysis, and Paralytica to bee giuen them. The iuice of the flowers is commended to cleanse the spots or marks of the face, whereof some Gentlewomen haue found good experience.


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Chap. XXXVI.
Pulmonaria. Lungwort, or Cowslips of Ierusalem.

Although these plants are generally more vsed as Pot-herbes for the Kitchen, then as flowers for delight, yet because they are both called Cowslips, and are of like forme, but of much lesse beauty, I haue ioyned them next vnto them, in a distinct Chapter by themselues, and so may passe at this time.

1. Pulmonaria maculosa. Common spotted Cowslips of Ierusalem.

The Cowslip of Ierusalem hath many rough, large, and round leaues, but pointed at the ends, standing vpon long foot-stalkes, spotted with many round white spots on the vppersides of the sad greene or browne leaues, and of a grayer greene vnderneath: among the leaues spring vp diuers browne stalkes, a foote high, bearing many flowers at the toppe, very neare resembling the flowers of Cowslips, being of a purple or reddish colour while they are buds, and of a darke blewish colour when they are blowne, standing in brownish greene huskes, and sometimes it hath beene found with white flowers: when the flowers are past, there come vp small round heads, containing blacke seed: the roote is composed of many long and thicke blacke strings.

2. Pulmonaria altera non maculosa. Vnspotted Cowslips of Ierusalem.

The leaues of this other kinde are not much vnlike the former, being rough as they are, but smaller, of a fairer greene colour aboue, and of a whiter greene vnderneath, without any spots at all vpon the leaues: the flowers also are like the former, and of the same colour, but a little more branched vpon the stalkes then the former: the rootes also are blacke like vnto them.

3. Pulmonaria angustifolia. Narrow leafed Cowslips of Ierusalem.

The leaues hereof are somewhat longer, but not so broad, and spotted with whitish spots also as the former: the stalke hereof is set with the like long hairy leaues, but smaller, being a foote high or better, bearing at the toppe many flowers, standing in huskes like the first, being somewhat reddish in the bud, and of a darke purplish blew colour when they are blowne open: the seede is like the former, all of them doe well resemble Buglosse and Comfrey in most parts, except the roote, which is not like them, but stringie, like vnto Cowslips, yet blacke.

The Place.

The Cowslips of Ierusalem grow naturally in the Woods of Germany, in diuers places, and the first kinde in England also, found out by Iohn Goodier, a great searcher and louer of plants, dwelling at Maple-durham in Hampshire.

The Time.

They flower for the most part very early, that is, in the beginning of Aprill.

The Names.

They are generally called in Latine, Pulmonaria, and maculosa, or non maculosa, is added for distinctions sake. Of some it is called Symphitum maculosum, that is, spotted Comfrey. In English it is diuersly called, as spotted Cowslips of Ierusalem, Sage of Ierusalem, Sage of Bethlehem, Lungwort,[249] and spotted Comfrey, and it might bee as fitly called spotted Buglosse, whereunto it is as like as vnto Comfrey, as I said before.

The Vertues.

It is much commended of some, to bee singular good for vlcered lungs, that are full of rotten matter. As also for them that spit bloud, being boyled and drunke. It is of greatest vse for the pot, being generally held to be good, both for the lungs and the heart.


Chap. XXXVII.
1. Buglossum & Borrago. Buglosse and Borage.

Although Borage and Buglosse might as fitly haue been placed, I confesse, in the Kitchen Garden, in regard they are wholly in a manner spent for Physicall properties, or for the Pot, yet because anciently they haue been entertained into Gardens of pleasure, their flowers hauing been in some respect; in that they haue alwaies been enterposed among the flowers of womens needle-worke, I am more willing to giue them place here, then thrust them into obscurity, and take such of their tribe with them also as may fit for this place, either for beauty or rarity.

The Garden Buglosse and Borage are so well knowne vnto all, that I shall (I doubt) but spend time in waste to describe them; yet not vsing to passe ouer any thing I name and appropriate to this Garden so sleightly, they are thus to bee knowne: Buglosse hath many long, narrow, hairy, or rough sad greene leaues, among which rise vp two or three very high stalks, branched at the top, whereon stand many blew flowers, consisting of fiue small round pointed leaues, with a small pointell in the middle, which are very smooth, shining, and of a reddish purple while they are buds, and not blowne open, which being fallen, there groweth in the greene huske, wherein the flower stood, three or foure roundish blacke seedes, hauing that thread or pointell standing still in the middle of them: the roote is blacke without, and whitish within, long, thicke, and full of slimie iuice (as the leaues are also) and perisheth not euery yeare, as the roote of Borage doth.

2. Borrago. Borage.

Borage hath broader, shorter, greener, and rougher leaues then Buglosse, the stalkes hereof are not so high, but branched into many parts, whereon stand larger flowers, and more pointed at the end then Buglosse, and of a paler blew colour for the most part (yet sometimes the flowers are reddish, and sometimes pure white) each of the flowers consisting of fiue leaues, standing in a round hairy whitish huske, diuided into fiue parts, and haue a small vmbone of fiue blackish threads in the middle, standing out pointed at the end, and broad at the bottome: the seed is like the other: the root is thicker and shorter then the roote of Buglosse, somewhat blackish without also, and whitish within, and perisheth after seede time, but riseth of it owne seede fallen, and springeth in the beginning of the yeare.

3. Borrago semper virens. Euerliuing Borage.

Euerliuing Borage hath many broad greene leaues, and somewhat rough, more resembling Comfrey then Borage, yet not so large as either; the stalkes are not so high as Borage, and haue many small blew flowers on them, very like to the flowers of Buglosse for the forme, and Borage for the colour; the rootes are blacke, thicker then either of them, somewhat more spreading, and not perishing, hauing greene leaues all the Winter long, and thereupon tooke his name.

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4. Anchusa. Sea Buglosse or Alkanet.

