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Title: Canada and its Provinces Vol 23 of 23

Date of first publication: 1917

Author: Adam Shortt (1859-1931) and Arthur G. Doughty (1860-1936)

Date first posted: May 7, 2019

Date last updated: May 7, 2019

Faded Page eBook #20190511

This eBook was produced by: Iona Vaughan, Howard Ross & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at https://www.pgdpcanada.net



Archives Edition

 

CANADA AND ITS PROVINCES

IN TWENTY-TWO VOLUMES AND INDEX

(Vols. 1 and 2)(Vols. 13 and 14)
SECTION ISECTION VII
NEW FRANCE, 1534-1760THE ATLANTIC PROVINCES
 
(Vols. 3 and 4)(Vols. 15 and 16)
SECTION IISECTION VIII
BRITISH DOMINION, 1760-1840THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC
 
(Vol. 5)(Vols. 17 and 18)
SECTION IIISECTION IX
UNITED CANADA, 1840-1867THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO
 
(Vols. 6, 7, and 8)(Vols. 19 and 20)
SECTION IVSECTION X
THE DOMINION: POLITICAL EVOLUTIONTHE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
 
(Vols. 9 and 10)(Vols. 21 and 22)
SECTION VSECTION XI
THE DOMINION: INDUSTRIAL EXPANSIONTHE PACIFIC PROVINCE
 
(Vols. 11 and 12)(Vol. 23)
SECTION VISECTION XII
THE DOMINION: MISSIONS; ARTS AND LETTERSDOCUMENTARY NOTES GENERAL INDEX

GENERAL EDITORS

ADAM SHORTT

ARTHUR G. DOUGHTY

 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Thomas ChapaisAlfred D. DeCelles
F. P. WaltonGeorge M. Wrong
William L. GrantAndrew Macphail
James BonarA. H. U. Colquhoun
D. M. DuncanRobert Kilpatrick
Thomas Guthrie Marquis

VOL. 23

 

SECTION XII

 

————

 

GENERAL INDEX

MANUSCRIPT SOURCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINES

HISTORICAL TABLES



Copyright in all countries subscribing to

the Berne Convention


PUBLISHERS’ PREFACE

In a prospectus of Canada and its Provinces, issued some years ago, the publishers printed an advance description of the plan and purpose of the present volume, the twenty-third and last of the series. This description, being in the nature of a bid for subscribers, would presumably not be underdrawn. It would naturally paint the forthcoming volume in colours as vivid as possible. Now that the volume is published, and accomplishment has taken the place of promise, it may be interesting to see how the actual performance compares with the manifesto.

‘This volume,’ the prospectus promises, ‘will be of the highest possible importance. In the foregoing twenty-two volumes the associates have placed their facts and conclusions before the reader; in this volume they will name and point to the sources from which these facts are drawn. The narratives will be followed chapter by chapter, and documentary and other authorities will be cited. By this procedure of consigning citations for the most part to the final volume, the pages of the text are not burdened, and the majority of readers annoyed, by elaborate footnotes, while at the same time the student who wishes to know the sources will have them at his command.

‘Then will follow a Chronological Conspectus of Canadian history, in which the reader may trace its development in condensed outline; and, as a reminder that the development of Canada was after all but a phase in the onward march of the world’s civilization, the chief contemporaneous events of European and American history will be placed in parallel columns. By the laws of association this will further serve as an aid to the memory and understanding, and will epitomize what is already made clear in the narratives, to wit, how events in Canada, in its early stages, were influenced and moulded by, and in some great matters were but the outgrowth of, contemporaneous events in Europe.

‘But the crowning feature of this volume and of the work will be the General Index, wherein the facts contained in the twenty-two volumes will be collected in alphabetical order and rendered as instantly available as the words in a dictionary. And this General Index will do more than merely indicate the volume and page where the information is to be found. It will itself give a great deal of useful and elementary information; so that if the inquirer is only in search of a date or a brief description of a person or place, the Index will answer the question there and then. Nor will the entries be confined to proper names. Under such comprehensive headings as Immigration, Missions, Shipping, Fur Trade, Tariffs, etc., there will be collected references to the volumes and pages where these are discussed and cross references to closely allied topics. Thus any subject may be followed and studied in all its ramifications and aspects.’

The following pages will show that the twenty-third volume has been carried out substantially on the lines then indicated, and with no diminution of the diligent and accurate attention which was given to its predecessors. The General Index, the work of Mr D. S. Douglas, bears testimony to the patience and industry of its compiler in the pursuit of useful but obscure dates and facts, of which, besides the indexical references, it contains thousands.

The publishers desire to extend their thanks to all who have assisted in the preparation and publication of Canada and its Provinces—to the general editors, Dr Shortt and Dr Doughty, with whom their relations throughout have been most cordial, to the associate editors, to the contributors, to the subscribers, and particularly to the printers, Messrs T. & A. Constable.

ROBERT GLASGOW.

Toronto, May 1916.

CONTENTS

PAGE
GENERAL INDEX1
    
MANUSCRIPT SOURCES— 
New France224
Canada under British Rule229
    
BIBLIOGRAPHY— 
SectionI.New France, 1534-1760233
SectionII.British Dominion, 1760-1840240
SectionIII.United Canada, 1840-67252
SectionIV.The Dominion: Political Evolution255
SectionV.The Dominion: Industrial Expansion260
SectionVI.The Dominion: Missions; Arts and Letters264
SectionVII.The Atlantic Provinces267
SectionVIII.The Province of Quebec270
SectionIX.The Province of Ontario273
SectionX.The Prairie Provinces276
SectionXI.The Pacific Province278
    
CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINES— 
PeriodI.French Colonial, 1534-1760284
PeriodII.British Colonial, 1760-1840299
PeriodIII.United Canada, 1840-67311
PeriodIV.The Dominion, 1867-1914317
    
HISTORICAL TABLES— 
Voyages and Discoveries327
Trading and Colonization Companies328
Foundation of Cities328
Capitals of Canada and its Provinces328
Treaties329
Wars and Rebellions331
Governors of Canada 
French331
British. Province of Quebec, 1763-91. Lower Canada, 1791-1841. United Canada, 1841-67. Dominion of Canada, 1867-1915331
Intendants of New France333
Commissaires at Ile Royale (Cape Breton)333
Governors of Montreal334
French Governors of Three Rivers334
English Governors of Three Rivers335
Governors of Acadia335
Governors of Ile Royale (Cape Breton)335
Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of Nova Scotia, 1710-1867336
Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada, 1791-1841336
Lieutenant-Governors of New Brunswick, 1784-1915337
Lieutenant-Governors of Prince Edward Island337
Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of Vancouver Island and British Columbia338
Governors of Rupert’s Land (Hudson’s Bay Company)338
Governors of Assiniboia (Red River Settlement)339
Lieutenant-Governors of Nova Scotia, 1867-1915339
Lieutenant-Governors of Quebec, 1867-1915339
Lieutenant-Governors of Ontario, 1867-1915339
Lieutenant-Governors of Manitoba339
Lieutenant-Governors of North-West Territories340
Lieutenant-Governors of Alberta340
Lieutenant-Governors of Saskatchewan340
Commissioners of the Yukon340
Special Council, Lower Canada, 1838-41340
The Dominion Cabinet 
Premiers341
Ministers of Agriculture341
Ministers of Customs342
Ministers of Finance342
Ministers of Inland Revenue342
Ministers of the Interior342
Ministers of Justice343
Ministers of Marine and Fisheries343
Ministers of Militia and Defence343
Postmasters-General343
Ministers of Labour344
Ministers of the Department of the Naval Service344
Ministers of Mines344
Presidents of the Council344
Ministers of Public Works344
Ministers of Railways and Canals344
Receivers-General345
Secretaries of State for Canada345
Secretaries of State for the Provinces345
Secretaries of State for External Affairs345
Ministers of Trade and Commerce345
Ministers without Portfolio345
Solicitors-General346
The Fathers of Confederation346
The First Senators of the Dominion of Canada346
Provincial Premiers 
Ontario347
Quebec347
Nova Scotia347
New Brunswick347
Prince Edward Island348
Manitoba348
British Columbia348
North-West Territories348
Saskatchewan348
Alberta348
Chief Justices 
Supreme Court of Canada349
Quebec and Lower Canada349
Upper Canada and Ontario349
Nova Scotia350
New Brunswick350
Prince Edward Island351
Manitoba351
Vancouver Island351
British Columbia and Vancouver Island351
British Columbia351
North-West Territories351
Alberta351
Saskatchewan351
Imperial Commanders of the Dominion Militia351
Roman Catholic Hierarchy in Canada352
Bishops of the Church of England in Canada357
Dominion Parliaments360
Principal Newspapers Founded361
Canals Opened362
Railway Bridges Completed362
Disasters 
General362
Wrecks363
Fires363
Population364
    
REGISTER OF SUBSCRIBERS365

GENERAL INDEX

Abbott, J. C. (1789-1863), Anglican missionary. His works on Canadian life and conditions, 12 542-3.

Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell (1821-93), prime minister of Canada (1891-2). His part in the Pacific Scandal, 6 56-57;

  confers with Colonial Office on Letellier case, 15 186;

  as prime minister, 6 119-20;

  imports Guernsey cattle, 7 658.

Abercromby, James, major-general. At Albany, 1 251;

  defeated at Ticonderoga, 265-7.

Aberdeen, George Hamilton-Gordon, fourth Earl of (1784-1860), statesman. And the Oregon boundary question, 8 862, 865;

  why he abated his claims in Oregon, 869 and n.;

  offers fishing privileges to Americans in Bay of Fundy, 688-9.

Aberdeen, John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, seventh Earl of (b. 1847), governor-general of Canada (1893-8). Refuses assent to ministerial nominations, 6 300.

Abnakis (Abenakis), Indian tribe. Jesuit mission to the, 2 386;

  French influence over, 365, 388;

  subjugated by British, 369;

  their settlement destroyed by Rogers, 1 275-6.

Aborigines Protection Society. Purchases Lennox Island, 5 362.

Aboukir Bay. British victory at, celebrated by a Te Deum at Quebec, 15 101.

Abyssinian. Canadian Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 539.

Acadia.

  Special Article: Settlements and Early History, 13 15-66;

  traditions of Norse exploration, 15-16;

  Cabot’s discovery of Cape Breton Island, 16;

  first explorers of, 17;

  system of government under de Monts, 2 317;

  misconceptions as to climate and resources of, 13 17;

  spheres of influence in, 49;

  British expedition against Manhattan diverted to, 51;

  seigneurial grants in, 52-54, 59;

  no land now held by descent from seigneurial title, 53;

  Dutch territorial claims in, 54;

  proposed highway to Canada from, 2 488;

  Louis XIV’s interest in, 13 55;

  conflicts between officials in, and their effect, 2 487;

  its trade with Canada, 487-8;

  grievances of officials, 13 60-61;

  indifference of rival powers to, 64;

  the British claim to ownership by right of discovery, 14 436;

  changes in ownership, 436;

  ceded to Great Britain by Treaty of Utrecht, 1 201, 2 364;

  undefined boundaries of a source of friction, 1 201, 245, 2 365.

  See also Acadians.

Acadia.

  (1) Yarmouth brig, 10 581.

  (2) Sarnia-Lake Superior liner, 10 546.

  (3) Cunard steamship, 10 597.

Acadia Charcoal Iron Works. Operations of in Colchester County, 14 687.

Acadia Coal Company, 14 678-9, 682.

Acadia College. Its foundation and development, 11 351, 357, 13 288-9, 14 517;

  its successive presidents, 11 357-8.

Acadia Seminary for girls, 14 517.

Acadian. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Acadian Magazine. Founded (1826), 13 244.

Acadians.

  Special Articles:

    Settlements and Early History, 13 15-66;

    Nova Scotia under English Rule, 69-124.

  The original stock, 13 41;

  at Port Royal, 14 646;

  effect of environment in country of origin on, 13 41;

  migrations to Cape Breton, 1 208;

  their religion a bar to self-government, 13 69;

  method of election and duties of deputies, 70;

  differ from French of Quebec, 71;

  their litigious temper, 71, 76, 77-78;

  industries of, 72, 14 646;

  government’s vacillation in respect of, 13 73;

  oath administered to, 74;

  as neutrals refuse to renew the oath, 74, 91-94, 115;

  crown attempts to collect feudal dues from, 75;

  refuse to accept ‘Boston money,’ 75;

  the rent-gatherers, 75;

  warned to summon defendants, 77;

  quarrels over boundaries, 78;

  oppose government surveys, 79;

  the Expulsion, 11 255, 13 88-90, 93-94, 98;

  British influence undermined by missionary priests, 91-92;

  their equivocal position as ‘neutrals,’ 92;

  resolution enjoining deportation, 94;

  preparations for the measure, 94;

  their expatriation (1755), 1 244, 245 and n., 13 95-97;

  number deported and destinations of those who escaped, 97;

  Lawrence’s description of their lands, 14 647;

  expulsion followed by Indian outrages, 13 98-99;

  efforts to return frustrated, 114;

  engage in privateering, 114-5;

  captured at Cape Sable and sent to England, 114;

  surrender at Fort Frederick, 115;

  number taken prisoner at Chaleur Bay, 115;

  their concentration at Halifax, 115;

  an attempt at deportation that failed, 115;

  an emigration to Hayti, 115-6;

  their deportation, 11 31, 13 116;

  their numbers, (1671) 52, (1683) 2 488, (1686) 13 55;

  increase between 1714 and 1755, 72;

  number in New Brunswick, (1755) 128;

  in Nova Scotia, (1763) 11 27, (1764) 13 116, (1768) 117;

  volunteer for service, 117, 218, 252;

  their agricultural settlements in Nova Scotia, 14 645-6;

  settle near Quebec and Montreal, 15 53.

  Prince Edward Island:

    migrations to, 7 655, 13 311, 312, 315, 317-9;

    diverse opinions on, 318;

    privations and sufferings of, 319;

    the expulsion, 101, 321-9;

    give hostages, 322-3;

    their inoffensiveness, 323;

    oath-taking by, 326;

    foundering of a transport, 327-9.

  New Brunswick:

    growth of settlement, 128, 188-90, 14 404-5;

    litigation over lands at Memramcook, 13 190;

    increase in, 193;

    favour separate school system, 14 422;

    School Act most beneficial to, 422.

  See also Acadia.

Accommodation. First Canadian steamboat, her initial trip (Nov. 3, 1809), 10 494-5.

Achilles. Transport wrecked while conveying Acadians to St Malo, 13 328.

Actonvale. Effect of mining operations on agricultural development in, 16 586.

Adams, John (1735-1826), American statesman. Assists in negotiating Treaty of Versailles, 3 116, 8 752-3, 797;

  and the British North American fisheries, 685;

  on the Mitchell map, 757, 761;

  recommends forming a post at mouth of Columbia, 861.

Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848), American statesman. Signs Treaty of Ghent (1814), 8 771;

  and the British North American fisheries, 683, 685;

  and Russia’s claims in Bering Sea, 727-8;

  his territorial demands on Pacific Coast, 843;

  his naïve offer to Great Britain, 850, 851;

  on Nootka Convention, 852 n.;

  and Alaska boundary negotiations, 919.

Adams, Samuel (1722-1803), American statesman. His antipathy to British rule, 13 132.

Adams, William (1772-1851). British signatory to Treaty of Ghent (1814), 8 771.

Adams. American armed brig, surrendered at Detroit, 3 224.

Addington, Henry, first Viscount Sidmouth (1757-1844), British statesman. Proposes to settle disbanded Glengarries in Trinidad, 17 67.

Addington, Henry Unwin (1790-1870). Negotiates boundary convention with United States, 8 791-2, 845.

Addison, Robert (c. 1775-1829). Anglican clergyman at Niagara, 11 222;

  conducts a private school, 18 349.

Adet, Pierre Auguste (1763-1832), French minister to United States. His intrigues in Canada, 3 153;

  recalled, 154.

Admiral. Steamer on Toronto-Rochester route, 10 540.

Adolphustown, Township of. Loyalist settlement of, 17 25;

  school established at, before 1790, 18 278.

Advance.

  (1) Sails on Franklin search expedition (1850), 5 301.

  (2) Lakes freighter, 10 556.

Adventists. A religious sect, 11 399.

Adventure.

  (1) Sails with Radisson for Hudson Bay, 1 175.

  (2) Lake war vessel, 10 488.

Advocates’ Library, Montreal. Founded (1828), 16 469.

A. E. Ames. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Aernouts, Dutch buccaneer. Raids Acadia, 13 54.

Africa.

  (1) Ship on which Captain Dacres was court-martialled at Halifax, 13 257.

  (2) Cunard steamship, 10 599.

Agawa. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Agricola.See Young, John.

Agricultural Bank. Founded (1834), 4 629;

  first to allow interest on deposits, 630.

Agricultural Education and State Aid.

  General:

    encouragement given to organization, 7 664;

    first provincial boards, 665;

    federal department, 6 333-4;

    bureau of Agriculture and Statistics, 7 665;

    Dominion Council formed, 666;

    experimental farms, 667-9;

    seed distribution, 668;

    Dairy Commissioner’s department, 669-74;

    Exhibition branch, 675;

    development of state aid, 9 180-1;

    Grain Board formed, 10 472.

  Quebec:

    department created, 16 522;

    its organization and work, 15 232-3;

    publications, societies, and schools, 16 521-3, 524, 525;

    the Agricultural Missionaries, 524-5;

    dairymen’s associations and schools, 526-7.

  Nova Scotia:

    first societies, 14 649;

    provincial department, 463-4;

    schools, 649-50;

    Agricultural College and its courses, 650-1.

  New Brunswick:

    department of Agriculture, 488;

    societies and organizations, 664-8.

  Prince Edward Island:

    government aid in improvement of live stock, 14 660-1;

    educational work, 661;

    organizations, 663.

  Ontario:

    King’s Mills erected, 18 553-4;

    first agricultural society, 555;

    beginning of organization and first provincial grants, 559-61;

    organization from 1846, 562-82;

    periodicals, 568;

    commissioner’s reports (1868, 1869), 570;

    Commission of 1880, 572-3;

    department of Agriculture, 17 232-5;

    farm forestry supervision, 234.

  Prairie Provinces: educational work, 20 344-5.

  Manitoba: 535-7.

  Saskatchewan:

    colonization, 19 178-9;

    education, 20 466, 469-70, 565, 567-9;

    experimental farms, 560-1, 579;

    provincial department, 563;

    farm credits, 325;

    legislation, 563;

    stock-breeders’ organizations, 564;

    provincial and federal aid, 564-5.

  Alberta: organizations and government aid, 593, 602.

  British Columbia:

    first exhibitions, 22 537-8;

    legislative acts and agriculture, 541-52;

    the department, 546-7;

    Horticultural Board Act passed, 547;

    legislation affecting agriculture (1872-1910), 544-6;

    co-operative associations, 547-8;

    Agricultural Credit Associations Act, 1898, 548.

Agricultural Industries.

  Potash:

    its manufacture under British régime, 4 528;

    petition for bounty on, 7 663;

    exports from Upper Canada (1797), 4 556.

  Meat-packing:

    an eighteenth-century anticipation of the industry, 2 504 and n.;

    its development, 9 124, 188, 253;

    specialized industries, 181-2, 253-4, 16 517;

    abattoirs in Saskatchewan, 20 572-3.

  See Milling.

Agriculture.

  Special Articles:

    National Aid to the Farm, 7 651-77;

    Three Centuries of in Quebec, 16 505-27;

    in Maritime Provinces, 14 637-68;

    History of Farming in Ontario, 18 551-82;

    Economic Resources of Manitoba, 20 509-37;

    in Saskatchewan, 546-54, 558-80;

    in Alberta, 583-96;

    History of Farming in British Columbia, 22 525-52.

  New France:

    experiments conducted by Champlain, 1 56;

    the first habitants, 16 505-7;

    land cleared, (1630) 2 455 n., (1759) 584;

    increase in cultivated land (1720-30), 15 54;

    resumption of uncleared land, 2 459;

    rotation of crops to be encouraged, 469-70;

    crops grown in seventeenth century, 16 512-3;

    begins to pay after 1665, 15 54;

    retail of tobacco forbidden, 2 481;

    tobacco exported to La Rochelle, 15 55;

    cultivation of tobacco, 2 510;

    military service detrimental to, 510;

    retarded by conditions, 511-2, 560-1;

    effect of fur trade on, 541-2;

    land clearing and tillage, 16 515-7;

    its slow growth, 2 541-3;

    first lands cleared between Quebec and Montreal, 559;

    farm boundary disputes, 576;

    Peter Kalm’s account of (1749), 580-1.

  Quebec:

    Governor Murray’s report (1762), 4 525;

    its revival, 529;

    Hessian fly devastation and result, 15 191;

    contemporary colonization, 16 511;

    three divisions of climate and temperature, 511-2;

    gloomy period (1760-1850), 517-8;

    farmers’ homes, implements, and clothing, 518-21;

    progress since 1853, 523-5;

    position of farming (1896-1912), 9 244.

  Maritime Provinces:

    climate and geography, 14 637;

    temperatures and precipitation, 637-8.

  Nova Scotia:

    geology and agriculture, 639-41;

    statistics of area and occupancy, 644, 651-2;

    areas suitable for, 644-5;

    lines of settlement, 645-8;

    backward condition, 648;

    plague of mice (1815), 13 260;

    ‘the year without a summer’ (1816), 260;

    letters of ‘Agricola,’ 265-7, 14 649;

    recent immigration, 651;

    ‘weevil’ pest, 386;

    types of farming, 653;

    principal crops, 653-4;

    yields per acre, 654;

    market gardening, 654.

  New Brunswick:

    first settlers and, 13 183;

    premature frosts of 1804, 185;

    ‘the year without a summer’ (1816), 187-8;

    geological areas, 14 641-3;

    statistics of area and occupancy, 663;

    climatic conditions, 663;

    history of, 663-5;

    types of farming, 665-6;

    crops and average yields, 666-7.

  Prince Edward Island:

    geology and, 643-4;

    climatic conditions, 657-8;

    statistics of occupancy, 658;

    history, 658-61;

    mussel mud as a fertilizer, 659-60;

    types of farming, 661-2.

  Ontario:

    area and acreage occupied and assessed, 18 551;

    effect of Great Lakes on, 551;

    as influenced by geology, 551-2;

    early settlement, 552-5;

    work of loyalists, 553-4;

    retarded by War of 1812, 554-5;

    expansion (1816-46), 556-62;

    first British immigration, 556-7;

    nationality as shown in types of farm buildings and speech, 557;

    statistics of occupancy, 558;

    primitive implements of pioneers, 559;

    products of early settlers, 559;

    introduction and development of machinery, 561, 563-4, 570;

    first reaping-machines, 564, 565;

    development (1846-67), 565-9;

    a half-century of British immigration, 568-9;

    depression before Confederation, 569;

    growth of scientific farming (1867-88), 569-74;

    modern period, 9 244, 18 574-82;

    gain in British market offsets loss in the United States, 574-5;

    development after 1895, 575-6;

    farm values (1885-1909), 576;

    intensive cultivation, 578-9;

    province’s leadership in, 9 104, 183.

  Prairie Provinces:

    homestead entries and the area surveyed up to 1901, 20 298, 300, 304;

    areas granted out of public lands, 304, 314;

    total acreage and extent of surveyed area, 314;

    unsurveyed areas suitable for tillage, 315;

    percentage of cultivable land in crop (1912), 315;

    rise in land values, 316.

  Manitoba:

    grants (1882, 1885), 299;

    frosts of August 1885 and 1888, 299, 300;

    failure of bonanza farms, 9 181;

    plant food in soils (tables), 20 510-5;

    climatic conditions, 516;

    temperatures, precipitation, and sunshine over twenty years (tables), 517;

    productivity of soil, 516-8;

    drainage, natural and artificial, 518-9;

    farm management, 519-20;

    deep-breaking and back-setting, 520-1;

    summer fallowing, 521-2;

    mixed farming, 9 244, 20 522;

    rotation of crops, 525;

    rural problems, 533, 534.

  Saskatchewan:

    Dennis’s forecast of the productive areas of the North-West, 19 156;

    report on surface soils with analyses (tables), 20 548-54;

    soil deterioration, 553, 579-80;

    vegetation, 554-5;

    H.B.C. crops prior to settlement, 558;

    pioneer methods, 558, 559;

    farming in 1885, 559-60;

    discouragements up to 1890, 561;

    variations of soil and climate, 567-8;

    summer tillage, 568;

    miscellaneous crops, 570;

    grain-farmer’s conditions and methods, 575-7.

  Alberta:

    the acreage under lease in 1891, 303;

    reform in the leasing system, 304;

    sugar-beet raising, 323;

    distribution of shelter trees, 326;

    climate and precipitation (tables), 584-6;

    area and area available for settlement, 586;

    possibilities in north for, 586-8;

    soil, 588;

    natural vegetation, 588;

    cultivated grasses, 589;

    position of farming (1896-1912), 9 244.

  British Columbia:

    pioneer farmers, 22 525-9;

    prospects in 1863, 529-34;

    prices in 1862, 532-3;

    conditions and prospects in 1872, 535-6;

    value of production (1912), 536;

    area of arable land, 539;

    obstacles to progress, 540-1;

    areas alienated and left unsettled, 541;

    regulations before Confederation, 543-4;

    alienations of arable land, 544;

    small holdings, 549;

    changing fortunes of, 548-50;

    future of, 551-2.

  Dominion:

    area under cultivation or enclosed, 7 651;

    climatic and soil conditions, 651;

    a contrast in pioneer conditions, 652;

    influence of geological conditions on, 9 72-74;

    prospects at Confederation, 99, 103-5;

    lack of markets prior to railways, 7 652;

    unit of occupancy, 652;

    percentage of population engaged in and value of yield, 9 283;

    in hands of working proprietors, 7 653, 9 283;

    a period of falling prices, 179-80;

    opening up of the West, 191-3;

    troubled prosperity, 243-6;

    self-contained production, 7 653;

    scarcity of labour, 9 246, 283;

    tobacco cultivation, 7 675;

    area and value of field crops (1910), 676;

    increasing stability of, 677.

  See

    Agricultural Education and State Aid;

    Agricultural Industries;

    Dairying; Elevators;

    Flax and Hemp;

    Fruit-growing;

    Immigration;

    Wheat and Grain.

Aguilar, Martin d’. His voyage of 1602, 21 17.

Ahrens, Carl (b. 1866). Landscape painter, 12 622.

Aigremont, Clerambault d’. His report on New France, 2 493-4.

Aiguillon, Marie Madeleine de Vignerot, Duchesse d’ (d. 1675). Founds hospital at Quebec (1639), 2 410.

Aikins, James Cox (1823-1904). Presses for withdrawal of policy of ‘disallowance,’ 19 121.

Ailleboust de Coulonge, Louis d’ (d. 1660), governor of New France (1648-51). Opposes proposed composition of council (1647), 2 329;

  mission to New England (1650), 332.

Ainslie, Thomas. On arrival of Carleton at Quebec, 3 83.

Airey, Julius. His visit to Port Talbot, 17 64.

Airey, Richard, afterwards Lord Airey (1803-81). Visits Port Talbot, 17 64.

Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of (1748). Cape Breton Island restored to France under, 1 217, 232, 2 372, 13 81.

Akpatok Island, Ungava Bay. Sighted by Hudson, 1 151.

Alabama Claims, 6 46-47;

  award of Geneva Convention, 51-52.

Alain, Jean Baptiste Louis (1753-1833). French priest serving in Maritime Provinces, 11 42.

Alarm. Vessel built by the Salters, 10 585.

Alaska. Explored by Vitus Bering, 8 723, 727;

  acquired by Russia, 723;

  purchased by United States, 723, 729, 930.

Alaska Boundary Dispute. The Ukase of 1821, 8 917-9;

  negotiations of Great Britain and United States with Russia, 919-20;

  Monroe doctrine promulgated, 920-2;

  Bagot’s instructions and proposals, 922-4;

  modification of Bagot’s instructions, 924-5;

  Stratford Canning takes up negotiations, 925-7;

  Russo-British Treaty of 1825, 927-8, 21 67-68;

  the Dryad case, 8 928-9;

  neutralization of territory during Crimean War, 929;

  Russian America acquired by United States, 723, 729, 930;

  unfounded accounts of events leading up to sale, 930 and n.;

  British request for joint survey (1872), 930;

  Stikine River boundary, 931;

  Dall-Dawson correspondence, 931-2;

  British protests against contemplated infringements, 932-3;

  boundary survey conventions (1892 and 1895), 933;

  friction at Chilkoot and White Passes (1896), 933-5;

  appointment of Joint High Commission, 935;

  Convention of 1903, 936-8;

  composition of Alaska Boundary tribunal, 6 145-6, 8 939, 955, 956;

  points at issue, 938-9;

  decision re Portland Canal, 939-41;

  cases and counter-cases, 941-50;

  the decision, 6 146-7, 8 950;

  dissatisfaction in Canada over decision, 6 147-8;

  review of case, 8 951-8.

Alaska Commercial Company. Leases Pribyloff Islands, 8 723;

  and a sealing monopoly, 9 159.

Alaunia. Cunarder, 10 600.

Alava, Don Jose Manuel. Spanish commander at Nootka, 21 51, 52.

Albanel, Charles (1616-96), Jesuit. At Hudson Bay, 1 172, 8 882.

Albani, Madame (Marie Louise Cécilia Emma Lajeunesse), (b. 1850). Native of Chambly, near Montreal, 12 649.

Albany. Its trade with Montreal suppressed, 2 502;

  prices at, compared with Montreal, 502-3;

  conference with Iroquois at, 1 238;

  British rendezvous (1755), 242.

Albany.

  (1) Sails with Knight’s expedition (1719), 1 195.

  (2) Sent to suppress piracy in Bay of Fundy, 13 136.

Albatross. Steamer owned by Lieutenant-Colonel Sleigh, 12 516.

Albemarle, Christopher, second Duke of (1653-88). One of the ‘Gentlemen Adventurers,’ 1 162;

  original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 166.

Albert. First steamer on Georgetown-Pictou route, 10 563.

Albert College, Belleville, 11 337, 18 401.

Albert Manufacturing Company, Hillsborough, N.B. Its success under protection, 14 694.

Albert Railway. Its hopeless financial position, 10 448-9.

Alberta. C.P.R. steamer of upper lakes fleet, 10 556.

Alberta. See Prairie Provinces; Saskatchewan.

Alberta and Great Waterways Railway Company. Relations of Rutherford government with, 19 276-7.

Alberta College, Edmonton, 11 337, 20 497, 498, 499, 503-4.

Alberta Ladies’ College, Red Deer, 20 499.

Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company, 20 591.

Alberta, University of. Its incorporation and progress, 20 499-502;

  statistics, 1908 to 1913, 503;

  its affiliations and extension work, 503-5;

  problem raised by rapid expansion, 506.

Albion. Sailing vessel owned by the brothers Allan, 10 603.

Albion Mines Coal Company, of Pictou. Owners of first steam vessel to enter a Prince Edward Island port, 10 562-3.

Albright, Jacob (1759-1808). Founder of Evangelical Association, 11 399.

Alcedo. Vessel built of spruce at Moncton, 10 585.

Alcide. French ship captured by Boscawen, 13 90.

Alciope. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 498.

Alcorn, George Oscar (b. 1850). Introduces a corrupt practices prevention bill, 6 162.

Aldborough, Township of. Granted to Thomas Talbot, 17 61;

  settled by Scottish Highlanders, 63;

  lands conveyed to Colonel Airey, 64.

Alden. Sent by Phips to raid Nova Scotia, 13 56.

Alderney. Conveys settlers to Halifax (1750), 13 83.

Alderville, Northumberland County. Industrial school established at (1848), 5 349-50.

Aleutian Islands, separating Bering Sea from Pacific Ocean. Discovered by Vitus Bering, 21 40.

Alexander. Ottawa River steamboat, 10 554.

Alexander I of Russia (1777-1825). His claims in Bering Sea, 8 727, 917.

Alexander VI, Pope (1431-1503). Awards Spain territories in New World (1493), 21 13.

Alexander, Sir William, afterwards Earl of Stirling (c. 1567-1640). Obtains grant of Acadia and Cape Breton Island from James I (1621), 13 36;

  divisions and designations of territory, 36;

  his scheme of colonization, 36-37;

  finds difficulty in obtaining suitable tenants, 37;

  his three expeditions, 37;

  abandonment of colony, 38;

  territorial claims founded on his grant, 8 756, 763, 769, 774, 792.

Alexander, William John (b. 1855). Author of Introduction to the Poetry of Robert Browning, 12 529.

Alexandria, Hudson’s Bay Company’s fort on Fraser River. Named after Alexander Mackenzie, 4 654, 659, 127 n.

Alexandria Archipelago. Sighted by Chirikoff, 21 41.

Alexis, Brother. Murdered by Iroquois at Lac la Biche (1875), 11 163.

Algoma.

  (1) Steamboat on Georgian Bay and Lake Superior route, 10 546.

  (2) C.P.R. steamboat, 10 556.

Algoma Steamship Line. Freighters owned by, 10 557.

Algonquin Indians. Ally with French against Iroquois, 1 45;

  at feud with Hurons, 55, 60, 69;

  settlement at Sillery for converts, 2 410;

  their canoes, 10 477;

  mission to, of Lake Timiskaming, 11 67-68.

Algonquin, L’.

  (1) War vessel built at Quebec, 10 482, 15 55;

  its defective condition, 10 483.

  (2) Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Algonquin National Park, 17 218.

Alien Labour Act and its amendment in 1901, 9 341.

Allain, Abbé. Quoted re education in France in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 16 323, 324, 325-6.

Allan, Adam. Removes boundary mark at Meductic, 13 177.

Allan, Captain Alexander. Father of Sir Hugh Allan, 10 602.

Allan, Andrew. His association with Sir Hugh Allan, 10 602-5.

Allan, Sir Hugh (1810-82). His early career, 10 602;

  characteristics, 603;

  establishes a fleet of sailing vessels, 603;

  Montreal Ocean Steamship Company acquired by, 604-5;

  and C.P.R. charter, 6 54-55;

  his part in Pacific Scandal, 56-58, 10 421;

  founder of Canada’s ocean-going marine, 5 7.

Allan, John (1746-1805). One of the Cumberland rebels, 13 218;

  plans conquest of Nova Scotia, 219;

  his revolutionary propaganda on St John River, 136-7;

  alleges trespass on United States territory, 8 757, 13 160.

Allan, William. Member of executive council of Upper Canada, 3 355.

Allan Line. Its formation, 10 604;

  secures mail contracts, 5 399, 10 604;

  first fleet of, 605;

  speed of steamers in 1856, 5 399;

  effect of trade depression on (1859), 10 605;

  a period of steamship disaster, 5 402-3, 10 605;

  cancellation and renewal of contract, 5 403-4;

  steamships and their routes, 10 606-8;

  companies absorbed by, 607;

  its adaptability, 607.

Allard, Germain, Récollet. Arrives at Quebec, 2 420.

Allard, Joseph. Member of first board of Education of Manitoba, 20 427.

Allard, Jules. Portfolio in Quebec government held by, 15 213 n.

Allegiance, sloop-of-war. Takes part in action near Sydney (1781), 13 222.

Allen, Ethan (1737-89), American Revolutionary leader. Outlawed, 3 79;

  stirs up disaffection, 81;

  surrenders at Montreal, 81;

  negotiates for return of Vermont to British allegiance, 115.

Allen, George T. Justice of peace for Vancouver Island (1849), 21 87.

Allen, Ira (1751-1814). Purchases arms for Vermont, 3 153;

  treats for freedom of trade, 4 534;

  and the Chambly Canal, 10 515.

Allen, Isaac (1741-1806). Locates lands for loyalists in Nova Scotia, 13 148;

  puisne judge of New Brunswick, 153;

  his previous service, 155.

Allen, Sir John Campbell (1817-98). Judge in New Brunswick, 14 415.

Allen, Captain William. In command of the Bonaventure and Seaforth, 1 184.

Allet, Antoine d’ (b. c. 1634), Sulpician. Assists in founding seminary at Montreal, 2 415.

Alligator, H.M.S. Brings four captures into Halifax, 13 252.

Alline, Henry (1748-84). His ‘New Light’ revival and its influence, 11 353, 381.

Allioux, Vincent (b. 1698). Professor of hydrography in Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 376.

Allison, David (b. 1836). Superintendent of Education in Nova Scotia, 14 532.

Allouez, Claude (c. 1613-89), Jesuit. Founds mission on Chequamegon Bay, 1 80;

  addresses Indians at Sault Ste Marie on greatness of French king, 102-3.

Allsopp, George. Signs petition of Quebec traders (1764), 15 134;

  appointed to legislative council (1788), 134.

Allumette Island. Algonquin village on, 1 50;

  Nicolet and Brébeuf separate at, 60;

  toll paid to Algonquin chief at, 68.

Allward, Walter Seymour (b. 1875). Sculptor, 12 633.

Alma Ladies’ College, St Thomas, 11 337.

Almon, William Bruce. Challenges Joseph Howe to a duel, 13 292.

Alnwick. School for Indian children established at (1838), 5 349.

Alsatian. Allan liner, 10 608.

Alstine, Peter Van. Assists in settlement of his disbanded loyalists, 17 24, 25, 26;

  signs the loyalist petition (1787), 39.

Alvarez Fagundez, João. Explores coast of Nova Scotia, 1 25.

Alverstone, Sir Richard Webster, Baron (1842-1915), lord chief justice of England. Member of Alaskan Boundary Commission, 6 146, 8 938, 955;

  his position as arbitrator, 6 148;

  his decisions, 8 939-40, 950;

  comments on his decisions, 940 and n., 957.

Amalgamated Asbestos Company, 9 260.

Ameau, Séverin. First teacher at Three Rivers, 16 346.

America.

  (1) Arrives at Victoria, British Columbia (1845), 21 88.

  (2) Great Western Railway steamboat, 10 545.

  (3) Cunard steamship, 10 599.

American Civil War. Its effect on Canadian trade, 5 188.

American Federation of Labour. Founded in 1881, 9 306;

  its conflict with Knights of Labour, 304, 306-9;

  allied with Canadian Trades and Labour Congress, 330-2.

American-German Catholics. Immigration of in Saskatchewan, 19 178.

American Mail Line. Its fleet, 10 540;

  liquidation of, 540.

American Metal Company, of New York. Its operations in Nova Scotia, 14 696;

  engages in litigation, 697.

Ames, Sir Herbert Brown (b. 1863). His charge against the Laurier administration, 6 162.

Amherst, Sir Jeffery (1717-97). In command of Louisbourg expedition, 1 222, 13 324;

  at Ticonderoga and Lake Champlain, 1 273;

  characteristics as leader, 274;

  commander-in-chief in North America, 4 427;

  at Montreal, 1 311;

  refuses to regard French Canadians as neutrals, 15 261;

  his instructions to district governors, 4 428;

  claims a share of Jesuit estates, 16 408;

  relieved of command, 3 68.

Amherst, William Pitt, Earl Amherst of Arracan (1773-1857). Appointed governor-in-chief of the Canadas, but resigns before taking office, 3 320.

Amherstburg. Hull’s movements against, 3 220;

  Sir F. B. Head’s visit to Indian settlement at, 5 336.

Amhurst, Lieutenant. Deputy surveyor in Nova Scotia, 13 79.

Amours, Louis d’, Sieur de Chauffours. See Chauffours.

Amours, Mathieu d’. Prefect of Little Seminary of Quebec, 16 387.

Amundsen, Roald (b. 1872), Arctic explorer. Completes the North-West Passage (1903-5), 5 302 n.

Amyot, Jean. Petitions for full exercise of Catholic religion in Quebec, 11 16.

Andania. Cunard liner, 10 600.

Anderson, Alexander. Principal of Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown, 14 537;

  superintendent of Education, P.E.I., 538.

Anderson, Alexander Caulfield (1814-94). Sent to establish a post in Alaskan hinterland, 21 68;

  justice of peace for Vancouver Island, 87, 124;

  at New Fort Langley, 127 n.;

  encourages farming and horticulture, 22 528;

  on British Columbia as a field for immigration, 535-6;

  on crops raised at trading posts, 527-8.

Anderson, Chandler P. United States boundary commissioner, 8 779.

Anderson, David (1814-85). First Anglican bishop of Rupert’s Land (1849-64), 11 228;

  founds St John’s College, Winnipeg, 20 425; 21 125.

Anderson, James. Secures Franklin relics, 5 304.

Anderson, James R. Petitions for retention of Governor Blanshard, 21 121;

  first secretary of department of Agriculture of British Columbia, 22 546-7.

Anderson, John. Anglican clergyman at Fort Erie, 11 223.

Anderson, S. Signs loyalist petition (1787), 17 39.

Anderson, S., captain R.E. Boundary survey commissioner, 8 877.

Anderson, William (d. 1778). Surgeon of the Resolution, 21 24.

André, Louis (c. 1623-1715), Jesuit. At Lake Nipissing, 1 81;

  at Sault Ste Marie, 103;

  on Manitoulin Island, 103;

  at Green Bay, 104.

André, Father. Parish priest of Prince Albert, 11 165.

Andres, Nicholas. Obtains grant in Eastern Townships, 15 150.

Andrew Weir Line of steamships, 10 618.

Andrews, Frederick William, judge of Superior Court of Quebec. His decision on Pacaud-Armstrong agreement case, 15 205.

Andrews, I. D. On reciprocity, 5 237;

  reports on Canadian trade, 238;

  sent on mission to Canada, 241-2.

Andrews, Samuel (1736-1818). First Anglican incumbent at St Andrews, N.B., 11 209.

Andrews, Captain. In command of the Ontario, wrecked on the lake (1780), 10 487-8.

Andros, Sir Edmund (1637-1713), governor of New York. Ignores his instructions, 2 356 n.

Angelica. Lake vessel, 10 486.

Angers, Sir Auguste Réal (b. 1838). Leader of the Quebec assembly, 15 180;

  as lieutenant-governor dismisses Mercier, 200-4.

Angers, Félicité (‘Laure Conan’). French-Canadian novelist, 12 476.

Anglican Church.

  Special Article: The Church and its Missions, 11 199-246;

  notes on the mother church, 199-200;

  untrained in systematic liberality, 200.

  Nova Scotia:

    its history, 201-6;

    bishops of, 207-8, 13 240-1;

    founding of King’s College, 241-2.

  New Brunswick: 11 208-12;

    bishops of, 211;

    rights of presentation, 13 166;

    imperial aid granted to missionaries, 166;

    its favoured position, 167.

  Prince Edward Island: first clergyman and religious conditions, 11 206.

  Quebec: 212-20;

    erection of diocese (1793), 215.

  Ontario: 221-7;

    Laymen’s Missionary Movement, 227.

  North-West Territories: 227-32.

  British Columbia: 232-5.

    Educational and evangelical work, 239, 14 547, 7 610, 611, 612;

    missionary organizations and fields of labour, 11 244-6.

  Constitutional:

    Quebec Act and support of clergy, 235-6;

    Constitutional Act, 236;

    clergy reserves question, 236;

    state aid to, 236-7;

    synods of the Church, 237-9.

  See Clergy Reserves;

    also under names of bishops and clergy.

Anglin, Margaret Mary (b. 1876). Canadian actress, 12 660.

Anglo-Saxon. Allan liner, 10 604;

  wrecked near Cape Race (1863), 5 403, 10 604.

Angloman. Dominion Line steamship, wrecked (1897), 10 609.

Anian, Strait of. Navigators who claimed to have sailed through, 21 18-19.

Ann.

  (1) Conveys German settlers to Halifax (1750), 13 83.

  (2) Schooner built at Pictou, 10 582.

Annand, William (1808-92). Elected for Halifax County, 13 284;

  premier of Nova Scotia, 14 380;

  anti-Confederation delegate to England, 380;

  refuses to meet Dominion delegates, 381;

  his attacks on Joseph Howe, 382.

Annapolis Royal. First Anglican service in Nova Scotia held at (1710), 11 201;

  school opened at, 201;

  attacked by expedition from Louisbourg, 1 211;

  first incumbents of, 11 203;

  quantity of rum allowed for garrison of, 13 86;

  social and religious conditions in eighteenth century, 11 203;

  failure to capture Acadians at, 13 96;

  number of Acadians expelled from, 97;

  sacked by American privateers, 220;

  and loyalist immigration, 234;

  post office opened at (1788), 5 373.

  See Port Royal.

Anne. Ship captured at Amherstburg by Canadian militia, 7 388.

Anne and Jane. Ship passes through Welland Canal (1829), 10 527.

Anne of Austria (1601-66). Offers bishopric of Quebec to Father le Jeune, 2 418.

Annexation Association (founded 1849). Discordant elements in, 5 59;

  Manifesto of 1849, 234-5;

  result of tariff changes in Great Britain, 53-54, 10 373;

  hostility of Quebec clergy to, 15 106.

Annuities, Old Age. Established in Canada (1908), 6 161-2, 342-3.

Ansley, Amos. Anglican clergyman appointed to March, 11 223.

Anson, George, Baron Anson (1697-1762). First Lord of the Admiralty (1751-6, 1757-62), 1 261-2;

  as a selector of commanders, 262.

Anticosti, Island of. Sighted by Cartier, 1 35.

Antigonish. College of St Francis Xavier founded at (1854), 13 289.