The Sea Buglosse or Alkanet hath many long, rough, narrow, and darke greene leaues, spread vpon the ground (yet some that growe by the Sea side are rather hoarie and whitish) among these leaues riseth vp a stalke, spread at the toppe into many branches, whereon stand the flowers in tufts, like vnto the Garden Buglosse, or rather Comfrey, but lesser; in some plants of a reddish blew colour, and in others more red or purplish, and in others of a yellowish colour: after which come the seedes, very like vnto Buglosse, but somewhat longer and paler: the roote of most of them being transplanted, are somewhat blackish on the outside, vntill the later end of Summer, and then become more red: for those that grow wilde, will be then so red, that they will giue a very deepe red colour to those that handle them, which being dryed keepe that red colour, which is vsed to many purposes; the roote within being white, and hauing no red colour at all.

5. Limonium Rauwolfij. Marsh Buglosse.

This Limonium (which I referre here to the kindes of Buglosse, presuming it is the fittest place where to insert it) hath many long narrow, and somewhat rough leaues lying vpon the ground, waued or cut in on both sides, like an Indenture, somewhat like the leaues of Ceterach or Miltwast, among which rise vp two or three stalkes, somewhat rough also, and with thin skinnes like wings, indented on both sides thereof also, like the leaues, hauing three small, long, rough, and three square leaues at euery ioynt, where it brancheth forth; at the toppe whereof stand many flowers vpon their foote stalkes, in such a manner, as is not seene in any other plant, that I know; for although that some of the small winged foot stalkes are shorter, and some longer, standing as it were flatwise, or all on one side, and not round like an vmbell, yet are they euen at the toppe, and not one higher than another; each of which small foote stalkes doe beare foure or fiue greenish heads or huskes, ioyned together, out of each of which doe arise other pale or bleake blew stiffe huskes, as if they were flowers, made as it were of parchment, which hold their colour after they are dry a long time; and out of these huskes likewise, doe come (at seuerall times one after another, and not all at one time or together) white flowers, consisting of fiue small round leaues, with some white threds in the middle: after these flowers are past, there come in their places small long seede, inclosed in many huskes, many of those heads being idle, not yeelding any goode seede, but chaffe, especially in out Countrey, for the want of sufficient heate of the Sunne, as I take it: the roote is small, long, and blackish on the outside, and perisheth at the first approach of Winter.

The Place.

Borage and Buglosse grow onely in Gardens with vs, and so doth the Semper virens, his originall being vnknowne vnto vs. Alkanet or Sea Buglosse groweth neare the Sea, in many places of France, and Spaine, and some of the kindes also in England. But the Limonium or Marshe Buglosse groweth in Cales, and Malacca in Spaine, and is found also in Syria, as Rauwolfius relateth: and in other places also no doubt; for it hath beene sent vs out of Italie, many yeares before eyther Guillaume Boel found it in Cales, or Clusius in Malacca.

The Time.

Borage and Buglosse doe flower in Iune, and Iuly, and sometimes sooner, and so doth the euer-liuing or neuer-dying Borage, but not as Gerrard saith, flowring Winter and Summer, whereupon it should take his name, but leaueth flowring in Autumne, and abideth greene with his leaues all the Winter, flowring the next Spring following. The other flower not vntill Iuly, and so continue, especially the Marshe Buglosse vntill September bee well spent, and then giueth seede, if early frosts ouertake it not; for it seldome commeth to be ripe.

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Page 251: Cowslips, Borage, Buglosse.
1Pulmonaria latifolia maculosa. Cowslips of Ierusalem.
2Pulmonaria angustifolia. Narrow leafed Cowslips of Ierusalem.
3Borrago. Borage.
4Borrago semper virens. Euerliuing Borage.
5Anchusa. Sea Buglosse or Alkanet.
6Limonium Rauwolfij. Marsh Buglosse.

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The Names.

Our ordinary Borage by the consent of all the best moderne Writers, is the true Buglossum of Dioscorides, and that our Buglosse was vnknowne to the ancients. The Borago semper virens, Lobel calleth Buglossum semper virens, that is, Euer-liuing, or Greene Buglosse: but it more resembleth Borage then Buglosse; yet because Buglosse abideth greene, to auoyde that there should not be two Buglossa semper virentia, I had rather call it Borage then Buglosse. Anchusa hath diuers names, as Dioscorides setteth downe. And some doe call it Fucus herba, from the Greeke word, because the roote giuing so deepe a colour, was vsed to dye or paint the skinne. Others call it Buglossum Hispanicum, in English Alkanet, and of some Orchanet, after the French. Limonium was found by Leonhartus Rauwolfius, neere vnto Ioppa, which he setteth downe in the second Chapter of the third booke of his trauayles, and from him first knowne to these parts: I haue, as you see, referred it to the kindes of Buglosse, for that the flowers haue some resemblance vnto them, although I know that Limonium genuinum is referred to the Beetes. Let it therefore here finde a place of residence, vntill you or I can finde a fitter; and call it as you thinke best, eyther Limonium as Rauwolfius doth, or Marshe Buglosse as I doe, or if you can adde a more proper name, I shall not be offended.

The Vertues.

Borage and Buglosse are held to bee both temperate herbes, beeing vsed both in the pot and in drinkes that are cordiall, especially the flowers, which of Gentlewomen are candid for comfitts. The Alkanet is drying, and held to be good for wounds, and if a peece of the roote be put into a little oyle of Peter or Petroleum, it giueth as deepe a colour to the oyle, as the Hypericon doth or can to his oyle, and accounted to be singular good for a cut or greene wound.

The Limonium hath no vse that wee know, more then for a Garden; yet as Rauwolfius saith, the Syrians vse the leaues as sallats at the Table.


Chap. XXXVIII.
Lychnis. Campions.