Anville, Nicolas de la Rochefoucauld, Duc d’. Anticipated attack by, on Annapolis Royal (1746), 13 80;

  destruction of his fleet, 80.

Anwyl, William (d. 1750). Anglican clergyman at Halifax (1749), 11 201.

Aplin, Joseph. On loyalist settlements at St John, 13 146.

Appleton. Schoolmaster dismissed by John Strachan, 18 353.

Arabasca. Lake vessel, 10 486.

Arabia. Last Cunarder to be constructed of wood, 10 599.

Arabian.

  (1) Steamboat on Hamilton-Montreal route, 10 540.

  (2) Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Arbuthnot, Mariot (c. 1711-94). Supersedes Sir George Collier, 13 227.

Arbuthnot, Colonel. Brings Indian chiefs to Halifax, 13 108;

  receives Acadian submission, 115.

Archambault, L. Minister of Agriculture of Quebec, 15 178 n.;

  involved in ‘Land-swap Scandal,’ 179.

Archambeault, Joseph Alfred (1859-1913). Roman Catholic bishop of Joliette (1904-13), 11 90.

Archangel. Lake war vessel, 10 488.

Archbold, George (d. 1840). Anglican missionary to Indians, 11 223.

Archibald, Sir Adams George (1814-92), lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia (1873-83). Concurs in passing Nova Scotia Free Schools Act (1864), 14 523;

  on sensitiveness of the Métis, 6 31-32;

  secretary of state, 22;

  governor of North-West Territories, 19 193;

  his instructions, 193-5;

  arrives at Fort Garry, 6 42-43, 19 97;

  makes ultra vires appointments, 196-7;

  on flight of Riel, 98;

  accepts Riel’s assistance against projected Fenian raid, 6 43, 11 158-9, 19 102-3;

  on Fenian danger, 19 104;

  on treatment of the Métis, 11 158;

  acknowledges their services, 159;

  on constitution of Nova Scotia, 14 441.

Archibald, Samuel George William (1777-1846), speaker of Nova Scotia assembly. On right of house to control of finance, 13 280.

Architecture.

  Special Article: Canadian Architecture, 12 665-75;

  general conditions, 665-7;

  French-Canadian, 667-71;

  English-Canadian, 671-4;

  influence of American on Canadian, 674-5.

Archithinues, tribe of Blackfoot Indians. Visited by Anthony Hendry, 1 198.

Arctic Sound. Sir John Franklin’s visit to, 4 681.

Aréthuse. Skilfully handled by Vauquelin at Louisbourg, 1 225-6.

Argall, Samuel (d. 1626). Destroys French settlements in Acadia, 13 34;

  raids Jesuit mission (1613), 2 386.

Argenson, Pierre de Voyer, Vicomte d’ (1626-1710), governor of New France (1658-61). His reception at Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 362, 371;

  on purity of morals in New France, 2 417;

  deports an undesirable, 417.

Argimault, Joseph (or Argimoosh), Indian chief. Makes submission at Halifax (1761), 13 108-9.

Argonaut. Vessel trading on north-west coast (1789), 21 37;

  seized at Nootka, 43.

Argue, William Pirritt. Member of senate of University of British Columbia, 22 442.

Argus, American fishing vessel. Seizure of, 8 687;

  damages awarded, 693.

Arles, Henri d’ (Father Henri Beaudé). His essays in criticism, 12 488.

Arlington, Henry, Lord (1618-85). Original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 166.

Armenians. As Canadian immigrants, 7 565-6.

Armour, John Douglas (1830-1903), judge of Supreme Court. Member of Alaskan Boundary Commission, 6 146, 8 938, 955.

Armour, Samuel (1785-1853). Anglican clergyman at Peterborough, 11 223.

Armstrong, C. N., and the Baie des Chaleurs Railway Scandal, 15 200-5.

Armstrong, John (1758-1843), American secretary for war. Proposes campaign against Montreal, 3 246.

Armstrong, Lawrence (d. 1739). Administrator of Nova Scotia (1726-9, 1731-9), 13 73;

  and land for religion and education, 14 511;

  suicide of, 13 73.

Armstrong, William, sheriff of New Westminster. Fisheries commissioner (1891), 22 453.

Armstrong, W. J. Member of first legislative assembly of British Columbia, 21 180;

  portfolios held by, 183, 22 546, 21 209.

Armstrong, Colonel. His raid on the Delawares, 1 253.

Arnold, Arthur. Anglican clergyman at Sussex Vale, N.B. (1791), 11 210.

Arnold, Benedict (1741-1801). Attacks St Johns, 3 80;

  his campaign against Quebec, 82, 84-96;

  wounded, 93;

  withdraws to Montreal, 96;

  retires on Crown Point, 97;

  his defence of Lake Champlain, 102-3;

  subscribes for road construction in New Brunswick, 13 168;

  his character, 3 88.

Arnold, Judge Robert. Introduces shorthorns into Canada, 7 658, 18 561.

Arnold’s American Legion. Their location on the St John, 13 149.

Arnoux, Dr. Montcalm succumbs in house of, 1 306.

Aroostook War.’ Accounts of the dispute (1839), 7 390-1, 8 815, 13 203, 289;

  known as ‘the War of Pork and Beans,’ 204.

Arpent de Paris. Unit of land measurement in New France, 2 559 n.

Arrets of Marly. See Seigneurial System.

Arrow Lakes. Traversed by David Thompson, 4 669;

  navigation system and steamer services, 10 571.

Arsenault, Pierre. A pioneer colonist of Chignecto, 13 52.

Art. Painting and Sculpture in Canada, 12 593-640;

  Music and the Theatre, 643-61;

  Canadian Architecture, 665-75;

  societies and organizations, 634-6;

  the art situation in Canada, 636-40.

Art Association of Montreal, 12 635.

Art Museum of Montreal, 12 636.

Art Museum of Toronto, 12 636.

Arteaga, Captain Ignacio. In command of Spanish expedition to North Pacific (1779), 21 22.

Arthur, Sir George (1784-1854). Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1838-41), 3 356;

  his severity with the rebels, 3 367, 4 393;

  report of his commission of inquiry, 18 286-8;

  his embarrassing position on question of union, 4 412-3.

Arthur the Great. Quebec-built clipper designed by William Power, 10 579.

Arts. Societies and organizations, 12 634-6;

  the situation in Canada, 636-40.

  See names of individual societies.

Ascania. Cunard liner, 10 600.

Ash, John (d. 1886). Member of first legislative assembly of British Columbia, 21 180;

  provincial secretary, 183;

  favours arbitration on railway question, 203.

Ashburton, Alexander Baring, first Baron (1774-1848). On the ‘battle of the maps,’ 8 824;

  his instructions on Oregon boundary question, 862.

  See Ashburton Treaty.

Ashburton Treaty (1842). Ashburton’s negotiations and settlement on Maine boundary dispute, 8 815-8;

  attacked by Palmerston, 818;

  views on the partition, 826-7, 13 203;

  and water channels of St Lawrence, 8 830;

  boundary from Lake Huron to Lake of the Woods under, 832, 835-6.

Ashehurst, Thomas. Merchant of Bristol, 1 24.

Ashley, Anthony, Lord (1621-83). Original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 166.

Ashtabula. Lake Erie car ferry, 10 548.

Asia.

  (1) Cunard steamship, 10 599.

  (2) Steamer of Windsor-Lake Superior Line, 10 546.

Asphodel, Township of. Its survey and settlement, 17 82.

Asquith, Herbert H. (b. 1852), prime minister of Great Britain. Defends free trade, 6 192, 9 212;

  opposes creation of an imperial council of state, 6 193.

Asselin, Olivar (b. 1874). On the aims of nationalism, 6 186.

Assiniboia. C.P.R. steamer, 10 556.

Assiniboia, Council of. Governing body in Red River Settlement, 6 32;

  its original composition, 19 47;

  amenable to Hudson’s Bay Company, 57;

  admission of French half-breeds to, 11 140;

  social ostracism and repression attempted by, 19 59-60;

  its ordinances regulating court procedure, 20 372.

Assiniboia, Court of. Created in 1839, 20 371;

  its jurisdiction challenged at Lépine’s trial, 371-2.

Assiniboia, District of. Name given to Red River Settlement, 20 369;

  its boundaries and area, 386;

  cultivated area (1886, 1887), 19 168 and n.;

  foreign immigration in, 167-8.

Assiniboine River. Explored by David Thompson, 4 665.

Assiniboines, Indian tribe. Offer to accompany Jacques de Noyon to shores of Western Sea, 1 114;

  La Vérendrye visits the, 123-4;

  their discipline and order on the march, 125;

  a buffalo hunt among the, 4 647-9;

  their territory and numbers, 11 115.

Associated Loyalists. Land grants to, 17 29.

Astor, John Jacob (1763-1848). Applies for a land grant in Eastern Townships, 15 148;

  establishes Pacific Fur Company and founds Astoria, 4 668, 21 58-59;

  engages French-Canadian voyageurs, 15 73.

Astoria. Fort built near mouth of Columbia River by Pacific Fur Company (1811), 4 668, 8 850, 21 59, 246;

  territorial claim founded on its construction, 8 859 n.;

  sold to North-West Company and renamed Fort George (1813), 850, 21 61;

  restored to United States, 8 850, 854, 21 61;

  farming at, 22 527.

Astrée, French frigate. Its fight with the Charlestown, 13 222-3.

Atahualpa, American ship. Attacked by Indians at Nootka, 21 54.

Atalante. Vauquelin’s gallant handling of, at Quebec, 1 309-10.

Athabasca.

  (1) C.P.R. steamer, 10 556.

  (2) Steamer on the Mackenzie River, 19 170.

Athabaska, District of. Its boundaries and area (1882), 20 386;

  treaties with Indians and half-breeds of, 11 184.

Athabaska River. Fort constructed by Peter Pond on (1778), 4 651;

  ascended by David Thompson (1810-1), 667;

  its navigable stretches and steamer services, 10 568.

Athapascan Indians. Inform Alexander Henry of existence of Peace and Slave Rivers, 4 649.

Athenia. Donaldson Line steamship, 10 614.

Athenian.

  (1) Canadian Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 539.

  (2) C.P.R. steamship, 10 617.

Atkinson, E. W. Painter of pastorals, 12 617.

Atlantic. Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Atlantic and St Lawrence Railway.

  See St Lawrence and Atlantic Railway.

Atlas. Ottawa River steamboat, 10 554.

Atnah Indians, and Simon Fraser’s descent of the Fraser River, 4 659-60.

Atwater, Albert William (b. 1856). Joins Flynn’s administration in Quebec (1896), 15 208.

Aubert de Gaspé, Philippe (1786-1871), French-Canadian novelist. Arrested for threatening a member of assembly, 4 475;

  his Les Anciens Canadiens, 12 472-3.

Aubert de la Chesnaye, Charles (1630-1702). Persuades Radisson and Groseilliers to re-enter French service, 1 173.

Aubert, Néret, and Gayot. Farmers of the revenue, 2 492;

  merged in Company of the West, 492.

Aubert, Pierre. Joins Red River mission, 11 133, 134, 20 421.

Aubrey, Nicolas, pioneer priest of New France. Accompanied de Monts to Acadia, 2 381.

Auchinleck, Gilbert. His History of the War (of 1812), 12 502.

Auckland, William, first Baron (1744-1814). Negotiates unratified boundary convention with United States, 8 771, 783, 840.

Augsburg, League of. Coalition of England, Holland, and Germany against France. Ends with Treaty of Ryswick, 15 49.

Augusta, Township of. Settled by part of Jessup’s corps, 17 25.

Augustinian Nuns. Arrive at Quebec (1639), 2 411.

Auld, William, Hudson’s Bay Company superintendent at York Factory. His hostility to Miles Macdonell, 19 21, 24, 26, 31;

  describes Highlanders as ‘civilized Caffres,’ 25.

Aulneau de la Touche, Jeanne Pierre (1705-36), Jesuit. Missionary at Fort St Charles, 11 117;

  murdered by the Sioux, 117-8.

Ausonia. Cunard liner, 10 600.

Austin, Horatio Thomas, navigator. On Franklin search expedition (1850), 5 301;

  explores Prince of Wales Land, 303.

Austin, James T. Boundary Commission agent, 8 772.

Austin, Nicholas. Loyalist patentee of Bolton township, 15 150.

Austin, R. H. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Australia. Contributes to imperial naval defence, 6 188;

  as a destination for British immigrants, 9 194;

  negotiates for reciprocal preference with Canada, 213;

  its shipping preference reserved by imperial government, 233.

Austrian Succession, War of the, 1 219, 15 50.

Austro-Hungarians. Canadian immigration of, 7 558-60;

  their lack of capital, 559;

  their defects as settlers, 560;

  homesteaders in Prairie Provinces, 20 316.

Auteuil, Denis Joseph Ruette d’, procureur-general of Canada. His memoirs on Hudson Bay boundaries, 8 890.

Avaugour, Pierre Dubois, Baron d’, governor of New France (1661-3). His extortionate demands on Radisson, 1 77, 79;

  favours acquisition of a winter port, 2 348, 460-1;

  his report on the colony, 460-1;

  recalled, 336.

Avenant, L’, French man-of-war. Takes first supply of masts to France (1700), 14 599.

Aveu et dénombrement, 2 543.

Avray, J. Marshall d’. Principal of Fredericton normal school, 14 551;

  superintendent of Education for New Brunswick, 552.

Aylesworth, Sir Allen Bristol (b. 1854). Member of Alaska Boundary Commission, 6 146, 8 955, 956;

  dissents and refuses to sign award, 6 146, 8 950;

  his criticism of award, 6 147-8, 8 940;

  on disallowance of provincial legislation, 6 220;

  his act to purify elections, 163;

  on fisheries regulations, 175.

Aylesworth, J. B. Member of Ontario Agricultural Commission (1880), 18 572.

Aylmer, Matthew Whitworth, Baron (1775-1850), governor-in-chief of Canada (1831-5). His administration, 3 310-1;

  appoints nationalists to council, 314-5;

  and assembly’s expulsion of Dominique Mondelet, 4 478;

  condemned in the Ninety-two Resolutions, 3 318;

  present at launch of Royal William (1831), 10 592.

Aylmer, Lady. Christens the Royal William, 10 592.

Aylmer Lake. Explored by Captain Back, 4 686.

Aylwin, Thomas. Signs Quebec grand jury’s petition (1764), 15 128, 135.

 

Babcock, John Pease. Deputy commissioner of Fisheries, British Columbia, 22 454;

  reports on a hatchery system, 455;

  member of fisheries commissions, 456, 459;

  his investigations, 466.

Baby, Francis (1733-1820). Member of first executive council of Lower Canada, 3 141.

Baby, Jacques (1762-1833). Member of first executive council of Upper Canada, 3 173.

Baby, Louis François Georges (1834-1906). Minister of Inland Revenue (1878-80), 6 83;

  reports on Baie des Chaleurs Railway Scandal, 15 203.

Bachelor’s Delight. Seized by Radisson at Fort Nelson, 1 173-4.

Back, Sir George (1796-1878). Accompanies Franklin on his Arctic expeditions, 4 679-83, 683-4;

  explores Arctic coast, 686-8, 21 125.

Backs River. Its course, length, and drainage area, 22 642.

Backster, William. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Bacon, C. A. Melter in the assay office, British Columbia, 21 148 n.

Badgley, William (1801-88). His municipal act (1847), 15 294.

Baffin, William (d. 1622), navigator. Charts Hudson Bay, 1 157.

Bagot, Sir Charles (1781-1843), governor-in-chief of Canada (1842-3). On the Russian Ukase of 1821, 8 917;

  on Alaska boundary dispute, 919-23;

  lines of boundary suggested by, 920, 922-3;

  suspends negotiations, 923, 925;

  on Russian methods, 923 n.;

  his instructions modified, 924;

  on concession of a lisière, 952 n.;

  transferred to The Hague, 925;

  effect of his ill-health on constitutional government, 5 5;

  condemns Sydenham’s administration, 20;

  endeavours to conciliate French Canadians, 33, 88;

  a historical parallel, 35-36;

  his policy being unacceptable to Stanley and Peel, invites recall, 35-36;

  expresses gratitude for their approval, 37;

  his place in constitutional development, 110-5;

  recommends beginning of a Geological Survey, 6 344;

  sketch of, 5 31.

Baie de Chaleurs Railway. Its financial failure, 10 447-8;

  scandal associated with its construction, 15 200-5.

Baie Verte Canal. An abortive project, 10 532.

Bailey, Jacob (d. 1808). Anglican incumbent at Annapolis, 11 203;

  on sufferings of the loyalists, 13 234-5.

Baillairge, Jean (d. 1805). The first Canadian sculptor, 12 632.

Baillargeon, Charles François (1798-1870). Roman Catholic archbishop of Quebec (1867-70), 11 98, 99-101.

Baillif, George le, Récollet. Arrives in Quebec (1620), 2 391-2.

Bailly de Meissein, Charles François (1740-94). Missionary in Nova Scotia, 11 29, 203;

  a victim of religious intolerance, 29;

  coadjutor of Quebec (1788-94), 33-34;

  favours the mixed university in opposition to Bishop Hubert, 34, 16 407, 448.

Bailly, Guillaume (d. 1696), Sulpician. Arrives in Montreal, 16 337.

Bailly, Father. Wounded at Point Lévis, 3 96.

Bain, James. His edition of Alexander Henry’s Travels and Adventures, 12 512.

Bainbridge, Captain William (1774-1833). American naval commander, 3 198.

Baird, W. T. Commands militia at Fredericton (1865), 14 414.

Baker, E. Crowe. Opposes Chinese immigration into British Columbia, 21 260.

Baker, James. Provincial portfolio held by, in British Columbia, 21 218, 220.

Baker, John. Hoists American flag in Madawaska Settlement, 13 199;

  his arrest and punishment, 199;

  indemnity claimed for his arrest, 8 791.

Baker, Richard. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Balboa, Vasco Nuñez (1475-1517 or 1518), discoverer. His extravagant claims for Spain, 21 13.

Baldoon, on Lake St Clair. Scottish Highland settlement established at, 17 71-72, 19 16;

  its unhealthy situation, 17 72;

  raided during War of 1812, 72.

Baldwin, Augustus. Member of executive council of Upper Canada, 3 354.

Baldwin, Robert (1804-58). Member of executive council of Upper Canada, 3 354;

  treats with the rebels, 365, 367;

  solicitor-general, 4 414;

  rebuked by Sydenham, 5 19;

  desires a homogeneous ministry, 33-34;

  his university bill (1843), 18 367-8;

  opposes Draper’s university bill (1845), 368-9;

  his university act of 1849, 371-3;

  on denominational education, 371;

  his municipal bill of 1843, 438;

  and act of 1849, 439-42;

  demands that appointments be made on advice of ministers, 5 40;

  and clergy reserves, 63, 65;

  resigns office, 69;

  on necessity for coalition, 86, 6 17;

  favours race co-operation, 5 89, 15 169.

Baldwin, T. Baptist missionary, reports on the North-West, 11 374.

Baldwin, William Warren (d. 1844). Opens a private school, 18 349;

  chairman of postal investigation committee of Upper Canada, 4 742;

  entrusted with care of Quetton St George’s estate, 17 55.

Baldwin Reformers.’ Why so called, 6 17.

Balfour, Andrew. Founds Shefford Academy (1838), 16 461.

Balfour, Arthur James (b. 1848). On the Boer War, 6 139;

  and Franco-Canadian commercial treaty (1907), 9 234.

Balfour, William (c. 1759-1811), major-general. President and commander-in-chief in New Brunswick (1811), 13 184.

Balfour, W. D. Attempted corruption of, 17 166;

  provincial secretary of Ontario, 200 n.

Ball, Henry Maynard (d. 1897). Stipendiary magistrate at Lytton, B.C., 21 148 n.;

  member of legislative council (1863), 166.

Ballantyne, Thomas, 9 118; member of Ontario Agricultural Commission (1880), 18 572.

Baltic. Rescues passengers of Republic, 10 610.

Baltimore.

  (1) Lake Superior steamer, 10 543.

  (2) Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Bancroft, George (1800-91). United States minister at Berlin, 8 874.

Bancroft, Samuel (1789-1876), Baptist preacher. His daily allowance, 11 354.

Bank of Brantford. Chartered in 1857, 5 279, 281.

Bank of British North America. Begins business in Canada (1836), 4 631-2;

  adopts free banking system, 5 273, 277;

  in the Maritime Provinces, 10 628, 637;

  establishes agency in New York, 636.

Bank of Canada. Private bank, founded (1818), 4 610, 612, 613.

Bank of Canada. Bill introduced to establish a, 4 606;

  chartered in 1858, 5 281.

Bank of Commerce. Chartered (1866), 10 637;

  absorbs the Gore Bank (1869), 637.

Bank of Hamilton. Established (1872), 10 638.

Bank of London. Established (1883), fails (1887), 10 643.

Bank of Montreal. Established as a private bank (1817), 4 608;

  its articles of association, 609-11;

  first officers of, 611;

  its share of government business, 621;

  criticisms directed against, 622-3;

  its charter renewed, 623;

  rivalry with Bank of Upper Canada, 624;

  increases in capital (1853, 1855), 5 278;

  widens its field of operations, 285, 10 636, 637;

  government financial agents, 5 290, 7 485;

  renounces its note-issuing powers, 5 287-8, 10 627;

  withdraws accommodation to merchants in Western Canada, 637;

  absorbs Commercial Bank (1867), 5 291;

  ceases to be sole financial agent for government, 10 631.

Bank of New Brunswick. Established (1820), 10 628, 13 194.

Bank of Nova Scotia. Chartered (1832), 10 628, 13 270;

  council interested in its rival, 282.

Bank of Pictou. Failure of (1887), 10 643.

Bank of the County of Elgin. Applies for charter (1856), 5 279.

Bank of Toronto. Chartered (1854-5), 5 278;

  begins business (1869), 10 633.

Bank of United States. Established by Alexander Hamilton (1791), 4 606, 608, 609-10;

  destroyed by Congress owing to predominance of British capital in, 606.

Bank of Upper Canada. Founded at Kingston (1818), 4 610, 613;

  failure of, 614-5.

Bank of Upper Canada, Second or Chartered. Founded at York (1821), 4 614;

  promoted by the Family Compact, 614;

  receives official support, 620-1;

  its rivalry with Bank of Montreal, 624;

  increases its capital, 625, 5 278;

  its share of government business, 4 627-8;

  and the suspension of specie payments, 634-5;

  deprived of government business, 5 286;

  its failure (1866), 288-90.

Bank of Western Canada, 5 279, 283.

Bank of Yarmouth. Established (1859), 10 628;

  its failure, 648.

Bankhead. British chargé at Washington, 8 813.

Banking. See Currency and Banking.

Bannatyne, Andrew Graham Ballenden (1829-89). Urges a surrender to Riel, 19 77;

  in Riel’s government, 11 155;

  imprisoned and released, 19 84, 86;

  testifies to Riel’s loyalty, 11 153;

  member of North-West Council, 19 198.

Banner, The, newspaper. George Brown’s connection with, 5 61.

Bannerman, Sir Alexander, lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (1851-4). His marriage, 13 351;

  and the grant of responsible government, 14 501, 13 368.

Banque de St Jean. Failure of, 10 648.

Banque du Peuple. Incorporated (1843), 4 631;

  amends its charter, 5 278.

Banque Ville Marie. Failure of, 10 648.

Banshee. Canadian Navigation Company’s steamer, 10 539.

Baptists.

  Special Article: The Baptists in Canada, 11 345-76;

  origin, tenets, and organization, 345-9;

  Dominion statistics, 376.

  Maritime Provinces:

    variations of national type, 350;

    newspapers and periodicals, 351, 359;

    effect of ‘Great Awakening,’ 351-2;

    first churches, 352, 356;

    ‘New Light’ preachers, 353;

    Nova Scotia Baptist Association formed, 353-4;

    daily wage of pioneer preachers, 354;

    Free Baptist Christian Conference, 356;

    ‘Regular’ and ‘Free’ Baptists, 355;

    influence of Granville Street Baptist Church, Halifax, 357-8, 13 288;

    foreign missions, 11 358;

    statistics, 359-60.

  Ontario and Quebec:

    pioneer churches, 360-2;

    pioneer church life, 363;

    obstacles to co-operative effort, 363;

    beginnings of organization, 363-4;

    first church in Montreal, 364;

    periodicals, 365-6, 368;

    union followed by separation, 366;

    foreign missions, 367;

    provincial conventions and their union, 367-9;

    organizations, 370;

    church statistics, 370;

    conventions, 370-1;

    the Grande Ligne Mission, 371-3;

    work, periodicals, and statistics in the West, 374-6.

Baranoff, Alexander Andrevitch (1746-1819), Russian fur trader. On Baranoff Island (1778), 21 242.

Barbier, Nicolas. Interested in elementary schools, 16 333.

Barclay, Anthony. Boundary commissioner, 8 828, 829, 830, 831, 832, 833, 834, 835.

Barclay, Robert Heriot (d. 1837), British naval officer. Defeated on Lake Erie, 3 244.

Barclay, Thomas (1753-1830). British boundary representative, 8 758, 759, 764-5, 772, 776-7, 786.

Bardy, Félix Séverin (1815-47). Victim of typhus epidemic of 1847, 11 96.

Baring and Glyn. English directors of Grand Trunk Railway, 10 401;

  take over Grand Trunk rolling stock, 416.

Baring Brothers and Company. Dominion government’s financial agents, 7 485.

Barker, John. A grantee of Murray township, Upper Canada, 17 44.

Barkley, Charles William (1759-1832). Sails to Nootka Sound under Austrian flag, 21 32;

  discovers Strait of Juan de Fuca, 32-33;

  murder of part of his crew, 33.

Barmhill, John. Member of first presbytery in Canada, 11 259.

Barnard. Publisher of Le Journal d’Agriculture Illustré, 16 524.

Barnardin, Sebastian, Récollet missionary in Acadia. Succumbs from hunger and fatigue (1623), 13 35.

Barnes, Captain, R.A. Assists in settling the loyalists, 17 24;

  presents a bell to Anglican church at Sorel, 11 214.

Barnesfare, Captain Adam. Defender of the Près-de-Ville, Quebec, 3 91-92.

Barney, Joshua (1759-1818), American naval commander. Taken prisoner at Bladensburg, 3 269.

Barnsley, James M. (b. 1867). Canadian artist, 12 624.

Barnstead, Arthur Stanley (b. 1873). Secretary of Industries and Immigration department, Nova Scotia, 14 651.

Baronets of Nova Scotia. Instituted by James I (1624), 13 36-37;

  number of baronies and conditions of grants, 37;

  failure of scheme, 37.

Barr, James (Angus Evan Abbott) (b. 1862). Novelist and journalist, 12 563.

Barr, Robert. First schoolmaster of Vancouver Island, 21 106;

  his allowances for boarding pupils, 106.

Barr, Robert (1850-1912). Canadian novelist, 12 562-3.

Barr Colony or All-British Settlement. Founded by Rev. I. M. Barr, 7 549-52, 19 180-5;

  number and racial components of immigrants, 182-3;

  causes increase of prices in Saskatoon, 183;

  founder absconds, 183;

  locations made by, 184.

Barrett, J. K. Editor of the North-West Review, 11 187.

Barrett, Miss. Methodist mission school teacher, 20 479.

Barrington. First Free Baptist congregation in the Maritime Provinces formed at, 11 355.

Barron, F. W. Instructor in Toronto normal school, 18 312.

Barrow Strait. Franklin search expeditions meet in (1850), 5 303.

Barry, John. His suspension from Nova Scotia assembly, 13 277-8;

  expelled and re-elected, 278;

  committed to prison and rescued by rioters, 278.

Barry, Mlle Robertine (‘Françoise’). Her chroniques, 12 488.

Barry, Thomas (b. 1841). Roman Catholic bishop of Chatham, 11 78.

Barss, Joseph. Captain of the Liverpool Packet privateer, 13 253.

Barthélemy, Brother. Superior of Brothers of the Christian Schools, 16 345.

Bartlett, S. T. Methodist Church organizer, 11 240.

Basilian Fathers. In charge of St Michael’s College, Toronto (1851), 11 60;

  at Owen Sound missions, 64;

  at Sandwich, 63.

Basset, Jean (1646-1716). Founds convent at Pointe-aux-Trembles, Quebec (1716), 16 358.

Bastedo, Samuel Tovel (b. 1855). Superintendent of Canadian government annuities, 6 162.

Batavia. First Cunarder built with compound engines, 10 601.

Bate, Mark. Mining pioneer of Nanaimo, 21 123.

Bates, Joshua (1788-1864). Umpire in Washington seizure arbitration, 8 693.

Bates, Walter (1760-1842). A pioneer loyalist of St John, 13 144;

  author of Comparison for Caraboo (1817), 12 535.

Bath, Thomas Thynne, third Marquess of (1765-1837). Sends out settlers to Upper Canada, 17 82.

Bathurst, Henry, third Earl Bathurst (1762-1834), secretary for War and the Colonies (1812-27). Intimates increase in Bishop Plessis’ allowance, 11 40;

  and protection for Red River settlers, 19 33-34 and n.;

  his instructions to Drummond, 3 281;

  and the fisheries question, 8 683-4;

  wants an understanding with Roman Catholic Church, 3 284;

  would consent to Sewell’s retirement, 285;

  proposes to open patronage to French-Canadians, 286;

  and adjudication on assembly’s charges, 4 481-2;

  and Talbot Settlement, 17 73;

  receives Bishop Plessis, 11 46;

  and Lanark Settlement, 17 77;

  on relations of governor and lieutenant-governor, 4 447-8;

  and civil rights for American citizens, 3 332-3;

  withholds purchase of clergy reserves by Canada Company, 334;

  retirement of, 305.

Bathurst, N.B. Its early importance in shipbuilding, 10 585.

Bathurst Inlet. Explored by Franklin, 4 681;

  its copper-bearing rocks, 22 658.

Batoche. A centre of disturbance during North-West Rebellion, 7 430;

  Middleton’s victory at (1885), 6 103, 11 171.

Batt, Major. Commands relieving party at Fort Cumberland, 13 135.

Battleford. A centre of disaffection in North-West Rebellion, 7 430;

  Indian attack on, 6 102, 7 600;

  capital of North-West Territories, 19 161, 200-1;

  criticism of transfer of seat of government from, 201 n.

Baudin, J. B. Incumbent of St Mary’s Church, Winnipeg, 11 161.

Baudoin, Michel (1692-c. 1768), Jesuit. Vicar-general of Louisiana, 11 15.

Bavarian.

  (1) Canadian Navigation Company’s steamer, 10 539.

  (2) First Transatlantic liner to be built entirely of steel, 10 607.

Baxter, Simon. Loyalist pioneer at Fort Howe, 13 142.

Bay State. American Mail Line steamer, 10 540.

Bayard, James Asheton (1767-1815). United States signatory to Treaty of Ghent (1814), 8 771.

Bayard, Thomas Francis (1828-98), American secretary of state. And British seizures of fishing vessels, 8 699;

  his negotiations with Tupper, 9 168;

  proposes appointment of fisheries commission, 8 702;

  and protection of seals, 724.

Baye Sainct Laurens (Pillage Bay). Jacques Cartier at, 1 35;

  name extended to River and Gulf of the St Lawrence, 35.

Bayly, Charles, governor at Fort Charles, 1 170;

  at Fort Nelson, 182-3.

Baynes, Admiral. His tactful conduct during occupation of San Juan, 8 874, 21 149.

Baynes, Colonel Edward (d. 1829). Present at attack on Sackett’s Harbour, 3 240-1;

  sent to propose an armistice, 254.

Bazin, Philippe J. (b. 1855). Civil Service inquiry commissioner, 6 164.

Beadle, D. W. Horticultural editor of Canada Farmer, 18 568.

Beam, Jacob. Pioneer Baptist in Niagara peninsula, 11 360.

Beamsville. Pioneer Baptist congregation formed at, 11 360.

Bear Head. See Cap Royal.

Beardsley, John (1732-1810). First resident Anglican clergyman at St John, N.B. (1783), 11 209;

  transferred to Maugerville, 209.

Beasley, Richard. Sells land on Grand River to Mennonites, 17 47.

Beatty, J. W. (b. 1862). Canadian artist, 12 618, 631.

Beaubien, Jean Baptiste (b. c. 1785). Establishes village on site of Chicago, 15 77.

Beaubien, Jean Louis (1787-1863). Missionary priest in Prince Edward Island, 11 42.

Beaubien, Louis (1837-1915). Quebec cabinet minister (1892), 15 207.

Beauchâtel, Colonel. Mortally wounded on Plains of Abraham, 1 306.

Beauchemin, Nérée (b. 1851). French-Canadian poet, 12 469.

Beaucourt, de (b. 1735). First native Canadian painter to study art in France, 12 601.

Beauharnois, Charles, Marquis de (1670-1749), governor of New France (1726-47). Favours a Jesuit college at Montreal, 16 385;

  opposes settlers leaving for New Orleans, 15 58;

  claims jurisdiction over Iroquois, 2 369;

  favours Western exploration, 11 117;

  favours La Vérendrye’s schemes, 1 118, 135;

  on deterioration of Canadian troops, 2 371;

  states that there is no check on notes in circulation, 519.

Beauharnois Canal. Its construction and supersession, 10 512.

Beaujeu, Captain de. Killed at Fort Duquesne, 1 241.

Beaujeu, de. Attempts to surprise American guard at Point Lévis, 3 96.

Beaumont, professor in King’s College. Supports Baldwin’s university bill at college council, 18 372.

Beaupoil, Gui de. French émigré, settles in Canada and returns, 17 55.

Beaupoil, Marquis de. See Sainte-Aulaire.

Beauport. Seigniory of, granted to Robert Giffard (1634), 2 325;

  proposal to set up court at, 325;

  passes to Juchereau de St Denis, 2 557.

Beaux Hommes (probably Crow Indians), 1 127.

Beaven, James (1801-75). Professor in King’s College, Toronto, 18 364;

  attacks Baldwin’s university bill, 367;

  his protest at college council, 373.

Beaven, Robert. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.;

  in first legislative assembly, 180;

  an opponent of Chinese labour, 253;

  commissioner of Lands and Works, 183;

  and the secession address, 199;

  minister of Finance and Agriculture, 202;

  premier, 208;

  declines to form a ministry, 223.

Beaver.

  (1) Lake Erie schooner built (1763), 10 485;

  employed at siege of Detroit, 3 61.

  (2) First steam vessel on North Pacific, 10 569, 21 69, 77-78, 150.

Beaver 2nd. Lake vessel, 10 486.

Beaver Dam. Battle of, 3 242-3.

Beaver Lake. Fort built on, by Alexander Henry the Elder, 4 646.

Beaver Line. Shipping company established (1876), 10 610;

  its routes and fleet, 611, 14 429;

  liquidation and successive owners of, 10 612.

Beaverton. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Bécancour, René Robineau de (1629-99). Created Baron de Portneuf (1681), 2 569.

Becerra, Diego, Spanish explorer. Slain by his pilot, 21 14.

Beck, Sir Adam (b. 1857). In provincial cabinet of Ontario (1905), 17 184;

  chairman of Niagara Falls Power Commission, 18 477, 478.

Beck, Nicholas Du Bois Dominic (b. 1857). Vice-chancellor of University of Alberta, 20 501;

  Alberta and Great Waterways Railway Inquiry commissioner, 19 277.

Beckwith, John A. Provincial secretary of New Brunswick, 14 418.

Beckwith, Nehemiah. Defeated in Sunbury County, 13 164.

Bédard, Antoine. Missionary priest in New Brunswick, 11 42.

Bedard, Avila, of the Quebec Forestry Service, 16 550.

Bédard, Elzéar (1799-1849). First mayor of Quebec, 15 304;

  moves adoption of Ninety-two Resolutions, 3 317.

Bédard, Jean Baptiste Charles (1765-1825), Sulpician. Missionary at Kingston, 11 26.

Bédard, Pierre Stanislas (1762-1829). First to demand ministerial responsibility, 15 10;

  contributes to Le Canadien, 12 443;

  his arrest and imprisonment, 3 164, 4 476;

  raised to the bench, 3 276.

Bédard, Theophile Pierre (1844-1900). French-Canadian historian, 12 459.

Bedout, Admiral (b. 1751). French-Canadian admiral, 15 11.

Beebe, George W. Provincial secretary of British Columbia, 21 225.

Beecher, Jonathan. Loyalist refugee, 13 237.

Beechey Island. Franklin passes winter (1845-6) at, 5 296.

Begbie, Sir Matthew Baillie (1819-94). First chief justice of British Columbia (1870-94), 21 147, 150, 22 390;

  his services, 391;

  anecdote of, 391;

  and the McGowan riots, 21 153.

Begg, Alexander (1824-1904). Author of a History of British Columbia, 12 504.

Begg, Alexander (1840-98). Author of works on the North-West, 12 504.

Begging, forbidden in New France, 2 353;

  idlers and sturdy beggars, 507.

Bégin, Louis Nazaire (b. 1840). Roman Catholic bishop of Chicoutimi, 11 109;

  archbishop of Quebec, 106.

Bégon, Michel, Sieur de la Picardière (1674-1740), intendant of New France (1710-26). Asked to furnish evidence restricting boundaries of Acadia, 2 365;

  and Lake St Pierre-Lachine canal, 10 504;

  his control over Indians, 2 368.

Belaine, Cape Breton. Scottish settlement formed at (1629), 13 38.

Belcher, Sir Edward (1799-1877). Leads Franklin search expedition (1852), 5 303.

Belcher, Jonathan, jr. (1711-76), chief justice of Nova Scotia (1754-76). Ceremonies attending his installation, 13 87;

  his influence in establishing representative government, 103, 14 440-1;

  acting governor, 13 108, 118.

Belcourt, Georges Antoine (1803-74). Roman Catholic missionary to Indians, 11 126;

  missions founded by, 127, 129, 130;

  experimental school established by, 20 419;

  his intervention saves a Hudson’s Bay Company clerk, 11 127;

  settles at Pembina, 135;

  supports Red River petition of 1845, 135;

  restrains the Métis, 19 55;

  his grammar of the Chippewa language, 20 419.

Belêtre, François Marie Picote, Sieur de. French commander at Detroit, 3 57.

Belgium. Commercial treaty of 1862 hampers inter-imperial trade preference, 9 173;

  treaty denounced, 207;

  given Canadian intermediate rates, 238;

  immigration from, 7 563.

Bell, Andrew (1753-1832), founder of Madras system of education. System introduced into Canada, 18 282.

  See Madras Schools.

Bell, John. Constructs Fort McPherson, 5 306;

  his journeys of 1842 and 1846, 5 306, 22 605.

Bell, John (d. 1849). Exhibits at Cobourg agricultural show (1848), 18 563.

Bell, J. M. (b. 1877). His mineral discovery on Great Bear Lake, 22 656.

Bell, Patrick (1799-1869). Invents a reaping-machine, 18 564-5;

  his connection with Canada, 556.

Bell, Robert (b. 1841). Dominion government scientist, 12 520;

  his mineral discovery on Great Slave Lake, 22 656.

Bell, William (1780-1857). Presbyterian minister at Perth (1811), 11 266.

Bell River. See Rat River.

Bell-Smith, Frederick Marlett (b. 1846). Canadian artist, 12 621.

Bella Coola River. Mackenzie’s journeys on the, 4 655-7.

Belleau, Sir Narcisse Fortunat (1808-94). Lieutenant-governor of Quebec (1867-73), 15 171.

Belle Ile, Daniel de Gotteville de. Commands expedition to Island of St John, 13 313.

Belleisle, Alexandre le Borgne, Sieur de (1708-44). His attack on Annapolis Royal (1744), 13 80.

Belle-Isle, Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, Marshal de (1684-1761). Instructs Montcalm to ‘keep some foothold in America,’ 1 277.

Belleville. Representative municipal government introduced in, 18 424;

  incorporated (1834), 424.

Belleville.

  (1) Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 499.

  (2) Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Company’s steamer, 10 539, 552.

Bellot Strait, in American Arctic Sea, between Boothia Felix and Somerset Island. Discovered by Captain Kennedy, 5 303;

  named after a French naval officer, 303 n.

Belvidera. Attacked by an American squadron (1812), 13 256.

Benedictines. Settle on Vancouver Island, 11 184.

Ben Franklin. Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Bengough, John Wilson (b. 1851). Canadian cartoonist, 12 631.

Bennet, John. Superintendent of Education, New Brunswick, 14 552.

Bennet, Joseph. Anglican clergyman in Nova Scotia, 11 205.

Bennett, Richard Bedford (b. 1870). And provincial autonomy, 19 259;

  leads opposition in Alberta assembly, 275;

  and a railway scandal, 276.

Benson, Egbert. Member of St Croix River Commission, 8 758, 760, 764-5.

Bentinck, Lord William Cavendish (1774-1839). Governor-general of India, 5 37.

Benton, Congregational minister. His persecution and imprisonment (1801), 11 381.

Benton, Thomas Hart (1782-1858), American senator. Attacks Webster on Maine boundary settlement, 8 818;

  on ‘Red Line’ map, 820;

  and Oregon boundary deadlock, 864;

  ridicules the ‘Fifty-four-Forties,’ 866 and n.

Berchereau, François Chauvigny de. See Chauvigny de Berchereau.

Berczy, William (c. 1749-1813). Markham township granted to, 17 50;

  his colonization work, 50-51.

Berczy, William von Moll (b. 1748). Painter in Montreal, 12 602.

Berey, Claude Charles Félix de (1720-1800), last superior of the Récollets. Death of, 11 21, 16 408.

Bering, Vitus (1680-1741), Danish navigator. His expeditions to the North Pacific, 8 727, 846, 21 39-41.

Bering Island, in North Pacific, the most westerly of Aleutian Islands. Death of Vitus Bering at, 21 40.

Bering Sea Dispute.

  Special Article: Seal Fisheries Arbitration, 8 723-48.

  Cession of Alaska to United States (1867), 723;

  lease of Pribyloff group, 723;

  diminution of seal herd, 723;

  seizures of Canadian sealers, 723-4;

  reference to arbitration, 724-5;

  composition of tribunal, 725-6;

  first four questions submitted, and arguments of parties, 726, 729-33;

  shifting of base of American contentions, 734;

  right of protection or property in seals and arguments thereon, 735-44;

  sittings of tribunal, 744;

  awards, 6 121, 8 744-5;

  regulations agreed by arbitrators, 746-7;

  compensation paid for illegal seizures, 6 121, 8 747;

  prohibition of pelagic sealing and compensation paid to Canada, 747-8, 9 159, 160, 219.

Bering Strait, channel connecting Arctic with Pacific Ocean. Named by Captain Cook, 21 28.

Berkeley Springs. Outline of Reciprocity treaty arranged at (1853), 5 241.

Berlin Decrees (1806), 3 194, 196.

Bermond, Father. Missionary in the West, 11 134.

Bernard, Alexis Xyste (b. 1847). Roman Catholic bishop of St Hyacinthe, 11 91.

Bernard, J., actor. Played in Montreal (1829), 12 655.

Bernard, John (1714-79), governor of Massachusetts Bay. Obtains grants of land, 8 756.

Bernard, Mountague (1820-82). British treaty commissioner, 6 47.

Bernard, William. Leader of a land settlement association at Shipton, 15 152.

Bernier, Hector. Author of Au large de l’Écueil, 12 477.

Bernières, Henri de (1635-1700), superior of Quebec Seminary. Welcomes Saint-Vallier to Quebec, 2 426.

Berrey, Charles Claude de. Pupil of Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 368.

Berthelot, François. Exchanges seigniory of Isle Jesus for Isle d’Orleans, 2 558, 16 336;

  created Comte de Saint-Laurent, 2 558, 569;

  his good works, 16 336, 357.

Berthier, Alexandre (1638-1709). Granted a seigniory, 15 39.

Berthier-en-Haut. Its successive ownership, 2 554.

Berthon, Theodore (1806-92). Portrait painter, 12 627.

Beschefer, Thierry (1630-1711). Superior of Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 366.

Best, Stephen. His property pillaged by privateers, 13 219.

Bethune, Alexander Neil (1800-79), Anglican bishop of Toronto (1867-79). Founds divinity school at Cobourg, 11 224, 18 361;

  his biography of Strachan, 12 510.

Bethune, George G. Accompanies Sir Peregrine Maitland on his visit to Peterborough, 17 87.

Bethune, John (1751-1815). Organizes first Presbyterian congregation of Montreal (1786), 11 265;

  settles in Glengarry County, 265.

Bethune, John (1791-1872). Anglican missionary at Elizabethtown, 11 222;

  chaplain to troops in Montreal, 218.

Betournay, Louis (d. 1879). One of judges in trial of Ambroise Lépine, 20 371.

Betsy. Ship on which French émigrés sailed to Canada, 17 54.

Betts, J. F. Member of first Territorial assembly, 19 222, 229, 234, 235;

  defeats the executive, 241-2.

Betzner, Samuel. Pioneer Mennonite in Upper Canada, 17 47.

Biard, Pierre (1565-1622), Jesuit. His mission to the Micmacs, 2 383-5;

  interviews a baptized polygamist, 383-4;

  his enthusiasm, 384-5, 13 33;

  on provident habits of Indian women, 27;

  taken prisoner by Samuel Argall, 2 386, 13 34.