There bee diuers sorts of Campions, as well tame as wilde, and although some of them that I shall here entreate of, may peraduenture be found wilde in our owne Countrey, yet in regard of their beautifull flowers, they are to bee respected, and noursed vp with the rest, to furnish a garden of pleasure; as for the wilde kindes, I will leaue them for another discourse.

1. Lychnis Coronaria rubra simplex. The single red Rose Campion.

The single red Rose Campion hath diuers thicke, hoary, or woolly long greene leaues, abiding greene all the winter, and in the end of the spring or beginning of summer, shooteth forth two or three hard round woolly stalkes, with some ioynts thereon, and at euery ioynt two such like hoary greene leaues as those below, but smaller, diuersly branched at the toppe, hauing one flower vpon each seuerall long foot stalke,[253] consisting of fiue leaues, somewhat broade and round pointed, of a perfect red crimson colour, standing out of a hard long round huske, ridged or crested in foure or fiue places; after the flowers are fallen there come vp round hard heads, wherein is contained small blackish seed: the roote is small, long and wooddy, with many fibres annexed vnto it, and shooteth forth anew oftentimes, yet perisheth often also.

2. Lychnis Coronaria alba simplex. The white Rose Campion.

The white Rose Campion is in all things like the red, but in the colour of the flower, which in this is of a pure white colour.

3. Lychnis Coronaria albescens siue incarnata maculata & non maculata. The blush Rose Campion spotted and not spotted.

Like vnto the former also are these other sorts, hauing no other difference to distinguish them, but the flowers, which are of a pale or bleake whitish blush colour, especially about the brims, as if a very little red were mixed with a great deale of white, the middle of the flower being more white; the one being spotted all ouer the flower, with small spots and streakes, the other not hauing any spot at all.

4. Lychnis Coronaria rubra multiplex. The double red Rose Campion.

The double red Rose Campion is in all respects like vnto the single red kinde, but that this beareth double flowers, consisting of two or three rowes of leaues at the most, which are not so large as the single, and the whole plant is more tender, that is, more apt to perish, then any of the single kindes.

5. Lychnis Chalcedonica flore simplici miniato. Single Nonesuch, or Flower of Bristow, or Constantinople.

This Campion of Constantinople hath many broad and long greene leaues, among which rise vp sundry stiffe round hairy ioynted stalks three foot high, with two leaues euery ioynt: the flowers stand at the toppes of them, very many together, in a large tuft or vmbell, consisting of fiue small long leaues, broade pointed, and notched-in in the middle, of a bright red orenge colour, which being past, there come in their places small hard whitish heads or seede vessels, containing blacke seede, like vnto the seede of sweet Williams, and hauing but a small sent; the roote is very stringie, fastening it selfe very strongly in the ground, whereby it is much encreased.

Flore albo.
Et carneo.
Versicolor.

Of the single kinde there is also two or three other sorts, differing chiefly in the colour of the flowers. The one is pure white. Another is of a blush colour wholly, without variation. And a third is very variable; for at the first it is of a pale red, and after a while groweth paler, vntill in the end it become almost fully white; and all these diuersities of the flowers are sometimes to bee seene on one stalke at one and the same time.

6. Lychnis Chalcedonica flore miniato pleno. Double Flower of Bristow, or Nonesuch.

This glorious flower being as rare as it is beautifull, is for rootes beeing stringie, for leaues and stalkes being hairy and high, and for the flowers growing in tufts, altogether like the first single kinde; but herein consisteth the chiefest difference, that this beareth a larger vmbell or tuft of flowers at the toppe of the stalke, euery flower consisting of three or foure rowes of leaues, of a deeper orenge colour then it, which addeth the more grace vnto it, but passeth away without bearing seede, as most other double flowers doe, yet recompenceth that defect with encrease from the roote.

7. Lychnis plumaria siluestris simplex & multiplex. The featherd wilde Campion single and double.

The leaues of this wilde Campion are somewhat like the ordinary white wilde[254] Campion, but not so large, or rather resembling the leaues of sweete Williams, but that they grow not so close, nor so many together: the stalkes haue smaller leaues at the ioynts then those belowe, and branched at the toppe, with many pale, but bright red flowers, iagged or cut in on the edges, like the feathered Pinke, whereof some haue taken it to be a kinde, and some for a kinde of wilde William, but yet is but a wilde Campion, as may be obserued, both by his huske that beareth the flowers, and by the greyish roundish seede, being not of the Family of Pinkes and Gillowers, but (as I said) of the Campions: the roote is full of strings or fibres.

Flore pleno.

The double kinde is very like vnto the single kinde, but that it is lower and smaller, and the flowers very double.

8. Lychnis siluestris flore pleno rubro. Red Batchelours buttons.

The double wilde Campion (which of our Countrey Gentlewomen is called Batchelours buttons) is very like both in rootes, leaues, stalkes, and flowers vnto the ordinary wilde red Campion, but somewhat lesser, his flowers are not iagged, but smooth, and very thicke and double, so that most commonly it breaketh his short huske, wherein the flower standeth on the one side, seldome hauing a whole huske, and are of a reddish colour.

9. Lychnis siluestris flore albo pleno. White Batchelours buttons.

As the leaues of the former double Campion was like vnto the single kinde that had red flowers, so this hath his leaues like vnto the single white kinde, differing in no other thing from it, but in the doublenesse of the flowers, which by reason of the multiplicity of leaues in them thrusting forth together, breaketh his huskes wherein the flowers doe stand, as the other doth, and hath scarce one flower in many that is whole.

10. Ocymoides arborea semper virens. Strange Bassil Campion.

This Strange Campion (for thereunto it must bee referred) shooteth forth many round, whitish, wooddy, but brittle stalkes, whereon stand diuers long, and somewhat thicke leaues, set by couples, narrow at the bottome, and broader toward the point, of a very faire greene and shining colour, so that there is more beauty in the greene leaues, which doe so alwaies abide, then in the flowers, which are of a pale red or blush colour, consisting of fiue small long broad pointed leaues, notched in the middle, which doe not lye close, but loosly as it were hanging ouer the huskes: after the flowers are past, there come heads that containe blackish seede: the roote is small, hard, white, and threadie.