Bibaud, Michel (1782-1857). Publishes first French-Canadian miscellany of poems, 12 443;

  his Histoire du Canada, 450-1;

  on educational progress, 16 413;

  his services to education, 421, 422;

  describes Quebec as ‘the Paris of America,’ 12 438.

Bible Christians, 11 309, 310.

Bic. Fever-stricken ship at, 2 435.

Bidwell, Barnabas. Opens an academy at Bath, 18 352;

  returned to Upper Canada assembly and disqualified, 3 332.

Bidwell, Marshall Spring (1799-1872). His nomination to Upper Canada assembly refused, and subsequent election, 3 332;

  speaker, 336, 339, 349;

  governor’s refusal to promote to bench, 356;

  and Rebellion of 1837, 367.

Biencourt de Poutrincourt, Charles (1583-c. 1624). Instructs Membertou in the Christian religion, 2 382;

  prejudiced against the Jesuits, 385;

  visits France and reports Indian conversions, 13 32;

  his administration of Acadia, 33;

  remains after destruction of French settlements, 35;

  returns to France, 39.

Biencourt, Jean de. See Poutrincourt.

Big Bear, Indian chief. Leader in North-West Rebellion, 6 102, 103, 7 430;

  demands compensation paid to Hudson’s Bay Company, 19 208 n.

Big Creek, Lake Erie. Dollier and Galinée in blizzard at, 1 97.

Bigelow, William. Shipbuilder at Mahone Bay, 10 582.

Bigot, François (b. 1703), intendant of New France (1748-60). Commissaire-ordonnateur at Louisbourg, 1 210;

  corrupt administration of, 250, 263, 265, 275, 280, 283, 2 440, 506, 15 84;

  his manipulation of the finances, 2 513, 521-2, 525-8.

Bigot, Vincent (1649-1720). Superior of Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 366.

Billopp, Christopher (c. 1738-1827). Candidate at St John election (1785), 13 164.

Bineteau, Julien (1660-99), Jesuit. Founds a mission on site of Chicago, 15 77.

Binney, Hibbert (1819-87). Anglican bishop of Nova Scotia (1851-87), 11 206, 208.

Birch, Arthur N. Member of first legislative council of British Columbia, 21 166 and n.

Bird, J. Curtis (d. 1876). Member of convention committee of Red River, 19 83 n.;

  and of first board of Education of Manitoba, 20 427.

Bishop Pinkham College, Calgary, 11 244, 20 499.

Bishop’s College, Lennoxville. Its foundation and history, 11 220, 240-1, 16 498-9.

Bisset, George (d. 1788). Anglican incumbent at St John, N.B., 11 209.

Bisshopp, Cecil (1783-1813), lieutenant-colonel. At battle of Beaver Dam, 3 242;

  captures Black Rock and is mortally wounded, 244.

Blachford, Frederic Rogers, Baron Blachford (1811-99), under-secretary for Colonies. On Macdonald’s part in the Confederation conferences, 5 7.

Black, George. One of builders of the Royal William, 10 592.

Black, John (1817-79). Takes custody of Donald Smith’s papers at Red River, 19 82;

  a delegate to Ottawa, 6 37, 11 155, 19 85, 90 n., 91.

Black, John (1818-82). Presbyterian minister at Red River, 11 286, 20 425;

  his appeal for assistance, 11 286;

  engages in teaching, 20 426;

  member of first board of Education of Manitoba, 427.

Black, S. M. (d. 1909). Baptist minister in New Brunswick, 11 359.

Black, Walter S. Member of first legislative council of British Columbia, 21 166.

Black, William (1782-1834). Pioneer Methodist of Nova Scotia, 11 303-4.

Black, William (1770-1866). President and commander-in-chief in New Brunswick (1829-31), 13 199.

Black, William John. Principal of Manitoba Agricultural College, 20 445.

Black River, south of Lake Superior. Petuns established at, 1 69.

Black Rock. Captured by Colonel Bisshopp, 3 244;

  burnt by Sir Phineas Riall, 252;

  abortive British attempt on, 259-60.

Black Watch. Bagpipes play at Ticonderoga, 1 266.

  See also Forty-second Regiment.

Blackbourn, Joseph. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Blackfeet, Indian tribe. Visited by Anthony Hendry, 4 649;

  raid Fort Carlton, 5 323;

  encountered by Milton and Cheadle, 325;

  cede territory, 7 597, 19 159-61;

  and disappearance of buffalo, 7 601;

  their territory and numbers, 11 115, 20 286.

Blackfoot Crossing (Bow River). Indian treaty concluded at, 7 597.

Bladen, Martin (1680-1746). Boundary commissioner, 1 191, 8 889, 911.

Bladensburg.’ American defeat at, 3 269.

Blaeberry River, a tributary of the Columbia. Discovered by Duncan McGillivray, 8 859 n.;

  David Thompson on the, 4 666.

Blaine, Archibald, lieutenant. Holds Fort Ligonier, 3 64.

Blaine, James Gillespie (1830-93), American statesman. Justifies seizure of Canadian sealers, 8 724;

  and the Bering arbitration, 731, 732;

  and commercial union with Latin America, 9 163-4;

  enters into trade convention with Newfoundland, 8 704;

  his name used in Canadian election campaign of 1891, 9 168-9;

  his reciprocity conditions, 169.

Blainville, Céloron de. Claims Ohio for France, 1 236.

Blair, Adam Johnston Fergusson (1815-67), 6 22.

Blair, Andrew George (1844-1907), premier of New Brunswick (1883-96). Effects reforms as premier of New Brunswick, 14 428;

  and commercial union, 6 110;

  minister of Railways, 131, 14 428;

  his railway policy, 10 466, 467;

  his resignation, 6 149;

  chief railway commissioner, 150, 10 471;

  resigns, 6 153.

Blais, André Albert (b. 1842). Roman Catholic bishop of Rimouski, 11 108.

Blake, Edward (1833-1912), premier of Ontario (1871-2). His double victory in 1867, 17 110 and n.;

  declines leadership of provincial opposition, 113;

  opposes dual representation, 113-4, 134;

  condemns Cameron for undertaking Whelan’s defence, 115;

  condemns concession of ‘better terms’ to Nova Scotia, 116;

  leader of opposition, 117;

  his devotional appeal in 1871, 120-1;

  moves resolution on railway aid, 120;

  condemns Sandfield Macdonald’s railway policy, 123;

  attacks Ryerson’s education policy, 18 318, 389;

  accused of corruption, 17 124-5 and n.;

  and provincial rights, 159;

  his administration as premier, 128-35;

  elects to sit in federal house, 135;

  joins Mackenzie’s administration, 6 64;

  his attitude on Pacific Scandal, 57, 59;

  and Vancouver Island railway, 66;

  opposes C.P.R. contract, 89-91;

  his attack on ‘monopoly’ clause, 19 115-6;

  supports Canada First party, 6 70;

  leader of opposition in federal house, 88;

  his election address in 1882, 92;

  on validation of Scott Act, 97;

  his attitude on Scott tragedy, 44, 17 130-1, 133-4, 19 89;

  on Riel’s mental condition, 6 104, 105;

  resigns leadership, 106;

  on protection as an established policy, 9 167;

  his letter on reciprocity (1891) and its effect, 6 113-5;

  as a public man, 25-26, 17 110, 135-6.

Blake, William Hume (1809-70). Professor in King’s College, Toronto, 18 364.

Blakey, Robert (1790-1858). Anglican clergyman at Prescott, 11 223.

Blanc, René le. Pioneer colonist at Minas, 13 52.

Blanc Sablon. Jacques Cartier at, 1 29, 33, 34.

Blanchard, C. W. Theatre lessee in Montreal, 12 655.

Blanchard, Jotham (d. 1840). Founds Colonial Patriot at Pictou, 13 276;

  attacks Dalhousie’s abuse of prerogative, 276-7;

  returned to Nova Scotia assembly, 280-1.

Blanche, Gustave (b. 1848). Roman Catholic bishop of Gulf of St Lawrence, 11 109.

Blanchet, François (1776-1830). Contributor to Le Canadien, 12 443.

Blanchet, François Norbert. Missionary priest in New Brunswick, 11 42.

Blanchet, Norbert F. Missionary priest in the West, 11 128, 149, 162.

Blanshard, Richard (d. 1894). First governor of Vancouver Island, 21 87, 89;

  arrives in Victoria (1850), 90;

  treatment accorded to, 90-91;

  his reports, 92-93;

  and Indian troubles at Fort Rupert, 93-96;

  censured by Grey and resigns, 96;

  his life in retirement, 97, 125.

Blatchley, W. D. (1843-1903). Canadian designer and painter, 12 609.

Blenkhorn, Thomas. Justice of peace in British Columbia, 21 106;

  petitions for retention of Governor Blanshard, 121, 123.

Blenkinsop. Accused of sending Indians in pursuit of Hudson’s Bay Company deserters, 21 93-94, 95-96.

Blessed Virgin Mary, Order of the Presentation of the, 11 91.

Blewett, Mrs Jean (b. 1862). Canadian writer of verse, 12 588.

Bliss, Daniel (1739-1805). Member of first council of New Brunswick, 13 154, 155.

Bliss, John Murray (1771-1834). President and commander-in-chief in New Brunswick (1824-31), 13 195.

Bliss, Jonathan (d. 1822). Attorney-general of New Brunswick, 13 154;

  candidate for St John in 1785, 13 164;

  chief justice, 167.

Blonde, frigate. Its crew rescued by American privateers, 13 224.

Bloods, Indian tribe. Cede territory, 7 597.

Bloody Fall. Massacre of Eskimos at, 4 671-2;

  Franklin at, 680-1;

  Richardson abandons boats at, 684;

  Rae finds difficulty in reaching, 5 300.

Bloody Morning Scout.’ Ambush near Lake George (1755), 1 243.

Bloody Run. Dalzell ambushed at, 3 65.

Blossom, British warship. At Astoria, 21 61.

Blowers, Sampson Salter (c. 1743-1842). First attorney-general of New Brunswick, 13 153;

  appointed to Nova Scotia, 154.

Blue, Archibald (1840-1914). Deputy minister of Agriculture of Ontario, 18 573.

Blue Funnel Line. Its freight service, 10 618.

Boat Encampment, at mouth of Canoe River. David Thompson’s survey of Columbia completed at, 4 669.

Bobé, Father. Suggests routes to Western Sea, 1 117.

Bochart de Champigny, Jean. See Champigny.

Bocquet, Le Simple (d. 1787). Roman Catholic missionary at Detroit, 11 24.

Bodin, Jean (1530-96), French economist. Favours freedom of trade, 2 446 n.

Boëls, Father. Ministers to Ruthenian Catholics, 11 190.

Boerstler, Charles G. Surrenders at Beaver Dam, 3 242-3.

Bogg, John. Opposition candidate at St John (1785), 13 164.

Bohemian. Allan liner, wrecked in 1864, 10 605.

Boishébert, Charles des Champs de (b. 1727). Commands irregulars at Louisbourg, 1 225;

  defeats Major Frye, 13 97.

Boisramé, O.M.I. brother. Sent to Ile à la Crosse, 11 141;

  pioneer on Mackenzie River, 147.

Boisson, Potier du. Describes wheat of Prince Edward Island, 13 309.

Bolduc, Jean Baptiste (1818-89). Missionary priest in British Columbia, 11 131, 21 78.

Bompas, William Carpenter (1834-1906). Anglican bishop of Athabaska (1873-84), of Mackenzie (1884-91), and of Selkirk (1891-1905), 11 231.

Bonaventure, M. de. French officer at Louisbourg, 1 204;

  at Port la Joye, 13 320;

  land held by verbal tenure from, 308.

Bonaventure, Récollet brother. His arrival in Quebec, 2 391.

Bonaventure. British ship engaged in reduction of Fort Nelson (1696), 1 186.

Bonaventure River. Its fishing rental, 16 563.

Bond, Phineas (1749-1815), British consul at Philadelphia. Assists in preparation of British case before St Croix River Commission, 8 759.

Bond, Sir Robert (b. 1857), prime minister of Newfoundland. Enters into trade convention with United States, 8 704;

  negotiates the Hay-Bond Treaty, 705;

  raises questions of interpretation of Treaty of 1818, 706-7, 720.

Bond, William Bennett (1815-1906). Anglican primate of all Canada, 11 220.

Bond, Willis. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Bonnald, Étienne. Missionary priest to the Eastern Crees, 11 161.

Bonne, Pierre Amable (d. 1816), judge. His expulsion by Lower Canada assembly, 3 162, 164, 4 477.

Bonnecamp, Joseph Pierre de (1707-90). Professor of hydrography in Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 376-7.

Bonnington. Steamer on the Arrow Lakes, 10 571.

Bonnycastle, Sir Richard Henry (1791-1848). His works on Canada, 12 515;

  president of first society of artists in Ontario, 12 634.

Bons. See Currency.

Bonsall, Richard. Opposition candidate for St John (1785), 13 164.

Boone, Thomas. Deputy paymaster-general of Quebec, 4 499.

Booth, Cornelius. Member of first legislative assembly of British Columbia, 21 180.

Booth, John P. Member of first legislative assembly of British Columbia, 21 180.

Booth, William (1829-1912). Founder of the Salvation Army, 11 396-7.

Boothia Peninsula. Explored by James Clark Ross, 4 185-6;

  explored by Rae, 5 304.

Borden, Sir Frederick William (b. 1847). Minister of Militia (1896-1911), 6 131;

  his dismissal of Dundonald, 151-2;

  his contentions with Hutton and Dundonald, 7 443-4;

  at Imperial Defence Conference (1909), 6 169, 7 461-2;

  his amendment to Navy Service Bill, 6 170-1.

Borden, Sir Robert Laird (b. 1854), prime minister of Canada. Succeeds Tupper in conservative leadership, 6 143-4;

  supports public ownership of Grand Trunk Pacific, 150, 10 460-1;

  supports autonomy for North-West Territories, 19 261;

  planks in his Halifax Platform, 6 165, 10 467, 18 487;

  approves of provincial ownership of public lands in Prairie Provinces, 19 136.

Borgne, Emmanuel le, Sieur de Coudray. Raids Nicolas Denys’ settlements, 13 48.

Bornu. Steamship of the Elder-Dempster Line, 10 616.

Boscawen, Edward (1711-61), British admiral. Captures French men-of-war, 1 220;

  commands before Louisbourg, 222-5, 13 324;

  captures French transports, 1 243;

  hampered by cabinet, 246;

  defeats La Clue, 308;

  reports Island of St John to be a base of supplies for Quebec, 13 324.

Boscowitz Steamship Company, 10 573.

Bossange, H. Bookseller in Montreal (1817), 12 439.

Boston. Embassy sent from Canada to (1650), 2 332, 334;

  Acadian trade with, 488.

Boston.

  (1) Lakes vessel launched (1764), 10 486.

  (2) American vessel seized by Indians at Nootka, 21 53.

  (3) Steamer on Digby-Boston route, 10 562.

Boston Massacre,3 78-79.

Bosworth, Newton (d. 1848), Baptist minister. Author of Hochelaga Depicta, 11 365.

Botham, A., King’s Loyal Americans. Assists in surveying for loyalist settlements in Upper Canada, 17 23.

Bothnia. Cunarder, 10 601.

Botsford, Amos (1743-1812). Visits St John River as loyalist agent, 13 142, 143;

  speaker of first legislative assembly of New Brunswick, 165.

Bouc, Charles Baptiste. Expelled by Lower Canada assembly, 4 477, 479.

Boucher, Georges (1814-98). French-Canadian novelist, 12 476.

Boucher, Nicolas. School director at Château-Richer, 16 334.

Boucher, Philippe (1665-1721). Opens school at Point Levy, 16 335;

  gives instruction in Latin, 384.

Boucher de Boucherville et de Grosbois, Pierre (1622-1717), governor of Three Rivers (1652). On care taken to keep out dissolute women, 2 417;

  on standard of virtue in colony, 15 32;

  represents colony in France, 2 458;

  seigniory granted to, 15 39;

  his success in settling immigrants, 53;

  ennobled, 53;

  his services to agriculture, 16 506.

Boucher de Boucherville, Sir Charles. See Boucherville.

Boucher de Niverville. His ascent of the Saskatchewan, 1 139.

Boucherville, Pierre Boucher de. See Boucher.

Boucherville, Sir Charles Eugène Boucher de (d. 1915), premier of Quebec (1874-8, 1891-2). His policy of railway aid, 15 180-1;

  dismissed by Lieutenant-Governor Letellier (1878), 6 75-76, 15 181-2;

  forms a second administration, 206;

  his financial measures, 207;

  resigns, 207.

Boucherville. Convent founded at (1703), 16 358.

Bouchette, Joseph (1774-1841), surveyor-general of Quebec. His surveys of 1817, 8 786;

  his prediction of Canada’s increase in population, 4 587 n.

Bouchette, Robert Shore Milnes. Banished to Bermuda, 2 394, 395.

Boucicault, Dion (c. 1820-90), actor. His appearance in Montreal (1853), 12 656.

Bougainville, Louis Antoine, Comte de (1729-1811). Envoy to France (1758), 1 275;

  returns to Quebec (1759), 276;

  commands a corps of observation, 285, 287, 290, 293, 301;

  his reconnaissance after battle of the Plains, 305, 307;

  on natural intelligence of Canadians, 15 92;

  sketch, 12 438 n.

Boughton Hill, near Victor. La Salle’s council with Senecas at, 1 91-92.

Boule, Ainsi. Canadian sculptor, 12 632.

Boullé, Eustace. His admission to David Kirke (1629), 2 401.

Boullé, Hélène (d. 1654). Wife of Samuel Champlain, 2 391.

Boulter and Watt. Build engine for first steam saw-mill in New Brunswick, 13 195.

Boulton, Henry John (b. 1790). His dismissal as attorney-general of Upper Canada, 3 344-5;

  chief justice of Newfoundland, 345;

  champions King’s College, 18 369;

  attacks Baldwin’s university bill of 1849, 372.

Boulton, Major. Imprisoned by Riel, condemned to execution, and reprieved, 6 38, 11 156, 19 86.

Bouncing Polly. Liverpool (N.S.) vessel captured by an American privateer, 13 221.

Boundaries, Disputed.

  Special article: Disputes and Treaties, 8 751-958.

  New France and British possessions under Treaty of Utrecht, 1 190-1, 2 365;

  the Ohio boundary, 1 220;

  between Canada and United States (1783), 3 116;

  Upper and Lower Canada under Constitutional Act, 3 132-3, 134-5.

Boundary Disputes.

  See Acadia;

    Alaska;

    Labrador-Canada;

    Lake Huron;

    Ontario;

    Oregon;

    Passamaquoddy Islands;

    St Croix;

    St Croix-St Lawrence;

    St Lawrence and Great Lakes;

    San Juan.

Boundary Waters Treaty (1909), 9 219. See also International Joint Commission.

Bounties. See under Trade and Tariffs.

Bouquet, Colonel Henry (1719-65). His engagements at Edge Hill and Bushy Run, 3 66;

  suppresses Indian risings, 69, 112.

Bour, Father. On educational claims of German Catholics, 20 459.

Bourassa, Henri (b. 1868). His attitude to South African War, 6 141;

  and the sovereignty of parliament, 142;

  his campaign against navy, 171, 184;

  on aims of nationalism, 186-7;

  managing director of Le Devoir, 12 477;

  on secular legislation in North-West, 479-80;

  as an orator, 478.

Bourassa, Joseph (1817-1900). Missionary priest in the West, 11 133, 20 478.

Bourassa, Napoleon (b. 1827). French-Canadian author and sculptor, 12 476, 632.

Bourdon, Jean (d. 1668). Said to have entered Hudson Bay, 8 882;

  granted a seigniory, 15 27.

Bourdon, Madame, widow of Jean Bourdon. Placed in charge of the ‘King’s Girls’ at Quebec, 15 42.

Bourg dit Bellehumeur, Alexandre (1671-1760). Procureur du Roy at Minas, 13 75.

Bourg, Mathurin (d. 1797). Missionary to the Acadians, 11 30, 31;

  his services during American Revolutionary War, 13 138.

Bourgeois, Jacob. A pioneer colonist at Chignecto, 13 52.

Bourgeoys, Marguerite (1620-1700). Founds Congregation of Notre Dame, Montreal (1659), 2 414, 15 93;

  her educational work, 16 337, 355;

  and the ‘King’s Girls,’ 15 42;

  returns to France, 2 417.

Bourget, Ignace (1799-1885), Roman Catholic bishop of Montreal (1840-76). Invites return of Jesuits, 15 196;

  and education, 16 425;

  condemns Institut Canadien, 11 89;

  refuses Christian burial to Joseph Guibord, 89;

  denounces Catholic liberalism, 6 72, 11 87.

Bourget College. Founded at Rigaud (1850), 16 432.

Bourinot, Sir John George (1834-1902). On Confederation, 6 213;

  his works, 12 505, 531.

Bourke, Charles. Priest who accompanied Red River settlers to York Factory, 11 119, 19, 21.

Bourlamaque, François Charles, Chevalier de (d. 1764). Strengthens Ticonderoga, 1 257;

  at Fort William Henry, 259;

  retires from Ticonderoga, 273;

  blows up Crown Point, 274;

  at Isle-aux-Noix, 274.

Boutet, Martin. Teacher in petite école, Quebec, 16 329;

  ‘master’ in Jesuit College, 362;

  teaches mathematics and navigation, 374.

Bouvart, Martin (c. 1637-1705). Superior of Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 366.

Bow Indians. La Vérendrye brothers’ visit to, 1 128-30.

Bowell, Sir Mackenzie (b. 1823), prime minister of Canada (1894-6). Minister of Customs, 6 83;

  negotiates on reciprocity, 9 169;

  as Dominion premier, 6 125-6;

  and Manitoba schools question, 125.

Bowes, Barnard Foord, lieutenant-colonel. Commands forces in Lower Canada (1805), 3 158.

Bowles, Dr. Principal of Victoria College, 11 336.

Bowser, W. J. (b. 1867). Attorney-general of British Columbia, 21 232, 233;

  passes Canneries Revenue Act, 22 458;

  and Japanese control of fisheries, 459.

Boy, Philibert. Member of schools association at Montreal (1686), 16 338.

Boyd, Alfred. Member of provisional council of North-West, 19 197, 198.

Boyd, John. Probes Macdonald on the tariff, 6 82-83;

  lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (1893), 14 427.

Boyd, Sir John A. (b. 1837). First solicitor of Baptist Church Edifice Society, 11 367;

  provincial financial arbitrator, 7 474;

  investigates Gamey corruption charges, 17 183.

Boyd, John Parker (1764-1830), American military officer. Defeated at Chrystler’s Farm, 3 249-50.

Boyd, Caldwell and Co., 17 161-2.

Boyle, John Robert (b. 1870). And the Alberta railway scandal, 19 276;

  minister of Education in Alberta, 20 485.

Brabant, A. J., missionary priest. His labours on Vancouver Island, 11 162.

Brackbill, Miss. Methodist missionary to West China, 11 325.

Braddock, Edward (1695-1755), British general. Plans for attack on French posts, 1 239;

  ignorant of American conditions, 240;

  defeated and slain at Fort Duquesne, 240-2, 13 89, 90.

Bradley, William C. United States boundary agent, 8 786.

Bradstreet, John (1711-74). Repels French raiders, 1 252;

  captures Fort Frontenac, 268;

  his Indian treaties disavowed, 3 68-69.

Brady, John. Roman Catholic priest at Buckingham, 11 55.

Brandon. Population (1901, 1911), 20 327;

  temperature, precipitation, and sunshine at, 517.

Brandon College, 20 444.

Brandon House. Plundered by Cuthbert Grant, 19 35.

Brandy Traffic. See Liquor Traffic.

Brant, Isaac, son of Joseph Brant. Murder committed by, 4 712-3.

Brant, John (1794-1832), son of Joseph Brant. Commands Indians at Beaver Dam, 3 243;

  elected member of assembly of Upper Canada and unseated, 4 721.

Brant, Joseph (1742-1807), Indian chief. An elective chieftain, 4 702;

  at council at Oswego (1777), 706;

  founds Indian settlement at Niagara, 11 221;

  obtains location for Six Nation Indians, 17 42;

  at the Philadelphia conference (1792), 4 710;

  sells township of Dumfries, 17 69;

  qualities and characteristics of, 4 713, 17 42.

Brant, Molly (d. 1796). Sir William Johnson attracted by, 1 235.

Brantford. Six Nations reserve at, 4 707;

  first Protestant church founded in Canada after Conquest erected by Indians near, 11 221.

Bray, Thomas, R.A. Loyalist applicant for grant in Eastern Townships, 15 149.

Bread. Price of, fixed by mass meeting of inhabitants, 2 480-1.

Breadalbane, John Campbell, fourth Earl of (1762-1834). His eviction of the McIntyres, 15 156;

  attempts to dispossess MacNab, 17 93.

Bréard, Jacques Michel, comptroller of the Marine. An associate of Bigot, 2 526;

  a financial expedient of, 521.

Brébeuf, Jean de (1593-1649), Jesuit. Arrives in Quebec, 2 397-8;

  his mission to the Hurons, 1 59, 60, 63, 2 404-5;

  martyrdom of, 406.

Breda, Treaty of (1667). Port Royal and Fort la Tour restored to France under, 13 51.

Breland, Pascal (b. 1810). Member of North-West Council, 19 196, 198, 202;

  his salary, 218 n.

Brennan, Michael. Roman Catholic priest at Belleville, 11 49.

Brenton, James, attorney-general of Nova Scotia. On a school project at Halifax, 14 514-5.

Breslay, René Charles (1658-1735), Sulpician. Curé at Port la Joye, Island of St John, 13 314.

Brésoles, Sister, 2 414.

Brest Harbour, Labrador. Mentioned by Jacques Cartier, 8 915.

Brett, Robert George (b. 1851). Member of first legislative assembly of North-West Territories, 19 223, 229, 230, 231, 234.

Brew, Chartres. First inspector of police of British Columbia, 21 147;

  and the McGowan riots, 153;

  member of first legislative council, 166.

Brewing. See Manufactures.

Breynat, Gabriel (b. 1867). Vicar-apostolic of the Mackenzie, 11 187.

Breynton, John. Anglican clergyman at Halifax, 11 202;

  establishes an orphanage, 202, 13 88.

Briand, Jean Olivier (1715-94), bishop of Quebec (1766-84). Vicar-general, 11 15;

  bishop, 3 40, 4 440, 11 18;

  conditions of appointment imposed by Great Britain, 18;

  vindicates himself, 19;

  services during Invasion of 1775, 19-20;

  pension granted to, 21;

  his ability and tact, 2 441, 11 18-19.

Bricker, Samuel (1776-1868). Mennonite pioneer in Waterloo County, 17 48.

Briconnet, Denis. Bishop of St Malo, 1 34.

Bridges, Hedley Vickers Burpee (b. 1862). Principal of provincial normal school, Fredericton, 14 556.

Bridgman, George B. Canadian painter, 12 620.

Brigden, F. H. Canadian landscape artist, 12 624.

Briggs, William (b. 1859). Methodist Church book-steward, 11 333.

Bright, John (1811-89). Moves for inquiry into Confederation, 6 28;

  and the National Policy, 88.

Brion, Philippe de Chabot, Sieur de. Brion Island named after, 1 30.

Brion Island. Described by Cartier, 1 30, 38.

Brisebois, Captain. Discovers traces of Fort la Jonquière, 1 139.

Brison, Joshua. Discovers antimony ore in Nova Scotia, 14 696.

Bristol. Early voyages from, 1 18, 24.

Bristol, Township of. Its original grantees, 17 44.

Britannia.

  (1) Lake Ontario sailing vessel, 10 494.

  (2) Steamboat on Lake Ontario, 10 499.

  (3) First Cunarder on Liverpool-Halifax route, 5 365, 10 597-8;

    description and first trip of, 5 366, 10 598.

  (4) Sailing vessel owned by the Allans, 10 603.

  (5) Steamboat on Toronto-Montreal route, 10 541.

British America. Steamboat on Montreal-Quebec route, 10 541;

  tows Royal William to Montreal after her launching, 592.

British-America Land Company. Charter opposed by assembly, 4 580;

  its purchases in Eastern Townships, 513-4, 580-1;

  develops Eastern Townships, 10 361, 15 162, 319;

  associated with Rolph’s settlement scheme, 5 207.

British American. St Lawrence steamboat, 10 495.

British American League. Founded (1849), 5 59;

  its aims, 235-6.

British and North American Royal Mail-Steam Packet Company. See Cunard Line.

British and North Atlantic Steam Navigation Company. See Dominion Line.

British Columbia.

  Special Articles:

    The Period of Exploration, 21 13-71;

    Colonial History (1849-71), 75-176;

    Political History (1871-1913), 179-237;

  general survey, 3-9.

  Vancouver Island Colony:

    Fort Camosun (Victoria) founded (1843), 77-78;

    grant of Island to Hudson’s Bay Company (1849), 79-80;

    its government, 85-86;

    the first governorship, 87-97;

    representative government established, 110;

    electoral qualifications and districts, 112;

    first women settlers, 120 n.;

    control assumed by home government, 127;

    political conditions, 129-30.

  Mainland Colony:

    original boundaries, 126 n.;

    name and its origin, 126 n., 127 n.;

    Lytton on sale of lands, 146;

    first civil list, 147;

    its ceremonial inauguration, 150;

    grievances of settlers, 150-1;

    decline in population between 1858 and 1861, 156;

    sectional feeling, 160;

    legislative council established, 166, 22 354;

    proposals for union, 21 164-5, 167;

    annexation of Vancouver Island, 167;

    Confederation movement, 170-2;

    the terms of Confederation, 7 492-3, 21 174-6;

    the first provincial legislature, 179-80;

    population (1871), 7 517, 520, (1881) 6 91;

    ballot introduced, 21 183;

    dual representation abolished, 184;

    Voters’ Act of 1875 and its repeal, 195, 197;

    deadlock on redistribution (1878), 200-1;

    redistributions of 1885, 1890, 1894, 1898, 1902, 213, 216, 219, 222-3, 227-8;

    changes made by redistribution, 22 367;

    Kennedy breach of privilege case, 21 217-8;

    new parliament buildings erected, 219-20;

    increase in public debt, 1894-8, 221;

    changes since 1903, 233-4;

    ‘better terms’ agitation, 7 497, 21 324-7;

    Oriental question, 250-73.

  The Railway Question:

    conditions of construction, 10 421, 21 175-6;

    location of terminus, 184-5;

    preliminary surveys, 185-6;

    protests against alleged breach of terms, 6 65, 10 421, 21 186-7, 189-90;

    anticipations of prosperity, 187;

    Carnarvon’s mediation, 6 65, 21 190-1;

    comparison of Edgar and Carnarvon Terms, 10 422-3;

    Carnarvon Terms, 21 193-5;

    protests against their non-fulfilment, 196;

    Island section bill rejected by Senate, 6 66, 21 197;

    compensation offered, 198;

    Dufferin’s intervention, 6 66, 21 199-200;

    secession resolution of 1878, 202-4;

    Mainland section begun, 204;

    dispute re Island section, 206;

    its settlement, 210-1;

    extension to Vancouver, 212-3.

  Sectionalism—Mainland v. Island:

    division of portfolios, 181, 184;

    local railway terminus, 184-5;

    Carnarvon Terms, 196;

    Esquimalt graving-dock, 206;

    voting inequalities, 213;

    site of provincial capital, 22 417-8;

    university act of 1890, 437;

    now eliminated, 367.

  See also Agriculture;

    Education;

    Fisheries;

    Forests;

    Government;

    Hudson’s Bay Company;

    Indians;

    Judicial Systems;

    Land;

    Liquor Traffic;

    Mining;

    Municipal Institutions;

    Physical Features;

    Public Finance;

    Railways;

    Roads;

    Shipping;

    Transportation.

British Columbia Copper Company, 22 577, 579.

British Columbia Pulp and Paper Company. Amount invested in the soda pulp-mill at Port Mellon, 22 514.

British Columbia, University of. The act of 1890 and its lapsing, 22 436-7;

  act passed settling lands endowment for university purposes, 438;

  site commission of 1910, 439-41;

  its organization, 442.

British Empire. Vancouver and Prince Rupert steamer, 10 573.

British Immigration. To Upper Canada, 3 331, 17 78-83, 18 556-7;

  in Saskatchewan, 19 178;

  regulations re admission of children, 7 553-4;

  statistics of children’s admissions (1900-10), 554;

  in the Dominion, 554-5;

  totals (1901-12), 555;

  increase between 1891 and 1912, 9 194.

British North America. Its population (1825), 4 587.

British North America Act. Defects revealed in operation, 5 155-6;

  the overlapping of jurisdiction, 14 460-1;

  difficulty in interpretation of sections which distribute legislative powers, 15 269-70.

  See Confederation.

British Settlement in Quebec. See Quebec.

British Settlers Company, of Châteauguay, 15 157.

Britton, Henry. Canadian artist, 12 625.

Bro, Jean. Repatriates Acadian families, 11 30.

Brock, Sir Isaac (1769-1812), commander-in-chief in Upper Canada. In command in Lower Canada, 3 158;

  forbids Indian raids on United States, 4 714-5;

  on menace of settlement from United States, 17 45;

  his plans in War of 1812, 3 221;

  his regard for Tecumseh, 224, 4 715;

  ‘annexes’ Michigan, 3 225;

  his proposed attack on Sackett’s Harbour, 226;

  at Queenston Heights, 231-3;

  biographical notice of, 208;

  as commander and administrator, 208-9, 218, 221-2.

Brockville. Interested in Cornwall Canal project, 10 513;

  population (1830), 18 558;

  act providing for elective board of police passed (1832), 424;

  American steamer fired on by British sentries at, 4 393.

Brockville. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 538.

Brockville and Ottawa Railway. Purchased by C.P.R., 10 433.

Brockville, Westport, and Sault Ste Marie Railway project, 10 448.

Brodeur, Louis (1776-1839). Missionary priest in New Brunswick, 11 42.

Brodeur, Louis Philippe (b. 1862). Negotiates commercial treaty with France, 9 237;

  favours local control for Canadian navy, 6 190;

  at Imperial Defence Conference (1909), 169.

Broeffle, John Ludwig (1739-1815). Ministers to German settlers of Dundas and Stormont, 11 266.

Broke, Sir Philip Bowes Vere (1776-1841). In command of the Shannon, 3 200;

  a model captain, 236;

  brings the Chesapeake into Halifax, 13 258.

Bromley, Robert. Army paymaster and pamphleteer, 13 273.

Brondel, J. B. A. (1841-1903). Roman Catholic bishop of Vancouver Island (1880-4), 11 166.

Bronson, E. H. (b. 1844). Member of Ontario cabinet, 17 179.

Brooke, Mrs Frances (1724-89). Publishes the first Canadian novel, 12 534-5.

Brooke, John (d. 1788). First Anglican clergyman to officiate in Quebec, 11 213.

Brooke, Richard. Loyalist applicant for grant in Eastern Townships, 15 149.

Brooks, J. W. Director of Great Western Railway, 10 395.

Brougham, Henry Peter, Baron Brougham and Vaux (1778-1868). Attacks Durham’s Ordinance of June 28, 1838, 4 398;

  opposes Rebellion Losses Bill, 5 56.

Broughton, Charles. Canadian black-and-white artist, 12 630.

Broughton, William Robert (1762-1821). Commands the Chatham in Vancouver’s expedition, 21 47;

  explores the Columbia River, 8 849, 21 50.

Brouillan, Jacques François de (d. 1705). Demolishes fort at mouth of the St John, 13 61.

Brouillan, St Ovide de. See St Ovide.

Broussard, Joseph, dit Beausoleil (b. 1702), Acadian insurgent. Engages in privateering in Bay of Fundy, 13 114.

Brown, Andrew (d. 1826). Minister of Protestant Dissenters’ Church, Halifax, 11 258.

Brown, E. President of council of British Columbia, 21 197.

Brown, Frederick (d. 1838). Manager of Theatre Royal, Montreal (1825), 12 655.

Brown, George (1818-80). Founds the Banner and Globe, 5 61-62;

  driven into association with the ‘Grits,’ 63-64;

  and the clergy reserves, 65;

  combines anti-Roman views with radicalism, 68;

  and the Hincks-Morin administration, 69, 71, 73;

  returned for Lambton, 70;

  and separate schools controversy, 18 313-4;

  Horton Rhys’s interview with, 12 660;

  endorses educational resolution of Confederation Conference, 18 315;

  and political favouritism in administrationof Municipal Loan Fund Act, 449-50;

  defeated in 1861, 5 82;

  the ‘Clear Grit’ par excellence, 82;

  drives wedge between radicalism of Lower and Upper Canada, 83;

  on constitution of 1840, 90;

  agitates for ‘representation by population,’ 92, 15 169;

  hostile to Confederation in 1860, 5 94-95;

  favours separation of executive and legislative functions, 130;

  and a nominated Upper House, 142-3, 146;

  publishes the Canada Farmer, 18 568;

  member of committee on defence, 7 421;

  his part in Confederation, 5 6, 96, 99;

  joins Taché’s coalition ministry, 5 97, 6 17, 18;

  his dislike of coalitions, 6 20, 17 108;

  resigns from cabinet, 9 128;

  defeated in South Ontario, 6 20, 17 110;

  introduces partyism into provincial politics, 109-10;

  on failure of Galt-Howland negotiations, 9 128-9;

  negotiates Brown-Fish draft treaty, 6 67-68, 9 131, 176;

  deplores growth of protection, 6 68, 80;

  his services as commercial ambassador, 9 130, 176;

  sketch of, 6 18;

  his qualities, defects, and public services, 5 83-84;

  his personal magnetism, 17 110;

  his biographies, 12 507.

Brown, Jacob (1775-1828), American military officer. In command at Sackett’s Harbour, 3 241;

  captures Fort Erie, 254-5;

  at battle of Chippawa, 255;

  Chauncey fails to co-operate with, 256;

  at Lundy’s Lane, 257-8;

  wounded, 259.

Brown, James. Member of assembly of New Brunswick (1832), 13 200.

Brown, John (d. 1848). Member of Antiburgher presbytery of Pictou (1795), 11 260.

Brown, J. C. Minister of Finance of British Columbia, 21 226;

  provincial secretary, 227;

  member of Fisheries Commission of 1905, 22 456.

Brown, Major. Stirs up disaffection in Canada, 3 81.

Brown, Richard. His work as engineer and geologist in Nova Scotia, 14 675-6.

Brown, R. C. Lundin. On agricultural prospects of British Columbia, 22 529-30;

  his list of prices, 532-3;

  on sheep-raising in the colony, 533-5.

Brown, Thomas Storrow (b. 1803). Escapes to the United States, 3 362-3.

Brown, William. Member of Ontario Agricultural Commission (1880), 18 572.

Brown, William. His opinion of La Gazette de Québec, 12 437.

Brown, Lieutenant. Effects landing at Freshwater Cove, Louisbourg (1758), 1 224.

Brown-Fish Draft Treaty (1874). Its terms, 9 131;

  causes of its rejection, 132-3.

Browne, Archibald. ‘Poet Painter of Canada,’ 12 615-6.

Brownell, Franklin (b. 1857). Canadian artist, 12 624.

Brown’s Point, Queenston Heights, 3 231, 232, 233.

Brownstown. American defeat at, 3 238.

Bruce, David. Associated in building the Accommodation, 10 494;

  tenders for the Frontenac, 496.

Bruce, John. President of ‘National Committee’ at Red River, 19 72.

Bruce, R. Superintendent-general of Indian Affairs, 5 355.

Bruce, W. Blair (1859-1906). Canadian artist, 12 607.

Bruce. Steamer on Sydney and Port-aux-Basques route, 10 562.

Bruce Mines. Lake steamboat, 10 543.

Bruchesi, Paul (b. 1855). Roman Catholic archbishop of Montreal, 11 92.

Bruenech, G. Canadian painter of Norwegian landscapes, 12 625.

Brulé, Étienne (d. 1633). Pioneer immigrant at Quebec, 15 19;

  hostage with Algonquins, 1 47;

  accompanies first Récollet missionaries, 53;

  in Seneca country, 56;

  tortured by Senecas, 57;

  remains after English conquest, 15 22;

  achievements as explorer and death of, 1 57.

Brunault, Joseph Simon Hermann (b. 1857). Roman Catholic bishop of Nicolet, 11 108.

Bruneau, François (d. 1865). Admitted to Council of Assiniboia (1855), 11 140.

Brunelle, Pierre. A shipbuilder of Quebec, 10 578.

Brunelle. Quebec-built clipper, 10 578.

Brunswick.

  (1) Lakes vessel launched (1767), 10 486.

  (2) Conveys Talbot settlers to Quebec, 17 73.

Brunswicker. Prizes brought into St John by, 13 186.

Bruyas, Jacques (1635-1712). Superior of Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 366.

Bryan, John. Loyalist refugee, 11 214.

Bryant, C. Master of Nanaimo school, 22 405.

Bryce, George (b. 1844). First professor in Manitoba College, 11 287, 20 426;

  effects settlement with Mennonites on school question, 11 392.

Bryce, James, first Viscount Bryce (b. 1838), British ambassador at Washington. At the International Seal Conference (1911), 8 747, 9 219, 235.

Bryce-Root Treaty (1908), 8 838-9.

Brydone-Jack, W. D. Member of university senate of British Columbia, 22 442.

Brymner, Douglas (1823-1902). Dominion archivist, 6 334.

Brymner, William (b. 1855). Canadian artist, 12 610, 631.

Bryzelius, Paulus. Anglican clergyman at Lunenburg (1766), 11 204.

Buchanan, Dr Hamilton, of Leny. Protects the Chief of MacNab, 17 93;

  sends emigrants to MacNab township, 96.

Buchanan, Isaac (1810-83). Agitates in favour of an irredeemable paper currency, 5 283, 286;

  protectionist who supported commercial union, 9 143, 165, 17 249 and n.

Buchanan, James (1791-1868), United States president. Attacks Maine boundary settlement, 8 818;

  and the Oregon boundary, 864;

  signs the Oregon Treaty, 865.

Buchanan, John. Servant to Chief of MacNab, 17 93.

Buchanan, British consul at New York. Sends artisans to John Galt at Guelph, 17 90-91.

Buckeye State. Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Buckingham Graphite Company, P.Q., 16 593.

Buckingham, William (1832-1915). Founds Nor’-Wester at Red River (1859), 19 59.

Buckland, George (d. 1885). His work for agriculture, 18 567-8.

Buckland, J. W. (d. 1872). Manager of new Theatre Royal, Montreal (1852), 12 656.

Buckram. Armed vessel commissioned by Nova Scotia government, 13 220.

Buckstone, J. B. (1802-79), actor. Performs in Montreal (1841), 12 656.

Budd, Henry. First Anglican native clergyman in the West, 11 227;

  establishes first Anglican mission to Indians in the interior, 228.

Budd, John. His account of American raid on Charlottetown (1776), 13 353.

Buffalo. Destroyed by Sir Phineas Riall, 3 252;

  abortive British attempt on, 260;

  anti-British agitation in, 366;

  Fenian concentration at, 7 408.

Buffalo. Their large numbers in the North-West in 1874 and 1875, 20 293-4;

  regulations designed for their preservation, 294;

  diminution in export of robes, 294;

  their disappearance, 7 601, 19 157, 20 294.

Buffalo, Brantford and Goderich Railway. Chartered (1851), 10 404;

  suspends operations (1856), 413.

Buffalo Lake, Athabaska. Explored by Peter Pond, 4 650.

Buffalo Wool Company, 19 45-46.

Bugeauld, an Acadian loyalist. His visit to Franquet, 13 311;

  church erected in his orchard, 311.

Buies, Arthur (1840-91). His chroniques and other literary work, 12 485-7.

Buisset, Luc, Récollet. Given charge of mission at Kenté, 1 86.

Buisson, Abbé. Procurator of the Seminary of Quebec, 16 381.

Buisson, Jean François. Prize-winner at Jesuit College (1679), 16 372.

Bulgarians. Their characteristics as immigrants, 7 566-7.

Bulger, Captain Andrew (d. 1858), governor of Assiniboia (1822-3). His efficient rule, 19 46-47.

Bulkeley, Richard (d. 1800). First churchwarden of St Paul’s Church, Halifax, 11 202;

  aide to the governor, 13 82.

Buller, Arthur (d. 1869). His report on education, 4 396, 16 465-7.

Buller, Charles (1806-48). Chief secretary to Lord Durham, 4 391, 392, 395;

  on Durham’s conciliation of American opinion, 395-6;

  on land-granting system, 581-2;

  and corruption in land grants, 15 151;

  his scheme of commutation of seigneurial tenure, 2 589.

Bull Frogs.See Royal Canadian Rifles.

Bullion, Angélique. Her invitation to Jeanne Mance, 2 412.

Bulwer, Sir William Henry Lytton Earle, afterwards Baron Dalling and Bulwer (1801-72), British ambassador at Washington. Assists in arranging reciprocity, 5 241.

Bulyea, George Hedley Vicars (b. 1859). Member of executive council of North-West Territories, 19 250;

  his co-operation with Haultain, 251-2;

  first lieutenant-governor of Alberta, 6 156, 19 275.

Bunn, Thomas. Secretary of Riel’s provisional government, 11 155, 19 83 n., 85.

Bunoz, Emile M. Prefect apostolic of the Yukon, 11 192.

Bunster, Arthur. Member of council of British Columbia, 21 176, 180;

  and the secession address, 198;

  opposes Chinese labour, 256.

Bunting, Charles E. One of the fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Bunting, Christopher, and the Ontario ‘Bribery Plot’ (1884), 17 167.

Burbank and Company. Joint owners of first steamer on Red River, 10 567.

Burbidge, George Wheelock, justice. Arbitrates on financial obligations of Ontario, 7 474.

Burbidge, John (c. 1717-1812), colonel. Imports apple varieties to Nova Scotia, 14 655.

Burchtown, Shelburne, N.S. Projected negro settlement at, 13 237.

Burdett-Coutts, Angela Georgina, Baroness (1814-1906). Endows Anglican bishopric of British Columbia, 11 232, 21 147.

Bureau-des-Pauvres, Quebec, 2 427.

Burel, Gilbert, Jesuit brother. Arrives in Quebec, 2 397.

Burgoyne, John (1722-92), British general. Lands reinforcement at Quebec, 3 97; 110.

Burke, Edmund (1729-97), British statesman. His acrid description of Nova Scotia, 13 248.

Burke, Edmund (1753-1820). Missionary priest in Upper Canada, 11 25, 26;

  labours in the Maritime Provinces, 42, 43-45;

  vicar-apostolic of Nova Scotia (1818-20), 44-45, 13 271;

  his educational work, 11 43, 45, 13 271;

  first bishop of Halifax (1818-20), 271;

  sketch of, 11 25, 13 271.

Burke, James. Provincial secretary of Manitoba, 11 175.

Burlington.

  (1) War vessel on Lake Ontario, 10 494.

  (2) Steamboat on Lake Ontario, 10 499.

Burlington Bay Canal. Opened (1830), 10 522.

Burlington Heights, near Hamilton, 3 240, 241.

Burnet, William (1688-1729), governor of New York. Resents French interference with the Iroquois, 2 366, 369.

Burnett, Thomas. Surveys for Lachine Canal, 10 509.

Burnham, Mark (1804-77). Anglican clergyman at St Thomas, Ontario (1829), 11 233.

Burnham, Zaccheus (d. 1896), 17 87.

Burns, Sir George, Bart. (1795-1890). One of founders of the Cunard Line, 10 596, 597.

Burns, John (b. 1858). His statement on immigration (1911), 6 198-9.

Burns, Dr Robert (1789-1869). Secretary of the Glasgow Colonial Society, 11 263;

  selects Rev. John Black for work at Red River, 286.

Burns, William. Principal of provincial normal school in Vancouver, 22 434.

Burpee, Isaac (1825-85). Minister of Customs (1873-8), 6 64.

Burpee, Lawrence Johnston (b. 1873). Member of International Joint Commission, 6 368;

  his Search for the Western Sea, 12 519.

Burpee, R. E. (d. 1853). Foreign missionary of the Baptist Church, 11 358.

Burr, W. H. Master of school at Victoria (1861), 22 404, 405.

Burrage, Rev. Mr Master of Royal Grammar School of Quebec, 16 463, 464;

  on state aid for schools, 471.

Burt, Stephen. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Burton, Sir Francis Nathaniel (1767-1832). Administrator of Lower Canada (1824-5), 3 300, 301, 4 484.

Burton, Ralph, colonel. In Quebec, 1 295;

  receives Wolfe’s last orders, 15 122;

  lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 4 427;

  at Three Rivers, 3 23, 15 122;

  transferred to Montreal, 3 32.

Burwash, Nathanael (b. 1839), principal of Victoria College. On Macdonald’s university bill of 1847, 18 370;

  as university federationist, 393, 394;

  his work and personality, 11 335-6.

Burwell. His school bill of 1833, 18 284;

  attacks council’s bill of 1835, 285.

Bury, William Coutts, seventh Earl of Albemarle and Viscount Bury (1832-94). Superintendent-general of Indian Affairs, 5 355, 356.

Bushby, A. T. Registrar of supreme court of British Columbia, 21 148 n.

Bushnell, John. Original publisher of Halifax Gazette, 12 520.

Bushy Run. Engagement at, 3 66.

Bussey, L. White. American secretary of International Joint Commission, 6 368.

Busy. Brig built at Lunenburg, 10 581.

Buteux, Jacques (1600-52). Jesuit martyr, 2 408.

Butler, John (1725-96). Forms a corps of Rangers, 17 17;

  at the Indian council at Oswego, 4 706;

  and loyalist settlement at Niagara, 17 18, 19, 20;

  favours division of province of Quebec, 35.

Butler, Lieutenant. His mission to the Saskatchewan (1870), 19 195.

Butler’s Rangers. Formed from the loyalist refugees at Niagara, 17 17;

  settle at Niagara, 19, 21.

Button, Sir Thomas (d. 1634). His expedition to Hudson Bay (1612), 1 155-6.

Buxton, Sydney Charles, first Viscount (b. 1853), 6 199.

B. X. First steamer to navigate upper Fraser River, 10 569-70.

By, John (1781-1836), lieutenant-colonel. Constructs the Rideau Canal, 10 519.

Byington, E. L. Rector of Protestant normal school, Winnipeg, 20 439.

Bylot, Robert. Hudson’s second mate, 1 155;

  explores Hudson Bay, 157.

Byron, Captain Richard. Killed on board the Belvidera, 13 256.

Bystander. History of the publication, 12 522 n.;

  on Mowat’s domination of Ontario, 17 178.

Bytown. Steamboat on upper St Lawrence, 10 538.

 

Cabot, John, navigator. Voyages of, 1 20-22;

  his self-esteem, 21 and n.;

  unknown fate of, 22.

Cabot, Lewis. Son of John Cabot, 1 19.

Cabot, Sancio. Son of John Cabot, 1 19.

Cabot, Sebastian (1474-1557). Accompanies his father on his first voyage, 1 20;

  in Hudson Strait, 149.

Cabral, Pedro Alvarez (1460-1526), Portuguese navigator. His discovery of Brazil, 1 23.

Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez, Spanish explorer. His voyage to the Pacific coast (c. 1542), 8 846, 21 15.

Cache Creek, B.C. Account of provincial boarding school at, 22 426-8.

Cadboro. First sea-going vessel to navigate lower Fraser, 21 67;

  Governor Douglas’s voyage in, 76.

Cadet, Joseph Michel (b. 1710). Associate of Bigot, 2 526.

Cadillac, Antoine de la Motte (d. 1730). Introduces domestic cattle at Detroit (1701), 7 656.

Caën, Emery de, nephew of Guillaume de Caën. Assists in forming new merchant company, 2 451;

  his reception of Jesuit mission, 398;

  frustrates colonization, 15 20.

Caën, Guillaume de. Forms company to take over trading monopoly of Montmorency company, 2 319, 451, 15 20;

  monopoly broken, 2 321;

  granted seigniory of Cap Tourmente, 536.

Cahiagué. Huron village, 1 53, 54.

Cairnes, D. D. On the older geology of Yukon Territory, 22 595-7.

Cairo. Name of Royal Edward while in Mediterranean service, 10 614.

Calcutt Line of steamships, 10 565.

Calder, James Alexander (b. 1868). Commissioner of Education of Saskatchewan, 19 270, 474.

Caldwell, Henry (d. 1810). Takes part in defence of Quebec (1775), 3 91;

  acting receiver-general, 4 493, 15 122.

Caldwell, John (d. 1830), receiver-general of Lower Canada. His bankruptcy and defalcations, 3 299-300, 4 512.

Caldwell, William. Assists in founding the Nor’-Wester (1859), 19 59.

Caldwell, Major W. B. Conducts pensioners to Red River, 19 56.

Caldwell. War vessel on Lake Ontario (1782), 10 487.

Caledonia.

  (1) Schooner which conveyed Talbot settlers from Prescott to York, 17 74.

  (2) Sailing vessel owned by the Allans, 10 603.

  (3) One of first Cunard steamships, 10 597.

Calgarian.

  (1) Lakes freighter, 10 557, 588.

  (2) Allan liner on Montreal-Liverpool service, 10 608.

Calgary. Roman Catholic mission established at, 11 164;

  Murdock’s diary of its first years, 19 168-9;

  its hydro-electric plants, 327;

  population (1901 and 1911), 20 327;

  statistics of manufactures (1890-1910), 328;

  method of real estate assessment in, 402;

  income tax abolished in, 408;

  educational development at, 483, 494, 497.

Calgary College, 20 499.

Calgary University School, 20 499.

Calhoun, John Caldwell (1782-1850), United States secretary of state. Negotiates on Oregon boundary, 8 863.

California. Ship employed in search for North-West Passage (1747), 1 197.

Calkin, John Burgess (b. 1829). Principal of normal college, Truro, 14 533.

Callbeck, Phillips. Member of council of St John’s Island (1770), 13 345;

  administrator (1775), 349;

  made prisoner by American privateers, 353-4.

Callières, Louis Hector de (1646-1703), governor of New France (1699-1703). Suggests exchange of French West Indies for New York, 2 356 n.;

  and migrations to New Orleans, 15 58.

Calonne, Jacques Ladislas Joseph de (1742-1822). French refugee priest, 11 32.

Cambie, R. J. On productiveness of North-West Territories, 20 587.

Cambria.

  (1) Sailing vessel owned by the Allans, 10 603.

  (2) Cunarder, called the Flying Cambria, 10 599.

Cambridge, Massachusetts. Expedition against Quebec sets out from (1775), 3 83-84.

Cameron, Alex. Member of Protestant education committee of Quebec, 16 491.

Cameron, David (d. 1872), chief justice of Vancouver Island (1853-8). His appointment as chief justice, 22 351;

  petitions for and against his appointment, 21 118, 119;

  his discharge of his duties, 119, 22 389.

Cameron, Sir Douglas Colin. Lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 19 132.

Cameron, D. R. Boundary survey commissioner, 8 877.

Cameron, Duncan. Seizes Hudson’s Bay Company trader, 19 29;

  entices Selkirk settlers to Upper Canada, 30;

  appears at the Forks in borrowed uniform, 31-32;

  ingratiates himself with the Highlanders, 32;

  takes Miles Macdonell prisoner to Fort William, 33.

Cameron, George Frederick (1854-85). His volume of Lyrics, 12 581;

  his songs on Spanish oppression in Cuba, 12 582.

Cameron, John (1827-1910). Roman Catholic bishop of Arichat (1877-86), 11 81.

Cameron, J. D. Anglican missionary at Sault Ste Marie, 11 223.

Cameron, John Hillyard (1817-76). His attitude to the Red River delegation, 6 41, 5 70.

Cameron, Malcolm (1808-76). Original director of Grand Trunk Railway, 10 401.

Cameron, Sir Matthew Crooks (1822-87). Provincial secretary of Ontario, 17 107, 200 n.;

  supports the narrow gauge, 113;

  and his defence of Whelan, 115;

  and the ‘Speak Now’ incident, 124-5 and n.;

  leader of opposition, 131 and n.;

  his erratic leadership, 132-3;

  and charges against Blake and Wood, 133;

  his correct attitude on the Scott murder, 133-4;

  condemns Mowat’s ‘descent from the bench,’ 138-9;

  opposes Dr Clarke’s liquor prohibition bill, 141;

  attacks the department of Agriculture, 144;

  newspaper attack on, 147;

  obstructs education bill of 1876, 152;

  ‘the March of the Cameron Men,’ 152-3;

  supports unanimity in juries’ verdicts, 153;

  two views on propriety of opening the house with prayer, 153-4;

  raised to a judgeship, 154;

  regards province as subordinate, 159;

  his political principles and personal character, 107, 131 and n., 132;

  as party leader, 154.

Cameron, Colonel. Posted at Chippawa during the Rebellion of 1837, 7 388;

  member of committee on defence, 401.

Camosun. Pacific coast steamer, 10 573.

Campania. First twin-screw steamship of Cunard Line, 10 601.

Campbell, Sir Alexander (1822-92). Adjusts financial differences with British Columbia, 21 210, 5 358, 6 22, 47, 7 514, 17 190 n.

Campbell, Archibald. United States boundary commissioner, 8 871, 877.

Campbell, Sir Archibald (1769-1843), lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (1831-7). Instructed to reform the executive, 3 355;

  his conflicts with assembly, 13 199-201, 14 483, 484.

Campbell, Archibald William (b. 1863). Highway commissioner of Ontario, 18 485.

Campbell, Sir Colin (1776-1847), lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia (1834-40). His military record and personal character, 13 282;

  cause of his recall, 290.

Campbell, Donald, captain. In command at Detroit, 3 57;

  prevents Indian risings, 59;

  is taken prisoner and murdered by Pontiac, 62.

Campbell, Sir Donald, lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (1847-50). Conflict with assembly, 13 368, 14 500-1.

Campbell, Dugald (d. 1810). Lays out Fredericton, 13 162;

  on roads of New Brunswick, 169.

Campbell, Duncan. Author of Histories of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, 12 501.

Campbell, Hector. A leader in Selkirk immigration to Prince Edward Island, 13 356.

Campbell, James. Signs loyalist petition (1787), 17 39.

Campbell, John Saxton. Assists in construction of Royal William, 10 592.

Campbell, Robert (1808-94), explorer. Winters on Dease Lake, 4 690, 21 69;

  discovers Lake Frances and reaches the Pelly River, 5 307-8, 21 69;

  builds Glenlyon House, 5 308;

  discovers Lewes River, 309;

  constructs Fort Selkirk, 311;

  and the ‘Wood’ Indians, 309-10;

  proves the identity of the Yukon, 311, 22 605;

  his journey from Fort Selkirk to the Mississippi, 5 311.

Campbell, R. H. Superintendent of Education, Prince Edward Island, 14 538.

Campbell, Thomas (b. 1790). Anglican clergyman at Belleville (1821), 11 223.

Campbell, T. E., colonel. Superintendent-general of Indian Affairs, 5 355;

  member of defence commissions, 7 396, 401.

Campbell, Lord William, governor-in-chief of Nova Scotia (1766-73). Makes unauthorized grants, 14 674;

  present at first Presbyterian ordination, 11 259;

  presents stoves to St Paul’s Church, Halifax, 203.

Campbell, Sir William (1758-1834), 8 769.

Campbell, William (d. 1823). Second mayor of St John, 13 162.

Campbell, William Wilfred (b. 1860). Novelist and poet, 12 559-60, 578-9.

Campbell’s Highlanders. Newly raised Scottish regiment sent to Nova Scotia (1778), 13 225.

Campbellton, N.B. Destroyed by fire (1910), 14 426.

Camper, Father. Missionary priest in the West, 11 149, 164.

Campion, James W. (d. 1841), Jesuit. Missionary priest at Niagara, 11 48.

Campobello, Island of. British settlement on, 13 129;

  grant of, 8 769;

  courts established in, 769;

  gypsum exports from (1802, 1817), 13 183;

  Fenian raid on, 7 420.

Canada. Indian name for a district, 1 35 n.;

  suggestion to erect into an independent kingdom, 3 296.

Canada.

  (1) Man-of-war constructed at Quebec (1742), 2 509.

  (2) Sailing vessel owned by the brothers Allan, 10 603.

  (3) St Lawrence steamboat, 10 495, 541.

  (4) Lake Ontario steamboat wrecked, 10 498.

  (5) Great Western Railway steamboat, 10 545.

  (6) St Lawrence steamboat, 10 551.

  (7) Cunard steamship, 10 599.

  (8) Dominion Line steamship, 10 609, 610.

Canada Act of 1838, 4 389, 392.

Canada Banking Company. Proposed establishment of, 4 604-5.

Canada Cement Company. Its capital, 9 260;

  capacity of its mills, 16 595;

  location of plants, 18 635.

Canada Central Railway. Dominion aid granted to, 10 442;

  purchased by C.P.R., 433.

Canada Committee (Huskisson’s), 3 305-7.

Canada Company. Formed (1824) for the purchase and settlement of crown and clergy reserves in Upper Canada, 3 333-7, 4 514-5, 580-1, 17 89;

  its exemption from taxation, 247;

  and Rolph’s scheme of settlement, 5 207;

  its colonizing results, 3 335, 561-2.

Canada First Party. And the Red River delegates, 6 42;

  its programme and principal supporters, 69, 70;

  protectionist in aim, 9 146;

  develops national sentiment, 6 71;

  influences provincial politics, 17 147.

Canada Interlake Line. Absorbs the Canadian Interlake Line, 10 557.

Canada Iron Company, 14 687.

Canada Iron Corporation, 9 261, 14 686, 690-1.

Canada Line of steamships, 10 615.

Canada Screw Company. Complains of unfair competition in Birmingham, 9 142.

Canada Shipping Company. See Beaver Line.

Canada Southern Railway. Conveys United States mails, 7 635.

Canada Temperance Act (Scott Act). See under Liquor Traffic.

Canada Trade Act (1822), 2 588, 3 299, 4 533, 570, 571.

Canada Trade and Tenure Act (1825), 2 588.

Canadian.

  (1) Allan liner wrecked near the Pillars lighthouse, 5 402, 10 604.

  (2) Allan liner wrecked near Strait of Belle Isle, 5 403, 10 605.

Canadian Antimony Company, 14 696.

Canadian Art Club. Founded (1907), 12 635.

Canadian Association of Masters and Mates, 9 317, 321.

Canadian Banking Company. Proposed establishment of (1792), 4 610.

Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees, 9 316, 321.

Canadian Chasseurs’ (or ‘Independent Foreigners’). Foreign legion enlisted in Revolutionary War, 3 209 n.

Canadian Club. Its inception and growth, 12 430.

Canadian Coal and Coke Company. Business consolidation, 9 260.

Canadian College, Rome. Founded (1894), 11 90.

Canadian Copper Company. Develops Sudbury mines, 9 185, 18 624-7.

Canadian Corn Bill (1843). British preference granted under, 5 196, 210.

Canadian Fencibles. Raised in War of 1812, 3 209;

  recruited in Glengarry during the War of 1812, 17 69;

  settle on Rideau Canal route, 76.

Canadian Geological Survey. Its exploring work, 5 328.

Canadian Labour Union, 9 297-9;

  its influence on legislation, 299.

Canadian Manufacturers’ Association. Its attitude to Chamberlain’s fiscal programme, 9 211.

Canadian-Mexican Pacific Steamship Line, 10 618.

Canadian Mounted Rifles. Take part in South African War, 7 438, 440.

Canadian National Association. Its political programme, 6 69.

Canadian Navigation Company. Acquires Royal Mail Line, 10 539;

  absorbed by Richelieu Steamboat Company, 539, 551.

Canadian Northern Railway. Construction, 9 199;

  its rapid expansion, mileage and connections, 10 455-7, 19 185, 20 311, 312, 566;

  aggregate land sales of, 315-6;

  and taxation in the Prairie Provinces, 361;

  its agreement with British Columbia, 21 232-3;

  steamship services, 10 613-4.

Canadian Northern Steamships Limited. See Canadian Northern Railway.

Canadian Pacific Railway. Early schemes for building line, 10 419-20, 20 296;

  a condition of entrance into Confederation by British Columbia, 10 421-3;

  delayed by financial conditions, 423;

  Tupper’s resolutions, 6 88;

  endeavours to enlist imperial and private aid, 89, 10 423-4;

  Selkirk route gives place to Winnipeg route, 20 297;

  effect of choice of route on settlement, 19 162-3;

  terms of construction, 6 89, 10 424;

  Blake’s criticism of agreement, 6 89-90;

  an alternative scheme, 90;

  contract ratified, 90;

  public opinion and the contract, 90-91;

  begun and completed, 10 432;

  lines incorporated by, 433-5, 436, 15 190;

  ‘a body without arms,’ 10 434;

  its conflict with Grand Trunk, 435-8;

  obtains Dominion aid, 438-9;

  its serious position in 1885, 439;

  its building the inception of new North-West, 19 163;

  construction followed by agricultural depression in Ontario, 18 575-6;

  policy underlying ‘monopoly’ clause, 10 424-5;

  disallowance of Manitoba charters and agitation in province, 439-41;

  threatens to remove its workshops from Winnipeg, 440, 19 119;

  abrogation of ‘monopoly’ clause and its conditions, 10 441, 19 122;

  rate-cutting results in friction with United States, 9 162;

  and crossing facilities, 19 123-4;

  enters Transatlantic Rates Association, 9 162;

  land endowment to, 149-50;

  excessive speculation induced by construction, 150-1;

  land endowment of retards settlement, 20 292-3;

  organizes ready-made farms for colonization, 7 588, 20 302;

  land sales in Prairie Provinces (1893-1914), 315;

  constructs line from Lethbridge to Nelson, 10 452;

  its irrigation works in Alberta, 20 591-2;

  mileage and percentage west of Lake Superior, 10 457;

  system and its connections, 20 300-1, 566;

  its development (1896, 1913), 310-1;

  increase in gross earnings (1901-12), 9 199;

  agitation to rescind exemption from taxation, 19 258, 265, 274;

  compounds taxation in Prairie Provinces, 20 361;

  subventions from British Columbia, 22 364-5;

  its steamship services—on upper lakes, 10 546, 550, 556;

  river car transports, 547;

  on inland lakes, 570-1;

  transatlantic services and fleet, 612-3;

  Pacific services and fleet, 572-3, 613-8;

  first great material achievement of Confederation, 6 6.

Canadian Plumbago Company, 16 593.

Canadian Titanic Iron Ore Company. Attempts mining at Baie St Paul, 16 579.

Canadian Voltigeurs. Take part in War of 1812, 3 209 and n., 247-9.

Canals.

  Special Article: The Canals of Canada, 10 502-36;

  a handicap on public finance, 5 233, 249;

  tonnage on Canadian and American (1863), 251;

  projects discussed after Confederation, 9 115;

  attempted discrimination in transhipment of grain cargoes, 160-1;

  obstacles to navigation in St Lawrence system, 10 502-3.

  St Lawrence System:

    Sulpicians begin Lake St Pierre-Lachine Canal (1700), 504;

    built for defence, 505;

    construction and improvement (1818-75), 505-6;

    total length, 536;

    rise in elevation between Montreal and Lake Superior, 536;

    abolition of tolls, 536;

    traffic (1912), 536;

    expenditures to 1912, 536;

    operation, maintenance, and repairs, 536 and n.;

    stimulus given by free trade on, 536.

  See under individual names of canals.

Canceaux. Conveys Captain Holland on his survey, 13 332-3.

Canniff, William (1830-1910). His historical works, 12 499.

Canning, George (1770-1827), British statesman. Maintains the prescriptive right of inalienable allegiance, 3 193;

  and pretensions of United States on Pacific coast, 8 843 and n., 844, 921 n.;

  assents to concert with United States on Alaska boundary dispute, 919-20;

  his criticism of American pretensions, 921 n.;

  his instructions to Bagot, 922, 924 and n.;

  repudiates Bagot’s action, 925 n.;

  his instructions to Stratford Canning, 925-6.

Canning, Stratford, afterwards first Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe (1786-1880). Negotiates Alaska boundary treaty of 1825, 8 844, 925-7, 921 n.

Cannon, John Francis. Builds first stone Roman Catholic church in Ottawa, 11 49.

Canoe River, a tributary of the Columbia. David Thompson passes winters at, 4 667.

Canot, Claude Joseph Marie (1710-51). Father-prefect of the Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 366.

Canterbury, Charles Manners Sutton, first Viscount Canterbury (1780-1845). Offered governorship of Canada, 3 320;

  rejected as speaker of House of Commons, 4 473.

Canterbury, Sir John Henry Manners-Sutton, third Viscount. See Manners-Sutton.

Cap de la Magdelaine. Seigniory of granted the Jesuits (1651), 2 556.

Cap Rouge. Jacques Cartier’s settlement at, 16 573-4;

  Holmes’s reconnaissance against, 1 290, 295.

Cap Rouge River. Fort erected by Cartier at mouth of, 1 40.

Cap Royal (Bear Head). Sighted by Cartier, 1 30.

Cap St Jean. Named by Cartier, 1 30.

Cap Tourmente. Farm established by Champlain at (1626), 16 506;

  its farm buildings burned by David Kirke, 2 400;

  herd of cattle at (1629), 7 654;

  site of Laval’s model farm, 16 332, 333.

Cape Alexander. Reached by Simpson and Dease, 4 689.

Cape Anguille. Sighted by Cartier, 1 30.

Cape Barrow. Named by Sir John Franklin, 4 681.

Cape Bathurst. Rounded by Sir John Richardson, 4 684.

Cape Blanco. Named by Martin d’Aguilar, 21 17.

Cape Bonavista, on east coast of Newfoundland. Arrival of Cartier at, 1 28.

Cape Breton Island. Discovered by John Cabot, 13 16;

  topography of, 14 622;

  Ochiltree’s attempt at colonization of, 13 38-39;

  French take possession of, 1 203;

  name changed to Ile Royale, 203;

  acquired by Great Britain, 13 101;

  erected into a county, 113;

  establishment of courts, 113;

  formed into separate province (1784), 230, 14 453;

  its governors, 13 230-1;

  official squabbles, 231;

  mining in the eighteenth century, 14 673-4;

  coal royalty as a governor-general’s perquisite, 674;

  reannexed to Nova Scotia, 13 232, 14 453;

  courts established and abolished, 471;

  first Anglican incumbents and their parishes, 11 206;

  early postal services in, 5 375;

  timber resources, 14 623, 629.

  See also Coal.

Cape Cormorant. See Cape de Latte.

Cape Decision, at the mouth of Christian Sound. Named by Vancouver, 21 51.

Cape d’Esperance. Named by Cartier, 1 31.

Cape de Latte (Cape Cormorant). Named by Cartier, 1 30.

Cape Farewell. Gaspar Corte Real at, 1 23.

Cape Flattery. Sighted by Captain Cook, 21 26.

Cape Forchu. Raided by privateers, 13 219.

Cape Fullerton. North-West Mounted Police post at, 22 649.

Cape Hearne. Named by Franklin, 4 681, 5 299.

Cape Hope’s Advance. Reached by Hudson, 1 151.

Cape Krusenstern. Rae’s farthest in 1848, 5 300-1.

Cape Mackenzie. Named by Franklin, 4 681.

Cape Parry. Rounded by Richardson, 4 684.

Cape Prince of Wales. Discovered by Captain Cook, 21 28.

Cape Race. Gaspar Corte Real at, 1 24.

Cape Ray. Named St George’s Cape by John Cabot, 1 21.

Cape Riche. Named by Cartier Cap Double, 1 29.

Cape San Lucas. Skirted by Francisco Ulloa, 21 14.

Cape Tourmentine. Sighted by Cartier. 1 31.

Cape Weggs. Sighted by Hudson, 1 152.

Cape Wolstenholme. Named after one of Hudson’s patrons, 1 152.

Capel, George. Owner of Capelton copper mines, Lennoxville, 16 587.

Capilano. Pacific coast steamer, 10 573.

Cappon, James (b. 1854). His critical works, 12 529;

  on Roberts’s poetry, 574-5.

Captain Cook, ship. Lowrie’s expedition to Pacific coast made in the (1786), 21 31-32.

Capuchins. Sent to Louisiana, 2 430, 11 69.

Car of Commerce. St Lawrence steamboat, 10 495.

Carantouan, on the upper Susquehanna. Étienne Brûlé entertained at, 1 57.

Carantouanais (Andastes or Eries). Étienne Brûlé’s mission to, 1 53-54.

Carbery, James Joseph (1823-87). Roman Catholic bishop of Hamilton (1883-7), 11 65.

Cardwell, Edward, Viscount Cardwell (1813-86). Reorganizes British army, 7 393.

Card money. See Currency and Banking.

Carey, Bruce A. Conductor of the Elgar Choir, Hamilton, 12 647.

Carhagouha. Huron village south of Thunder Bay, 1 53;

  first mass in Ontario celebrated at, 58.

Cariboo. Pacific coast steamer, 10 573.

Cariboo Gold Fields. Discovery, development, and aggregate yield (1859-71), 21 155-6.

Cariboo Road. Its construction and cost, 21 117, 149, 157-8;

  its economic and political value, 273-4.

Caribou. Man-of-war built at Quebec (1744), 2 509.

Carignan-Salières, Regiment of. Arrive in Canada, 2 346;

  military settlements formed by, 539-41, 15 36.

Carillon Canal, 10 517.

Carleton, Sir Guy. See Dorchester, Baron.

Carleton, Thomas (1736-1817), first governor of New Brunswick (1784-1817). His appointment, 13 152;

  instructions to, 14 482, 617;

  his choice of a capital, 13 155, 158, 160;

  tramps on snow-shoes to Quebec, 156;

  guards the prerogative, 158;

  and American aggression on St Croix, 160;

  grants charter to St John, 161;

  delays calling assembly, 162-3;

  twice offered lieutenant-governorship of Quebec, 170;

  fits out armed cruiser for coast service, 177;

  raises King’s New Brunswick Regiment, 176-7;

  quarrels with assembly, 178-9;

  as non-resident governor, 183-4;

  death of, 187;

  sketch of, 152-3;

  his generosity and public spirit, 156-7, 180;

  peculiarities of disposition, 157, 181;

  his absolutism, 158-9.

Carleton. War vessel on Lake Champlain (1782), 10 487.

Carleton, or West St John. Named in honour of Sir Guy Carleton, 13 145.

Carleton Island, Kingston. Government shipyards established at, 10 486, 491.

Carlier, Pierre. Privileges granted to (1733), 8 915.

Carling, Sir John (1828-1911), commissioner of Agriculture in Ontario. His position in public life, 17 107 and n., 18 570;

  elects to sit in federal house, 17 135, 230 n., 232 n.

Carlyle, Florence. Canadian artist, 12 625-6.

Carlyle, Dr. Assistant in Toronto normal school, 18 324.

Carmack, George. Discovers gold at Bonanza Creek, Yukon Territory, 22 606.

Carman, Dr Albert (b. 1833). General superintendent of Methodist Church, 11 310.

Carman, Bliss (b. 1861). Canadian poet, 12 579-81.

Carmelite Fathers, 11 62.

Carmichael, James (1826-1908). Anglican bishop of Montreal, 11 220.

Carmichael, James A. (d. 1911). Presbyterian superintendent of missions, 11 295.

Carnarvon, Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, fourth Earl of (1831-90). Arbitrates on British Columbia railway question, 6 65, 10 422, 21 193-5, 199;

  favours making colonial adherence to commercial treaties optional, 9 172.

Carnes, William. Baptist pioneer in British Columbia, 11 375.

Carolina. Canadian sealer, seized by American cruiser, 8 723.

Caroline.

  (1) Steamboat on upper St Lawrence (1826), 10 498.

  (2) Seizure of gives rise to diplomatic incident, 3 366, 7 388.

Caron, Joseph Edouard (b. 1866). Minister of Agriculture of Quebec, 15 213 n.

Caron, René Edouard (1800-76). Original director of Grand Trunk, 10 401;

  speaker of legislative council of Canada, 5 43.

Carr, Robert. Royal commissioner to New England, 1 161.

Carrall, Robert William Weir (d. 1879). Member of council of British Columbia, 21 176;

  Confederation delegate to Ottawa, 175.

Carroll, John (d. 1885). At Halifax, 11 45;

  and the test for Roman Catholics, 13 272;

  his insubordinate conduct, 11 80;

  administers diocese of Toronto, 60.

Cartell, Pierre. Conviction and execution of at Halifax (1749), 13 85.

Carter, F. C., counsel for United States in Bering Sea arbitration. His disavowal, 8 731-2;

  on property in seals, 735-7.

Carter, Thomas Henry. United States member of International Joint Commission, 6 368.

Carter, William S. Superintendent of Education for New Brunswick, 14 555.

Carter-Cotton, Francis L. (b. 1847). Minister of Finance of British Columbia, 21 224;

  president of council, 232-3;

  chancellor of university, 22 442.

Carteret, Sir George (d. 1680). One of the ‘Gentlemen Adventurers,’ 1 162;

  induces Radisson and Groseilliers to take service with England, 161, 173.

Carteret, Sir Philip. Original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 166.

Carthaginian. Allan liner, 10 606.

Cartier, Sir George Étienne, Bart. (1814-73). An incorporator of Toronto and Montreal Railway, 10 396;

  his education acts of 1856, 16 429;

  on commissions on defence (1862, 1865), 7 401, 421;

  leader of French opinion, 5 82;

  his part in Confederation, 6, 15 170, 171;

  and the British constitution, 170-1;

  opposes legislative union, 173-4;

  on racial diversity in Canada, 5 98;

  favours northern route for Intercolonial, 6 30-31;

  and New Brunswick militia system, 14 414;

  negotiates transfer of North-West Territories, 19 61;

  his part in Pacific Scandal, 6 57;

  on his father’s wheat exports from Richelieu River, 15 112-3;

  sketch of, 6 23-24.

Cartier, Jacques (1491-1557), French navigator and discoverer. First voyage (1534), in which he explores Gulf of St Lawrence, 1 27-34;

  second voyage (1535), in which he visits Stadacona and Hochelaga, 34-38;

  third voyage (1541), as Roberval’s subordinate, 38-42;

  describes fisheries of the Micmacs, 16 555;

  three crosses planted by, 2 379;

  what he means by ‘hearing mass,’ 379-80;

  true spelling of his name, 381 and n.;

  and presence of minerals, 16 573-4;

  includes cows in his supplies, 7 654.

Cartmell, Martha M. First woman foreign missionary of Methodist Church in Canada, 11 329.

Cartwright, Richard (1759-1815). First judge at Mecklenburg, 18 521;

  opposes Simcoe’s policy, 412;

  his plan for incorporation of Kingston, 421;

  on value of trade with United States (1797), 4 551, 555;

  and the return of French émigrés, 17 55;

  engages John Strachan as tutor, 18 346-7;

  on Canada’s ability to furnish supplies for West Indies, 4 557;

  introduces a grammar school bill, 18 352.

Cartwright, Sir Richard John (1835-1912). Minister of Finance (1873-8), 6 64, 7 514;

  his deficits used as arguments for more protection, 9 144;

  and tariff increases, 147-8 and n.;

  denounces budget of 1879, 6 87;

  and commercial union, 109, 110, 9 167;

  and Riel’s execution, 6 105;

  minister of Trade and Commerce (1896-1911), 131;

  member of Joint High Commission, 135, 9 169;

  Old Age Annuities Act passed by, 6 161.

Carver, Jonathan (1732-80), explorer. Names Columbia River the ‘Oregon,’ 21 21.

Cary, George Hunter, attorney-general of British Columbia. His irascibility, 21 131;

  attempts to ‘corner’ water supply, 131;

  builds Cary Castle, 132, 147.

Cascades. Construction of locks at, 10 507-8;

  plans for improvement, 511-2.

Cascapedia. Steamer on Montreal-Pictou route, 10 562.

Cascapedia River. Its fishing rental, 16 563.

Case, William (d. 1855). First superintendent of Canadian Methodist Church, 11 307;

  labours among Indians, 5 349;

  sketch of, 11 315.

Casey, Timothy (b. 1862). Roman Catholic archbishop of Vancouver, 11 79 and n.

Casgrain, Henri Raymond (1831-1904). His literary works, 12 457-8, 484;

  on the habitant, 458-9.

Casgrain, Thomas Chase (b. 1852). Member of International Joint Commission, 6 368.

Casot, Jean Joseph (1728-1800), the last of the Jesuits in Canada. Death of, 11 21, 16 408.

Caspian. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 554.

Cassandra. Donaldson Line steamship, 10 614.

Cassels, Robert. His statement on affairs of Bank of Upper Canada (1861), 5 289.

Cassels, Walter Gibson Pringle (b. 1845), judge of Exchequer Court of Canada. Inquires into charges against Marine and Fisheries department, 6 164.

Cassiar. Pacific coast steamer, 10 573.

Castanet, Jean Baptiste Marie (d. 1798). French priest in the Maritime Provinces, 11 42.

Castillon, Jacques. Granted seigniory of Isle d’Orleans, 2 557-8, 15 27.

Castine. See Majebigwaduce.

Castine Fund. Its origin and destination, 13 259-60, 263, 268, 14 516.

Castle, Montague. Canadian painter and designer, 12 622.

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount (afterwards second Marquis of Londonderry) (1769-1822), secretary for War and the Colonies (1807-9). His Local Militia Act (1808), 7 382;

  and the appointment of vicars-apostolic for Canada, 11 45.

Castor. Man-of-war built at Quebec (1745), 2 509.

Castor and Pollux Bay. The farthest point reached by Simpson and Dease, 4 689.

Catalogne, Gédéon de (1662-1729). His criticism of holidays of the habitants, 2 544;

  his report on seigniories, 552-9;

  on agricultural conditions, 581.

Cataract. American Mail Line steamer, 10 540.

Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac). Established, 1 104;

 Iroquois chief seized at (1687), 2 356.

  See also Fort Frontenac; Kingston.

Cathcart, Charles Murray, Earl (1783-1859), governor-in-chief of Canada (1846-7). Administrator of Canada, 5 44;

  criticizes assembly for assuming control over salary of governor’s secretary, 131-2;

  on the ‘double majority,’ 149 n.;

  urges continuance of protection to colonial wheat, 215;

  on double tariff, 220.

Cathcart, Lady Gordon. Assists immigration of Scottish crofters, 7 548.

Catholic Emancipation. The penal laws of Nova Scotia and their repeal in 1827, 13 228-9, 272;

  passed in Prince Edward Island (1830), 363.

Catholic League. Its support of the Mowat government, 17 147.

Cauchon, Joseph Edouard (1816-85). His amendment on clergy reserves question (1854), 5 73;

  originator of Fishery Act of 1857, 16 559-60;

  reason of his failure to form an administration, 15 172;

  and North Shore railway project, 180;

  as French-Canadian journalist and statesman, 12 477, 15 171-2;

  lieutenant-governor of Manitoba (1877-82), 6 73, 19 109.

Caughlan, Lawrence. Introduces Methodism into Newfoundland, 11 303.

Caughnawaga Canal. Proposed construction of, 10 534-5.

Caughnawaga Indians. Condition of their Christian settlement, 5 332.

Caulfeild, Thomas (d. 1717), lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Inaugurates civil government, 13 76;

  his dignified reply to the governor’s implied censure, 76.

Caussault, Justice. Arbitrator in adjusting provincial financial obligations, 7 474.

Cavanagh, Lawrence. First Roman Catholic admitted to Nova Scotia assembly, 13 271-2.

Cayley, Hugh St Quentin (b. 1857). Member of first legislative assembly of North-West Territories, 19 223;

  joins advisory council, 231;

  appointed to executive, 241;

  opposes Haultain, 241, 242, 243.

Cayley, William, inspector-general of accounts (1845-8, 1854-8). His banking act, 5 277;

  and bona fides of bank promotions, 280;

  his budget of 1858, 9 133;

  his relations with Bank of Upper Canada, 5 289;

  and Municipal Loan Fund, 18 448, 449.

Cayuga. Toronto-Niagara steamboat, 10 553.

Cayuga Bridge Stock. Six Nations funds lost through investment in, 5 344.

Cayuga Creek. First ship on upper lakes built at (1679), 1 101.

Cayugas, Indian tribe. Mission at Kenté to the, 1 85.

Cazeau, Clément. Quebec educationist, 16 426.

Cazeaux, R. F. Contributes to the Patriotic Fund (1799), 15 102.

Cécile, Joseph Étienne (1793-1857). Missionary priest in Prince Edward Island, 11 42, 73.

Cedars. American surrender and alleged massacre of prisoners at the, 3 97-99.

Céloron de Blainville. See Blainville.

Cens et rentes. See Seigneurial System.

Central Agricultural Society, Nova Scotia. Founded (1818), 14 649.

Central Bank. Chartered (1883), fails (1887), 10 643.

Central Canada Railway. Municipal borrowings in aid of, 10 414.

Centurion. Ship employed in reduction of Quebec (1759), 1 285.

Certain, Zacharie (d. 1687), Sulpician. Teaches in Montreal, 16 337.

Cervona. Thomson Line steamship, 10 615.

Cetriana. Vancouver-Prince Rupert steamer, 10 573.

Ceylon. Granted Canadian preference, 9 213.

Chabanel, Noël (1613-49). Jesuit martyr, 2 408.

Chaboillez, Augustin (1773-1834), curé of Longueuil. Opposes appointment of Bishop Lartigue, 11 86.

Chabot, Captain. His defence of the Près-de-Ville, Quebec, 3 91.

Chads, Captain. Wolfe’s final plan communicated to, 1 295.

Chaigneau, Léonard (d. 1711). Director of schools of St Sulpice, Montreal, 16 338.

Chake (or Chaque), Martin. ‘Sails’ through Strait of Anian, 21 18.

Chaleur Bay. Jacques Cartier trades with Indians at, 1 31.

Challener, Frederick Sproston (b. 1869). Canadian artist, 12 623.

Chalmers, R. On soils of Saskatchewan and Alberta, 20 548-50.

Chalmers, Thomas (1780-1847), Scottish preacher and theologian. Declines invitation to go to Canada, and recommends John Strachan, 3 335 n., 18 346.

Chalus, Comte de, French émigré. Attempts to settle French refugees in Canada, 11 26, 17 55.

Chamberlain, Mrs Agnes. Canadian painter of flowers, 12 627.

Chamberlain, Joseph (1836-1914), colonial secretary (1895-1903). Member of a fisheries commission (1887), 6 108, 8 702, 9 158;

  condemns commercial union at Toronto, 6 110;

  and imperial penny postage, 7 643;

  at Imperial Conferences (1897, 1902), 6 189-90;

  on obstacles to British preference, 133;

  and the extent of Canadian preference, 9 212;

  his tariff reform campaign, 6 144-5, 9 208-9.

Chambers of Commerce. Proposals for incorporation of, with special powers (1777, 1787), 4 530-1, 545.

Chambly, Pierre de. Seigniory granted to, 2 555, 15 39.

Chambly. Pierre de Chambly granted seigniory of, 2 555;

  surrendered by Major Stopford (1775), 3 81;

  secondary school founded at, 16 423.

Chambly Canal. Its construction and present use, 10 515-6.

Chambon, Guillaume (1709-68), Sulpician. Teaches Latin at St Sulpice, 16 384.

Champigny, Jean Bochart de, intendant of New France (1686-1702). His issues of card money, 2 496, 498.

Champion, Gabriel (d. 1808). French priest serving in Maritime Provinces, 11 42.

Champion.

  (1) Steamer on the Hamilton-Montreal route, 10 540.

  (2) Canadian Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 539.

Champlain, Samuel (1567-1635), founder of New France; governor (1612-29, 1633-5). His first visit to the St Lawrence, 2 317;

  accompanies Pont-Gravé’s expedition, 1 45;

  his explorations in Acadia, 13 19-20;

  establishes ‘Order of the Good Time,’ 30;

  founds Quebec, 1 46, 2 449-50, 15 18;

  introduces cattle to Canada, 7 654;

  encounter with Iroquois, 1 46;

  exchanges hostages with Algonquins, 47;

  forms a company, 2 317-8;

  his commission of 1612, 1 48;

  on the Ottawa, 49;

  deceived by Nicolas Vignau, 50;

  his maps of 1612 and 1613, 50-51;

  loses his astrolabe, 51;

  brings out Récollets (1615), 52;

  at Sault St Louis, 2 387-8;

  in the Lake region, 1 52-56;

  constructs fort at Quebec, 2 393;

  establishes farm at Cap Tourmente, 16 506;

  attempts to civilize Indians, 2 392;

  favours race fusion with Indians, 15 43;

  defends Quebec against Kirke, 2 400;

  capitulates (July 19, 1629), 401;

  taken to England (1629), 15 21;

  secures retrocession of Canada (1632), 2 325, 401-2;

  returns to colony, 15 21;

  death of, 1 61, 2 325, 15 22;

  his exalted aims, 1 3, 2 451;

  his work for colonization, 15 17-22;

  first of the habitants, 16 505-6.

Champlain. War vessel on Lake Champlain, 10 494.

Champlain and St Lawrence Railway. First proposals for construction (1824), 10 366;

  some quaint suggestions, 368-9;

  company incorporated, 369;

  public or private ownership of, 369;

  meets opposition of carters, 369;

  rate regulation and provision for state purchase, 369-70;

  opened for traffic (1836), 370;

  wooden rails and horse traction first employed on, 370.

Champlain Canal. Constructed (1822), 10 515.

Champs d’Or de Rigaud-Vaudreuil, Limited, 16 581-2.

Chancellor. Harrison Direct Line steamship, 10 618.

Chandler, Edward Barron (1800-80). Member of New Brunswick assembly, 13 200;

  Confederation delegate, 14 411;

  and Intercolonial Railway construction, 10 384, 387;

  lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 14 427.

Chandler, John (1760-1841), American general. Taken prisoner at Stoney Creek, 3 242.

Chapais, Jean Charles (1812-85). Minister of Agriculture in first Dominion cabinet, 6 22;

  receiver-general, 7 514.

Chapais, Jean Charles Louis Thomas (b. 1850). Assistant dairy commissioner of Canada, 7 669.

Chapais, Thomas (b. 1858). His literary works, 12 460, 477;

  on the French-Canadians, 478-9.

Chapeton, Jean. Negotiates with Pontiac, 3 62.