11. Muscipula Lobelij siue Ben rubrum Monspeliensium. Lobels Catch Flie.

I must needes insert this small plant, to finish this part of the Campions, whereunto it belongeth, being a pretty toye to furnish and decke out a Garden. It springeth vp (if it haue beene once sowne and suffered to shed) in the later end of the yeare most commonly, or else in the Spring with fiue or six small leaues, very like vnto the leaues of Pinkes, and of the same grayish colour, but a little broader and shorter, and when it beginneth to shoote vp for flower, it beareth smaller leaues on the clammy or viscous stalkes (fit to hold any small thing that lighteth on it); being broad at the bottome compassing them, and standing two at a ioynt one against another: the toppes of the stalkes are diuersly branched into seuerall parts, euery branch hauing diuers small red flowers, not notched, but smooth, standing out of small, long, round, stript huskes, which after the flowers are past, containe small grayish seede: the roote is small, and perisheth after it hath giuen seede; but riseth (as is before said) of its owne seede, if it be suffered to shed.

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Page 255:Campion, None such, Batchelours Buttons, Catch Flie.
1Lychnis Coronaria simplex. Single Rose Campion.
2Lychnis Coronaria rubra multiplex. The double red Rose Campion.
3Lychnis Chalcedonica simplex. Single None such, or flower of Bristow.
4Lychnis Chalcedonica flore pleno. Double None such, or flower of Bristow.
5Lychnis plumaria multiplex. Pleasant in sight.
6Lychnis siluestris flore pleno rubro. Red Batchelours Buttons.
7Lychnis siluestris flore pleno albo. White Batchelours Buttons.
8Muscipula Lobelij. Lobels Catch Flie.

The Place.

The Rose Campions, Flowers of Bristow, or Nonesuch, the Bassil Campion,[256] and the Catch Flie, haue been sent vs from beyond the Seas, and are onely noursed vp in Gardens with vs; the other Campions that are double, haue been naturally so found double wilde (for no art or industry of man, that euer I could be assured of to be true, be it by neuer so many repetitions of transplantations, and planeticall obseruations (as I haue said in the beginning of this worke) could bring any flower, single by nature, to become double, notwithstanding many affirmations to that purpose, but whatsoeuer hath been found wilde to be double, nature her selfe, and not art hath so produced it) and being brought into Gardens, are there encreased by slipping, and parting the roote, because they giue no seede.

The Time.

All of them doe flower in the Summer, yet none before May.

The Names.

The first kindes are called Lychnides satiuæ, and coronariæ, in English generally Rose Campions. The next is called Lychnis Chalcedonica, and Byzantina; in English, of some Nonesuch, and of others Flower of Bristow, and after the Latine, Flower of Constantinople, because it is thought the seede was first brought from thence; but from whence the double of this kinde came, we cannot tell. The names of the others of this kinde, both single and double, are set downe with their descriptions. The feathered Campions are called Armoraria pratensis, and Flos Cuculi, and of Clusius and others thought to be Odontitis Plinij. Some call them in English Crowflowers, and Cuckowe-Flowers; and some call the double hereof, The faire Maide of France. The Bassil Campions were sent ouer among many other seedes out of Italy, by the name of Ocimoides arborea semper virens. Arborea, because the stalke is more wooddy and durable then other Campions: And semper virens, because the leaues abide greene Winter and Summer. Clusius calleth it Lychnis semper virens, because it is certainly a Campion. The last is diuersly called of Authors; Lobel calleth it Muscipula: Others Armoraria altera: Dodonæus Armerius flos quartus. Clusius Lychnis siluestris altera, in his Spanish obseruations, and prima in his History of plants, and saith, the learned of Salmantica in Spaine called it, Ben rubrum, as Lobel saith, they of Mompelier doe also: and by that name I receiued it first out of Italy. It hath the name of Catch Flie, of Muscipula the Latine word, because the stalkes in the hot Summer dayes haue a certaine viscous or clammy humour vpon them, whereby it easily holdeth (as I said before) whatsoeuer small thing, as Flies, &c. lighteth vpon it.

The Vertues.

We know none in these dayes, that putteth any of these to any Physicall vse, although some haue in former times.


Chap. XXXIX.
Keiri siue Leucoium luteum. Wall-flowers, or Wall Gilloflowers.

There are two sorts of Wall-flowers, the one single, the other double, and of each of them there is likewise some differences, as shall be shewed in their description.

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1. Keiri siue Leucoium luteum simplex vulgare. Common single Wall-flowers.

The common single Wall-flower which groweth wilde abroad, and yet is brought into Gardens, hath sundry small, narrow, long, and darke greene leaues, set without order vpon small round whitish wooddy stalkes, which beare at the tops diuers single yellow flowers one aboue another, euery one hauing foure leaues a peece, and of a very sweete sent: after which come long pods, containing reddish seede: the roote is white, hard and thready.

2. Keiri siue Leucoium luteum simplex maius. The great single Wall-flower.

There is another sort of single Wall-flower, whose leaues as well as flowers are much larger then the former: the leaues being of a darker and shining greene colour, and the flowers of a very deepe gold yellow colour, and vsually broader then a twentie shilling peece of gold can couer: the spike or toppe of flowers also much longer, and abiding longer in flower, and much sweeter likewise in sent: the pods for seede are thicker and shorter, with a small point at the end: this is slower to encrease into branches, as also to be encreased by the branches, and more tender to be preserued; for the hard frosts doe cause it to perish, if it be not defended from them.

3. Keiri simplex flore albo. White Wall-flower.

This Wall-flower hath his leaues as greene as the great kinde, but nothing so large: the flowers stand at the toppe, but not in so long a spike, and consisteth of foure leaues, of a very white colour, not much larger then the common kinde, and of a faint or weaker sent: the pods are nothing so great as the former great one: this is more easie to be propagated and encreased also, but yet will require some care in defending it from the colds of the Winter.

4. Keiri siue Leucoium luteum vulgare flore pleno. Common double Wall-flowers.

This ordinary double Wall-flower is in leaues and stalke very like vnto the first single kinde, but that the leaues hereof are not of so deepe a greene colour: the flowers stand at the top of the stalkes one aboue another, as it were a long spike, which flower by degrees, the lowest first, and so vpwards, by which it is a long time in flowring, and is very double, of a gold yellow colour, and very sweete.

5. Keiri siue Leucoium luteum alterum flore pleno. Pale double Wall-flowers.

Wee haue another sort of this kinde of double Wall-flower, whose double flowers stand not spike-fashion as the former, but more open spread, and doe all of them blowe open at one time almost, and not by degrees as the other doth, and is of a paler yellow colour, not differing in any thing else, except that the greene leaues hereof are of a little paler greene then it.

6. Keiri siue Leucoium luteum maius flore pleno ferrugineo. Double red Wall-flowers.

We haue also another sort of double Wall-flower, whose leaues are as greene, and almost as large as the great single yellow kinde, or full as bigge as the leaues of the white Wall-flower: the flowers hereof are not much larger then the ordinary, but are of a darker yellow colour then the great single kinde, and of a more brownish or red colour on the vnderside of the leaues, and is as it were striped.

7. Keiri siue Leucoium maximum luteum flore pleno. The greatest double yellow Wall-flower.

This great double Wall-flower is as yet a stranger in England, and therefore what I [258]here write is more vpon relation (which yet I beleeue to be most true) then vpon sight and speculation. The leaues of this Wall-flower are as greene and as large, if not larger then the great single kinde: the flowers also are of the same deepe gold yellow colour with it, but much larger then any of the former double kindes, and of as sweet a sent as any, which addeth delight vnto beauty.

The Place.

The first single kind is often found growing vpon old wals of Churches, and other houses in many places of England, and also among rubbish and stones. The single white and great yellow, as well as all the other double kindes, are noursed vp in Gardens onely with vs.

The Time.

All the single kindes doe flower many times in the end of Autumne, and if the Winter be milde all the Winter long, but especially in the moneths of February, March, and Aprill, and vntill the heate of the Spring doe spend them: but the other double kindes doe not continue flowring in that manner the yeare throughout, although very early sometimes, and very late also in some places.

The Names.

They are called by diuers names, as Viola lutea, Leucoium luteum, and Keiri, or Cheiri, by which name it is chiefly knowne in our Apothecaries shops, because there is an oyle made thereof called Cheirinum: In English they are vsually called in these parts, Wall-flowers: Others doe call them Bee-flowers; others Wall-Gilloflowers, Winter-Gilloflowers, and yellow Stocke-Gilloflowers; but we haue a kinde of Stocke-Gilloflower that more fitly deserueth that name, as shall be shewed in the Chapter following.

The Vertues.

The sweetnesse of the flowers causeth them to be generally vsed in Nosegayes, and to decke vp houses; but physically they are vsed in diuers manners: As a Conserue made of the flowers, is vsed for a remedy both for the Appoplexie and Palsie. The distilled water helpeth well in the like manner. The oyle made of the flowers is heating and resoluing, good to ease paines of strained and pained sinewes.


Chap. XL.
Leucoium. Stocke-Gilloflower.

There are very many sorts of Stocke-Gilloflowers, both single and double, some of the fields and mountaines, others of the Sea marshes and medowes; and some noursed vp in Gardens, and there preserued by seede or slippe, as each kinde is aptest to bee ordered. But because some of these are fitter for a generall History then for this our Garden of Pleasure, both for that diuers haue no good sent, others little or no beauty, and to be entreated of onely for the variety, I shall spare so many of them as are not fit for this worke, and onely set downe the rest.

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Page 259: Wall-flower, Gilloflower.
1Keiri siue Leucoium luteum vulgare. Common Wall-flowers.
2Keiri siue Leucoium luteum maius simplex. The great single Wall-flower.
3Keiri siue Leucoium luteum flore pleno vulgare. Ordinary double Wall-flowers.
4Keiri maius flore pleno ferrugineo. The great double red Wall-flower.
5Leucoium sativum simplex. Single Stocke Gilloflowers.
6Leucoium sativum simplex flore striato. Single stript Stocke-Gilloflowers.

1. Leucoium simplex sativum diversorum colorum. Garden Stocke-Gilloflowers single of diuers colours.

These single Stocke-Gilloflowers, although they differ in the colour of their flowers[260], yet are in leafe and manner of growing, one so like vnto another, that vntill they come to flower, the one cannot be well knowne that beareth red flowers, from another that beareth purple; and therefore one description of the plant shall serue, with a declaration of the sundry colours of the flowers. It riseth vp with round whitish woody stalkes, two, three, or foure foot high, whereon are set many long, and not very broad, soft, and whitish or grayish greene leaues, somewhat round pointed, and parted into diuers branches, at the toppes whereof grow many flowers, one aboue another, smelling very sweet, consisting of foure small, long, and round pointed leaues, standing in small long huskes, which turne into long and flat pods, sometimes halfe a foote long, wherein is contained flat, round, reddish seedes, with grayish ringes or circles about them, lying flat all along the middle rib of the pod on both sides: the roote is long, white, and woody, spreading diuers wayes. There is great variety in the colours of the flowers: for some are wholly of a pure white colour, others of a most excellent crimson red colour, others againe of a faire red colour, but not so bright or liuely as the other, some also of a purplish or violet colour, without any spot, marke, or line in them at all. There are againe of all these colours, mixed very variably, as white mixed with small or great spottes, strakes or lines of pure or bright red, or darke red, and white with purple spots and lines; and of eyther of them whose flowers are almost halfe white, and halfe red, or halfe white, and halfe purple. The red of both sorts, and the purple also, in the like manner spotted, striped, and marked with white, differing neyther in forme, nor substance, in any other point.