Chapleau, Sir Joseph Adolphe (1840-98), premier of Quebec (1879-82). Member of Ouimet’s government, 15 178;

  on the Scott murder, 19 88, 89 and n.;

  his defence of Lépine, 105;

  joins de Boucherville’s government, 15 180;

  opposition leader, 185;

  forms a ministry, 189;

  railway policy of, 189-90;

  secretary of state in Dominion government (1882), 191;

  and Chinese immigration, 21 260-4;

  lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 6 127, 15 207.

Chaplin, Henry (b. 1841). British protectionist, 6 144.

Chapman, E. J. (1821-1904). Professor in University College, Toronto, 18 386, 389.

Chapman, James. Captain of the Kingston Packet, 10 493.

Chapman, William (b. 1850). French-Canadian poet, 12 468.

Chappell, Benjamin, postmaster at Charlottetown. Refers to the Selkirk colonists, 13 356-7.

Charbonnel, Armand François Marie de (1802-91). Roman Catholic bishop of Toronto (1850-60), 11 60;

  and the separate schools, 18 314.

Charest, A. Missionary priest at Penetanguishene (1838), 11 51.

Charest, Étienne. Petitions for full exercise of the Catholic religion (1763), 11 16.

Charity.

  (1) Vessel built on Niagara River, 10 486.

  (2) Atlantic steamboat built (1854), 10 604.

Charity, Sisters of. Established in Quebec, 11 98;

  at St François-Xavier, 137;

  settle in New Brunswick, 78;

  in diocese of Antigonish, 81;

  at Halifax, 83;

  in diocese of Sherbrooke, 90.

  See also Grey Nuns.

Charlebois, Ovide (b. 1862), Vicar-apostolic of Keewatin, 11 195.

Charles, Thomas. In charge of Fort George, 21 127 n.

Charles, W. In charge of Fort Hope, 21 127 n.

Charles, William. H.B.C. manager at Victoria, 21 154.

Charles. Luke Foxe’s vessel, 1 158.

Charles Mary Wentworth. Liverpool privateer, 13 253.

Charlesbourg Royal. Founded by Jacques Cartier, 1 40;

  withdrawal of Pontbriand to (1759), 2 441, 1 41.

Charlestown. Ship engaged with French frigates near Sydney (1781), 13 222-3.

Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier de (1682-1761), Jesuit. Outlines routes to Western Sea, 1 117;

  on the good physique and adaptability of Canadians, 15 94-95, 16 376.

Charlevoix County. Clerical intimidation at by-election (1876), 6 72.

Charlotte. Steamboat on upper St Lawrence (1843), 10 538.

Charlottenburg, Township of. Settled by Scottish Roman Catholics (1784), 17 25.

Charlottetown. Planned by Charles Morris, 13 337-8;

  Francklin’s description of (1768), 346-7;

  suggested changes in plan of, 347-8;

  raided by American privateers, 353.

  See also Port la Joye.

Charlottetown Conference, 14 411.

Charlton, John (1829-1910). His attitude to fiscal questions, 6 80, 82, 9 167;

  member of Joint High Commission, 6 135, 9 169.

Charlton, William Andrew (b. 1841). Commissioner of Public Works of Ontario, 17 184, 230 n.

Charlton Island. Captain James spends winter at, 1 159;

  French traders marooned on, 1 177, 180.

Charmer. C.P.R. Pacific coast steamer, 10 572.

Charnisay, Charles de Menou, Seigneur d’Aulnay (d. 1650). Accompanies de Razilly to Acadia (1632), 13 41-42;

  dispossesses New Englanders, 42;

  succeeds de Razilly, 42;

  his struggle with La Tour, 42-43, 44-45;

  captures La Tour’s fort, 46;

  extent of his jurisdiction, 46;

  as colonizer, 46-47;

  death of, 47.

Charon, Jean François. Founder of community of the Charon Brothers, 16 339;

  death of, 341.

Charon Brothers. Their schools and foundations, 2 428, 16 339, 340, 342, 346;

  project a trades school, 383;

  and normal school teaching, 344-5;

  endowed by Marine Council, 340-1;

  de Ramezay’s strictures on, 342-3;

  regulations prepared for, 345;

  withdrawal of subsidy and decline of, 345-6;

  value of their work, 346.

Charpentier, Charles. Norman immigrant at St Peter’s, Prince Edward Island (1719), 13 312.

Charron, Claude (b. 1621). Alderman of Quebec (1663), 15 288.

Chartered Bank of Canada. Charter applied for (1858), 5 283.

Chartered Bank of Upper Canada. See Bank of Upper Canada.

Chartier, Abbé Emile. Author of Pages de Combat, 12 488.

Chartier de Lotbinière, Louis Eustache (1688-1749), archdeacon of Quebec. Quarrels with his chapter, 2 431;

  name inscribed in grammar of Jesuit College, 16 368, 2 433.

Charton, François (d. c. 1626), Jesuit brother. Arrives in Quebec (1625), 2 397.

Charwell. War vessel on Lake Ontario, 10 494.

Chasles, Joseph. Pupil in school at Château-Richer (1702), 16 334.

Chastes, Aymar de, governor of Dieppe. Sends expedition to St Lawrence (1603), 2 317.

Château Bay, entrance to Strait of Belle Isle. Jacques Cartier at, 1 28, 33.

Château-Richer. Schools established at, 16 333, 334, 384;

  convent founded at, 357-8.

Châteauguay. Reservation for christianized redskins at, 2 554;

  a school for Indians at (1829), 5 347;

  Americans defeated at, 3 8, 247-9.

Châteauguay River. Scottish immigrant and non-loyalist American settlements on, 15 155-8.

Chatel, Aimée. Sister of Notre Dame, Montreal, 2 414, 16 335.

Châtelain, Pierre (1604-84), Jesuit, 2 408.

Chatham, N.B. A shipbuilding centre, 10 585;

  saw-mill owned by Cunards at, 10 585.

Chatham. Ship of Vancouver’s expedition of 1791, 21 47, 48, 49, 51.

Chatillon, Henry. French voyageur described by Parkman, 15 75.

Chatique (or The Pelican), Indian chief. Exacts tribute from Alexander Henry, 4 645-6.

Chauffours, Louis d’Amours, Sieur de (1655-1708). Founds settlement at Richibucto, 13 59;

  receives grant in Acadia, 59;

  erects first saw-mill in New Brunswick, 59, 14 602.

Chaumonot, Father F. Requested to chastise Huron children, 16 336.

Chaumonot, Pierre Joseph Marie (1611-93). Jesuit missionary, 1 65, 2 407, 408;

  his dictionary of the Neutral language, 1 67.

Chauncey, Isaac (1772-1840), American naval officer. In the campaign of 1812, 3 218;

  at the capture of York and Fort George, 239-40, 256.

Chaussegros de Léry, Gaspard (1682-1756), French civil engineer. On Lake St Pierre-Lachine Canal, 10 504.

Chauveau, Pierre Joseph Olivier (1820-90), premier of Quebec (1867-73). His work as superintendent of Public Instruction of Quebec, 16 428, 429, 430, 431;

  prime minister, 15 173;

  measures passed and works promoted by, 173-7;

  president of Senate, 177;

  his literary works, 12 472, 484, 488;

  as orator, writer, and educationist, 15 173.

Chauvigny de Berchereau, François (d. 1651). Nominated member of council (1648), 2 330.

Chauvin, Pierre, Sieur de Tontuit. Given charter to trade and colonize New France, 2 316;

  founds Tadoussac, 11 253.

Chavignaud, George. Painter of Dutch scenes. 12 625.

Cheadle, Walter Butler (1835-1910). His transcontinental journey (1862-3), 5 324-7.

Chedabucto Bay. Named Freshwater Bay by João Alvarez Fagundez, 1 25.

Cheffaut de la Regnardière. Granted seigniory of Beaupré, 15 27.

Chénier, Jean Olivier (1806-37). Implicated in Rebellion in Lower Canada, 3 363.

Chequamegon Point. Dispersed Ottawas settle at, 1 69;

  Radisson builds fort at, 77, 79.

Cherrier, Alphonsus Avila (b. 1849). Missionary priest at Winnipeg, 11 164;

  editor of North-West Review, 187.

Cherriman, J. B. Professor in University College, Toronto, 18 386.

Chesapeake, American man-of-war. Seizure of British seamen by, 3 194;

  engagement with the Shannon, 236;

  brought as prize to Halifax, 13 258.

Cheslakee. Pacific coast steamer, 10 573.

Chesley, S. Y. Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Lower Canada, 5 355.

Chesnaye, Charles Aubert de la. See Aubert de la Chesnaye, Charles.

Cheveux Revelés, or Staring Hairs (Ottawas). Encountered by Champlain, 1 53, 55.

Chewitt, engineer. Surveys for Grand River Canal, 10 525.

Chiappini, J. D. Missionary priest in British Columbia, 11 165.

Chicago. Part played by French Canadians in its discovery and settlement, 15 77.

Chicora.

  (1) Georgian Bay-Lake Superior steamboat, 10 546.

  (2) Lake Ontario steamboat, its history, 10 553.

Chicoutimi College. Founded (1873), 11 101, 16 432.

Chief Commissioner. Red River steamboat, 10 567.

Chief Justice Robinson. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 537;

  her peculiar build, 537.

Chieftain. Steamboat on Long Sault and Lachine route, 10 538.

Chignecto. Acadian colony at, 13 52;

  Benjamin Church’s raid on, 57-58.

Chignecto, Isthmus of. French fort built on disputed territory at, 1 220.

Chignecto Ship Canal. Its partial construction and failure, 10 449, 532-3.

Child, Moses. American spy, 13 217.

Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827-96), president of Great Western Railway. Reports system as over-officered, 10 427;

  his resignation, 430.

Chilian. Brigantine built at Lunenburg, 10 581.

Chilkoot Pass. International friction after gold discovery at, 8 933-4.

China. First iron screw steamer of Cunard line, 10 601.

Chinese Immigration. In the Dominion, 6 343, 7 567-8.

  British Columbia:

    the problem raised, 21 250-1;

    first arrivals on Pacific coast, 251;

    participate in first San Francisco 4th of July celebration, 251;

    vote in provincial elections, 180;

    early proposals at restriction, 252-5;

    deprived of franchise, 196;

    regulation act of 1878 (provincial) disallowed, 255;

    reports of special committees, 255-6;

    question raised in Dominion house, 256-7;

    its moral, economic, and racial aspects, 257, 259, 266, 269-71;

    immigrants thirled to wealthy Canton merchants, 259;

    statistics, 7 567, 21 259, 265, 267;

    commissions of 1884 and 1901, 260-3, 266-7;

    agitation for total exclusion, 264;

    head-tax and its successive increases, 7 567, 21 263-4, 267;

    effect on wages of increase in head-tax, 267, 272;

    prohibited from timber lands and mainland coast fisheries, 22 372;

    five objections to, 21 268-9;

    its results, 270-1, 272-3;

    legislation summarized, 211-2.

Chiniquy, Charles (1809-99). Parish priest of Beauport and temperance advocate, 11 97;

  joins Presbyterian Church, 278-9.

Chipewyans. Massacre of Eskimos at Bloody Fall by, 4 671;

  decimated by disease, 22 649;

  Thibault’s mission to, 11 134;

  cede territory, 7 598.

Chipman, Thomas Handley (1756-1830). Baptist pastor in Maritime Provinces, 11 353.

Chipman, Ward (1754-1824), judge of Supreme Court, New Brunswick. First solicitor-general of New Brunswick, 13 153, 167;

  prepares draft charter of St John, 161;

  candidate for St John (1785), 164;

  opposes payment of members, 173;

  one of Maine boundary agents, 8 759, 772, 784, 786;

  administrator of province, 13 195.

Chipman, Ward (1787-1851), chief justice of New Brunswick (1834-51). One of Maine boundary agents, 8 772, 792;

  last judge to sit in legislative council, 13 200;

  his bequest to Anglican Church, 11 211.

Chipody. Defeat of Major Frye at (1755), 13 96-97.

Chippawa. Battle fought at (1814), 3 255;

  occupied during Fenian raid (1866), 7 409.

Chippewa.

  (1) Lakes vessel, 10 486.

  (2) British ship engaged in battle of Lake Erie, 10 492.

  (3) First Canadian steamboat on Lake Erie, 10 501.

  (4) Toronto-Niagara steamboat, 10 553.

Chippewas, Indian tribe. Incited against British, 3 54;

  and Sir George Simpson, 5 318;

  land surrendered by, 4 711, 5 336-7;

  territory and numbers before coming of whites, 11 115.

Chirikoff, Alexis. His discoveries and explorations in North Pacific, 8 846, 21 40-41.

Chirouse, Casimir. Missionary priest in Vancouver Island, 11 145, 147.

Chirouse, E. C. Missionary priest in British Columbia, 11 165;

  his arrest and imprisonment, 180-1.

Chisholm, John (b. 1800). Missionary priest in Cape Breton Island, 11 73.

Chittenden, Thomas (1730-97), governor of Vermont. Negotiates for freedom of trade with New France, 4 534.

Choiseul, Étienne François, Duc de (1719-85). Plans invasion of England, 1 269, 8 891.

Choke-Cherry Indians, 1 130.

Cholera Visitations. In Lower Canada, 3 316, 5 207, 11 95;

  in New Brunswick, 13 207-8;

  in Halifax, 282.

Choquette, Ernest. French-Canadian novelist, 12 476-7.

Chouart. See Groseilliers.

Chown, Samuel Dwight (b. 1853). Secretary of Methodist social reform department, 11 340.

Chrétien, the superior of the Hospitallers. Attempts to found normal school at La Rochelle, 16 344;

  his financial imprudence, 345.

Christchurch Cathedral, Montreal. A specimen of English-Canadian architecture, 12 673.

Christian IV of Denmark (1577-1648). Fits out expedition in search of North-West Passage (1619), 1 157.

Christian Brothers. Invited from France, 16 421;

  settle in Montreal, 11 88;

  in Quebec, 97;

  at St Boniface, 139;

  in Ottawa, 69.

Christian Instruction, Institute of Brothers of, 16 435.

Christian Science. History of the movement, 11 394-6.

Christie, Alexander, governor of Assiniboia (1833-9). Pacifies the insulted Métis (1834), 19 53.

Christie, David (1818-80). Dominion secretary of state (1873-4), 6 64;

  president of Dominion Council of Agriculture, 7 666.

Christie, Gabriel (1722-99), British general. One of British pioneer settlers in Quebec, 15 122.

Christie, John, ensign. Surrenders Fort Presqu’Isle (1763), 3 64.

Christie, Napier. British general, 15 122.

Christie, Plenderleath. His benefactions, 5 347, 11 218.

Christie, Robert (1788-1856). Expelled from Lower Canada assembly, 4 479;

  his literary works, 12 497-8.

Christie, William J. Member of provisional council of the North-West, 19 198;

  arranges Indian treaties, 7 597.

Christieville, near St Johns. Agricultural school for Indians established at, 5 347.

Christinaux Lake. See Rainy Lake.

Christopher. Lost vessel of Drake’s expedition (1577), 21 16.

Chrystler’s Farm. Engagement fought at (1813), 3 249-50.

Church, Benjamin (1639-1718). Raids French settlements at Chignecto, 13 57-58, 62.

Church, Levi Ruggles (d. 1892). Attorney-general of Quebec, 15 180.

Church Missionary Society (Anglican). Its work in the West, 11 246.

Church of the Children of Peace. Founded by David Willson, 17 46-47.

Church Society (Anglican). Established in Quebec (1842), 11 220.

Churchill, Winston Leonard Spencer (b. 1874). Supports free trade, 9 212;

  his plan for inter-Dominion naturalization, 6 198.

Churchill. Vessel captured by French at Charlton Island, 1 180.

Churchill River. Hudson’s Bay Company expedition in (1688), 1 191-2;

  its length and drainage area, 9 23, 20 543, 1 195.

Chute, Roger C., of Toronto. Member of Oriental Immigration Commission of 1901, 21 266.

Chute à Blondeau Canal, 10 517.

Cibola. Toronto-Niagara steamboat, destroyed by fire (1895), 10 553.

Ciquard, François (1750-1824). French priest expelled by Haldimand, 11 32, 42.

Cistercians. Monasteries founded by, 11 79, 81, 90.

City Bank of Montreal. Founded (1832), 4 624;

  amends its charter, 5 278;

  amalgamates with Royal Canadian Bank, 10 638.

City of Midland. Steamer on Georgian Bay and Mackinac route, 10 555.

City of Montreal. Great Western Railway steamboat, 10 546.

City of Owen Sound. Steamer on Georgian Bay-Lake Superior route, 10 546.

City of Sydney. Steamer on Montreal and St John’s route, 10 562.

City of Toronto. Lake Ontario steamboat (1842), 10 537.

City of Winnipeg. Steamer on Georgian Bay-Lake Superior route, 10 546.

Civil Service Reform. The commission of 1907, 6 164-5.

Civil Service Rifles. Raised to repel Fenian raids, 7 407, 412.

Clanricarde, Ulick John de Burgh Canning, first Marquis of (1802-76), British postmaster-general. His scheme of provincial control of the post office, 5 387-8.

Clapp, William H. Canadian figure painter, 12 623.

Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, fourth Earl of (1800-70). Negotiates unratified convention with United States, 8 874.

Clark, Alexander. Conductor of Choir of St Louis de France, Montreal, 12 649.

Clark, Champ (b. 1850), United States statesman. And annexation of Canada, 6 183.

Clark, Dr Daniel. On Riel’s mental condition, 6 103.

Clark, Judson Freeman (b. 1870). Provincial forester of Ontario (1899-1905), 18 597.

Clark, Thomas, lieutenant-colonel 2nd Lincoln Militia. At battle of Beaver Dam, 3 243.

Clark, William (1770-1838), American explorer. His overland journey to Pacific, 4 658, 668, 8 849, 21 55;

  claims based on his discoveries, 8 843.

Clark, W. F. Editor Canada Farmer, 18 568, 571.

Clark, Sir William Mortimer (b. 1836). Opposes reciprocity, 6 180;

  lieutenant-governor of Ontario (1903-8), 17 190 n.

Clark, of Paris. His threshing-mill exhibit at Cobourg (1848), 18 563.

Clarke, Sir Alured (1745-1832), lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada (1791-6). Inaugurates Constitutional Act, 3 141;

  on racial elements in first assembly, 143;

  and assembly’s privileges, 4 474;

  and land grants (1792), 3 154.

Clarke, Charles Kirk (b. 1857). On Riel’s execution, 11 171.

Clarke, Henry James (d. 1889). Member of provisional council of North-West, 19 198;

  first attorney-general of Manitoba, 19 99, 107.

Clarke, Isaac Winslow (d. 1822). Commissary-general of Lower Canada, 15 148.

Clarke, Lawrence. Member of North-West Council, 19 203 and n.

Clarke, Richard (1737-1824). Anglican clergyman at Gagetown, N.B., 11 209.

Clarke, Thomas. Owner of township of Dumfries, 17 69.

Clarke, Dr, of Norfolk. Introduces first liquor prohibition bill in Ontario (1873), 17 141.

Clarke, Township of. Its original grantees, 17 44.

Claudet, F. G. Assayer in British Columbia (1859), 21 148 n.

Claus, Daniel (1765-1826), Indian agent. On projected Indian rising (1775), 3 100, 17 42.

Claus, William (1763-1826). Deputy superintendent-general of Indian Affairs, 4 722.

Clay, Green (1757-1826), American military officer. Moves to join Harrison at Fort Meigs, 3 238.

Clay, Henry (1777-1852), American statesman. Confident that Canada would be conquered (1812), 3 196;

  signatory to Treaty of Ghent, 8 771.

Clayoquot Sound, on west coast of Vancouver Island. Meares welcomed by Indians at, 21 36;

  Gray at, 38.

Claypole, H. Teacher in Craigflower School, Victoria, 22 405.

Clayton, John Middleton (1796-1856). American secretary of state, 5 238.

Clear Grits,5 64.

Clearwater, or Little Athabaska, connecting Lake Methye with the Athabaska. Peter Pond on, 4 650-1.

Cleary, James Vincent (1828-98). Roman Catholic archbishop of Kingston (1889-98), 11 56.

Clement X (1590-1676), Pope. Establishes diocese of Quebec (October 1, 1674), 2 420.

Clement XIV (1705-74). His suppression of the Jesuits, 15 195 n.

Clement. Ship sent to La Tour’s assistance, 13 44.

Clench, Nora. Canadian musician, 12 651.

Cleopatra. One of first Liverpool-Quebec steamships, 10 604.

Clergy Reserves. Created under Constitutional Act, 3 133-4;

  Canada Company makes purchases of, 334, 4 515;

  assembly’s hostility to, 3 336-7;

  proposed abandonment of, by British government, 351;

  rectories created and endowed, 352;

  principle of colonial control admitted, 353;

  an impediment to progress, 381;

  Sydenham’s attitude to, 4 414-5;

  later history of controversy, 5 60-67, 11 225.

Clerke, Charles (1741-79), British navigator. Captain of Discovery in Captain Cook’s voyage of 1776-8, 21 24;

  commands after murder of Captain Cook, 29.

Cleveland, Grover (1837-1908), president of United States. His attitude on fisheries dispute, 9 158;

  and tariff reduction, 163-4.

Climate. See Physical Features.

Clinkskill, James. Member of first Territorial assembly, 19 223, 230, 231;

  joins executive, 240;

  and Haultain’s school policy, 241.

Clinton, George. Member of International Waterways Commission, 6 364, 8 838.

Clinton, Sir Henry (1738-95), British commander-in-chief in North America. Negotiates with Vermont for a change of allegiance, 3 115, 4 698.

Clinton.

  (1) Sufferings of loyalist refugees on board the, 13 236.

  (2) Lake Erie steamboat, 10 501.

  (3) Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Clinton-Colden Lake, north-east of Great Slave Lake. Discovered by Back (1833), 4 686.

Closse, Lambert (d. 1662). His heroism in defence of Montreal, 2 414, 15 30 and n., 31.

Cloutier, François Xavier (b. 1848). Roman Catholic bishop of Three Rivers, 11 108.

Clowes, Samuel. Surveys for Rideau Canal, 10 519;

  on Cornwall Canal, 513.

Clowey Lake. Hearne joined by Indian war-party at, 4 670-1.

Clut, Isidore (b. 1832). Vicar-apostolic of Athabaska-Mackenzie, 11 148, 149;

  his journey to the Yukon and Alaska (1872), 160;

  and a curious misrepresentation of Catholicism, 160.

Coal.

  General:

    lignite formations of Interior Plain, 9 47;

    of Cordilleran Region, 54, 57-58;

    influence of geological conditions on mining, 72, 73-74;

    expansion (1895-1910), 248-9;

    Canada’s place as a producer, 249.

  Nova Scotia:

    extent of deposits, 30-31, 14 393;

    mining in Cape Breton during French régime, 393;

    price of coals dug at Spanish River (1769), 13 230;

    in eighteenth century, 14 673-4;

    methods of operation and social conditions in beginning of nineteenth century, 674-5;

    operations of General Mining Association, 675-9;

    development in Richmond and Inverness counties, 679;

    mutual protection in industry, 679;

    effect of abrogation of reciprocity on exports to United States, 9 122;

    legislation, 14 680;

    technical education, 680;

    royalty, 475.

  New Brunswick:

    measures, 9 31;

    history of mining in province, 14 683-5.

  Saskatchewan: production in 1912, 20 326.

  Alberta:

    production and value (1912), 326;

    system of leasing, 326;

    formations, 597-8;

    statistics (1912, 1913), 598.

  British Columbia:

    discovery and early development, 21 89, 122-3, 22 559;

    areas and estimated content, 558;

    production and values, 572-3.

  Yukon:

    area of deposits and estimated content, 635;

    operations, 635.

  North-West Territories: 659-60;

    discovery of burning seams on Great Bear River, 4 678.

Coaling. Elder-Dempster liner, 10 616.

Coast Indians. Alexander Mackenzie’s description of, 4 655-7;

  raid Fort Selkirk, 5 311.

Cobalt. Discovery of silver at, 18 620;

  account of operations, 628-31;

  silver production and dividends earned (1904-11), 9 248, 17 220.

Cobourg. Upper Canada Academy founded at (1836), 18 361;

  its incorporation (1837), 425;

  Municipal Loan Fund indebtedness of, 5 176, 10 414, 17 140-1.

Cobourg. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 499.

Cobourg Railway. Charter granted (1832), 10 370;

  construction delayed, 371;

  charter revived and scheme modified (1846), 372.

Coburn, Frederick Simpson. Black-and-white artist, 12 631.

Cocagne, Kent County. Origin of the name, 13 49.

Coccola, N. Missionary priest in British Columbia, 11 165.

Cochin, Father. Taken prisoner by Poundmaker, 11 170.

Cochran, George (d. 1901). Methodist missionary to Japan, 11 324.

Cochran, William (c. 1745-1833). Principal of King’s College, Nova Scotia, 13 242;

  first editor of Nova Scotia Magazine, 243.

Cochrane, Fitzgerald. Editor of Prince Albert Times, 19 164.

Cochrane, Francis C. (b. 1852). Minister of Lands of Ontario, 17 184, 216 n.;

  Dominion minister of Railways, 18 487.

Cochrane, Malcolm. Shipbuilder at Moncton, N.B., 10 585.

Cochrane, Matthew Henry (b. 1823). Importer of shorthorns, 9 118.

Cochrane, Robert, vice-admiral. In expedition of 1814 to United States coast, 13 258-9.

Cochrane, Thomas (1777-1804), puisne judge of Court of King’s Bench. Drowned in wreck of the Speedy, 10 492.

Cochrane, William (d. 1865), Anglican clergyman. His educational work at Red River, 11 228, 20 424;

  his toleration, 11 137.

Cock, Daniel (1717-1805). Member of first presbytery in Canada (1786), 11 259.

Cock, D. G. Presbyterian missionary to the Yukon, 11 294.

Cockburn, F., deputy quartermaster. Assists Talbot settlers, 17 74;

  member of Canada Company Commission, 3 334, 17 89;

  fears American settlement on the Rideau, 76-77.

Cockburn, Sir George (1772-1853), British admiral. His campaign against Washington, 3 269-70.

Cockburn, George R. R. (d. 1912). His conduct of Upper Canada College, 18 376-7.

Cockshutt, William Foster (b. 1855). Member of Niagara Power Commission of 1903, 18 477.

Cocquart, Claude Godefroy (1706-65), Jesuit. First minister to reach site of Winnipeg (1743), 11 118;

  on route taken by La Vérendrye brothers, 1 131-2;

  leader in an Acadian surrender, 13 115.

Coffin, Henry. Assists in defence of Canada (1775), 15 147.

Coffin, John (1751-1838). His duel with James Glenie, 13 174;

  raises regiment in War of 1812, 187;

  supervises New England Company, 5 348.

Coffin, John, merchant of Quebec. At defence of Quebec (1775), 3 91, 92.

Coffin, John, admiral. Assists in defence of Canada (1775), 15 147.

Coffin, Nathaniel, loyalist and ex-officer. Outlines township for John Craigie of Quebec (1792), 15 153.

Coffin, Thomas (1817-90). Receiver-general (1873-8), 6 64, 7 514.

Coffin, Sir Thomas Aston (d. 1810), secretary of Lower Canada. Assists in defence of Canada (1775), 15 147.

Coffin, Victor. On Murray’s partiality for Canadian noblesse, 15 129-30.

Coffin, Wm. C. His canal and railway projects, 10 377.

Coffin, William Foster (1808-78). His historical work, 1812: The War and its Moral, 12 502.

Cogan, Henry. Member of first legislative assembly of British Columbia, 21 180.

Coinage. See Currency and Banking.

Coit, Isaac. Non-loyalist American leader of Land Settlement Association, 15 151-2.

Colbert, Jacques Nicholas, coadjutor of Rouen. Consecrates Saint-Vallier bishop of Quebec, 2 425.

Colbert, Jean Baptiste (1619-83), minister of Marine and Colonies (1669-83). Sends dairy stock to New France, 7 654;

  suppresses municipal institutions, 15 287-8;

  his colonial and trade policy, 1 9, 208, 2 447, 458, 464-5, 476, 15 4-5;

  and free trade within the empire, 2 466;

  his policy modified by Talon, 470-1;

  and reciprocity with New England, 475;

  suppresses Company of New France, 537;

  his commission of inquiry, 459-60;

  forms West India Company, 343-4;

  sends out wives for settlers, 15 41;

  and ‘frenchification’ of Indians, 43;

  aims at concentration of settlement, 58-59.

Colborne, Sir John, first Baron Seaton (1778-1863), lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1828-35). His instructions, 3 338;

  and revision of King’s College charter, 340;

  regards education in United States as a danger, 340;

  on Strachan’s political zeal, 340-1;

  interested in Indians, 5 332, 333-4, 334-5;

  censured for Mackenzie’s expulsion, 3 345;

  and Family Compact, 348, 350-1;

  receives notice of recall, 351;

  his bitterness against Methodists, 18 360;

  and the common schools, 285;

  establishes crown rectories, 11 224, 269;

  defeats rebels at St Eustache, 3 363;

  his forces, 7 390;

  sketch of, 3 337.

Coldwell, George Robson (b. 1858). Minister of Education of Manitoba, 20 442.

Colebrooke, Sir William Macbean George (1787-1870). Lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (1841-8), 13 204;

  cancellation of appointment made by, 205;

  on drawbacks of timber industry, 5 201-2.

Colgan, Thomas Patrick. Priest at Ottawa (1842), 11 55.

College Ste Anne, Church Point, N.S., 14 518.

Colleton, Sir Peter. One of the ‘Gentlemen Adventurers,’ 1 162;

  original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 166.

Collier, Sir George (1738-95), British vice-admiral. His attack on Machias, 13 225;

  relieves Majebigwaduce, 226-7.

Collier, Hon. John. Charged with taking fees that were oppressive, 13 104-5.

Collins, Enos. His success in privateering, 13 253;

  one of founders of Halifax Banking Company, 269.

Collins, Francis (1801-34), editor of Canadian Freeman. Family Compact’s vindictiveness against, 3 338.

Collins, John. Surveys for loyalist settlements west of Cataraqui, 17 23.

Collinson, Sir John Richard (1811-83). Commands Franklin search expedition (1850-4), 5 301-2.

Collinson, Sir Richard (1811-83). His feat in navigation, 5 302-3.

Collver, Jabez (d. 1819). Organizes Presbyterian churches in Norfolk County (1793), 11 266.

Colnett, Captain. His visits to Nootka, 21 37;

  seizure of his vessel, 43.

Colonel Moody. Steamer constructed in British Columbia, 10 570.

Colonial Association. Urges tariff concessions to colonies (1842), 5 196.

Colonial Bank. Chartered (1856), 5 279;

  failure of (1859), 284, 280.

Colonial Church Society (Anglican). Aids work in British Columbia, 21 147-8.

Colonial Copper Company. Fails in attempt to develop copper-mines at Cape d’Or, 14 697.

Colquhoun, Arthur Hugh Urquhart (b. 1861), deputy minister of Education of Ontario. His educational policy, 18 335.

Columbia.

  (1) Trader on north-west coast, 21 37-38, 42.

  (2) Hudson’s Bay Company barque, 21 104.

  (3) One of first Cunard steamships, 10 597;

  wrecked on Sable Island, 598.

Columbia and Western Railway. Provincial grants in aid of, 22 365-6.

Columbia Lake, Upper, source of Columbia River. Reached by David Thompson, 4 666.

Columbia River. David Thompson’s explorations on, 4 666-9;

  statement of United States claim to, 8 858-9 and n.

Columbian College, New Westminster (Methodist), 11 337.

Columbian Company. Sends emigrants to South America, who finally settle in Guelph, 17 91.

Columbus, Christopher (c. 1446-1506), discoverer. His reception in Spain after discovery of New World, 1 17-18.

Columbus. Value of wireless demonstrated at wreck of (1909), 10 609-10.

Colvile, Andrew, Selkirk’s executor. On the Red River enterprise, 19 46.

Colvile, Jean, wife of Lord Selkirk. Her interest in Red River Settlement, 19 17.

Colville, Lord. Commands squadron in St Lawrence (1760), 1 310;

  extract from his journal, 311.

Comet. Steamboat on Toronto-Montreal route (1852), 10 541.

Comingoe, Bruin Romcas (1724-1820). Ordained to Dutch Reformed Church at Lunenburg (1770), 11 259.

Commerce (afterwards Eclipse). Lake Ontario steamboat (1842), 10 538.

Commercial Bank of Midland District. Founded (1831), 4 625;

  increases its capital, 628, 5 278;

  allows interest on deposits, 4 630;

  claims government assistance, 633, 635;

  amended charter disallowed, 5 269;

  causes leading to suspension (1867), 288, 290-1;

  absorbed by Merchants Bank of Montreal, 291, 10 637.

Commercial Bank of New Brunswick. Chartered (1834), 10 628.

Commercial Union. See Reciprocity.

Commissary. War vessel on Lake Champlain, 10 487.

Commodore. War vessel on Lake Ontario, 10 494.

Commodore Barry. Steamer on upper St Lawrence, 10 499.

Compagnie des Habitans. Takes over trading monopoly of Hundred Associates, 2 326-7;

  first employs brandy as an article of exchange, 456-7.

Compagnies detachées de la Marine (Louisbourg). Lax discipline of, 1 207-8.

Company of Acadia. Carries on the fur trade, 13 60.

Company of de Caën. Formed by William de Caën and his nephew Emery, 2 319, 451, 15 20;

  monopoly cancelled, 2 327.

Company of de Monts. Formed (1603), 2 317;

  hostile to missions and Indian colonization (1616), 2 389;

  trading monopoly cancelled, 317.

Company of Montmorency. Formed by amalgamation of Companies of de Monts and de Caën, 2 319, 390-1;

  trading monopoly cancelled (1622), 319;

  suppressed, 399.

Company of New France (Compagnie des Cent Associés). Founded by Richelieu in 1627, 2 321, 399, 453, 15 21;

  its duties and privileges, 2 322-4, 399, 453-4, 536, 15 23-26;

  its capital and directorate, 2 454, 15 21 n.;

  its representative character, 23;

  noblemen who entered company to retain social rank, 25;

  the policy of Huguenot exclusion, 25-26;

  ships of first expedition captured, 2 324, 454, 15 21;

  seigniories granted by, 2 325-6, 536, 15 27-28;

  transfers trading monopoly to Compagnie des Habitans, 2 326-7, 456;

  conditions of transfer, 456;

  charter withdrawn (1663), 327, 338, 459, 15 33;

  fails in colonizing, 2 537;

  its losses, 456.

Company of Notre Dame de Montreal. Land grants to (1640), 2 326, 455;

  make over Island of Montreal to Sulpicians (1663), 415.

  See Montreal.

Company of Rouen and St Malo (Champlain’s Company). Established (1613), 2 318, 450, 451;

  opposed to colonization and missionary enterprise, 318-9, 389;

  absorbed by Company of de Caën, 319, 15 20.

Company of the Merchants of London, Discoverers of the North-West Passage.See Hudson’s Bay Company.

Company of the North (founded 1682). Seizes English ship in Hudson Strait, 1 176;

  attempts to drive British from Hudson Bay, 8 880-1;

  its decline, 1 182, 189;

  its claim under Treaty of Ryswick, 8 885.

Company of the West (Company of Louisiana or the Mississippi Bubble, or Company of the Indies). Takes over trading monopoly (1717), 2 492, 507;

  terms of its charter, 501, 508;

  name changed to Company of the Indies (1719), 508;

  controls beaver monopoly till after Conquest, 508;

  issues copper coinage for colonies, 515;

  and bills of exchange, 521;

  develops ginseng trade, 514-5.

Company of the West Indies. Charter granted to (1664), 2 343, 465, 538;

  its duties, obligations, and powers, 343-4, 465-6;

  prevented from shipping old men and women to the colony, 15 37;

  failure and revocation of grant, 2 344, 347, 467, 474;

  compensation awarded to, 467;

  condemned by Talon, 470-1.

Comte, B. Signs Quebec traders’ petition (1764), 15 134.

Conacher, John. Engraver, 12 631.

Conciliation Act, Labour (1900), 9 341-2.

Condé, Henri de Bourbon, Prince de (1588-1646). Lieutenant-general of New France (1612-20), 1 48, 2 318;

  transfers his privileges, 319, 390.

Confederates. Organize raids from Canada, 7 406.

Confederation.

  Special Article: Federation: General Outlines (1867-1912), 6 3-11.

  Failure of the Union, 5 147-55;

  Elgin on its constitutional difficulties, 151-2;

  sources of the movement, 93-94;

  Galt’s motion, 94;

  influence of events in United States and of breakdown of party government, 95-96;

  legislative union favoured by Macdonald and home government, 153;

  conferences of party leaders (1864), 96-97;

  union of parties, 97-99;

  request to adopt title ‘Kingdom of Canada’ refused, 161;

  extract from Quebec resolutions (1864), 7 507-8;

  division of federal and provincial functions, 5 153;

  residue of power left with federal authority, 154-5;

  Monck’s proposal regarding bills dealing with education, religion, or trade, 155;

  a daring experiment, 14 384-5;

  attractive power of Dominion parliament, 388;

  position of lieutenant-governor subsequent to, 418;

  composition of first ministry under, 6 22.

  See also Federal Constitution under Government.

Confiance. British war vessel on Lake Erie, 10 494;

  its masts supplied by American contractors, 3 262-3;

  at Plattsburg, 264, 265, 267.

Conflans, Hubert de Brienne- (1690-1777). Defeated at Quiberon Bay, 1 281.

Conge-ca-tha-wha-chaga River. Hearne encounters Copper Indians at, 4 671.

Congregationalism. Its principles, 11 379;

  the relationship between religious independency and political democracy, 380;

  in Nova Scotia, 381;

  in Quebec, 381-2;

  Zion Church, Montreal, 382;

  in Ontario and the West, 382-3;

  Congregational Union formed, 383;

  its missionary work, 383.

Connaught, H.R.H. Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of (b. 1850), governor-general of Canada (1911-6). On wisdom of British colonial policy, 14 442.

Connell, Charles. Surveyor-general of New Brunswick, 14 415.

Connolly, Amelia. Wife of Sir James Douglas, 21 99.

Connolly, John. His appointment to Indian department cancelled, 4 722.

Connolly, Louis Thomas (1815-76). Roman Catholic archbishop of Halifax (1859-76), 11 78, 82;

  on sacrifices made by the priesthood, 72.

Connolly, William. Hudson’s Bay Company agent in New Caledonia, 21 69;

  father-in-law of Governor Douglas, 99.

Connolly and Larkin. Complete graving-dock at Esquimalt, 21 211.

Connolly Lake, British Columbia. Hudson’s Bay Company’s station, 21 127 n.

Connor, James. Methodist mission teacher in Alberta, 20 479.

Connor, Lieutenant. Commander at Fort Hughes, 13 139;

  conveys tidings of surrender of Yorktown, 139.

Conroy, bishop of Armagh. Inquires into Quebec university dispute, 11 105.

Consolidated Bank. Incorporates other banks, 10 638;

  wound up, 638.

Constitution (American frigate). Captures two British ships, 3 216, 13 257.

Constitutional Act (or Canada Act). Passed (1791), 2 588;

    its provisions, 588, 3 129-38;

    Pitt’s defence of, 4 547-8;

    boundaries under, 3 132-3, 134-5, 8 893-5;

    attempt to found colonial aristocracy and its failure, 3 130, 133, 137, 4 465;

    clergy reserves, 3 133-4;

    land tenure, 134;

    division of provinces complicates interprovincial relations, 136-7;

    its effect on French Canada, 138;

    spheres of legislative authority, 4 442, 443;

    legislative authority, in whom vested, 463;

    legislative restrictions, 464;

    legislative procedure modelled on Great Britain, 482-3;

    conflict of legislative and executive authorities, 485-6;

    suspension of constitution and vesting of legislative authority in special council, 486-7;

    changes in, under Union, 487;

    composition and powers of special council, 486-7;

    its economic results, 547-9;

    racial conflict under, 548-9;

    aids in promotion of loyalty in Lower Canada, 15 101;

    causes of its failure, 168.

  Crown and Imperial Parliament under:

    ecclesiastical supremacy of crown, 4 439-41;

    exercise of prerogative appropriating crown revenue, 441-2;

    hereditary and territorial revenues, 484;

    spheres of legislative authority, 442-3;

    imperial legislation on matters of local concern, 444.

  Governor and lieutenant-governor under:

    their position and powers, 444-52;

    conflicts of authority, 445-8;

    governor’s right of forcing dissolution and its exercise 448-50;

    degradation of prerogative of dissolution, 450;

    administration in absence of governor, 451-2.

  Executive Councils:

    composition and powers, 452-3;

    relations to legislature and judiciary, 453-4;

    connection between executive and legislative councils, 454;

    difficulty of breaking connection with the bench, 462-3;

    crown expresses intention not to appoint judges to either council, 463.

  Legislative Councils:

    difficulty of breaking connection with the bench, 462-3;

    crown expresses intention not to appoint judges to either council, 463;

    powers and duties, 463-8;

    membership and tenure of office, 464;

    hereditary titles of honour confer right of membership, 464;

    voting power of speaker, 464-5;

    their degradation, 465;

    unresponsive to public opinion, 466;

    proposed reform in Lower Canada, 466-7;

    anomalous position, 467-8;

    composition at Union, 487.

  Legislative Assemblies:

    composition, 3 133-4;

    membership and electoral districts, 4 468-9;

    qualifications of electors and conditions as regards naturalization, 469-70;

    qualification for membership and the eligibility of judges, 3 164, 184, 4 462, 470;

    payment of members, 470-1;

    speakership, 471-3;

    speaker becomes leader of majority, 473;

    other officers, 473;

    rights, immunities, and privileges, 473-5;

    claim all privileges of British House of Commons, 474-5;

    exercise control over questions relating to own constitution, 476-7;

    claim privilege of determining qualifications of members, 477-8;

    privileges supported by powers to enforce them, 478-9;

    checks on power of expulsion, 479;

    right of impeachment denied by legislative council, 480;

    procedure, 482-3;

    and money bills, 483;

    members and their qualifications, etc., at Union, 487;

    power of amending constitution claimed in Lower Canada, 443.

Constitutional Development.

  Special Articles:

    Constitutional History (1763-1840), 4 421-88;

    Constitutional Development (1840-67), 5 105-62.

  Under Treaty of Paris and Quebec Act (1763-91), 4 421-38;

  the position in 1763, 421-2;

  sources of constitution, 423-4;

  boards of departments successively responsible for colonial government, 424-5;

  relations with crown and imperial parliament, 424-7;

  supremacy of crown in appointment of governor and colonial officers, in administration, in legislation, in ecclesiastical affairs, and in defence, 425-6;

  Declaration Act of 1778, 427;

  military government, 427-9;

  civil government established, 429;

  powers and duties of governor, 430-3;

  the council, 433-6 (see under Constitutional Act);

  Durham’s report, 5 105-7;

  need for readjustment of British theory of colonial autonomy, 28-29;

  reasons for withholding full autonomy, 29, 47-48;

  immature condition of Canadian politics, 29-30;

  constitutional problem at Union similar to that in Great Britain in 1688, 105-7;

  responsible government practical solution of crisis of 1837, 4 417-8;

  powers of governor under Union, 5 106;

  constitution not wholly British, 4 422.

  Under Sydenham:

    harmony between executive and legislature aimed at, 5 108;

    custom of the constitution, 107;

    councillors made heads of departments, 108;

    governor-general’s office magnified, 108-9;

    combines in himself offices of governor and prime minister, 110;

    attempt to restrict power of self-government, 110.

  Under Bagot:

    Stanley’s instructions, 110-1;

    misgivings of home authorities on overtures to French, 111;

    effect of governor’s failing health on constitutional practice, 112-3.

  Under Metcalfe:

    Metcalfe on effect of Sydenham’s concessions, 114;

    dangers of control of executive by legislature, 114-5;

    assumption of rôle of patriot governor, 115-6;

    a conflict on patronage and reservation of bills, 116-7;

    governor’s successful appeal to electorate, 117;

    statements of governor and council, 118.

  Under Elgin:

    division of British opinion on responsible government, 119;

    Elgin’s practical solution of constitutional difficulties, 119-20;

    inaugurates party government, 120-1;

    self-government not incompatible with imperial government, 122;

    governorship brought within limits of constitution, 123;

    Elgin on usefulness and dignity of constitutional governor, 123-4;

    governor accepts responsibility in treatment of bills, 125-6, 127;

    the function of constitutional governor in safeguarding home authorities from colonial resentment, 126;

    governor begins to absent himself from meetings of executive, 127.

  After Elgin:

    validity of decisions in absence of governor questioned, 127-8;

    Sir Edmund Head on practice of governor absenting himself from the meetings of the cabinet, 128-9;

    governor as constitutional sovereign, 129;

    practice of constitution, 130;

    proposal to separate executive and legislative functions, 130;

    extension of Canada’s powers, 131-5;

    control of civil list conceded, 131-2;

    use of French as an official language, 133;

    colonial control over tariff, 133-4;

    number of bills reserved and number withheld from royal assent (1836-46), 135;

    evolution of responsible government under Union, 99-101.

  See also

    Constitutional Act;

    Federal Constitution under Government.