2. Leucoium satiuum albido luteum simplex. The single pale yellow Stocke-Gilloflower.

There is very little difference in this kind from the former, for the manner of growing, or forme of leaues or flower. Only this hath greener leaues, and pale yellow almost white flowers, in all other things alike: this is of no great regard, but only for rarity, and diuersity from the rest.

3. Leucoium Melancholicum. The Melancholick Gentleman.

This wilde kinde of stocke gilloflower hath larger, longer and greener leaues then any of the former kindes, vneuenly gashed or sinuated on both edges lying on the ground, and a little rough or hairy withall: from among which rise vp the stalkes, a yard high or more, and hairy likewise, bearing thereon here and there some such like leaues as are below, but smaller, and at the top a great number of flowers, as large or larger then any of the former single kindes, made of 4. large leaues a peece also, standing in such like long huskes, but of a darke or sullen yellowish colour: after which come long roundish pods, wherein lye somewhat long but rounder and greater seede then any stocke gilloflower, and nearer both in pod and seede vnto the Hesperis or Dames Violet: this perisheth not vsually after seede bearing, although sometimes it doth.

4. Leucoium marinum Syriacum. Leuant stocke gilloflowers.

This kind of stocke gilloflower riseth vp at the first with diuers long and somewhat broad leaues, a little vneuenly dented or waued on the edges, which so continue the first yeare after the sowing: the stalke riseth vp the next yeare to bee two foot high or more, bearing all those leaues on it that it first had, which then do grow lesse sinuated or waued then before: at the top whereof stand many flowers, made of foure leaues a peece, of a delayed purple colour, but of a small sent which turne into very long and narrow flat pods, wherein are contained flat seed like the ordinary stocke gilloflowers, but much larger and of a darke or blackish browne colour: the root is white, and groweth deepe, spreading in the ground, but growing woody when it is in seede, and perisheth afterwards.

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5. Leucoij alterum genus, flore tam multiplici quam simplici ex feminio oriundum. Another sort of Stocke gilloflowers bearing as well double as single flowers from seede.

This kinde of Stocke gilloflower differeth neyther in forme of leaues, stalkes, nor flowers from the former, but that it oftentimes groweth much larger and taller; so that whosoeuer shall see both these growing together, shall scarce discerne the difference, onely it beareth flowers, eyther white, red or purple, wholly or entire, that is, of one colour, without mixture of other colour in them (for so much as euer I haue obserued, or could vnderstand by others) which are eyther single, like vnto the former, or very thicke and double, like vnto the next that followeth; but larger, and growing with more store of flowers on the long stalke. But this you must vnderstand withall, that those plants that beare double flowers, doe beare no seede at all, and is very seldome encreased by slipping or cutting, as the next kinde of double is: but the onely way to haue double flowers any yeare, (for this kinde dyeth euery winter, for the most part, after it hath borne flowers, and seldome is preserued) is to saue the seedes of those plants of this kinde that beare single flowers, for from that seede will rise, some that will beare single, and some double flowers, which cannot bee distinguished one from another, I meane which will be single and which double, vntill you see them in flower, or budde at the least. And this is the only way to preserue this kinde: but of the seed of the former kinde was neuer known any double flowers to arise, and therefore you must be carefull to marke this kinde from the former.

6. Leucoium flore pleno diuersorum colorum. Double Stocke Gillowflowers of diuers colours.

This other kinde of Stock gilloflower that beareth onely double flowers, groweth not so great, nor spreadeth his branches so farre, nor are his leaues so large, but is in all things smaller, and lower, and yet is woody, or shrubby, like the former, bearing his flowers in the like manner, many vpon a long stalke, one aboue another, and very double, but not so large as the former double, although it grow in fertile soyle, which are eyther white, or red, or purple wholly, without any mixture, or else mixed with spots and stripes, as the single flowers of the first kinde, but more variably, and not in all places alike, neuer bearing seede, but must be encreased, only by the cutting of the young sproutes or branches, taken in a fit season: this kinde perisheth not, as the former double kinde doth, so as it bee defended in the winter from the extreame frosts, but especially from the snow falling, or at the least remaining vpon it.

7. Leucoium satiuum luteum flore pleno. The double yellow Stocke Gilloflower.

This double yellow Stock gilloflower is a stranger in England, as far as I can learne, neyther haue I any further familiaritie with him, then by relation from Germany, where it is affirmed to grow only in some of their gardens, that are curious louers of these delights, bearing long leaues somewhat hoary or white, (and not greene like vnto the Wallflower, whereunto else it might be thought to be referred) like vnto the Stock gilloflowers, as the stalkes and branches also are, and bearing faire double flowers, of a faire, but pale yellow colour. The whole plant is tender, as the double Stock gilloflowers are, and must be carefully preserued in the winter from the coldes, or rather more then the last double, lest it perish.

The Place.

The single kindes, especially some of them, grow in Italie, and some in Greece, Candy, and the Isles adiacent, as may be gathered out of the verses in Plutarches Booke De Amore fraterno:

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Inter Echinopodas velut asperam, & inter Ononim,
Inter dum crescunt mollia Leucoia.

Which sheweth, that the soft or gentle stocke gilloflowers doe sometimes grow among rough or prickely Furse and Cammocke. The other sorts are only to be found in gardens.

The Time.

They flower in a manner all the yeare throughout in some places, especially some of the single kindes, if they stand warme, and defended from the windes and cold: the double kindes flower sometimes in Aprill, and more plentifully in May, and Iune; but the double of seed, flowreth vsually late, and keepeth flowring vnto the winter, that the frostes and colde mistes doe pull it downe.

The Names.