Cook, Captain James (1728-79), British navigator. Guides Wolfe’s expedition in St Lawrence, 1 280, 21 24;

  surveys Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 24;

  sent to discover North-West Passage, 24;

  his instructions, 25;

  discovers Nootka Sound, 26;

  his reception by natives, 27-28;

  surveys coast, 8 847, 21 28;

  attempts to locate North-West Passage, 28-29;

  effect of his voyage on fur trade, 242;

  murder of, 29.

Cook, John (b. 1836). Member of Protestant committee of Council of Public Instruction, Quebec, 16 491.

Cook, Joseph. Schoolmaster at Red River (1833), 20 425.

Cook Lake, Hoar Frost River. Surveyed by Captain Back, 4 686.

Cook, M. Holstein cattle imported by, 7 658.

Cooke, Samuel (d. 1795). Anglican clergyman in New Brunswick (1785), 11 209.

Cooke, Thomas (1792-1870). Roman Catholic bishop of Three Rivers (1852-70), 11 108.

Cooley, Ebenezer. A grantee of township of Murray, 17 44.

Coolidge, Thomas Jefferson (b. 1831). United States representative on Joint High Commission, 6 135.

Cooney, Robert. Describes Miramichi conflagration, 13 197;

  on the forest as a perishable resource, 14 616.

Cooper, James. Trader crushed out by Hudson’s Bay Company, 21 83;

  member of council of Vancouver Island, 97;

  first harbour master of British Columbia, 147;

  sketch of, 104.

Cooper, Lieutenant-Colonel. Superintendent of Indian department, Lower Canada, 4 723.

Cooper. Conducts school at York (1798), 18 279.

Copper Indians. Their meetings with Hearne and Alexander Mackenzie, 4 671, 673.

Copper Mountains. Copper deposits of, 22 656-7.

Coppermine River. Hearne’s journey on, 4 669-73;

  Franklin on, 680-1;

  descended by Simpson and Dease, 689;

  total length and drainage area, 22 642;

  copper deposits of, 656.

Copyright. Paramountcy of imperial parliament in legislation on, 6 222.

Coquihalla River. Simon Fraser at mouth of, 4 663.

Corbeil, Father. On coureurs de bois, 15 70.

Corbett, G. O. His arrest and forcible release, 19 59-60, 64.

Corinthian.

  (1) Canadian Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 539.

  (2) Allan liner, 10 607.

Corlaer (Schenectady). Dutch establish trading-post at, 2 451 n.

Cormick, W. D. Secretary of first fair at New Westminster, 22 538.

Cormie, J. A. Organizes schools among Galicians, 11 292.

Cormorant, H.M.S. At Victoria, 21 90.

Corn Laws, British. Provisions of act abolishing, 5 214-5;

  effect of abolition in Canada, 216-24.

Cornell, Joseph. Baptist pioneer of Bastard, Leeds County, 11 361.

Corning, Erastus. Director in Great Western Railway, 10 395.

Cornwall, Clement Francis. Member of council of British Columbia, 21 176;

  lieutenant-governor (1881-7), 205, 209.

Cornwall Canal. Its construction, 10 512-3.

Cornwall, Township of. Settled by loyalist Scottish Presbyterians, 17 25;

  its incorporation, 18 424.

Cornwallis, Edward (b. 1712), governor of Nova Scotia (1749-52). As soldier and city builder, 13 81, 82;

  his commission, 14 437-40;

  disregards his instructions, 440;

  and the Acadians, 13 93.

Cornwallis Land. Explored by Penny and Ross, 5 303.

Cornwallis, N.S. Raided by privateers, 13 219.

Corona. Toronto-Niagara steamboat, 10 553.

Coronation Gulf, in north-east angle of Mackenzie district, N.W.T. Richardson at, 4 684.

Corsican.

  (1) Canadian Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 539.

  (2) Allan liner, 10 607.

Corte Real, Gaspar, Portuguese navigator. Explores Greenland, 1 23;

  fate of his second expedition, 24.

Corte Real, João, 1 23.

Corte Real, Miguel, 1 23;

  disastrous voyage of, 24-25.

Corte Real, Vaasqueanes. Refused permission to organize search for his brothers, 1 25.

Cortes, Hernando. Establishes base at Tehuantepec, 21 14;

  his territorial claims, 14.

Corunna. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Corwin. United States cruiser, makes seizures of Canadian sealers, 8 723-4.

Cossit, Ranna. Anglican clergyman in Cape Breton (1786), 11 206.

Coste, Louis. Member of International Waterways Commission, 6 363, 8 838.

Costebelle, Philippe de (d. 1717), first governor at Louisbourg. Advises giving no offence to England, 1 208;

  and trade with New England, 209.

Costello, J. W. First public school teacher at Calgary, 20 484.

Côté, H. A. Member of Half-breed Scrip Commission (1900), 11 184.

Coté, Thomas. Canadian secretary of International Waterways Commission, 6 364.

Côte d’Abraham. Stubborn defence of French Canadians at, 1 304.

Coteau du Lac. Interprovincial custom-house at, 4 506, 550.

Cotes, Mrs Everard (Sara Jeannette Duncan). Her literary work, 12 564.

Cotterel, T. On most economical method of obtaining frame of ship, 14 614.

Cotton. See Manufactures.

Cottonwood River Cañon, Fraser River. Simon Fraser’s descent of, 4 658.

Coues, Elliott. On David Thompson, 4 664.

Couillard, André. Compiles manual of the lectures at Jesuit College, 16 370.

Couillard, Guillaume (d. 1663). Marries a daughter of Louis Hébert, 2 393, 15 19;

  extent of his holding, 16 506;

  remains after English conquest, 15 22.

Coulonge. Châtellenie of, granted to Louis d’Ailleboust (1685), 2 569.

County of Pictou. Vessel built at Pictou, 10 583.

Courcel, Alphonse de. Presides over Bering Sea arbitration, 8 726.

Courcelle, Daniel de Rémy, Sieur de. Governor of New France (1665-72), 1 89, 2 346 n.;

  and fort at outlet of Lake Ontario, 349;

  subdues the Iroquois, 15 35.

Coureurs de bois. Encouragement given to, 2 330-1;

  loyal to French interest, 356, 373, 15 71;

  desertions from regular troops to, 2 371;

  conduct of a serious problem, 472;

  prohibitions against, 15 71;

  their increasing numbers, 2 473;

  numbers in 1679, 484;

  outlawed, 473;

  amnesties to, 473, 484, 490, 15 71;

  conduct of declared intolerable, 2 484;

  trade with English, 487;

  official connivance in their trade, 15 71;

  enforcement of laws against causes reduction in trade, 2 494;

  attractions of the life, 505;

  seigneurs take to the woods, 15 53, 87;

  in Acadia, 13 55;

  characteristics of, 15 69-70;

  Parkman’s description of, 72;

  their successors, 72-78;

  pioneers in Western States, 77;

  number settled in West in 1778, 79.

Courtemanche. His fishing and trading privileges (1702), 8 915.

Courtin, Monsieur. Missionary to Indians, 13 308.

Courtney, Frederick (b. 1837). Anglican bishop of Nova Scotia (1888-1904), 11 208.

Courtney, John Mortimer (b. 1858). Member of Civil Service Commission (1907), 6 163.

Courts. See Judicial Systems.

Coutlée, Sister. One of first Grey Nuns to teach at St Boniface, 20 420.

Couture, Guillaume (d. 1702). Tortured by Iroquois, 15 31;

  said to have reached Hudson Bay, 8 882.

Couves, A. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Covington, Mrs Pioneer woman settler at Victoria, 21 120 n.

Cowichan. Pacific coast steamer, 10 573.

Cowichan, Vancouver Island. Education of Indians at, 5 348.

Cowley, Abraham. His missionary work in Manitoba, 11 228, 20 425.

Cowper, George (d. 1861), colonel. Member of Durham’s special council, 4 395.

Cox, H. C. A guarantor of Toronto Symphony Orchestra, 12 647.

Crabtree, A. Greene. His depredations on the St John, 13 137, 138.

Craig, Sir James Henry (1748-1812), governor-in-chief of Canada (1807-11). His action against Le Canadien, 3 161-2;

  prorogues parliament, 162;

  his conflict with assembly, 162-4, 4 476;

  his policy, 3 165-6;

  misreads French-Canadian character, 166-7;

  his exercise of prerogative, 4 449-50;

  and American feeling as to war, 3 195;

  constructs ‘Craig’s Road,’ 15 152;

  and Bishop Plessis, 11 38;

  resignation of, 3 164-5;

  sketch of, 159.

Craig, Thomas D. His advice on Intercolonial Railway, 10 466.

Craig, William, of Port Hope. First president of Baptist Church Edifice Society, 11 367.

Craigg, J. A. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Cramahé, Hector Theophilus (d. 1789). Sent to England, 3 34;

  on traders’ petition, 41-42;

  takes precautions against American invasion, 85, 4 432, 433, 493.

Cramahe, Township of. Its original grantees, 17 44.

Cramp, J. M. (1796-1881). President of Montreal Baptist College, 11 365;

  president of Acadia College, 357;

  his contribution to journalism, 365.

Crandall, Joseph (d. 1858). Pioneer Baptist in New Brunswick, 11 353;

  daily allowance paid to, 354.

Crandall, Reuben. Founder of Haldimand Church, Northumberland County, 11 360.

Crane, William. Delegate from New Brunswick to England, 14 484;

  and a mail steamship service, 5 365.

Crane, W. H. Member of Holman Opera Company, Montreal (1871), 12 656.

Craven, William Craven, Earl of (1609-97). One of the ‘Gentlemen Adventurers,’ 1 162;

  original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 166.

Crawford, Isabella Valancy (1850-87). Canadian poet, 12 585-7.

Crawford, John Willoughby (d. 1875), lieutenant-governor of Ontario (1873-5), 17 190 n.

Crawley, Edmund Albern (1799-1880). First president of Acadia College, 11 356, 13 288;

  his non-appointment to Dalhousie College, 14 517.

Crease, Sir Henry Pering Pellew (d. 1905). First practising barrister in British Columbia, 22 394;

  attorney-general, 21 166 and n.;

  first puisne judge, 22 392.

Credge, C. H. Anglican chaplain at Victoria, 11 232.

Credit River. Mississaga settlement on, 5 333.

Credit Valley Railway. Municipal contributions to, 10 428.

Creelman, George Christie (b. 1869). President of Ontario Agricultural College, 18 572.

Crees. Prevented from trading with French, 1 75;

  their territory, 78, 11 115, 20 286;

  welcome Radisson, 1 79;

  visited by La Vérendryes, 120;

  councils held by, 136;

  Alexander Henry’s visit to, 4 644-5;

  and Campbell’s expedition of 1843, 5 309-10;

  encountered by Milton and Cheadle, 324-5;

  cessions of territory by, 7 597, 598.

Creighton, David (b. 1843). Obstructs Ontario Education Bill of 1876, 17 153.

Creighton, George. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171.

Crémazie, Octave (1827-79), poet-bookseller. Father of French-Canadian poetry, 12 461-2;

  estimate of his work, 462-3.

Crépieul, François de (1638-1702). Father-prefect of Jesuit College, 16 366.

Crescent. Steamer on Montreal-Quebec route, 10 541.

Crespi, Father. Describes Haida Indians, 21 20.

Cresswell, William N. (1822-88). Canadian artist, 12 608.

Crevier, curé. Founds Monnoir College (1853), 16 432.

Crevier, Dame. Donates Abnakis reserve of St Francis, 4 717.

Crickmer. Anglican clergyman appointed to British Columbia, 21 147-8.

Cridge, Edward (1817-1913), bishop of Reformed Episcopal Church. Arrives at Victoria, 22 402;

  conditions of his engagement, 402-3;

  reports on public schools, 404-7;

  tried for ecclesiastical offences, 21 107;

  joins Reformed Episcopal Church, 107;

  sketch of, 106-8.

Cridge, Mrs (née Mary Winnelle). Organizes first Sunday School in British Columbia, 22 403.

Crimean War. Its effect on Canadian trade, 5 188;

  neutralization of territory on Pacific during, 8 929, 21 109;

  agreement violated by Russia, 8 929 and n.

Crinnon, Peter Francis (1838-82). Roman Catholic bishop of Hamilton (1874-82), 11 64.

Crocker, Charles (1822-88). And construction of Vancouver Island railway, 21 211.

Crocket, William (b. 1832). Normal school principal and superintendent of Education, New Brunswick, 14 551, 552, 554, 556.

Croft, Henry Holmes. First professor of chemistry in King’s College, Toronto, 18 364;

  sets Bishop Strachan’s lawn sleeves on fire, 364;

  and Baldwin’s university bill of 1843, 368, 372-3, 389.

Crofton, Major. Sent to Red River during Oregon dispute, 19 56.

Croghan, George (1791-1849). Repulses British attack on Fort Stephenson, 3 238-9;

  defeated at Michilimackinac, 253.

Croke, Sir Alexander (1758-1842), judge of vice-admiralty. Favours religious test, 13 262;

  owner of Studley, 264.

Crolo, Catherine. Sister of Notre Dame, Montreal, 2 414, 16 355.

Cronyn, Benjamin (1802-71). First Anglican bishop of Huron (1857-71), 11 224, 225.

Crooks, Adam (1827-85). Defeated in Ontario elections of 1867, 17 110;

  attorney-general, 129, 196 n.;

  provincial treasurer, 137, 210 n.;

  passes the Crooks Act, 149;

  minister of Education, 220 n.;

  his educational policy, 18 319-21, 325-6, 327;

  and bilingual schools, 323;

  organizes Ontario School of Art, 12 635;

  retirement of, 17 164.

Crooks, Francis. Builder of the York, 10 491.

Cross, Charles Wilson (b. 1872). Attorney-general of Alberta, 19 275.

Crossen, James. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Crow Indians (probably Beaux Hommes), 1 127.

Crow, Robert. His expedition in search of North-West Passage (1737), 1 196.

Crowell, Thomas. Free Baptist pioneer in Nova Scotia, 11 355.

Crowfoot, Indian chief. Negotiates the Blackfeet treaty (1877), 20 291, 19 209.

Crowley, Father. Priest in Upper Canada, 11 48, 49;

  ministers to Irish immigrants, 17 85.

Crown Point, at west side of Lake Champlain. Fort built at, 2 502;

  Johnson’s attack on, 13 89;

  destroyed by Bourlamaque, 1 274;

  captured by Seth Warner, 3 80;

  Arnold and Sullivan at, 97.

Crowne, William. Partner with La Tour, 13 51.

Crozier, Francis Rawdon Moira (c. 1796-1848). Assumes command of Franklin expedition after death of leader, 5 296.

Cruikshank, William (b. 1848). Canadian artist, 12 611-2, 630.

Crymes, John. Captures American privateer (1782), 13 223.

Cullen, C. E. Immigration agent of North-West Territories, 19 236.

Cullen, Maurice B. (b. 1866). His Newfoundland landscapes and winter scenes, 12 620.

Cumberland, Ernest Augustus, Duke of (1771-1851). And Talbot’s application for a grant in Canada, 17 60.

Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of (1721-65). At Closter-Seven (1757), 1 254.

Cumberland. Steamer on Georgian Bay-Lake Superior route, 10 546.

Cumberland Coal and Railway Company. Involved in labour disputes, 14 683.

Cumberland House. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Sturgeon Lake. Built by Samuel Hearne (1774), 4 646;

  explorers at, 649, 650, 679.

Cumberland Rebels.’ Send delegates to Congress, 13 217;

  defeated at Fort Cumberland, 218;

  their trial and execution, 218.

Cumming, Melville (b. 1876). Principal of Truro Agricultural College, 14 534.

Cummings, Samuel. Visits the St John as loyalist agent, 13 142, 143.

Cunard (or Cuenod), Abraham. Father of Sir Samuel Cunard, 13 287.

Cunard, Henry. Interested in construction of Royal William, 10 592.

Cunard, Joseph. Interested in construction of Royal William, 10 592.

Cunard, Sir Samuel (1786-1865), shipowner. Interested in whaling industry, 13 270;

  saw-miller and shipbuilder, 10 585;

  a promoter of Halifax Banking Company and Shubenacadie Canal project, 10 532, 13 269;

  interested in the Royal William, 592;

  secures mail contract between Liverpool and Halifax, 5 365, 10 596-7;

  first Cunarders, 598;

  his reception at Boston, 598;

  discontinues Halifax as port of call, 600 and n.;

  and Prince Edward land question, 13 366;

  sketch and characteristics, 10 595-6, 13 287.

Cunard Line. Its first vessels and their first voyages, 10 597-8;

  beginning of weekly service, 599;

  evolution in ship construction, 599, 601;

  averse from risks of experiment, 599-600, 601;

  ceases to make Halifax a port of call, 600;

  its fleet, 600-2;

  its agreement with British government, 601-2;

  immunity from accident of, 5 403.

Curateau de la Blaiserie (1729-90), Sulpician. Opens a Latin school at Longue-Pointe, 16 405.

Curle, J. H. Criticizes gold-fields administration in the Yukon, 22 610.

Curley, ‘General’ Thomas. Fenian leader taken prisoner at Pembina, 19 102.

Currency and Banking.

  Special articles:

    Currency and Banking, (1760-1841) 4 599-636, (1840-67) 5 261-92;

    Banking System of Canada, 10 627-60.

  New France:

    Regulations on currency and exchange, 2 478-80;

    difference of money values between France and Canada, 478-80;

    difference abolished, 499;

    wheat made legal tender, 479-80;

    special colonial currency (1670), 480;

    Spanish silver currency and its influence in illicit trading, 485-6;

    ordinances on foreign currency (1681, 1683), 485, 486;

    issues of card money, 495-9, 516-21;

    depreciation of card money, 497, 522-4;

    its redemption, 499;

    use of playing cards as card money, 516;

    change in coin values (1689), 497-8;

    outstanding currency (1713), 498;

    final stage of paper money, 515-24;

    reorganization of coinage of France, 515;

    issue of bons, 516;

    and of ordonnances, 517 and n., 518-20;

    Murray’s estimate of outstanding paper currency, 523;

    efforts at redemption and final discounting of paper money, 523-4.

  British régime:

    financial situation after the Conquest, 4 599-600;

    protests against use of French paper money, 15 132;

    experiments in mediums of exchange—currency standards and ratings, 4 600-4;

    demoralization of silver currency, 603;

    first attempts to establish banks, 604-6;

    War of 1812 and finance, 606-8;

    origin of great chartered banks, 608-15;

    British government and currency reform, 616-20;

    paper currency, 620-3;

    a plethora of banks, 624-6;

    government regulation of banks, 626-8;

    joint stock bank projects, 629-32;

    commercial crisis of 1837-8, 632-6;

    lack of currency in Nova Scotia, 13 269;

    banks established, 269;

    lack of currency in Prince Edward Island, 360;

    Sydenham and Canadian banking, 5 261-4;

    proposed provincial bank of issue, 261, 263;

    new features in bank charters, 264;

    currency standards, 264-8;

    values of coins fixed by act of 1841, 267;

    circulation of spurious copper coins, 268;

    adverse conditions of exchange, 269;

    note-issuing privileges, 269-74;

    Peel’s Bank Act of 1844 as applied to Canada, 269-70;

    Savings Banks Regulation Act (1841), 270;

    issue of provincial debentures, 270-1;

    Hincks’s ten resolutions, 271-2;

    the Free Banking Act, 272-3;

    decimal currency, 274-6;

    changes in currency ratings, 274;

    introduction of decimal currency opposed by British Treasury, 275-6;

    first shipment of decimal coinage, 276;

    banks and speculation, 277-83;

    financial crisis of 1857, 279-82;

    banks and railway speculation, 277, 288-90;

    burglaries in rural districts cause increase in deposit accounts, 279;

    attempt to compel banks to accept notes at par at any branch, 279;

    laxity in bank chartering, 280, 283;

    bank statistics (1850, 1856), 281;

    long credits, 282;

    proposed irredeemable paper currency, 282;

    Galt and Canadian banking, 283-8;

    banks and Canadian silver, 286;

    notable bank failures, 289-91;

    banks of Maritime Provinces, 10 628;

    movement for adoption of American system, 627-30;

    Bank Act of 1871 and its decennial revisions, 633-5, 640-2, 643-5, 645-6;

    increases in bank capital (1869-74), 635;

    discounts and deposits (1874), 636;

    commercial failures of 1875, 636;

    new banks established, 637-9;

    suspensions and failures, 639;

    proposed banking reforms, 640-1;

    notes made first charge on bank’s securities, 9 116, 10 640-2;

    a series of failures, 642-3;

    ‘Bank Circulation Redemption Fund,’ 645;

    inadequacy of specie reserves, 644;

    proposed independent audit of banks, 644, 648-9;

    functions and powers of Canadian Bankers’ Association, 645-6, 649-50;

    expansion (1900-13), 646-7;

    recent disastrous bank failures, 648-50;

    decimal currency made applicable to whole Dominion, 650;

    coinage standard value altered (1910), 650;

    Canadian branch of Royal Mint established (1908), 650-1;

    silver and bronze coins as legal tender, 651;

    United States coins that are legal tender, 651 n.;

    functions of banking system, 652-60;

    development of banking since Confederation, 9 136, 281;

    Finance department and, 7 505-6.

  See also under individual names of banks.

Currie, Archibald. Selkirk colonist who evaded expulsion from Red River, 19 33 and n.

Currie, Walter. Congregational foreign missionary, 11 384.

Curry, Silver. His discovery of scheelite in Nova Scotia, 14 699.

Curry, Thomas. A pioneer British trader in the West, 4 643.

Curry, Thomas. His discovery of scheelite in Nova Scotia, 14 699.

Curtis, Benjamin R. Umpire in boundary compensation arbitration (1863), 8 877.

Curtis, H. H. Supervisor of French teaching at Montreal, 16 481.

Curtis, Smith. Minister of Mines of British Columbia, 21 225.

Curzon, Sarah Anne (1833-98). Author of Laura Secord, 12 587, 660.

Cushing, Elmer. Leader of land settlement association at Shipton, 15 152.

Cushing, William Henry (b. 1852). Minister of Public Works of Alberta, 19 275;

  resignation of, 277.

Cushings, of Lachute. Loyalist immigrants, 15 158.

Custom of Paris. See Seigneurial System.

Cut Knife Hill. Colonel Otter repulsed at, 6 102, 11 170;

  number of Indians in the fight, 7 600.

Cutten, George Barton (b. 1874). President of Acadia College, 11 358.

Cutts, Mrs C. Spurr. Canadian artist, 12 627.

Cutts, W. Canadian artist, 12 624.

Cuvillier, Augustin (d. 1849). Witness before Canada Committee, 3 306;

  withdraws support from Papineau, 312.

Cuyler, Abraham (1742-1810). Ambushed at Point Pelee, 3 62;

  in charge of necessitous loyalists, 15 145, 148.

Cuyler, Cornelius (d. 1807). Loyalist inhabitant of Montreal, 15 148.

Cypress Hills. Massacre of Indians by American traders at, 20 286.

 

Dablon, Claude (1619-97), Jesuit. His mission at Sault Ste Marie, 1 80, 81-82, 85, 99;

  superior of Jesuit College, 16 366, 1 102, 2 407, 16 336.

Dacres, Captain J. R. Court-martialled at Halifax, 13 257.

Daedalus, H.M.S. On punitive expedition to Fort Rupert, 21 94-96.

Da-ga-no-we-da. Founder of Five Nations League, 4 701.

Dairying.

  Dominion:

    art of cheesemaking introduced by United Empire Loyalists, 7 659;

    disappearance of home-made cheese, 660;

    outlook in the sixties, 660;

    early cheese factories, 660-1;

    pioneer creameries, 661-2;

    centrifugal cream separator, 662-3;

    experimental work, 670;

    winter creameries, 670;

    co-operative cheese factories, 670-1;

    cold storage services, 671;

    curing of cheese, 672;

    cow-testing movement, 672-3;

    organization of seed division, 673;

    value of cheese exports (1904), 676;

    value of milk production (1910), 676;

    cheese factory development, 9 119, 124, 188, 253;

    successes of Canadian cheese makers, 119-20;

    condition of butter-making industry, 253.

  Quebec:

    the industry in province, 15 191, 16 525-7;

    butter and cheese factory production (1881-1911), 526;

    the cheese of French Canada, 7 659.

  New Brunswick: 14 664, 665.

  Prince Edward Island:

    organization, 7 662, 670;

    factory production (1910), 14 660.

  Ontario:

    cheese factories, 18 565-6;

    statistics (1900, 1910), 578.

  Manitoba: 20 528-30;

    statistics of dairy products (1912, 1913), 324, 529;

    co-operative factories, 7 662, 20 530.

  Alberta:

    first cheese factory, 7 662;

    value of output, 20 324, 596.

  Saskatchewan:

    co-operative creameries, 562, 572-3;

    butter production (1913), 324.

  British Columbia:

    first cheese factory established, 7 662.

Daley, Charles. Secretary of first artists’ society of Ontario, 12 634.

Dalhousie, George Ramsay, ninth Earl of (1770-1838), governor of Nova Scotia (1816-20), governor of Canada (1820-8). On slow conveyance of dispatches, 4 737;

  founds Dalhousie College, 13 262-3, 14 516;

  declines gift from Nova Scotia, 13 267;

  and agriculture, 7 664, 13 265-6;

  introduces Ayrshire cattle, 7 657-8;

  and executive reconstruction, 4 452-3;

  in conflict with Lower Canada assembly, 3 294, 295, 302-3, 4 450;

  and Papineau’s election as speaker, 471;

  and Glasgow Colonial Society, 11 263;

  joins with Panet in education scheme, 16 414;

  sketch of, and services, 3 307-8, 13 261, 267-8.

Dalhousie. Steamer on upper St Lawrence, 10 498.

Dalhousie College. Its foundation and history, 13 263-4, 14 516-7;

  a hospital during cholera visitation (1834), 13 282.

Dall, William Healey (b. 1845), United States Geological Survey. On Alaska boundary, 8 931;

  on habits of the seal, 22 476 and n.

Dallas, Alexander G. (d. 1882). Governor of Red River, 19 62, 21 154.

Dalton, J. First to employ horses in the Yukon, 22 618.

Daly, Sir Dominique (1798-1868). Member of Durham’s special council, 4 392;

  lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (854-9), 13 369, 5 42.

Daly, P. Signs loyalist petition (1785), 17 35.

Dalzell, James, captain. Ambushed at Bloody Run, 3 65.

Dambourgès, Lieutenant François (1742-98). At defence of Quebec (1775), 3 93-94, 15 11.

Damours, François. Pupil at Château-Richer school (1702), 16 334.

Damours, J. A. Editor L’Action Sociale, 12 477.

Dandurand, Damase (b. 1819). First Canadian Oblate, 11 163.

Dandurand, Sister (Grey Nun). Founds convent at St Norbert, 20 420.

Danes. Immigration of, 7 565.

Danforth Road. Commenced (1801), 4 734.

Daniel, Antoine (1601-48), Jesuit. At Quebec, 2 403;

  his martyrdom, 405, 409.

Daniel, Captain, of Dieppe. Dispossesses Lord Ochiltree at Belaine and founds French settlement on Cape Breton Island, 13 38-39.

Danser, John. Signs Quebec grand jury’s presentment (1764), 15 128;

  signs traders’ petition, 134;

  his standing, 134.

Daphne. Ship sent on punitive expedition to Fort Rupert, 21 95; 97.

Darling, Henry G., major-general. Superintendent-general of Indian department (1826), 4 722.

Darling, Henry W. (b. 1847), president of Toronto Board of Trade. A supporter of reciprocity, 6 109.

Dartmouth, N.S. Founded (1750), 13 83;

  whale fishery prosecuted by Quaker colony at, 270.

Darveau, Jean Edouard (1816-44). His mission on Lake Winnipegosis (1841), 11 130;

  difficulties encountered by, 132;

  murder of, 132.

Dauphin, Father, O.M.I. Missionary priest in the North-West, 11 161.

Dauth, Gaspard (b. 1863). Member of British Columbia university site commission, 22 439.

Dautré, Fief of. Granted (1637), 2 325.

Davenport, Margaret. ‘Infant phenomenon’ who appeared in Montreal (1840), 12 656.

David J. Adams. Fishing vessel seized by Canadian authorities, 8 698.

David, Louis Olivier (b. 1840). French-Canadian historian and dramatist, 12 460, 660.

Davidson, Andrew Duncan (1853-1916). Land commissioner of Canadian Northern, 10 458.

Davidson, Sir Charles Peers (b. 1841). Reports on Baie des Chaleurs Railway Scandal, 15 203.

Davidson, G. S. Member of first legislative assembly of North-West Territories, 19 223.

Davidson, John. Member of commissions of inquiry, 3 334, 4 756, 5 340, 17 89.

Davidson, T. L. Reports on North-West as a mission-field, 11 374.

Davidson, William (1740-90). Pioneer settler on the Miramichi, 13 129, 135;

  mast-cutter and lumberman, 139, 14 599, 603;

  elected for Northumberland County, 13 163.

Davidson (Sask.). Description of, in 1904, 19 179.

Davie, A. E. B. (d. 1889). Provincial secretary of British Columbia, 21 200;

  attorney-general, 209;

  premier (1887-9), 215.

Davie, Theodore (d. 1898). Premier of British Columbia (1892-5), 21 218;

  and new parliament buildings, 219-20;

  chief justice, 220.

Davies, Benjamin. President of Montreal Baptist College, 11 365.

Davies, H. W. (d. 1895). Principal of Toronto Normal School, 18 324.

Davies, Sir Louis Henry (b. 1845). Minister of Marine and Fisheries (1896-1901), 6 131;

  member of Joint High Commission, 135;

  on imperial preference, 9 205.

Davignon, Joseph François. Patriote rescued from a company of cavalry, 3 362.

Davin, Nicholas Flood (1843-1901). Editor of Regina Leader, 19 164;

  rites immigration pamphlets, 172;

  supports lieutenant-governor, 232;

  on Indian education, 7 613.

Davis, Edward Pease (b. 1860). Member of senate of British Columbia University, 22 442.

Davis, Elihu James (b. 1851). Provincial secretary of Ontario (1896), 17 179, 200 n.;

  minister of Lands, 216 n.

Davis, Robert Atkinson. Premier of Manitoba (1874-8), 19 107.

Davost, Ambroise (d. 1643), Jesuit. At Quebec, 2 403;

  missionary to the Hurons, 404.

Dawham, Charles. Canadian sculptor, 12 632.

Dawn. Steamboat on Toronto-Montreal route, 10 541.

Dawson, George Mercer (1849-1901). On Hudson’s Bay Company’s services to discovery, 5 312-3;

  and Alaska boundary, 8 931-2;

  on agriculture in North-West, 20 587;

  on coal of British Columbia, 22 558-9;

  on some gold yields, 561-2.

Dawson, Sir John William (1820-99), principal of McGill University (1855-93). Superintendent of education in Nova Scotia, 13 295, 14 523;

  principal of Protestant Normal School, Montreal, 16 486;

  on Council of Public Instruction, 491;

  as principal of McGill, 497;

  sketch of, 12 525-6.

Dawson, Samuel Edward (b. 1833). Author of The St Lawrence Basin and its Border-Lands, 12 518-9.

Dawson, Simon James (d. 1902). Plans Dawson route from Thunder Bay to Red River, 5 314, 19 60, 20 288;

  Indian treaty commissioner, 7 595.

Day, Charles Dewey (1806-84). Baldwin’s attitude to, 5 19;

  commissioner in Pacific Scandal, 6 58;

  on Quebec Council of Public Instruction, 16 491.

Day, Forshaw (1837-1903). Canadian artist, 12 609.

Dazé, Louis. Frozen to death at St Albert, 11 163.

Deakin, Alfred (b. 1856), prime minister of Australia (1903-4). At Imperial Conferences, 6 190-1, 192, 7 462, 9 212.

Deane, Silas (1737-89), American statesman and diplomatist. Proposes construction of Chambly and Caughnawaga Canals, 10 515, 534-5.

Deans, George, of Sooke, B.C. Petitions for Governor Blanshard’s retention, 21 121;

  one of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 171 n., 123.

Deans, James (d. 1905). A pioneer settler of Vancouver Island, 21 123.

Dearborn, Henry (1751-1829), American general. On the Canadian frontier (1812), 3 217;

  at capture of York and Fort George, 239-40;

  superseded by Wilkinson, 246.

Dease, Peter Warren. Hudson’s Bay Company agent in New Caledonia, 21 69;

  his explorations of the Arctic coast, 4 688-9.

Dease Lake. Trading-post established at, 4 690, 21 69.

Debartzch, Pierre Dominique. Favours Papineau’s mission against union scheme, 15 116;

  withdraws his support, 3 312.

DeBrisay, Thomas, lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (1769-84). Settles immigrants near Charlottetown, 13 358;

  taken prisoner by American privateers, 353.

Décarie, Jérémie L. (b. 1870). Holds portfolios in Quebec provincial government, 15 213 n.

DeCelles, Alfred D. (b. 1844). His monographs, 12 460.

Decelles, Maxime (1849-1905). Roman Catholic bishop of St Hyacinthe (1901-5), 11 91.

Declaration Of London. Discussed and approved at Imperial Conference of 1911, 6 194-6.

DeCosmos, Amor (William Alexander Smith) (d. 1897), premier of British Columbia (1872-4). His first election contest, 21 132;

  member of council of British Columbia, 176;

  one of fathers of Confederation, 171 n.;

  member of first legislative assembly, 180;

  and Sir James Douglas, 133 n.;

  premier, 183;

  resigns on abolition of dual representation, 184;

  and Island railway, 204-5;

  opposes Chinese immigration, 257, 258;

  his journalistic work and political services, 130-1, 182-3.

Deer Island, at eastern end of Lake Ontario. Fort Carleton constructed on, 4 532.

Deer Island, in Passamaquoddy Bay. Grant of, made by authorities of Nova Scotia, 8 769.

Defence.

  Special Article: Defence (1812-1912), 7 379-468.

  French régime:

    difficulty of maintaining regular troops in colony, 2 371;

    French regiments in Canada in 1756, 1 248, 250;

    number of militia (1756), 248;

    strength at siege of Quebec, 282;

    troops to be paid in specie, 2 522;

    duties and powers of capitaines de la milice, 573;

    position of captains of militia after Capitulation of Montreal, 4 428.

  British régime:

    Relative rank of regulars and militia, 1 239, 251, 271;

    ineffectiveness of British regulars in bush warfare, 241;

    French and British forces in 1756, 246-7;

    strength of British expedition against Quebec, 278-9;

    mutiny at Quebec (1763), 3 76;

    period of universal service, 7 379-86;

    menace of invasion, 379;

    stiffening of imperial troops, 379-80, 386;

    illustrated by War of 1812, 380-6;

    provincial acts (1803, 1808), 382-4;

    strength of regular garrison, 382;

    strength and weakness of scheme of, 385-7;

    number of imperial and Canadian regulars and militia in War of 1812, 3 209-10;

    militia’s motives for fighting, 211-2;

    mobilizations during Rebellions of 1837, 7 386-91;

    increasing population and stationary garrison, 386-7;

    defects in organization and training, 387-8;

    unpopularity of musters, 391;

    garrison kept on equality with United States standing army, 392;

    provincial revenue and imperial military expenditures (1841-51), 392-3;

    troops in oversea possessions compared with total strength of army (1821, 1854, 1861), 393;

    withdrawal of imperial troops and its results, 6 10, 7 423, 427-8;

    commission of 1854, 396;

    act of 1855, 396-8;

    cost of militia first undertaken by Canada, 5 135;

    growth of volunteer force, 7 398-9;

    strength of militia (1857), 399;

    reduced numbers of volunteers, 399;

    the Taché-Macdonald Minute (1861), 400;

    number of volunteers in 1862, 400;

    commission of 1862, 401-2;

    defects of volunteer force, 400-1;

    defeat of Cartier-Macdonald government on, 403;

    acts of Macdonald-Sicotte ministry, 403-4;

    training of officers, 404-5;

    military schools, 404-5;

    ‘volunteer militia,’ 405.

  During Fenian raids:

    mobilizations, 406-12;

    number of volunteers raised, 407;

    strategical points occupied, 408;

    defects in distribution of forces during attack on Fort Erie, 409-10;

    failure of commissariat and equipment services, 410-1, 420.

    Of North Pacific during Crimean War, 21 108;

    numbers in successive British expeditionary forces, 7 393-4;

    position at Confederation, 412-3, 421, 422;

    quota and enlistments in 1870, 422;

    annual camps established, 423;

    shrinkage in militia, 424-5;

    successive commanding officers, 425;

    opening of Kingston Royal Military College, 426;

    arsenal opened in Quebec, 426;

    permanent force established, 426;

    infantry and cavalry schools, 426-7;

    associations, 427;

    defects in arms and deficiency in equipment, 428;

    Herbert’s improvements, 428-9;

    militia re-armed, 429-30;

    in North-West Rebellion, 430-5;

    Canada’s attitude to, in 1887, 6 188;

    contingent at South African War, 7 436-42;

    Hutton’s reforms, 436-7;

    detachment sent to Yukon, 437;

    increase in expenditure after South African War, 442;

    Canada assumes garrisoning of Halifax and Esquimalt, 442;

    friction at headquarters, 443-4;

    subordination of military to civil authority, 444;

    Militia Act of 1904, 444-5;

    Dundonald’s suppressed plan of, 445-7;

    reforms, 447-8;

    system in 1912, 449-59;

    strength, organization, and distribution of forces (1912), 449-52;

    table showing war establishments (1902, 1912), 450-1;

    defects in equipment, 452-3;

    military stores required, 454-6;

    lack of provision for reserve, 456-7;

    rifle clubs and their membership, 457;

    reserve of officers, 457;

    recent advances made, 458;

    problem of the recruit, 458;

    cadet system, 458-9;

    imperial organization, 460-8;

    formation of Overseas Defence Committee, 460;

    colonial maintenance of forces in imperial wars, 460-1;

    colonial representation on Committee of Imperial Defence, 462;

    Imperial General Staff, 462, 464-5, 467-8;

    Sir John French’s report, 465-7;

    functions of department of Militia and Defence, 6 345-7.

  Nova Scotia:

    volunteer and militia enrolments (1861-5), 7 413-4;

    Mulgrave’s report and reorganization of militia, 413-7;

    a foreshadowing of Kitchener’s scheme, 417-8;

    during Fenian alarms (1866), 420.

  New Brunswick:

    early militia acts and system of organization, 13 170-1;

    treating on muster days, 171;

    provincial regiments sent to Canada during the Rebellion of 1837, 202;

    militia strength and organization (1860-6), 14 414, 418-9;

    Fenian raid of 1866, 7 420;

    militia system in Prince Edward Island, 419-20.

  See Navy, Canadian.

Delafield, Joseph. Agent in boundary commission, 8 828.

Delaney, Patrick. Editor of Journal de l’Instruction publique, 16 430.

Delaune, William, captain. Reconnoitres with Wolfe, 1 291;

  in command of first men to climb the Heights, 297.

Delawares. Warlike attitude of, in 1761, 3 58.

Delfosse, Maurice. Umpire in fisheries compensation commission, 6 69, 8 695.

Delorme, Pierre (b. 1831). Member of provisional North-West council, 19 198.

Demaray, Pierre Paul. Patriote rescued from a company of cavalry, 3 632.

Demers, Modeste (1809-71), Roman Catholic bishop of Vancouver (1847-71). His missionary labours, 11 128, 131, 144;

  invites the Oblates, 145.

Denaut, Pierre (1743-1806), Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec (1797-1806). Anticipates trouble from grant of representative institutions, 3 165;

  opposes Royal Institution, 11 37;

  his visitations, 37;

  and official recognition, 37;

  his interest in Nicolet College, 16 410, 11 34.

Dénés, Indian tribe. Their territory, 11 116.

Denison, George Taylor (b. 1839). Supports Canada First movement, 6 70;

  organizes counter-movement to commercial union, 110;

  and the Métis’ claims, 100-1.

Dennis, Captain (afterwards Sir James). At Queenston Heights, 3 229-30, 232;

  wounded, 233;

  delays Wilkinson’s advance, 249.

Dennis, John Stoughton (1820-85). Begins surveys at Red River, 19 69;

  interviewed by Riel, 6 34;

  deforced by Métis, 19 69;

  stakes out appropriations for himself, 11 151;

  commissioned to raise troops, 154;

  supports claims of Métis, 6 100;

  his forecast of productive areas of North-West, 19 156;

  originates system of surveys for North-West, 158, 196.

Dennis, Joseph. Builder of the Canada (1826), 10 498.

Denonville, Jacques René de Brisay, Marquis de (1653-1727), governor of New France (1685-9). Aids educational work, 16 379-80;

  his plan for creation of manufactures, 380;

  sends expedition to Hudson Bay, 1 177;

  rebuked for deporting undesirables, 2 353;

  proposes purchase of colony of New York, 355;

  wants no more noblemen in New France, 15 52;

  treacherously seizes Iroquois chiefs, 2 355-6.

Dent, John Charles (1841-88). His historical and biographical works, 12 498-9.

Denys de Fronsac, Richard, son of Nicolas Denys. Makes grants in Acadia for missionary purposes, 13 50;

  his settlement on the Miramichi, 59.

Denys, Nicolas (1598-1688). On the Indians of Acadia, 13 26;

  accompanies de Razilly’s expedition, 41-42;

  his fishing colonies and grants, 42, 47, 14 564-5;

  on fishing off Grand Banks, 562-3;

  exports fish to Oporto, 564;

  on blockade and surrender of La Tour’s fort, 13 45;

  dispossessed by Charnisay and resumes possession, 47;

  taken captive by Le Borgne, 48;

  visits France and obtains confirmation of his grant, 48;

  abandons his settlements, 48-49;

  returns to France, 50;

  his Description Géographique, 50, 16 555;

  on the coal within his grant, 14 672;

  given right to exact duties on ‘plaister’ (gypsum) and coal, 672.

Derby, Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, fourteenth Earl of (1799-1869), secretary for War and the Colonies (1841-5). Appoints committee of investigation into the Canadian question, 3 319-20;

  advises Bagot to recognize no distinctions of race or creed or party, 5 32, 110-1;

  opposed to Bagot’s policy, 35-36;

  and governor-general’s supremacy in colonial constitution, 112-3;

  defines government’s policy on American imports passing through Canada, 192-3;

  his colonial trade policy, 202-3, 196;

  and discrimination by Canada against United Kingdom, 9 175;

  opposes reform of legislative council, 5 142.

Derby. Selected, and abandoned, as seat of government for British Columbia, 21 149.

Dering. Ship in the fight with d’Iberville at Hudson Bay, 1 185, 186, 187.

Des Barres, Joseph Frederic Wallet (1721-1824), lieutenant-governor of Cape Breton (1784-7). His exaggerated ideas of province, 13 231;

  lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (1804-12), 231;

  and the Island’s defences, 361;

  sketch of, 230-1;

  his services to cartography, 231.

Des Brisaye, Theophilus. First resident Anglican clergyman on Prince Edward Island, 11 206.

Deschambault. Magazines at, destroyed by Murray, 1 287, 294.

Deschamps, Isaac (1722-1801), first justice of Prince Edward Island. States number of inhabitants, 13 326;

  his salary and allowances, 338.

Des Châtelets, Juchereau. Granted seigniory of Cap Rouge, 15 27;

  opposes proposed composition of council, 2 329.

Deserontya, Captain John. Settles loyal Indians at Lachine, 11 221;

  forms Mohawk settlement on Bay of Quinte, 17 42.

Desgly, Louis Philippe Mariauchaud (1710-88). Roman Catholic coadjutor of Quebec, 11 23-24.

Desjardins, Alphonse. Organizes credit co-operation in Quebec, 9 266;

  a Dominion representative in Manitoba Schools Conference, 6 126.

Desjardins, Louis Joseph (1766-1848). French priest serving in Maritime Provinces, 11 32, 42;

  bequeaths paintings to Canada, 32.

Desjardins, Peter. Originator of Desjardins Canal project, 10 522.

Desjardins, Philippe Jean Louis (1753-1833), French refugee priest, afterwards vicar-general of Paris. Chaplain at Fort George, Niagara River, 11 26, 32.

Desjardins Canal, 10 522.

Deslandes, Joseph (1696-1742), Jesuit. Professor of hydrography in Jesuit College, 16 376.

Desportes. Habitant who remained after English conquest of Quebec (1629), 15 22.

Destroismaisons, Thomas (1796-1866). Missionary priest at Red River, 11 124, 20 418.

Detroit. Efforts at French settlement, 2 503;

  missionary priests of (1752-98), 11 24-25;

  French retirement on (1759), 1 273;

  Bishop de Pontbriand’s visit to, 2 439;

  surrendered to Captain Campbell, 3 57;

  occupied by British, 58;

  Indian attacks on, during Pontiac’s War, 59-60, 61-63, 65-66;

  Indian treaties of peace concluded at, 68, 69;

  Indians refuse boundary overtures at, 4 710;

  ceded to United States under Jay’s Treaty, 17 17-18;

  retirement of Hull on, 3 221;

  fall of, in War of 1812, 222-5.

Detroit.

  (1) Barclay’s flagship at battle of Lake Erie, 3 244, 245, 10 492.

  (2) Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad. Commercial Bank involved in its affairs, 5 290.

Detroit River. Manitou destroyed by Dollier and Galinée at, 1 98.

Devil’s Hole, near Fort Niagara. British convoy massacred at, 3 67.

Devlin, Charles Ramsay (1858-1914). Minister of Colonization of Quebec, 15 213 n.

Devona. Dominion Line steamship, 10 615.

Devonshire, Spencer Compton Cavendish, eighth Duke of (1833-1908). Opposes Chamberlain’s tariff reform policy, 6 144.

Dewar, John Hunter. Author of De Roberval, 12 660.

Dewar, Peter. His adventurous voyage to Canada, 15 158-9.

Dewars, of Chatham. Scottish immigrant pioneers on Ottawa River, 15 158-9.

Dewdney, Edgar (1835-1916). Indian commissioner of North-West Territories, 7 601, 621;

  on Indian destitution due to disappearance of buffalo, 601;

  lieutenant-governor (1881-8), 19 203, 220;

  lieutenant-governor of British Columbia (1892-7), 21 218.

Dewdney trail. Its construction (1865), 21 158.

De Witt. Michigan Central Railway steamboat, 10 545.

Dewitt, Jacob. A promoter of Banque du Peuple, 4 631.

Diana. British frigate at Quebec (1760), 1 310.

Dibblee, Frederick (d. 1826). Anglican clergyman at Woodstock, 11 210.

Dick, Thomas. Captain of Lakes steamboat Gore, 10 500.

Dick, W. R. Pioneer Baptist at Fort Garry, 11 374.

Dickens, Charles (1812-70), novelist. Appears in regimental theatricals in Montreal (1842), 12 652.

Dickey, Arthur Rupert (1854-1900). A Dominion representative in Manitoba Schools Conference, 6 126;

  resigns from Bowell ministry, 126.

Dickie, R. M. First Presbyterian missionary to the Yukon, 11 294.

Dickinson, Tertullus. Opposition candidate at St John election (1785), 13 164;

  appeals against sheriff’s return, 164-5.

Dickson, Charles. Member for Westmorland County in New Brunswick assembly (1785), 13 163.

Dickson, William (1770-1846). Aids Mennonite settlement in Waterloo County, 17 48;

  purchases township of Dumfries, 69;

  names township after John Galt, 89;

  sketch of, 70.

Dieskau, Jean Armand, Baron de (1701-77). Defeated and taken prisoner at Lake George, 1 243-4.

Digby. Post office opened at (1788), 5 373.

Digges, Sir Dudley (1583-1639). Merchant adventurer, 1 151, 155.

Digges Island. Named after Sir Dudley Digges, 1 152;

  Hudson’s mutineers slain at, 154;

  Button’s conflict with Eskimos at, 156, 153.

Dignam, Mrs Mary Ella (b. 1860). Canadian artist 12 626-7.

Dilke, Sir Charles Wentworth (1843-1911), British statesman. On municipal institutions of Ontario, 18 455.

Dillon, John, of Montreal. On spiritual needs of foreign population in Canada, 11 321.

Dimock, Joseph (d. 1846). Baptist preacher in Maritime Provinces, 11 353.

Dingley, Nelson (b. 1832). His attitude to reciprocity, 9 166;

  his tariff causes resentment in Canada, 201;

  member of Joint High Commission, 6 135.

Dinwiddie, Robert (1690-1770), lieutenant-governor of Virginia. Protests against French aggressions, 1 236.

Dionne, Elisée (d. 1892). Member of Quebec government (1882), 15 189.

Dionne, Narcisse Eutrope (b. 1848). Provincial librarian of Quebec, 12 460.

Director. Harrison Direct Line steamship, 10 618.

Discovery.

  (1) Hudson explores Hudson Bay in, 1 151;

    its subsequent voyages to Hudson Bay, 155-6.

  (2) Vessel of Governor Knight’s expedition (1719), 1 195.

  (3) Sent on expedition in search of North-West Passage (1742), 1 197.

  (4) Ship of Captain Cook’s expedition to discover North-West Passage, 21 24, 25, 28, 29.

  (5) Commanded by Vancouver in expedition of 1791, 21 47, 48, 49, 50, 51.

Disney, Daniel, captain. Tried for complicity in Walker outrage, 3 36.

Dixon, George (d. c. 1800). In command of Queen Charlotte, North Pacific trader, 21 31.

Doane, J. H. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Dobbs, Alex. T. (b. 1784). Captures American ships at Fort Erie, 3 260.

Dobbs, Arthur (1689-1765). His attack on Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 196;

  and the North-West Passage, 197.

Dobbs. Ship sent in search of North-West Passage (1747), 1 197.

Dobell, Richard Reid (1837-1902). Minister without portfolio in Laurier’s administration, 6 131.

Dodd, Francis. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Dodds, John, of Montreal. Imports Ayrshire cattle into Canada, 7 658.

Doerfler, Bruno, Benedictine. Establishes periodical for German settlers in Manitoba, 11 187;

  first abbot of the West, 195.

Doggett, Captain. Founds Liverpool with settlers from Connecticut (1760), 13 111.

Dogrib Indians. Mackenzie’s parley with, 4 675;

  Richardson’s description of, 5 299-300.

Dollard (Daulac), Adam, Sieur des Ormeaux (1638-60). His defence of the Long Sault, 2 414, 15 31.

Dollard, William (1789-1851). Roman Catholic bishop of St John (1843-51), 11 77.

Dollier de Casson, Francis (1636-1701), Sulpician. Explores lower lakes, 1 82;

  at Lake Nipissing, 85;

  accompanies La Salle on his first expedition, 89-94;

  vicissitudes of his journey to Sault Ste Marie, 95-99;

  claims French sovereignty over Lake Erie, 96;

  plans Montreal, 15 300;

  and the Lachine-Lake St Pierre Canal, 10 504;

  sketch of, 1 87.

Dolphin.

  (1) Boat employed in Franklin expedition of 1825, 4 683.

  (2) Lake Ontario vessel, 10 494.

  (3) Lakes steamer (1837), 10 538.

  (4) Canadian sealer, seized by American authorities, 8 731.

Domagaya. Indian youth who accompanied Jacques Cartier to France, 1 33, 35, 36.

Dominicans. At Ottawa, 11 69.

Dominion. Dominion Line steamship, 10 608.

Dominion Atlantic Railway Company. Operates part of Intercolonial, 6 327.

Dominion Atlantic Railway Steamship Company, 10 561-2;

  merged in Canadian Pacific Railway, 561 n.

Dominion Bank. Established (1869), 10 638.

Dominion Coal Company. Its formation and history, 14 680-1;

  quarrel between rival labour organizations over its wages schedule, 9 315;

  its refusal to recognize an American union, 315, 333.

  See also Dominion Steel Corporation.

Dominion Franchise Act (1885). Its provisions, 6 98-99;

  obstruction of the measure, 99.

Dominion Grange. Favours policy of protection, 9 140.

Dominion Graphite Company, 16 593.

Dominion Iron and Steamship Company. Coal exports (1911), 10 562.

Dominion Iron and Steel Company, 14 395, 681, 690.

  See also Dominion Steel Corporation.

Dominion Land Surveyors’ Intelligence Corps. Engaged in suppressing North-West Rebellion, 7 431, 434.

Dominion Line. Formed (1870), 10 608-10;

  now controlled by White Star Line, 610.

Dominion Marine Association. Organized by Canadian lake and river lines (1903), 10 557.

Dominion Police. Composition of force, 6 318.

Dominion Steel Corporation. Formed by union of Dominion Coal Company and Dominion Iron and Steel Company, 9 260, 14 681;

  its operations, 9 256-7, 14 681-2.

Dominion Textile Company. Business consolidation, 9 261.

Donalda, Madame (Pauline Séveilhac), (b. 1884), vocalist. Native of Province of Quebec 12 649.

Donation Party,’ first, in Ontario, 1 85.

Dongan, Thomas, afterwards Earl of Limerick (1634-1715), governor of New York. His territorial claims, 2 354;

  demands surrender of Iroquois chiefs, 356;

  recalled (1688), 356 n.

Donnacona, Indian chief of Stadacona. Welcomes Jacques Cartier, 1 36;

  kidnapped and taken to France, 38-39;

  converted and baptized, 2 380-1.

Donnelley, ‘Colonel’ J. J. Fenian leader taken at Pembina, 19 102.

Dontenwill, Augustin (b. 1857). Roman Catholic bishop of New Westminster (1899-1908), 11 184.

Doolittle, Lucius (1800-62). Organizes a college at Lennoxville (1842-3), 16 498.

Dorchester, Sir Guy Carleton, first Baron (1724-1808), governor-in-chief of Canada (1768-78, 1786-96). Wolfe’s chief of staff in campaign of 1759, 1 280, 290, 291;

  wounded at battle of the Plains, 305;

  succeeds Murray as governor of Quebec, 3 35-36, 4 433;

  calls together only certain of the council, 430-1;

  grants lease of iron-mines of St Maurice, 529;

  anticipates and prepares for Revolutionary War, 3 76-79, 15 137;

  predicts great increase of French population, 137-8;

  hostile to an assembly, 138-9;

  on levelling tendencies of an assembly, 139;

  his treatment of British traders, 142;

  proposes to send expedition to Pacific, 4 641-2;

  opposes recruiting for religious orders, 16 402-3;

  corrects abuses of magistrates, 3 37;

  favours Quebec Act, 45, 15 100;

  his policy in supporting Quebec Act, 3 76, 15 99, 100, 139, 142-3, 144;

  and the dispositions of French Canadians, 3 77, 107-9, 15 143-4;

  on influence of American emissaries on French Canadians, 3 108;

  his policy encourages race separation, 15 162-4;

  opposes Indian participation in white men’s wars, 3 77, 98-99, 100, 4 706;

  at outbreak of Revolutionary War, 3 107;

  tries to raise siege of St Johns, 82;

  withdraws to Quebec, 82-83;

  his defence of Quebec (1775), 85-97;

  strength of his forces, 85-86;

  assault on fortress, 89-95;

  attempts to close with enemy, 96;

  his treatment of American prisoners, 99;

  enjoins search for wounded Americans, 99-100;

  his instructions on establishment of courts (1775), 18 514-8;

  selects a Privy Council, 4 434-5;

  his dismissal of Livius, 3 111-2;

  submits plan for incorporation of chambers of commerce, 4 530-1;

  hostility of Lord George Germain leads to his resignation, 3 111-2, 4 531;

  his labours on behalf of loyalists, 13 143, 147, 148;

  and boundaries of New Brunswick, 8 757;

  his administrative reforms, 3 125-6;

  on racial conflict in council, 4 538;

  his report on industry (1787), 539-45;

  and packet service between Falmouth and Halifax, 733;

  his division of loyalist settlements, 17 39;

  founds agricultural society at Quebec, 16 521;

  and the Constitutional Act, 3 129-30, 18 410;

  appoints honorary members to executive, 4 452;

  objects to system of payment by fees and perquisites, 3 146;

  pacific policy of, towards United States, 148-9;

  favours a federal and centralizing policy, 145, 181, 4 445;

  his strained relations with Simcoe, 3 143, 144-5;

  disapproves of Simcoe’s plans for defence and settlement, 151, 180-1;

  complains of virtual supersession by his subordinate, 4 446;

  his provocative speech to Indians, 3 149;

  regards Dundas’s criticism as censure and resigns, 150;

  on his reasons for resigning, 151-2;

  sketch of, personal qualities, and services, 35, 75, 152, 15 136.

Dorchester, Ontario. Settled by Scottish Highlanders, 17 63.

Doreil, commissary of war. Sent on mission to France (1758), 1 275-6.

Doric. Northern Navigation Company’s freighter, 10 555.

Dorion, Sir Antoine Aimé (1818-91). Defeated at election of 1861, 5 82;

  opposes Confederation, 6, 97-98;

  and Intercolonial Railway, 6 30;

  his attitude to Red River Expedition, 42;

  and the Pacific Scandal, 57;

  minister of Justice (1873-4), 63.

Dosquet, Pierre Hermann (1691-1777). Coadjutor of Quebec (1729-33), 2 431;

  bishop (1733-9), 433, 434;

  and irremovable pastors, 431-2;

  and teaching of Latin, 16 385-6.

Doty, John (d. 1841). First Anglican incumbent of Sorel (1784), 11 213, 214.

Double Majority.’ Its disavowal advised by Sir Edmund Head, 5 93;

  principle supported by John Sandfield Macdonald, 93;

  doctrine of, under the Union, 148-50;

  the question in Manitoba, 19 109.

Double Shuffle.’ Executed by John A. Macdonald to avoid re-election, 5 91-92;

  attitude of Sir Edmund Head to, 129.

Doublet, Captain. Island of St John granted to (1663), 13 312;

  aided by companies of St Malo, 312.

Doucet, André (1782-1824). Missionary priest in Nova Scotia, 11 42.

Doucet, Father, O.M.I. Missionary priest at St Boniface, 11 149.

Dougall, Lily (b. 1858). Canadian novelist, 12 565.

Doughty, Arthur George (b. 1860). Dominion archivist and keeper of the records, 6 335;

  his Siege of Quebec and other works, 12 500.

Douglas, David (1798-1834), botanist. Visits British Columbia, 21 133, 22 558.

Douglas, George (d. 1894). First principal of Montreal Wesleyan Theological College, 11 336.

Douglas, Sir Howard, Bart. (1776-1861), lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (1824-31). His interest in education and church extension in New Brunswick, 11 211, 14 552;

  founds college at Fredericton, 13 196, 14 557;

  his residence destroyed by fire, 13 197;

  and the Miramichi conflagration, 198;

  his handling of Madawaska boundary dispute, 199.

Douglas, Howard. First chairman of Calgary school board, 20 484.

Douglas, Sir James (1803-77), governor of Vancouver Island (1851-63), governor of British Columbia (1858-64). Joins North-West Company, 21 63;

  his secession to Hudson’s Bay Company, 63-64;

  constructs Fort Connolly, 4 690;

  in New Caledonia, 21 69;

  at Fort Vancouver, 70;

  his expedition to the Stikine, 69;

  founds Fort Camosun (Victoria), 76-78;

  agrees to provisional government of Oregon, 8 867;

  recommended for governorship of Vancouver Island, 21 86;

  justice of peace, 86;

  member of council, 97;

  governor, 97;

  his dual position, 98;

  his one-man rule, 103, 128-9, 132, 136, 160-1, 164, 22 351-2, 353;

  recommends imposition of imports duty, 21 105;

  unsympathetic to representative institutions, 110-1;

  instructed to call assembly, 111-2;

  at opening of first parliament, 113-5;

  his Indian policy and influence over natives, 7 607-8, 21 109, 114-5;

  reconciles antagonistic interests, 115-6;

  as road builder, 117, 156-8;

  governor of British Columbia, 127-8;

  dissatisfied with his emoluments, 128, 147;

  assumes authority during gold rush, 133-4, 136-7;

  his mining regulations, 137, 141-2;

  inaugurates colony of British Columbia, 150;

  and troubles with American miners, 151-3;

  disregards instructions to set up an assembly, 160;

  his reply to his critics, 161-4, 22 353-4;

  at first meeting of legislative council, 21 168-9;

  encourages agriculture, 22 528, 538;

  his land grant policy, 543-4;

  donates site for Reformed Episcopal Church, 21 108;

  retirement and closing years, 169;

  sketch of, 63-64, 98-99;

  character and personality, 99-102;

  his diffidence and self-depreciation, 22 389;

  and relations of master and servant, 21 104-5.

Douglas, James, captain R.N. A British settler in Quebec, 15 122.

Douglas, James (b. 1837). On copper-mining on Eastern Townships, 16 583, 585.

Douglas, J. W. And British Columbia secession address, 21 199.

Douglas, Stephen. Favours commercial union, 9 165.

Douglas, William. Commander of the Iphigenia, 21 34;

  arrested at Nootka, 42.

Doukhobors. Tenets and history of sect, 7 538-40, 11 393;

  persecution and banishment of, 7 540-1, 11 393;

  first colony settles in Cyprus, 393;

  emigrate to Canadian North-West, 7 541-3, 11 393-4;

  qualities as settlers, 7 543-5;

  fanatical pilgrimages of, 544-7;

  secessions from, 548;

  conditions of their grants, 548;

  their settlements, 19 178, 20 305-6;

  awakening to educational needs, 460.

Douro, Township of. Its early settlers and their privations, 17 80-82.

Douville, Francis. Norman immigrant on Prince Edward Island, 13 312.

Dove.

  (1) Barque built at Yarmouth, 10 581.

  (2) Lake Ontario schooner, 10 493.

Dowling, D. B. On coal resources of Canada, 22 557-8.

Dowling, Edward. Member of Sydenham’s postal commission, 4 756.

Dowling, Thomas Joseph (b. 1840). Roman Catholic bishop of Hamilton, 11 57.

Downie, George, captain R.N. Goaded into premature action at Plattsburg, 3 265-6;

  killed in action, 267.

Dowton, William (1764-1851), actor. Appears in Montreal, 12 655.

Drago, Luis M. Member of Hague Tribunal, 8 708, 716, 721.

Drake, Sir Francis (c. 1540-96). His explorations in North Pacific, 8 846, 21 15-17.

Drake, Montague William Tyrwhitt (d. 1908). Member of Board of Education, British Columbia, 22 424;

  president of council, 21 209.

Draper, William Henry (1801-77). Attorney-general of Upper Canada, 4 414;

  his withdrawal suggested, 5 19;

  paves the way for cabinet reconstruction, 33;

  declines professorship in King’s College, 18 364;

  appointed to provisional council, 5 42;

  bids for French-Canadian support, 43, 89;

  his university bills, 18 368-9;

  and a centralized university, 369-70;

  retires, 5 50, 19 60, 21 125.

Drawback Act (American). Provisions of the, 5 214, 215.

Drayton, Sir Henry Lumley. Chief railway commissioner of Canada, 6 151.

Drew, Andrew. His seizure of the Caroline, 3 366.

Driver. Ship on which Governor Blanshard sailed to Victoria, 21 90.

Droit de chasse; droit de pêche; droit de seigneur; droit de justice. See Seigneurial System.

Drucour, Augustin de, governor of Ile Royale (1754-8). His defence of Louisbourg, 1 223, 226, 267-8;

  signs capitulation, 13 325.

Drucour, Madame de. Her heroism at siege of Louisbourg, 1 226.

Druillettes, Gabriel (1610-81), Jesuit. His mission in Acadia, 2 407;

  on reciprocity and defence mission to New England, 332-5;

  in charge of mission at Sault Ste Marie, 1 81, 102.

Drummond, Sir Gordon (1773-1854), president and administrator of Upper Canada (1813-5). Captures Fort Niagara, 3 251;

  destroys forts at Oswego, 253;

  strength of his forces, 254;

  at Kingston, 256;

  at Lundy’s Lane, 257-9;

  lays siege to Fort Erie, 259-60;

  and protection for Red River settlers, 19 34;

  Bathurst’s instructions lead to conflict with Lower Canada assembly, 3 281-2.

Drummond, J. S., mayor of Victoria. One of delegation appointed to present secession address to Lord Dufferin, 21 199.

Drummond, Lewis Thomas (1813-82), attorney-general for Lower Canada. His municipal act (1855), 15 294.

Drummond, William Henry (1854-1909). His poems on the habitant, 12 583.

Drummond Mines Company, 14 690.

Drury, Charles. First minister of Agriculture of Ontario, 17 232 n., 18 573.

Dryad. Diplomatic incident occasioned by refusal of Russian officer to permit it to enter the Stikine, 8 928-9, 21 68.

Dryden, John (1840-1909). Member of Ontario Agricultural Commission, 18 572;

  minister of Agriculture of Ontario (1890-1905), 17 179, 232 n., 18 574;

  his services to agriculture, 575.

Dual representation. In Dominion parliament and provincial legislature, 6 23;

  its abolition in Ontario, 17 134-5;

  and in British Columbia, 21 184.

Dubawnt River, in Mackenzie district, North-West Territories. Crossed by Samuel Hearne, 4 673;

  its course, length, and drainage area, 22 642;

  copper-bearing rocks of, 659.

Dubé, Louis, O.M.I. lay brother. Missionary in the West, 11 134.

Dublin. Rodney’s ship at siege of Louisbourg, 13 100.

Dubois, Abbé, boundary commissioner (1719), 1 191.

Dubuc, Joseph (b. 1840). His services in Red River troubles, 11 158;

  member of provisional council of North-West, 19 198;

  and of first Board of Education, 20 427.

Dubuque. French-Canadian settler at La-Prairie-du-Chien, 15 77.

Duburon, M., priest. Contributes to Patriotic Fund (1799), 15 102.

Duburon. Scholar in Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 368.

Du Calvet, Pierre (d. 1786). Imprisoned by Haldimand, 3 114.

Duchambon, Dupont. Acting-governor at Louisbourg, 1 213, 215-6.

Ducharme, curé. Founds school at Ste Thérèse (1825), 16 423.

Ducharme, Dominique (1764-1853). Commands Indians at battle of Beaver Dam, 3 243.

Duchesnay, Henri Jules Juchereau (1845-87). Imports first centrifugal cream separator, 7 663, 16 526.

Duchesne, surgeon. Remains after English conquest of Quebec (1629), 15 22.

Duchesneau, Jacques, intendant of New France (1675-82). Reports English colonies to be no menace to Canada, 2 349-50;

  on the coureurs de bois, 484;

  his charges against Frontenac, 15 71;

  on the habitants, 54, 2 347.

Duchesneau, Jacques. Prize-winner at Jesuit College, Quebec (1679), 16 373.

Duchess of York. Ottawa River steamboat, 10 554.

Duck, Simeon (d. 1905). Member of first legislative assembly of British Columbia, 21 180;

  minister of Finance, 214.

Duck. Lake Ontario vessel, 10 494.

Duck Lake. Riel’s success at, 6 101, 11 170, 19 210;

  its effect on the Indians, 7 599.

Dudley, Thomas (1576-1652), governor of Massachusetts. His interview with Father Druillettes, 2 333.

Dudley Island. Surveyed and sold by authorities of Massachusetts, 8 769, 770.

Dudouyt, Abbé. Laval’s agent in France, 2 422.

Dufaux, François-Xavier (1752-96), Sulpician. Missionary at Sandwich (1784), 11 24, 25.

Duff, James Stoddart (b. 1856). Minister of Agriculture of Ontario, 17 232 n., 18 581.

Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Hamilton Blackwood, Marquess of (1826-1902), governor-general of Canada (1872-8). His commutation of sentences on Riel and Lépine, 6 43, 45, 19 106;

  on the Scott tragedy, 87, 89 and n.;

  on Riel’s assumption of authority, 6 39-40;

  and constitutional aspect of Pacific Scandal, 15 184;

  intervenes in British Columbia railway dispute, 6 66, 21 198-200;

  and the secession address, 199;

  replies to threats of separation, 199;

  his visit to Manitoba, 19 108-9;

  and description of the province, 10;

  suggests formation of Niagara Falls Park Commission, 17 235.

Duffield, William Ward (b. 1823). Alaska Convention commissioner (1892), 8 933.

Dugas, Azarie (b. 1852). Protonotary-apostolic of St Boniface, 11 188.

Dugas, George (b. 1833). Parish priest of St Boniface, 11 163, 20 421;

  member of first Board of Education of Manitoba, 427.

Dugas, Joseph (1738-1823). Pioneer Acadian settler of Clare, 13 116.

Duhamel, Joseph Thomas (1841-1909), Roman Catholic bishop of Ottawa (1874-86). Archbishop, 11 69.

Duke of Kent. Ship built at Kingston, 10 492.

Dulhut, Daniel Greysolon (1640-1710). His life and explorations, 1 104-6, 112.

Dulieux, Professor. On ‘iron sands’ of Gulf of St Lawrence, 16 578.

Dumas, the Sieur. Stays British advance at Côte d’Abraham, 1 304.

Dumfries, Township of. Its settlement, 17 69.

Dummer, Township of. Its survey and settlement, 17 82.

Dumont, Gabriel (1838-1906). Riel’s adjutant in North-West Rebellion, 6 101, 11 169, 170;

  his military skill, 19 208, 210-1;

  his escape, 211.

Dumoulin, Sévère. Priest of Red River mission, 11 121, 123, 20 418;

  wounded by an Indian, 11 126;

  returns to Quebec, 125.

Dunbar, David. Surveyor of woods in Nova Scotia, 13 78.

Dunbar, F. A. Canadian sculptor, 12 633.

Dunbar, Ulric Stonewall Jackson (b. 1862). Canadian sculptor, 12 634.

Duncan, Captain Charles. His visits to north-west coast of America (1787, 1788), 21 37.

Duncan, Norman (b. 1871). His life and literary works, 12 556-7.

Duncan, Richd. Signs loyalist petition (1787), 17 39.

Duncan, Sara Jeannette. See Cotes, Mrs Everard.

Duncan, William. Anglican missionary in British Columbia and Alaska, 11 234-5.

Duncombe, Charles (1792-1867). Chairman of Education Commission, 18 286;

  is part in rebellion in Upper Canada, 3 367, 7 388.

Dundas, Adam D., lieutenant R.N. On proposed grant of Vancouver Island to Hudson’s Bay Company, 21 83-85.

Dundas, Henry, first Viscount Melville (1742-1811), secretary for War and the Colonies (1794-1801). On Simcoe’s selection of London as capital, 3 176;

  reproves Dorchester, 149-50.

Dundas, Thomas, colonel. On old inhabitants of New Brunswick, 13 172;

  adjusts loyalist claims, 172, 17 27.

Dundas Street. Surveys and conditions of grants on, 3 177, 10 360.

Dundonald, Douglas Mackinnon Baillie Hamilton-Cochrane, twelfth Earl of (b. 1852), commands militia in Canada (1902-4). His scheme of militia reorganization, 6 151, 7 445-7, 468;

  his dismissal and its causes, 6 152, 7 443-4;

  reforms effected by, 447-8.

Dundurn. Lakes freighter, 10 553.

Dunham, Township of. Grant of, 4 560.

Dunkin, Christopher (1811-81). Opposes Confederation, 5 97-98;

  refuses to accept office under Joseph Cauchon, 15 172;

  provincial treasurer of Quebec, 172;

  on Council of Public Instruction, 16 491.

Dunlop, John. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Dunlop, William (‘Tiger’), 1792-1848. At the naming of Guelph, 17 89-90.

Dunlop, Colonel. At the relief of Majebigwaduce, 13 226.

Dunmore. Lake war vessel, 10 488.

Dunn, Andrew Hunter (1839-1914). Anglican bishop of Quebec (1892-1914), 11 220.

Dunn, John Henry (d. 1854). Member of executive council of Upper Canada, 3 354;

  receiver-general of United Canada, 5 165.

Dunn, Oscar (1845-85). French-Canadian chronicler, 12 487-8, 16 430.

Dunn, Thomas (1731-1817). Acting receiver-general of Quebec, 4 493;

  on first executive of Lower Canada, 3 141;

  granted township of Dunham, 4 560;

  administrator, 3 158.

Dunn and Co. Granted monopoly of Indian trade, 4 524.

Dunsmuir, James (b. 1851), premier of British Columbia (1900-2). Born at Fort Vancouver, 21 122;

  premier, 226, 227;

  imposes a tax on coal, 22 375;

  prepares the case for ‘better terms,’ 21 234-5;

  lieutenant-governor, 237.

Dunsmuir, Robert (d. 1889). Arrives at Victoria (1851), 21 122;

  develops Nanaimo coal-mines, 122-3;

  constructs railway on Vancouver Island, 211;

  president of the council, 215.

Duntze, Captain. Reports on coal of Vancouver Island, 21 88-89.

Dunwich, Township of. Granted to Thomas Talbot, 17 61;

  settled by Scottish Highlanders, 63.

Duon, John (1680-1746). Rent-gatherer for Annapolis River district, 13 75.

Dupin, Julien Joseph (b. 1840). Missionary priest at St Boniface, 11 149.

Du Plessis, Pacificus (d. 1619), Récollet brother. Arrives at Tadoussac, 2 387;

  death of, 391.

Duplessis. Pupil at Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 368.

Du Plessis-Bochard, Guillaume Guillemot, governor of Three Rivers. Slain in an Iroquois raid (1652), 15 31.

Dupont, Nicolas. Grants land for convent at Pointe-aux-Trembles, 16 358.

Duport, John, first chief justice of Prince Edward Island (1770-6). His commission, 13 345, 14 503.

Dupuy, Claude Thomas, intendant of New France (1726-8). Forbids one Le Chevalier from engaging in teaching, 16 349;

  opposes establishment of Jesuit College at Montreal, 385.

Dupuys, Zacharie (1608-76), major. Saves French colony on Lake Ontario, 1 71.

Duquesne, Marquis Abraham (1610-88). French admiral, 1 263.

Duquesne de Menneville, Michel Ange, Marquis de, governor of New France (1752-5). His instructions, 2 373;

  orders forts to be built on Upper Ohio, 1 236.

Du Quesnel, Jean Baptiste Prévot (d. 1744). Governor of Louisbourg (1740-4), 1 210.

Durell, Philip (d. 1766), British admiral. Sent by Wolfe to block the St Lawrence, 1 279-80.

Durham, John George Lambton, first Earl of (1792-1840), governor of Canada (May 29, 1838, to Nov. 1, 1838).

  Special Article: Lord Durham and Union of Canadas, 4 389-418;

  his appointment, 390;

  powers conferred on, 390;

  instructions to, 391;

  his staff, 391-2;

  his reception in Canada, 392-3;

  removes difficulties with United States, 393;

  appoints crown lands commission and enlarges executive council, 394;

  the ordinance of June 28, 394-5;

  his scheme of federal union, 397-8;

  ordinance disallowed, 398;

  resigns, 399-400;

  his proclamation, 400;

  results of his mission, 400-1;

  authorship of his report, 401;

  his relations with French-Canadians, 401;

  his report and its recommendations, 402-5;

  looks for submergence of French-Canadian nationality, 403-4, 15 168;

  imperialist as well as liberal, 4 404-5;

  on principles of colonial self-government, 405;

  warns against attempts to favour English minority, 5 148;

  on constitutional difficulties of Confederation, 151-2;

  on lack of municipal institutions, 15 290-1;

  on education, 16 465-7;

  conclusions on seigneurial tenure, 2 589;

  and the colonial demagogue, 3 15;

  on absentee proprietors of Prince Edward Island, 13 365-6;

  on improvident grants in Prince Edward Island, 14 499;

  on cause of Rebellion in Lower Canada, 15 105.

Durieu, Pierre Paul (1830-99), Roman Catholic bishop of New Westminster (1890-9). His work in British Columbia, 11 145, 147, 162, 166, 178, 179, 184.

Dutch East India Company. Henry Hudson takes service with, 1 150-1;

  dividends of (1605-49), 2 465.

Dutch Immigration in Canada, 7 564.

Dutton, Robert. Attacked in Strait of Juan de Fuca, 21 35-36.

Duval, Edmund Hillyer. Principal of normal school at St John, 14 551.

Du Vernet, Frederick Herbert (b. 1860). Anglican bishop of Caledonia, British Columbia, 11 235.

Du Vivier, François Dupont. Garrison officer at Louisbourg, 1 204;

  sent to France to seek aid, 214;

  his attack on Annapolis Royal (1744), 13 80.

Dyde, Samuel Walters (b. 1862), theologian. Principal of Robertson College, Edmonton, 20 498.

Dyea, Lynn Canal. Made a sub-port of entry, 8 933-4.

Dymond, Alfred H. Secretary of Ontario Agricultural Commission (1880), 18 572.

Dyonnet, Edmond (b. 1859). Landscape and portrait painter, 12 621-2.

 

Eagle. American ship-of-war at Plattsburg, 3 267.

Eagle Lake, Algonquin National Park. Steamer service on, 10 566.

Eagleson, John. First Anglican clergyman in Prince Edward Island, 11 206, 13 338.

Eaglet. Sails with Radisson for Hudson Bay, 1 162-3, 20 366.

Earl Grey. Ice-breaker plying between Prince Edward Island and mainland, 10 563-4.

Earl of Moira. British armed schooner supporting Brock, 3 227.

East India Company. Advised to prosecute fur trade, 21 30;

  traders sail under foreign flag to avoid licence from, 32, 34;

  authorized to send ships direct to Canada, 4 575.

Eastern Extension Railway. Aided by Nova Scotia, 10 443;

  purchased by Dominion, 444.

Eastern Steamship Company. Maintains service between St John and Boston, 10 561.

Eastern Townships. Origin of first settlers, 16 509-11;

  system of land tenure in, 15 148-9, 16 510;

  settlement by associations, 510;

  difficulties of survey work, 15 153;

  live stock introduced by loyalists, 7 655-6;

  some petitioners for grants in, 15 148-50;

  non-loyalist American settlements in, 151-3;

  hardships encountered by colonists, 153-5;

  denial of representation in assembly to English inhabitants, 3 305, 309, 15 163;

  alienations to land companies, 4 513-4, 15 87;

  gold deposits of, 16 581-2;

  copper-mines in, 583-8;

  asbestos-mines, 591-2.

  See Education.

Eastern Townships Bank. Chartered (1854-5), 5 278;

  reduces paid-up capital, 281.

Eastman, Daniel W. (d. 1865). Presbyterian minister in Niagara district (1802), 11 266.

Easton, Robert (d. 1831). Presbyterian minister in Montreal (1804), 11 266.

Eastwood and Co. Publishers of British American Cultivator, 18 568.

Eaton, Sir John Craig (b. 1875). Opposes reciprocity, 6 180.

Eaton, Wyatt (1849-96). Canadian artist, 12 606, 630.

Eberts, David MacEwen (b. 1850). Attorney-general of British Columbia, 21 221, 226, 228.

E. B. Osler. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Eby, John. Assists Mennonites on the Grand River, 17 48.

Eccles Hill. Fenian repulse at, 7 411.

Eclipse (formerly the Commerce). Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 538.

École des Hautes Études Commerciales. Established in Montreal, 15 214.

Economic History. See Agriculture; Currency and Banking; Fisheries, Forests and Timber; Fur Trade; Labour; Manufactures; Mining; Public Finance; Trade and Tariffs.

Ecuyer, Simeon, captain. Holds Fort Pitt (1763), 3 64.

Eddy, Jonathan. One of the Cumberland rebels, 13 135, 218.

Eddy, Mrs Mary Baker (1821-1910), founder of Christian Science. Principles of the movement, 11 394-5.

Ede, F. C. V. Animal painter, 12 616.

Edgar, Sir James David (1841-99). His mission to British Columbia on railway question and its failure, 6 65, 10 422, 21 188-9;

  and reciprocity, 6 109-10, 9 167.

Edgar, Oscar Pelham (b. 1871). Essayist and reviewer, 12 529.

Edge, Guillaume Étienne. At Red River (1818), 11 121;

  establishes school at Pembina, 123, 20 418.

Edge Hill. Colonel Bouquet’s victory at, 3 66.

Edmonton. Father Lacombe founds school at, 20 478;

  first school election contest, 481-3;

  school growth, 494, 496;

  the town in 1890, 19 170;

  population (1890, 1901, 1911), 170, 20 327;

  its manufactures (1900, 1910), 328;

  real estate assessment, 401-2;

  business tax, 407.

Edmonton and Saskatchewan Land Company. Dissatisfaction with grant to, 19 166.

Edmonton College (Jesuit), 20 498.

Edmundson, W. G. Editor of British American Cultivator, 18 568.

Edson, Allan (1846-88). Canadian artist, 12 607-8.

Education.

  Special Articles:

    History of, in New France, 16 323-93;

    French, in Quebec (1763-1913), 397-441;

    English, in Quebec, 445-501;

    in Nova Scotia, 14 511-36;

    in New Brunswick, 545-58;

    in Prince Edward Island, 537-42;

    Public School System in Ontario, 18 277-341;

    Secondary and University Education in Ontario, 345-402;

    in Manitoba, 20 417-47;

    in Saskatchewan, 451-74;

    in Alberta, 477-506;

    in British Columbia, 22 401-42.

  New France:

    pioneer schoolmaster of Canada, 2 389;

    education in France work of Church, 16 323-6;

    ‘Petite Ecole’ of Jesuits, 329-30;

    work of Laval, 2 421, 16 330, 332, 334, 354, 377, 378, 381, 386, 387, 388, 521;

    elementary school founded by Saint-Vallier, 330-1;

    schools for boys in district of Quebec, 331-7;

    schools of Sulpicians in Montreal, 337-9;

    foundations of Charon Brothers, 339-46, 348;

    country schools and schoolmasters, 347-50;

    younger sons of good families engage in teaching, 348-9;

    standard of education as judged by signatures, 350-1;

    education among women compared with men, 351-3;

    schools of the Ursulines, 353-4;

    boarding school of General Hospital, Quebec, 354-5;

    schools and foundations of Congregation of Notre Dame, 355-9;

    primary schools programme, 359-61;

    technical education, 373-7;

    Jesuits as teachers of hydrography, 376;

    schools of arts and trades, 377-83;

    Latin schools, 383-6;

    general conclusions, 392-3.

  Quebec (French):

    conditions after the Cession, 16 398-406;

    design to anglicize Canadians, 400;

    inhabitants petition for continuance of work of religious institutions, 401-2;

    policy underlying suppression of religious orders, 402-3;

    standard of education of girls compared with boys, 404;

    Latin school founded at Longue Pointe (1767), 405;

    proposal to name it Clarence College, 405;

    Dorchester’s commission of inquiry, 406-7;

    opposition to centralization and establishment of Protestant university, 406-7;

    destitute condition of religious societies (1790), 407;

    opening of schools in Montreal, 407;

    Royal Institution founded, 409;

    elementary schools opened, 410;

    colleges founded, 410-1;

    ‘law of the fabrique schools,’ 412-3;

    Montreal school statistics (1825), 413-4;

    law of 1829, 415;

    Montreal schools in 1837, 415;

    increase of students in Quebec between 1829 and 1845, 415;

    salaries of teachers in 1829, 416;

    schools of Quebec City (1829), 416;

    act of 1836, 416-7;

    conflict on finance, 416;

    first normal schools, 417-8;

    the act of 1841, 418-9;

    compulsory school tax, 419-20;

    text-books, 422;

    secondary schools founded between 1824 and 1846, 423;

    separate school system established (1846), 424;

    proposal for a single provincial normal school (1841), 425-6;

    teachers’ associations formed, 426, 430;

    qualifying examinations, 426-7;

    inspection established, 427-8;

    normal schools founded, 429-30;

    Council of Public Instruction created (1856), 429;

    Journal de l’Instruction Publique, 430-1, 439;

    teachers’ retiring fund instituted, 431;

    university and classical colleges founded, 431-5;

    college and educational periodicals, 436, 439;

    teaching religious societies, 436-7;

    schools of arts and manufactures, 437-8;

    work of St Jean Baptiste Association, 438;

    schools for the afflicted, 438;

    industrial schools and commercial training institutions, 438;

    religious sisterhoods and normal schools, 438-9;

    school inspectors, 439-40;

    teachers’ certificates, 440;

    prospects of teaching profession, 440;

    school attendance (1910-1), 441;

    solution of racial problem, 441.

  (English):

    First English teacher in Quebec, 446;

    report of Committee of Council on Education, 447-8;

    opposition to proposed secular university, 448;

    alleged indifference to education of French Canadians, 448-9;

    Royal Grammar Schools established (1816), 450, 463, 464;

    Royal Institution founded, 450-5;

    assembly and revenues of Jesuit estates, 450-1;

    sensitiveness of French Roman Catholics on language difficulty, 453-4;

    account of early education, 455-69;

    pioneer schools and schoolmasters in Beauharnois, Huntingdon, and Châteauguay, 462;

    private schools of Quebec and Montreal, 463, 465;

    associated effort, 465;

    reports of Durham and Buller, 465-8;

    French and English education compared, 466-7;

    charge of illiteracy, 467;

    newspapers, 468;

    libraries, 468-9;

    state aid followed by paralysis of voluntary effort, 470;

    letters of Charles Mondelet, 471-2;

    school law of 1846, 472-3;

    rights of minorities, 473-7;

    Protestant Committee of Council of Public Instruction, 475-6, 491-5;

    unpopularity of rating provisions of act of 1846, 477;

    establishment of academies, 478-9;

    effect of employment of American principals and use of American text-books, 479;

    city schools after 1846, 479-82;

    position of Protestant schools between 1846 and 1867, 480;

    act of 1868, 480-1;

    protection of Protestant minority under British North America Act, 482-4;

    normal schools, 485-8;

    subsidiary training of teachers, 488-90;

    special teachers, 490;

    disposal of marriage licence fees, 493;

    relations of English secretaries with successive superintendents, 494-5;

    technical education, 500;

    diminishing attendance in rural schools, 500-1;

    Jews considered as Protestants for educational purposes, 501.

  Eastern Townships:

    early schools, 16 455-60;

    zeal of settlers for education, 456-7, 471;

    organization and method of study of pioneer schools, 457-8;

    ‘district’ and higher grade schools, 458-9;

    elementary school act of 1829, 459-60;

    first schools for higher education, 460;

    combination of secular school and theological college, 461.

  See Royal Institution.

  Nova Scotia:

    its beginnings, 14 511-5;

    certification of schoolmasters, 513;

    penalties against papists, 513-4;

    land grants to be invested in trustees, 514;

    provincial aid for school at Halifax, 514-5;

    money raised by lottery for school at Halifax, 515;

    rise of colleges, 515-8;

    ‘plan of Religious and Literary Institutions’ formulated (1783), 515;

    statistics of independent colleges (1911), 519;

    development of common school system, 520-3;

    duty on wine increased for school purposes, 520;

    principal of assessment authorized by act of 1811, 522-3;

    first normal school opened (1855), 523;

    Free School Act of 1864, 524;

    conditions prior to its passing, 13 297-8;

    number of illiterates (1861), 14 524;

    conspectus of education statistics (1824-1911), 525, 528-9;

    finance of public school system, 526-7;

    manual training grants, 527;

    recommendations of committee of assembly on teachers (1838), 529;

    increase in female teachers between 1865 and 1911, 530;

    teachers’ salaries (1746, 1811, 1832), 530;

    average annual salaries of teachers (1879-1911), 530;

    supplements to teachers’ salaries, 531;

    teachers’ annuities, 531;

    school inspection, 531;

    district boards, 532;

    superintendents of education, 532;

    Council of Public Instruction, 532;

    special colleges and schools, 532-5;

    teachers’ institutes, 535;

    regulations for devotional exercises, 535;

    classification of public school pupils (1911), 536.

  New Brunswick:

    proportion of female teachers, 14 546;

    first grammar school established at St John, 1805, 546;

    erection of grammar school authorized in each county (1816), 547;

    work of Anglican missionaries, 547;

    power of assessment conferred and withdrawn, 547;

    account of Madras schools, 548-50;

    schools and enrolment (1844-5), 550-1;

    Board of Education formed (1847), 551;

    normal schools established, 551, 552, 557;

    allowances to licensed teachers, 551;

    development between 1815 and 1830, 552;

    superintendents of education, 552, 554-5;

    struggle for free schools, 419-20;

    provisions of School Act of 1871, 420-1, 552-3;

    religious instruction, 420;

    separate school question fails as election issue, 421-2;

    benefits of act of 1871, 422-3;

    its validity challenged and sustained, 423, 553-4;

    compromise on religious instruction, 423, 554;

    consolidated schools, 555;

    pension scheme for teachers, 555;

    physical training, 555;

    statistics of teaching staffs, pupils, and expenditures (1871-1910), 556;

    denominational colleges, 557, 558.

  Prince Edward Island:

    land grants for schoolmasters (1767), 14 537;

    national school opened in Charlottetown (1821), 537;

    education acts, 537;

    educational and material growth (1837-1912), 537;

    Board of Education, 538;

    chief superintendents, 538;

    school inspection, 538;

    teachers’ salaries scheme, 538-9;

    maximum, average, and minimum salaries (1911), 539;

    decrease in enrolments and increase in expenditure (1891-1911), 539;

    statistical conspectus (1877-1912), 540;

    annual school meeting, 540;

    school year and vacations, 540-1;

    enrolment statistics (1911), 541;

    provision for deaf and blind, 541.