It is called Leucoium, & Viola alba: but the name Leucoium (which is in English the white Violet) is referred to diuers plants; we call it in English generally, Stocke gilloflower, (or as others doe, Stocke gillouer) to put a difference betweene them, and the Gilloflowers and Carnations, which are quite of another kindred, as shall be shewne in place conuenient.

The Vertues.

These haue no great vse in Physick that I know: only some haue vsed the leaues of the single white flowred kinde with salt, to be laid to the wrests of them that haue agues, but with what good successe I cannot say, if it happen well I thinke in one (as many such things else will) it will fayle in a number.


Chap. XLI.

1. Hesperis, siue Viola Matronalis. Dames Violets, or Queenes Gilloflowers.

The ordinary Dames Violets, or Queene Gilloflowers, hath his leaues broader, greener, and sharper pointed, then the Stock gilloflowers, and a little endented about the edges: the stalkes grow two foot high, bearing many greene leaues vpon them, smaller then those at the bottome, and branched at the toppe, bearing many flowers, in fashion much like the flowers of stocke gilloflowers, consisting of foure leaues in like manner, but not so large, of a faint purplish colour in some, and in others white, and of a pretty sweet sent, especially towards night, but in the day time little or none at all: after the flowers are past, there doe come small long and round pods, wherein is contained, in two rowes, small and long blacke seede: the roote is wholly composed of stringes or fibres, which abide many yeares, and springeth fresh stalks euery yeare, the leaues abiding all the Winter.

2. Hesperis Pannonica. Dames Violets of Hungary.

The leaues of this Violet are very like the former, but smoother and thicker, and not at all indented, or cut in on the edges: the flowers are like the former, but of a sullen pale colour, turning themselues, and seldome lying plaine open, hauing many purple veines, and streakes running through the leaues of the flowers, of little or no sent in the day time, but of a very sweete sent in the euening and morning; the seedes are alike also, but a little browner.

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Page 263: Stoke-Gilloflowers, Dames Violets, etc.
1Leucoium Melancholicum. Sullen Stocke-Gilloflowers.
2Leucoium sativum flore pleno. Double Stocke-Gilloflowers.
3Leucoium sativum flore pleno vario. Party coloured Stocke-Gilloflowers.
4Leucoium marinum Syriacum. Leuant Stocke-Gilloflowers.
5Hesperis vulgaris. Dames Violets or Winter Gilloflowers.
6Lysimachia lutea siliquosa Virginiana. The tree Primrose of Virginia.
7Viola lunaris siue Bolbonach. The white Sattin flower.

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3. Lysimachia lutea siliquosa Virginiana. The tree Primrose of Virginia.

Vnto what tribe or kindred I might referre this plant, I haue stood long in suspence, in regard I make no mention of any other Lysimachia in this work: lest therefore it should lose all place, let me ranke it here next vnto the Dames Violets, although I confesse it hath little affinity with them. The first yeare of the sowing the seede it abideth without any stalke or flowers lying vpon the ground, with diuers long and narrow pale greene leaues, spread oftentimes round almost like a Rose, the largest leaues being outermost, and very small in the middle: about May the next yeare the stalke riseth, which will be in Summer of the height of a man, and of a strong bigge size almost to a mans thumbe, round from the bottome to the middle, where it groweth crested vp to the toppe, into as many parts as there are branches of flowers, euery one hauing a small leafe at the foote thereof: the flowers stand in order one aboue another, round about the tops of the stalks, euery one vpon a short foot-stalke, consisting of foure pale yellow leaues, smelling somewhat like vnto a Primrose, as the colour is also (which hath caused the name) and standing in a greene huske, which parteth it selfe at the toppe into foure parts or leaues, and turne themselues downewards, lying close to the stalke: the flower hath some chiues in the middle, which being past, there come in their places long and cornered pods, sharpe pointed at the vpper end, and round belowe, opening at the toppe when it is ripe into fiue parts, wherein is contained small brownish seed: the roote is somewhat great at the head, and wooddy, and branched forth diuersly, which perisheth after it hath borne seede.

The Place.

The two first grow for the most part on Hils and in Woods, but with vs in Gardens onely.

The last, as may be well vnderstood by the title, came out of Virginia.

The Time.

They flower in May, Iune, and Iuly.

The Names.

The name of Hesperis is imposed by most Herbarists vpon the two first plants, although it is not certainly knowne to be the same that Theophrastus doth make mention of, in his sixth Booke and twenty fiue Chapter de causis plantarum: but because this hath the like effects to smell best in the euening, it is (as I said) imposed vpon it. It is also called Viola Marina Matronalis, Hyemalis, Damascena and Muschatella: In English, Dames Violets, Queens Gilloflowers, and Winter Gilloflowers.

The last hath his Latine name in the title as is best agreeing with it, and for the English, although it be too foolish I confesse, yet it may passe for this time till a fitter be giuen, vnlesse you please to follow the Latine, and call it Virginia Loose-strife.

The Vertues.

I neuer knew any among vs to vse these kindes of Violets in Physicke, although by reason of the sharpe biting taste, Dodonæus accounteth the ordinary sort to be a kinde of Rocket, and saith it prouoketh sweating, and vrine: and others affirme it to cut, digest, and cleanse tough flegme. The Virginian hath not beene vsed by any that I know, either inwardly or outwardly.


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Chap. XLII.
Viola Lunaris siue Bolbonach. The Sattin flower.

Vnto the kindes of Stocke-Gilloflowers I thinke fittest to adioyne these kindes of Sattin-flowers, whereof there are two sorts, one frequent enough in all our Countrie, the other is not so common.

1. Viola Lunaris vulgaris. The common white Sattin flower.

The first of these Sattin flowers, which is the most common, hath his leaues broad belowe, and pointed at the end, snipt about the edges, and of a darke greene colour: the stalkes are round and hard, two foot high, or higher, diuided into many branches, set with the like leaues, but smaller: the tops of the branches are beset with many purplish flowers, like vnto Dames Violets, or Stocke Gilloflowers, but larger, being of little sent: after the flowers are past, there come in their places round flat thin cods, of a darke colour on the outside, but hauing a thinne middle skinne, that is white and cleare shining, like vnto very pure white Sattin it selfe, whereon lye flat and round brownish seede, somewhat thicke and great: the rootes perish when they haue giuen their seede, and are somewhat round, long, and thicke, resembling the rootes of Lilium non bulbosum, or Day Lilly, which are eaten (as diuers other rootes are) for Sallets, both in our owne Country, and in many places beside.

2. Viola Lunaris altera seu peregrina. Long liuing Sattin flower.

This second kinde hath broader and longer leaues then the former, the stalkes also are greener and higher, branching into flowers, of a paler purple colour, almost white, consisting of foure leaues in like manner, and smelling pretty sweete, bearing such like pods, but longer and slenderer then they: the rootes are composed of many long strings, which dye not as the former, but abide, and shoot out new stalkes euery yeare.

The Place.

The first is (as is said) frequent enough in Gardens, and is found wilde in some places of our owne Country, as Master Gerard reporteth, whereof I neuer could be certainly assured, but I haue had it often sent mee among other seedes from Italy, and other places. The other is not so common in Gardens, but found about Watford, as he saith also.

The Time.

They flower in Aprill or May, and sometimes more early.

The Names.

It hath diuers names, as well in English as in Latine; for it is called most vsually Bolbonach, and Viola Lunaris: Of some Viola latifolia, and of others Viola Peregrina, and Lunaria Græca, Lunaria maior, and Lunaria odorata, and is thought to be Thlaspi Crateuæ: In English, White Satten, or Satten flower: Of some it is called Honesty, and Penny-flower.

The Vertues.

Some doe vse to eate the young rootes hereof, before they runne vp to flower, as Rampions are eaten with Vinegar and Oyle; but wee know no Physicall vse they haue.


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Chap. XLIII.
Linum siluestre & Linaria. Wilde Flaxe and Tode Flaxe.

Although neither the manured Line or Flaxe is a plant fit for our Garden, nor many of the wilde sorts, yet there are some, whose pleasant and delightfull aspect doth entertaine the beholders eyes with good content, and those I will set downe here for varietie, and adioyne vnto them some of the Linarias, or Tode Flaxe, for the neare affinity with them.

1. Linum siluestre flore albo. Wilde Flaxe with a white flower.

This kinde of wilde Flaxe riseth vp with diuers slender branches, a foote high or better, full of leaues, standing without order, being broader and longer then the manured Flaxe: the tops of the branches haue diuers faire white flowers on them, composed of fiue large leaues a peece, with many purple lines or strikes in them: the seede vessell as well as the seede, is like vnto the heads and seede of the manured Flaxe: the rootes are white strings, and abide diuers yeares, springing fresh branches and leaues euery yeare, but not vntill the Spring of the yeare.

2. Linum siluestre luteum. Wilde Flaxe with a yellow flower.

This wilde Flaxe doth so well resemble a kinde of St. Iohns wort, that it will soone deceiue one that doth not aduisedly regard it: For it hath many reddish stalkes, and small leaues on them, broader then the former wilde Flaxe, but not so long, which are well stored with yellow flowers, as large as the former, made of fiue leaues a peece, which being past, there come small flattish heads, containing blackish seede, but not shining like the former: the rootes hereof dye not euery yeare, as many other of the wilde kindes doe, but abide and shoote out euery yeare.

3. Linaria purpurea. Purple Tode Flaxe.

This purple Tode Flaxe hath diuers thicke, small, long, and somewhat narrowish leaues, snipt about the edges, of a whitish greene colour, from among which rise vp diuers stalkes, replenished at the tops with many small flowers, standing together one aboue another spike-fashion, which are small and somewhat sweete, while they are fresh, fashioned somewhat like the common Tode flaxe that groweth wilde abroad almost euery where, but much smaller, with a gaping mouth, but without any crooked spurre behinde, like vnto them, sometimes of a sad purple neare vnto a Violet, and sometimes of a paler blew colour, hauing a yellow spot in the middle or gaping place: after the flowers are past, there come small, hard, round heads, wherein are contained small, flat, and grayish seede: the roote is small and perisheth for the most part euery yeare, and will spring againe of it owne sowing, if it be suffered to shed it selfe, yet some hard Winters haue killed the seede it should seeme, in that sometimes it faileth to spring againe, and therefore had neede to be sowne anew in the Spring.

4. Linaria purpurea odorata. Sweete purple Tode Flaxe.

The lower leaues of this purple Tode Flaxe are nothing like any of the rest, but are long and broad, endented about the edges, somewhat resembling the leaues of the greater wilde white Daisie: the stalke is set at the bottome with such like leaues, but a little more diuided and cut in, and still smaller and smaller vpward, so that the vppermost leaues are very like the common Tode Flaxe, the toppe whereof is branched, hauing diuers small flowers growing along vpon then, in fashion and colour almost like the last described Tode Flaxe, but not altogether so deepe a purple: the heads and seedes are very like the former, but that the seede of this is reddish; the flowers in their naturall hot Countries haue a fine sent, but in these colder, little or none at all: the rootes are small and threadie, and perish after they haue flowred and seeded.

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Page 267: Flaxe, Snapdragon, Willowe flower.
1Linum siluestre flore albo. Wilde Flaxe with a white flower.
2Linaria purpurea siue cærulea. Purple Tode Flaxe.
3Linaria purpurea odorata. Sweete purple Tode Flaxe.
4Scoparia siue Beluidere Italorum. Broome Tode Flaxe.
5Antirrhinum maius. The greater Snapdragon.
6Chamænerium flore delphinij. The willowe flower.

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5. Linaria Valentina.