  Ontario (Public Schools):

    conditions unfavourable at close of eighteenth century, 18 277-8;

    Simcoe’s educational aims, 278;

    first elementary schools, 278-9;

    licences to teachers (1799), 279;

    district schools under act of 1807, 279;

    suspicion attached to teachers from United States and their text-books, 279;

    the Common School Act of 1816, 279-80;

    schools created and cost per pupil, 280;

    limitations of act, 280-1;

    pioneer schools and schoolmasters, 280-1;

    policy of Anglican exclusiveness, 3 336-7, 381;

    attacked in assembly, 18 281, 283, 285;

    Common Schools Act renewed in 1820, 281;

    School Extension Act of 1824, 283;

    financial obstacles to development, 283-4;

    Buell’s Common School Bill, 283-4;

    report of commission of assembly in 1836, 286;

    report of special committee in 1840, 286-8;

    inadequate salaries of teachers, 5 14 n., 18 286-7;

    proposal to erect model schools, 287;

    need for uniformity in text-books and subjects, 287;

    illiteracy in the legislature, 288;

    restraining effect of pioneer conditions, 288-9;

    problem of school maintenance, 289-90;

    voluntary element in school administration, 290;

    selection of schoolhouse sites, 290;

    school buildings and their primitive equipment, 290-1;

    school repairing and cleaning, 291-2;

    ‘boarding-round’ system for teachers, 292;

    low scale of remuneration for teachers and its effect on profession, 292-3;

    teachers required to be British subjects or to take oath of allegiance, 293;

    importations from United States regarded with suspicion, 293;

    Dr Ryerson’s testimony to work of teachers from United States, 293-4;

    school attendance and discipline, 294-5;

    courses of study, 295-6;

    school books, 296-8;

    anti-British teaching of books imported from United States, 297;

    wasteful methods of instruction, 298-9;

    conditions at Union, 5 14;

    Hincks’s Act, 18 300;

    Ryerson’s report of 1846, 302-4;

    act of 1846, 304-6;

    National Series of school books of Ireland adopted, 306-7;

    supplementary act of 1847, 307-8;

    act of 1850, 308-9;

    provincial normal school founded, 309-11;

    teachers’ certificates, 311-2;

    auxiliary school agencies, 316;

    school statistics (1850, 1870), 317;

    School Improvement Act of 1871, 317-8;

    Compulsory Attendance Act of 1881, 320;

    changes in courses of study, 320-1, 329-30, 336;

    department created, 319;

    text-book problem, 321, 330;

    controversy over religious instruction, 322;

    the bilingual question, 322-3, 330-1, 339-40;

    kindergartens, 324;

    teachers’ training agencies, 324-8;

    reorganization of machinery, 328-9;

    night and continuation schools, 329;

    training institutes, 331;

    examinations reorganized, 331-2;

    curriculum of 1904, 333;

    rural school problem, 333-4;

    administrative changes, 334-6;

    school reconstruction, 336;

    reform in teaching staff, 336-7;

    model schools, 336-7;

    increase in salaries, 337;

    summer schools, 337;

    dearth of teachers, 337-8;

    solution of text-book problem, 338;

    abatement of ‘examination evil,’ 338-9;

    boards of trustees, 17 220-1;

    duties of teachers, 221;

    duties of inspectors, 221-2;

    high schools, 222;

    boards of education, 222-3;

    normal schools, 223;

    separate schools, 223-4;

    university and school statistics for 1912, 225-9.

  (Secondary and University):

    Early educational development, 18 345-57;

    private schools and schoolmasters, 349;

    subversive tendencies of American text-books, 349;

    establishment of ‘free grammar schools’ sanctioned, 350;

    land endowment for educational purposes, 350;

    the act of 1807, 351;

    Anglican exclusiveness in district schools, 351;

    first academy established, 352;

    Midland District Society incorporated, 352;

    the acts of 1816 and 1819, 352-3;

    Board of Education established and dissolved, 353, 362;

    conflict over charter of King’s College, 354-7;

    rival colleges, 363-5;

    conflict of contending ideals, 365;

    university centralizing movement, 366;

    attempts to settle university problem, 367-73;

    reorganization of secondary education, 377, 379-82;

    growth of university education, 383-402;

    future of higher education, 400-1, 402;

    schools founded on English model, 401;

    successors to academies, 401;

    institutions for girls, 401.

    See also Separate Schools.

  Manitoba:

    agitation in favour of non-sectarian system, 19 108;

    French education in the Red River Settlement, 20 417-21;

    act of 1871, 426-7;

    first board of education, 426-7;

    school statistics (1876, 1883, 1890), 427;

    provision in newly settled districts, 427-8;

    school lands set apart, 428;

    drawbacks incident to pioneer conditions, 428;

    subjects taught, 429;

    religious instruction, 429;

    training of teachers, 429, 439-40;

    act of 1890 and school question, 429-34;

    Roman Catholic schools incorporated in public school system, 434;

    progress since 1890, 436-40;

    changes in courses of study, 436;

    consolidation of school districts, 436-7;

    school inspection, 438-9;

    comparative school statistics (1876 and 1911), 440;

    growth of secondary schools, 440-2;

    secondary school statistics (1885, 1912), 442;

    consolidation of rural schools, 534, 535;

    problem of foreign-born, 19 142, 20 434-6;

    movement for English Catholic college, 11 195.

    See also Separate Schools.

  Saskatchewan:

    summary of work accomplished, 1871 to 1911, 20 451-2;

    first primary schools, 451;

    bilingual schools and problem of foreign settlers, 457-61;

    school ordinance on language question, 461;

    text-books in bilingual schools, 461;

    status of French as a school subject, 462;

    supply of teachers, 462-4;

    statistics (1906-11), 462;

    salaries and professional training, 463-4;

    teachers, percentage of male to female teachers, and pupils (1910), 464;

    high schools, 464-7;

    courses of study, 466;

    school buildings and equipment, 470-1;

    water-supply problem, 471-2;

    the school expenditures, 472;

    government grants (1890, 1900, 1910) and their apportionment (1910), 472;

    the sources, method of division, and yield of school grants (1910), 472;

    apportionment of grants, 472-3;

    high school and collegiate grants, 473;

    teaching of agriculture, 567;

    Laurier’s educational settlement, 11 188-9.

    See also Separate Schools.

  Alberta:

    mission schools, 20 478-80;

    first government schools, 481-4;

    settlement effected by Laurier, 11 188-9;

    the educational system since autonomy, 20 484-92;

    statistics (1906 and 1912), 486;

    average salaries of teachers (1905, 1911, 1912), 486;

    free readers, 487;

    progress among foreign population, 487-90;

    course of studies, 490-1;

    training of teachers, 491-2;

    agricultural education, 493-4;

    growth of city schools, 494-5;

    technical education, 495-7.

    See also Separate Schools.

  North-West Territories:

    early development, 19 151-5;

    provision made for separate school system, 152;

    public school system established, 153;

    pioneer school districts, 153-4;

    obstacles to progress, 154;

    North-West Council’s standing committee (1885), 154;

    Board of Education, 154-5;

    school statistics and grants (1886-1904), 155;

    increased expenditure due to immigration, 252;

    schools in operation (1901, 1902, 1903, 1904), 263 n.

  British Columbia:

  Vancouver Island:

    rates paid for boarders to first teacher, 21 106;

    first appropriations, 106;

    first teachers and schools, 22 401-4;

    Cridge’s report (1861), 404-7;

    private schools in Victoria and their courses of study, 407-8;

    Schools Act of 1865, 408-9;

    first meeting of Board of Education (1865), 410;

    donation of school reserves and sites, 410;

    first contract for school books, 410;

    school estimates (1866), 410-1;

    crippled finances (1866), 411;

    discontinuance of free schools (1867), 417;

    repeal of act, 418.

    First school on mainland and its teachers, 411-2;

    its heavy fees and absence of proper text-books, 412;

    first school non-sectarian, 413;

    government grants (1864, 1865, 1866), 413;

    school ordinance of 1869, 418-9;

    arrears of salary (1869), 419-20;

    inefficient administration, 420-1;

    statistics for 1869, 421;

    public schools of Victoria closed (1870-2), 422;

    school superintendent’s first report (1872), 425-6;

    Schools Act of 1872, 422-4;

    first board, 424;

    salaries of teachers, (1872) 426, (1878) 431;

    failure of central boarding school experiment at Cache Creek, 426-8;

    Schools Act of 1872 amended (1873, 1876), 428, 429;

    superintendent’s report on school under construction at Victoria, 429;

    first competitive high school entrance examination, 429;

    Roman Catholic hostility to School Tax Act of 1876, 430;

    expenditures, enrolments, and attendances (1872 and 1878), 431;

    Public School Act of 1879, 431-2;

    burden as between province and municipalities, 432-3;

    secondary education, 433-4;

    Vancouver normal school, 434;

    school inspection, 434;

    free text-book system and its cost, 434;

    attendance and cost of public schools (1873-1911), 435-6;

    extension of local control, 356-7;

    university affiliations, 438;

    Royal Institution for Advancement of Learning, 438.

  See under individual names of schools, colleges, and universities.

Edward VII (1841-1910). Visits St John, 13 177;

  at Montreal, 12 656.

Edwards, John. Baptist preacher in Clarence, Ont. (1822), 11 362;

  recruits Baptists in Great Britain, 364.

Edwards, William Cameron (b. 1844), member of Dominion Senate. On Quebec’s pre-eminence in water-power, 16 544.

Edwards. Surgeon to Selkirk settlers on Red River, 19 21.

Edwardsburgh, Township of. Its settlement, 17 25.

Egmont, John Perceval, second Earl of (1711-70). His scheme for settlement of Prince Edward Island, 13 339-42, 14 495-6;

  signatories to his memorial, 13 341;

  refuses proffered grant of a parish, 343;

  grants made to his associates, 343.

Egremont, Sir Charles Wyndham, second Earl of (1710-63), secretary of state for Southern Department (1761-3). And establishment of a Roman Catholic hierarchy in Canada, 11 14.

Egyptian. Canadian Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 539.

Eighth Regiment (King’s Own). Detachment of, lost on the Ontario (1780), 10 487-8;

  in Canada during War of 1812, 3 209;

  at Stoney Creek, 241;

  at Chippawa, 255;

  at Lundy’s Lane, 257-8;

  disbanded soldiers form military settlement on St John River, 13 191.

Eightieth Regiment. Detachment of, ambushed at Devil’s Hole, 3 67.

Eighty-fourth Regiment. See Royal Highland Emigrants.

Eighty-ninth Regiment. At battle of Chrystler’s Farm, 3 250.

Eighty-second Regiment. Scottish lowland regiment sent to Nova Scotia, 13 225.

Elder, Dempster and Company. Acquire Beaver Line and afterwards sell to Canadian Pacific Railway, 10 612, 616.

Electric Reduction Company, Limited, Buckingham, P.Q., 16 589.

Elevators, grain, in Prairie Provinces. Agitation for government control, 20 318-9;

  report of commission on, 319-20;

  methods of solution, 337-8;

  provincial ownership, 19 132-3;

  grain commission appointed to operate, 20 320-1;

  under lease to companies, 19 133, 20 319, 320, 563-4, 574;

  number and capacity, 318;

  proposed establishment of grain sampling market, 318.

Elgin, James Bruce, eighth Earl of (1811-63), governor of Canada (1847-54). His administration, 5 48-76;

  an eminent Peelite, 48-90;

  problem awaiting his solution, 49-50;

  a turning-point in Canadian history, 51-54;

  and Rebellion Losses Bill, 55-58;

  insulted at Montreal, 57, 58-60;

  conciliates French-Canadian feeling, 58;

  balances French and British claims, 89;

  his rebuke to Lord John Russell, 67;

  and control over civil list, 132;

  his popularity in United States, 74-76;

  his influence in securing reciprocity, 75, 237-8, 242-3;

  on abuse of power in United States, 130-1;

  his services summed up, 76;

  development of responsible government under, 118-27;

  his interest in agriculture, 18 563.

Eliott, Adam. Anglican clergyman itinerating in Upper Canada, 11 224.

Eliza Anderson. Steamer constructed in British Columbia, 10 570.

Elizabeth.

  (1) One of Drake’s vessels, deserts and returns to England, 21 16.

  (2) Its prize cargo sold at Halifax, 13 221.

Elizabethtown. Settlement of, 17 25.

Ellard, O. Hudson’s Bay Company officer at Fort Yale, 21 127 n.

Ellenborough, Edward Law, first Baron (1750-1818). Attacks Durham’s Ordinance of June 28, 1838, 4 398.

Ellice, Alexander. Seigneur of Beauharnois, 15 158.

Ellice, Edward (1781-1863). Favours union of Lower and Upper Canada, 3 295, 306.

Elliott, Andrew Charles, premier of British Columbia (1876-8). Declines to placate Roman Catholics on School Bill, 22 430;

  his limitations, 21 201-2, 197, 198.

Elliott, H. W. Reports on the seal, 22 476.

Elliott, Jesse Duncan (1782-1845), American naval officer. His cutting-out exploit at Fort Erie, 3 228.

Elliott, Matthew, lieutenant-colonel (d. 1814). Official of Indian department, 4 712.

Elliott, William (b. 1863). Member of executive of North-West Territories, 19 250.

Ellis, Philip William (b. 1856). Member in Niagara Falls Power Commission, 18 477.

Ellis, William (d. 1795). Anglican incumbent at Windsor, N.S. (1775), 11 205.

Ellison, Price (b. 1862). Holds portfolios in British Columbia cabinet, 21 233.

Elms, Rossington. Anglican clergyman at Beverley (1826), 11 223.

Elmsley, John (1762-1805), chief justice of Upper Canada (1796-1802). Member of executive council of Upper Canada, 3 355.

Elmsley, John, and the debt on Toronto Roman Catholic Cathedral, 11 60.

Elwyn, Thomas. Stipendiary magistrate at Lillooet, British Columbia, 21 148 n.

Elyot, Hugh. Merchant of Bristol, 1 24.

Emard, Joseph Médard (b. 1853). First Roman Catholic bishop of Valleyfield, 11 90.

Emerald. Lake Erie steamboat, 10 501.

Emerillon. One of Jacques Cartier’s ships, 1 36, 37, 38.

Emerson and North-Western Railway. Charter disallowed and re-enacted by province, 19 119.

Emigration from Canada to Great Britain and South Africa. Outward and inward flow, 9 195.

Emigration from United Kingdom. John Burns’s statement on (1911), 6 198-9.

Emigration to United States. Its effect on shipping on the Great Lakes after 1825, 10 501-2;

  effect of free land grants in the sixties, 9 111;

  volume and causes (1860-81), 113-4, 7 520;

  increase in Canadian-born residents (1870-80), 521;

  proportion of natives of Canada resident in United States (1890), 9 152;

  increase in number of Canadian residents (1880-1910), 196;

  numbers of Canadian residents in United States, (1850-1900) 7 521, (1881-90) 522, (1891-1900) 523-4, 9 195;

  chief drain on Canada’s population, 7 527-30;

  racial statistics (1901-10) with deductions, 529-30;

  from Prince Edward Island, 13 374.

Emigration to United States, French-Canadian. Movement from 1840 to 1849, 16 518;

  organizations in New England and Eastern States, 15 106-7;

  colonization measures as a remedy, 107, 175-6;

  its economic causes, 107-8, 175-6;

  estimated numbers outside of Quebec, 108;

  their numbers in United States, 108;

  the danger of absorption, 116-7.

Emmanuel College, Saskatoon (Anglican), 11 243, 20 467.

Emmerson, Henry Robert (b. 1853). Premier of New Brunswick (1897-1900), 14 431.

Employers’ Liability Act (Quebec) of 1909, 9 355.

Empress.

  (1) Ottawa River steamboat, 10 554.

  (2) Steamer trading from Prince Edward Island, 10 563.

Empress of Asia. Canadian Pacific Railway steamship, 10 617-8.

Empress of Britain. Canadian Pacific Railway steamship, 10 613.

Empress of China. Canadian Pacific Railway steamship, 10 616;

  wrecked, 617.

Empress of India. Canadian Pacific Railway steamship, 10 616.

Empress of Ireland. Canadian Pacific Railway steamship, 10 613.

Empress of Japan. Steamship of Canadian Pacific Railway, 10 616;

  its transpacific record, 617.

Empress Of Russia. Steamship of Canadian Pacific Railway. The vessel described, 10 617-8.

En censive tenure. See Seigneurial System.

England. Desertions at Victoria to the ship, 21 93.

English immigration in Nova Scotia, 13 113, 130.

Ennismore, Township of. Its survey and settlement, 17 83-84.

Enos, Roger (1729-1808), American military officer. Turns back from expedition against Quebec (1775), 3 84.

Enterprise.

  (1) Vessel built at Detroit (1769), 10 486.

  (2) Successful first cruise of Liverpool privateer, 13 221.

  (3) Sails in Ross’s Franklin search expedition, 5 297.

  (4) Sails in Collinson’s Franklin search expedition, 5 301.

  (5) Steamer built in British Columbia, 10 570.

Envelopes. Their first use in Canada, 4 730.

Epworth League (Methodist), 11 332.

Equal Rights Association. Formed to secure disallowance of Jesuit Estates Bill, 6 107, 17 170;

  and preferential tariff, 6 122;

  and Manitoba schools question, 124.

Erb, Daniel. Trustee of township of Waterloo, 17 48.

Erebus. Ship of Franklin’s last expedition, 5 295-6.

Ericsson, Leif. His voyage to coast of North America (1000), 13 15.

Erie and Ontario Railway. Opened as a horse tramway from Queenston to Chippawa, 10 374.

Erie Canal. Diversion of trade due to its opening, 4 544;

  tolls abolished, 9 160.

Erie Packet. Lake Erie vessel, 10 491.

Erlander Lake. Hudson’s Bay Company post established at, 8 915.

Ermatinger, Edward. His biography of Colonel Talbot, 12 510.

Ermatinger, Lawrence. Signs petition of Quebec traders (1770), 15 140.

Ernestown. School established at, before 1790, 18 278;

  academy established at Bath for inhabitants of, 352.

Ernst, Oswald Herbert (b. 1842). American member of International Waterways Commission, 6 364-5, 8 838.

Erskine, Ebenezer (1680-1754). Founder of the Scottish secession church, 11 256.

Eschambault, Geo. d’. Nominated for council of Rupert’s Land, 19 197.

Eskimos. Slay Hudson’s mutineers, 1 154;

  narrate fate of Knight’s expedition, 195;

  massacred at Bloody Fall, 4 671;

  show relics of Franklin’s last expedition, 5 304;

  Dominion policy towards, 7 611-2;

  their characteristics, 612;

  numbers in Canada, 624, 22 649.

Esquimalt. Made a naval base, 21 109;

  graving-dock question, 205-7, 210-1.

Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. Its proposed acquisition by Mackenzie and Mann, 10 456.

Estabrooks, Elijah (1756-1825). Pioneer Baptist in New Brunswick, 11 353.

Estaing, Charles Hector, Comte d’ (1729-94). Tries to raise trouble among Indians, 3 113.

Estcourt, J. B. Bucknall. British treaty commissioner, 8 818.

Estrées, Maréchal, Comte d’. Boundary commissioner, 1 191.

Etchemin River. Forded by Monckton and Townshend, 1 290;

  Wolfe reconnoitres at, 291.

Etchemins. See Malecites.

Etherington, George, captain. Taken prisoner at Fort Michilimackinac, 3 64.

Etruria. Cunard liner, 10 601.

Eudist Fathers. Their educational work, 11 78, 83, 14 518.

Europa.

  (1) Great Western Railway steamboat, 10 545.

  (2) Cunard steamship, 10 599.

European and North American Railway. John A. Poor’s scheme, 10 385;

  imperial government refuses to guarantee interest on Nova Scotia section, 381;

  guarantee of 1851 misconstrued, 383-4;

  Portland Convention of 1851 and practical results, 385-6;

  details of scheme, 386-7;

  chartered by Maine, 387;

  turning of first sod, 14 407-8;

  stages in construction, 10 387-90, 14 408;

  international amities at driving ‘last spike,’ 408;

  unremunerative earnings of New Brunswick section, 10 390.

Eustis, William (1753-1825), American secretary for War. On Canada as an easy conquest, 3 201.

Evangelical Association. Founded by Jacob Albright (1807), 11 399.

Evans, Francis (1800-58). Anglican clergyman at Woodhouse, 11 223.

Evans, James. His system of writing for Indians adapted by Morice, 11 178.

Evans, Samuel, U.S.N., captain of the Charlestown. Killed in naval engagement, 13 222-3.

Evans, Thomas (d. 1813), major. Reconnoitres Lewiston, 3 229.

Evans, William (1786-1857). Publisher of Canadian Agricultural Journal, 16 522.

Evans, Lieut., of the 28th Regiment. Accused of complicity in Walker outrage, 3 36.

Evanturel, François Eugène Alfred (d. 1908). Minister without portfolio in Ontario cabinet (1905), 17 184.

Evarts, William Maxwell (1818-1901), United States secretary of state. On British fisheries regulation, 8 697.

Everard, Thomas, captain R.N. His successful raid on Lake Champlain, 3 246-7.

Everett, Edward (1794-1865), United States minister at London. And fishing rights in Bay of Fundy, 8 689-90;

  favours reciprocity in fisheries, 5 241.

Evergreen City. Steamboat on Collingwood-Chicago route, 10 546.

Everitt, John. Signs loyalist petition (1787), 17 39.

Ewart, J. B. Imports Ayrshire cattle, 7 658.

Ewen, Alexander. Builds salmon cannery on Fraser River (1876), 22 467.

Ewing, William. Founds first Congregational Church in Winnipeg, 11 383.

Exchange Bank of Montreal. Its failure, 10 642.

Experiment.

  (1) Sent on expedition to North Pacific (1786), 21 30-31.

  (2) Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 499.

Exploration.

  Special Articles:

    Beginnings of Canada, 1 17-42;

    Pathfinders of the Great Lakes, 45-146;

    in Acadia, 13 15-62;

    in Prince Edward Island, 305-21;

    Western Exploration, (1763-1841) 4 639-92, (1840-67), 5 295-328;

    in British Columbia, 21 13-71.

  See under names of explorers.

Exports. See under Trade and Tariffs.

Express. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 540.

Eynard, Father. Drowned at Lake Athabaska, 11 163.

 

Fabre, Edouard Charles (1827-96). Roman Catholic bishop of Montreal (1876-86), 11 90;

  archbishop (1886-96), 91, 92.

Fabre, Hector (1834-1910). French-Canadian journalist, 12 477, 487;

  agent of Canada in Paris (1882-1910), 6 370-1.

Factories Act (Ontario), 1884, 17 234.

Factories, Shops, and Mines Acts (provincial), 9 348-9.

Fafard, Louis Adélard (1850-85). Slain at Frog Lake massacre, 11 170.

Fagundez, João Alvarez. See Alvarez.

Fairbanks, Charles Warren (b. 1852), of Indiana. Member of Joint High Commission, 6 135.

Fairfield, John (1797-1847), governor of Maine. Restrained by General Winfield Scott, 13 203.

Fairmount. Lakes freighter, 10 556.

Fairweather, Miss. Presbyterian missionary in Formosa, 11 281.

Fairy Queen. Steamer on Summerside and Pointe du Chêne route, 10 563.

Faith. Lake war vessel (1782), 10 488.

Falardeau, Antoine Sébastien (b. 1822). French-Canadian artist, 12 602.

Falconbridge, Sir William Glenholme (b. 1846), chief justice of King’s bench of Ontario. On Gamey Corruption Commission, 17 183.

Falconio, Diomède (b. 1842), archbishop of Acerenza. Apostolic delegate to Canada (1899-1902), 11 111.

Falkland, Lucius Bentinck Cary, tenth Viscount (1803-84), lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia (1840-6). On position of Indians, 5 358;

  offers Joseph Howe a seat on executive council, 14 448;

  Howe’s attacks on, 13 291;

  favours a school assessment law, 14 523;

  recalled, 13 293;

  sketch of, 290-1.

Family Compact. Associated with Chartered Bank of Upper Canada, 4 614-5;

  antagonism against, 3 338;

  opposition strengthened by Mackenzie’s return to assembly, 339;

  its excesses, 341;

  incensed at Mackenzie’s reception at Colonial Office, 345-6;

  its influence on Colborne, 348;

  its capacity for government, 379-80;

  attacks Durham’s Report, 4 405;

  favours federation rather than union, 406, 410;

  its struggle with Sydenham, 412-3.

Fancamp, Baron de. One of promoters of a company for founding of Montreal, 2 411.

Faneuil, Peter. Signs presentment of grand jury of Quebec (1764), 15 128;

  member of a New England family, 129.

Fanning, Edmund (1737-1818). Lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 13 349;

  ambiguous position of, 349;

  his successful administration, 352;

  sketch, 352-3.

Faraud, Henri Joseph (1823-90), Vicar-apostolic of Athabaska-Mackenzie (1864-90). Joins mission in the West, 11 134;

  begs that he may not be recalled, 136;

  founds Lake Athabaska mission, 136;

  vicar-apostolic, 147-8;

  his work at Peace River, 166;

  death of, 174.

Fargues, Peter. Signs Quebec traders’ petition (1770), 15 140.

Faribault, Minnesota. Named after French-Canadian colonist, 15 77.

Faries, Hugh. Brings supplies for Simon Fraser to New Caledonia, 21 56.

Farmers’ Bank. Founded (1835), 4 630;

  its failure, 10 648.

Farquhar, Colonel. United States boundary survey commissioner, 8 877.

Farrell, John (1820-73). Roman Catholic bishop of Hamilton (1856-73), 11 64.

Farrington, Harvey. Establishes first cheese factory in Canada (1863), 7 660, 18 566.

Farris, Mrs J. W. de B. Member of Senate of University of British Columbia, 22 442.

Fauchois, Michel. Sculptor of the Little Seminary of Quebec, 16 382.

Fauquier, Frederick Dawson (1817-81). First Anglican bishop of Algoma (1873-81), 11 226.

Favorita. Quadra’s ship in expedition of 1779, 21 22.

Favourite. Vessel on which Hugh Allan emigrated to Canada, 10 602.

F. B. Head. Trent steamboat, 10 499.

Fearon, James. Principal of Halifax Institution for the Deaf, 14 534.

Featherstonhaugh, George William (d. 1866). Surveys Maine boundary, 8 813.

Fechter, Charles Albert (1824-79), actor. Anecdote of his appearance in Toronto (1868), 12 658.

Federal Bank. Established (1874), 10 638;

  suspension, bankruptcy, and wind-up, 638, 643.

Federated Association of Letter Carriers, 9 316-7, 321.

Federation of Textile Workers of Canada, 9 316, 321.

Felice. Sailed by Meares under Portuguese flag, 21 33-34, 36, 37.

Felicidad. Ship of Spanish expedition to North Pacific (1775), 21 21.

Felicity. Lake war vessel (1782), 10 488.

Felix. Sails with Ross on Franklin search expedition, 5 301.

Fell. Sloop in which Carleton withdrew to Quebec, 3 83.

Feller, Henrietta (c. 1808-68). Founder of Grande Ligne Mission, 11 372-3.

Felt Makers’ Company. Renewal of Hudson’s Bay Company charter opposed by, 1 188.

Fénelon, François de Salignac de (d. c. 1678), Sulpician. His missionary work at Kenté, 1 85, 86.

Fenety, George Edward (1812-1899). His Life of Joseph Howe, 12 510.

Fenian Raids. Projected on New Brunswick, 7 420, 14 415-6;

  on Canada (1866), 7 406-12;

  projected on Manitoba, 424, 11 158-9;

  incidents of the ‘campaign,’ 19 101-2;

  services of Métis accepted in repelling, 6 43, 11 159.

  See also under Defence.

Fenn, John. Original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 166.

Fergus, Patrick. Member of council of Prince Edward Island, 13 345.

Fergusson, Adam. Imports live stock to Upper Canada, 18 561.

Ferland, Jean Baptiste Antoine (1805-65). His literary works, 12 456-7;

  relieves victims of typhus epidemic, 11 96;

  on origins of French Canadians, 15 61;

  sketch of, 12 456.

Ferland, Joseph Ange Albert (b. 1872). French-Canadian poet, 12 471.

Fernandez, Francis, of the Azores. Exploring privileges conferred on, 1 24.

Fernandez, João. Exploring privileges granted to, 1 24.

Fernow, Bernard Edouard (b. 1851). On forest survey of Nova Scotia, 14 621;

  on rate of growth of red spruce, 624.

Ferrelo, Bartolome. Explores North Pacific coast (1543), 8 846, 21 15.

Ferrier, James (d. 1888). Member of Council of Public Instruction of Quebec, 16 491.

Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey (b. 1866). American representative on Niagara Falls Power Commission, 18 477.

Feudalism. See Seigneurial System.

Fidalgo, Salvador. Spanish commander at Nootka, 21 50.

Fielding, William Stevens (b. 1848), minister of Finance (1896-1911). Provincial secretary of Nova Scotia, 14 390;

  his resolutions on repeal, 13 390-1;

  obtains a mandate on repeal, 14 392;

  on understanding on tariffs with Maritime Provinces at Confederation, 6 79;

  supports commercial union at interprovincial conference of 1887, 110;

  Dominion minister of Finance, 131, 7 514;

  his budget speech of 1897, 6 132;

  and British preference, 133, 14 396;

  negotiates commercial treaty with France, 9 237;

  makes concessions to Canadian refiners, 214;

  negotiates agreement on Payne-Aldrich Treaty, 223;

  his reciprocity agreement with United States, 6 178;

  defends bounty system, 9 203.

Fifty-eighth Regiment. At battle of the Plains, 1 298.

Fillis, John. Brought under suspicion of disloyalty, 13 123.

Filtmore, Millard (1800-74), president of United States (1850-3). His message to Congress on reciprocity, 5 241.

Finance. See Public Finance.

Findlay, William Thomas (b. 1854). Minister of Agriculture of Alberta, 19 275.

Finlanders, immigrants in Alberta, 10 180.

Finlay, Hugh (d. 1801). Member of first executive council of Lower Canada, 3 141;

  deputy postmaster for Canada, 4 731.

Finlay, James. Winters on the Saskatchewan, 1 144;

  one of first British traders to enter West, 4 643.

Finlay, John. Explores Finlay River, 4 690.

Finlayson, Duncan (d. c. 1861), governor of Red River. Connives at illicit trading, 19 54.

Finlayson, Roderick (1818-92). At Fort McLoughlin, 21 67;

  on expedition to the Stikine, 69;

  in charge at Fort Camosun (Victoria), 78 and n.;

  his treatment of the natives, 87-88;

  on council of Vancouver Island, 103;

  encourages farming and horticulture, 22 528;

  sketch of, 21 103-4.

Finnie, John T. (b. 1847). Introduces bill for free education in Quebec legislature, 16 501.

Finucane, Bryan (d. 1785), chief justice of Nova Scotia (1778-85). Inquires into loyalist grievances at St John, 13 151, 234.

Fire ships and rafts. Employed by defenders of Quebec (1759), 1 283-4.

Fisgard, H.M.S. At Victoria, 21 88-89.

Fish Creek. Middleton’s engagement at, in North-West Rebellion, 6 103, 11 170.

Fish, Hamilton (1808-93), American secretary of state. Commissioner in arranging Treaty of Washington, 6 47;

  on Alaska boundary, 8 930-1;

  and Canadian encroachment on the Stikine, 931;

  negotiates Brown-Fishdraft treaty, 9 131, 8 876.

Fish, Job. Captain of the Walk-in-the-Water, 10 501.

Fisher, Ambrose, Indian trader. Sketch of, 19 156;

  profits of his whisky trading, 157.

Fisher, Andrew (b. 1862), prime minister of Australia (1908-9). And the Declaration of London, 6 194;

  and colonial consent to conventions affecting Dominions, 197.

Fisher, Charles (1808-80). Premier of New Brunswick (1851-6, 1857-61), 13 208;

  at Quebec Conference, 14 411, 415;

  on cost of lumbering in 1825, 613;

  on forest conservation, 615-6.

Fisher, Henry. Superintendent of Education for New Brunswick, 14 552.

Fisher, James. First loyalist settler in Hemmingford, 15 156.

Fisher, Sydney Arthur (b. 1850). Minister of Agriculture (1896-1911), 6 131;

  his civil service reforms, 164.

Fisheries.

  Special Articles:

    Atlantic Fisheries of Canada, 14 561-93;

    of Quebec, 16 555-67;

    of Ontario, 18 603-9;

    of British Columbia, 22 445-83.

  New France:

    precede the fur trade, 1 26, 2 447;

    cod and whale excluded in charter to Company of New France, 454;

    reserved for French private enterprise, 465;

    encouraged by Talon, 474, 15 38;

    number of New England fishing boats on coasts of Acadia (1700), 13 61;

    number of vessels employed in, on St Lawrence (1735), 2 509, 16 555-6.

  General:

    Fish families of Canada, 9 81;

    geological conditions, 72, 73;

    chief commercial fish, 90-91;

    undeveloped at Confederation, 105;

    growth (1869-78), 120-1;

    table summarizing commercial negotiations with United States (1854-1911), facing 126;

    as a lever in trade negotiations, 126-7;

    clauses of Washington Treaty abrogated, 157;

    strict enforcement of Convention of 1818 causes retaliation, 157-8;

    the Joint High Commission appointed, 158;

    failure of Tupper negotiations, 159;

    a modus vivendi, 159;

    threatened termination of transit in bond through United States, 162;

    Dominion encouragement of deep-sea, 183;

    friction with United States over poaching on Pacific, 219;

    depleted by over-fishing and poaching, 120, 219;

    fishing in boundary waters, 219;

    decrease in fishermen employed and increased value of catch, 250;

    activities of department, 250;

    conflict of jurisdiction, 250-1;

    controlled in lakes of Ontario and Manitoba by American companies, 251;

    fishing grounds, number of men employed, capital invested, and annual production, 284;

    differences in occupational conditions, 284;

    Atlantic fishing grounds, 14 561-2;

    methods and earnings of pioneer sea fishermen, 562-3;

    beginnings of inshore fishing, 563-5;

    successful venture of Jersey merchants, 565, 16 556-7;

    effect of loyalist settlement on, 14 566;

    beginning of modern deep-sea fishing, 566;

    inshore fishery, 567-8;

    deep-sea fishery, 568-9;

    statistics of growth (1870-1910), 569-70;

    account of various fisheries, 570-89;

    cause of recent stagnation, 589;

    increasing consumption in home markets of smoked fish, 590;

    inauguration of fast transportation services, 590;

    gasoline engine introduced, 590;

    present position and prospects of steam-trawling, 591-2;

    safeguard of climate against depletion, 592-3.

  Quebec, 16 555-67;

    farmers on St Lawrence engaged in fishing, 517;

    fish of the province, 557-9;

    government organization and protection, 559-61;

    important decisionon fishing rights, 560;

    values of principal fish caught and number of men employed (1911), 561;

    inland and sporting, 561-7;

    the interlacing river systems, 563-4;

    causes of deterioration, 563, 565, 567;

    expenditures of Laurentian Club (1910), 566;

    revenue from fish and game privileges, 15 234.

  New Brunswick:

    their industrial development, 13 182, 183.

  Ontario, 18 603-9;

    commercial fishes, 603-7;

    ‘salmon’ of Rideau Lakes, 603;

    decrease in supply, 603-5;

    conflict of opinion on decrease of supply, 606;

    increases in annual value, 606-7;

    men employed and capital invested, 607;

    sporting fishes, 607-8;

    revenue from non-resident angler, 607.

  Prairie Provinces, 20 326, 600-1.

  British Columbia, 22 445-83;

    relation of physical characteristics to, 445-6;

    early fishing in Alaskan waters, 447;

    legislation, 447-62;

    federal and provincial powers, 448-9, 454, 460-1;

    province’s contribution to Dominion revenue and its proportion to the whole, 454-5;

    dissatisfaction with centralized control, 457-8;

    influx of Japanese: inducements offered to white fishermen, 459-60;

    progress (1896-1912), 9 251-2;

    future of deep-sea fisheries, 22 461-2.

  Total catch in the Yukon (1908), 619;

  of North-West Territories, their weight and value, 653-4.

Fishes.

  Alabone: of British Columbia, 482.

  Bass: in Ontario, 18 608.

  Carp: increased catch and rise into favour in Ontario, 606.

  Clams:

    value of, in Atlantic (1910), 14 588;

    of British Columbia, 22 482.

  Cod:

    excluded in charter to Company of New France, 2 454;

    methods and earnings of pioneer fishers of Banks, 14 562-3;

    of New France, 16 555-6;

    importance, duration of season, and productive areas in Atlantic, 14 570-1;

    artificial fish-drier, 571-2;

    markets for dried product, 572;

    value of catch (1910), 572;

    mode of curing and fishing, and yield (1911) in Quebec, 16 557-8;

    black cod of British Columbia, 22 473-4.

  Crabs: of British Columbia, 22 480.

  Flounders: of British Columbia, 470.

  Gaspereaux: catch and its value in Atlantic (1910), 14 578.

  Hake, haddock, and pollock: mode of fishing and curing, and value of catch in Atlantic (1910), 572-3.

  Halibut:

    its increasing value, 573-4;

    worth of catch in Atlantic (1910), 574;

    growth in British Columbia, 9 251-2, 22 469-70.

  Herring:

    in the Atlantic, 14 574-5;

    drift-net fishing, 575;

    value of catch (1910), 575;

    industry undeveloped, 575-6;

    in Quebec, 16 559;

    lake, value of catch in Ontario (1912), 18 606;

    in British Columbia, 22 471-2;

    developed by Japanese, 9 252.

  Lobster:

    in the Atlantic, 14 582-5;

    canning industry, 9 121, 251, 14 583;

    regulations, 584-5;

    of British Columbia, 22 479-80.

  Mackerel:

    its habits, methods of capture and curing in the Atlantic, 14 579-81;

    fluctuating value of catch, 581;

    in Quebec, 16 559.

  Maskinonge: its favourite haunts in Ontario, 18 608-9.

  Oulachan: in British Columbia, 22 470-1.

  Oyster:

    difference between Canadian and European oyster, 14 585-6;

    beds of Eastern Canada, 586;

    declining catches with increasing values, 586;

    causes of depletion, 586-7;

    preventive regulations, 587;

    leasing of areas for artificial cultivation, 587;

    industry hampered by conflict of jurisdiction, 9 251, 14 587;

    of British Columbia, 22 481-2;

    province assumes sole right to lease areas of foreshore, 461.

  Pickerel and pike: value of catch in Ontario (1912), 18 606.

  Pilchard and anchovy: in British Columbia, 22 473.

  Prawns: of British Columbia, 480-1.

  Salmon:

    leads in value, 9 252;

    areas of productiveness, catch, and its value in the Atlantic, 14 581-2;

    value of sea fishery in Quebec, 16 559;

    rivers of province, 561-3;

    report on their wanton destruction in Ontario (1869), 18 603-4;

    British Columbia differs from Atlantic salmon, 22 462-3;

    five species of Oncorhyncus, 463-6;

    life-history, 466-7;

    salmon-canning industry, 467-8;

    value of canning pack (1911, 1912), 463;

    legislation and regulation, 449-62;

    hatcheries, 455;

    proposed understanding with State of Washington on depletion in Fraser River, 455-6, 457.

  Sardine:

    mode of fishing in Atlantic, 14 576-7;

    transference of canneries to United States ports, 577;

    value of catch, 577.

  Sea-cows: regulation of 1770 in Prince Edward Island, 13 345.

  Seal Hunting:

    at Magdalen Islands, 14 589;

    in British Columbia, 22 477-8.

  Shad: value of catch (1910) and its gradual decline, 14 578.

  Smelt:

    mode of fishing and value of catch in Atlantic, 578-9;

    of British Columbia, 22 473.

  Sturgeon:

    their former abundance and decline in Ontario, 18 604, 606;

    in British Columbia, 22 472.

  Trout:

    (Great Lake) fall in yield through over-fishing, 9 120;

      yield in Ontario (1912) and value as a sporting fish, 18 605;

      hatcheries constructed, 605-6;

      trolling in Lake Nipigon and Rideau Lakes, 607-8;

    (Brook) best fishing rivers, 607;

      in provincial waters of British Columbia, 22 478-9.

  Whale:

    formerly prosecuted from Shelburne, N.S., 13 238;

    species found in North Pacific, their commercial values and methods employed, 22 474-5;

    imported as meat into Japan, 476;

    threatened extermination, 476.

  Whitefish:

    fall in yield, 9 120, 18 603;

    used as manure, 604;

    a great haul at Wellington Beach, 604;

    improved catch in recent years, 605;

    its food qualities, 22 652-3.

  See

    Bering Sea Dispute;

    North Atlantic Coast Fishery Disputes.

Fitz-Clarence, Amelia, Viscountess Falkland, 13 290.

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward (1763-98). Follows the trail from Niagara to Detroit, 1 108.

Fitzgerald, Edward. Writes immigration pamphlets descriptive of North-West, 19 172.

Fitzgerald, James E. Attacks grant of Vancouver Island to Hudson’s Bay Company, 21 81.

Fitzgerald, Father. Missionary priest at Charlottetown (1823), 11 73.

Fitzgibbon, James (1780-1863). At battle of Beaver Dam, 3 242-3;

  defeats rebels at Montgomery’s Tavern, 366;

  strength of his force, 7 387.

Fitzgibbon, Mary Agnes. Her Life of James Fitzgibbon, 12 508.

Fitzherbert, Alleyne, Baron St Helens (1753-1839), British ambassador at Madrid. Negotiates on Nootka dispute, 21 44-45.

Fitzjames, James. Captain of H.M.S. Erebus, 5 297.

Fitzpatrick, Sir Charles (b. 1853), chief justice of Canada. Solicitor-general, 6 131;

  member of The Hague Tribunal, 8 708.

Fitzroy, Sir Charles Augustus (1796-1858), lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island (1837-41). Recommends purchase of Lennox Island as an Indian reserve, 5 361.

Five Nations. See Iroquois.

Flathead. Post established by David Thompson at, 21 58.

Flax and Hemp. Cultivation of encouraged by Talon, 2 474;

  and by Louis XIV, 491;

  yield of (1734, 1743, 1755), 15 55;

  Governor Murray suggests its cultivation, 4 525;

  production of (1768), 527;

  encouragement given to raising of, 7 663;

  flax-growing introduced in West by Mennonites, 20 296;

  flax favourite first crop of American settlers, 317.

Fléché, Jessé. Accompanies Poutrincourt to Acadia (1610), 2 381;

  baptizes Indians, 382;

  baptisms condemned, 383.

Fleming, A. M., of Chatham, Ontario. Canadian artist, 12 623.

Fleming, John (1786-1832). Author of ‘An Ode on the Birthday of King George III,’ 12 567.

Fleming, Mrs May Agnes (1840-80). English-Canadian novelist, 12 548.

Fleming, Peter, civil engineer. Proposes railway from Montreal to western boundary of Canada, 10 393.

Fleming, Sir Sandford (1827-1915). Surveys for Intercolonial Railway, 10 417;

  chooses the northern route, 6 31;

  his overland journey to the Pacific, 12 517.

Flemish Bastard. Iroquois chief, 1 71.

Flemming, James Kidd (b. 1868), premier of New Brunswick (1911-4). His election successes in 1912, 14 431;

  and railway construction, 431;

  on over-cutting of forests, 620.

Fletcher, of Dundas. Petitions to raise a Roman Catholic corps in Scotland (Glengarry Fencibles), 17 67.

Flores, Antonio, pilot to Martin d’Aguilar. Dies from exposure, 21 17.

Florida. Italian Lloyd steamer which rammed and sank the Republic, 10 610.

Florida Blanca, Jose Moñino (1729-1808), Spanish statesman. His claims in the North Pacific, 21 44;

  and the ‘Nootka’ affair, 45, 46-47.

Florida Blanca, Treaty of, 8 843.

Flumerfelt, Alfred Cornelius (b. 1856). Member of Forestry Commission of British Columbia (1909), 22 496.

Flynn, Edmund James (b. 1847), premier of Quebec (1896-7). Joins Chapleau’s administration, 15 189;

  measures passed by, 208-9;

  cause of his defeat, 209.

Fond du Lac. Dulhut arranges an Indian peace at, 1 105.

Fonte, Bartolomede de. Claims to have sailed from Atlantic to Pacific through a chain of lakes and rivers, 21 18-19.

Forant, Isaac Louis de (d. 1740). Governor at Louisbourg (1739-40), 1 210.

Forbes, Elizabeth A. (b. 1859). Figure painter, 12 626.

Forbes, John (1710-59), British military officer. Changes name of Fort Duquesne to ‘Pittsbourgh,’ 1 268.

Forbes, John Colin (b. 1846). Canadian portrait painter, 12 629-30.

Forbes, John M. A director of Great Western Railway, 10 395.

Forbin-Janson, Charles Auguste de (1785-1844), bishop of Nancy. Preaches first retreat to clergy since the Conquest (1841), 11 97.

Ford, Harriet. Canadian artist, 12 627.

Fordonian. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Forest, Charles. Instructor in Indian school at Châteauguay, 5 347.

Forests and Timber.

  Special Articles:

    Resources of Quebec, 16 533-51;

    of Maritime Provinces, 14 597-634;

    of Ontario, 18 585-99;

    of British Columbia, 22 487-521.

  General:

    British preference on Canadian, 4 568-9;

    readjustment of duties on foreign timber, 569;

    protests against reduction of preference and Stanley’s replies, 5 201-3;

    influence of lumber industry on social life, 4 588;

    effect of geological conditions on lumbering, 9 72-74;

    prospects and resources at Confederation, 99, 105;

    increase in demand and prices paid, 255;

    effect of making manufacture of pulp a condition in timber licences, 255-6;

    industry outside the labour movement, 285;

    the case of Caldwell v. McLaren, involving right of timber floating, 6 96-97;

    extent of resources, 9 285.

  Quebec:

    extent of timber lands, 16 531-2;

    value and revenue of privately owned forests and maple sugaries, 532;

    area of timber limits, 532;

    exports to West Indies (1729), 15 55;

    reservation of oak for navy, 16 533-4;

    first timber licences and their abuse, 534;

    early leases and their conditions, 534;

    auctioning of leases begun (1868), 534;

    area and value of leases (1867-1906), 534-5;

    privilege of cutting abolished on settlers’ farms, 15 208;

    mode of leasing, 231-2;

    lease in aid of construction of National Transcontinental Railway, 16 553;

    ground rents and stumpage dues, 535-6;

    prohibition of export of unmanufactured timber, 537, 543;

    restrictions on cut, 537;

    the several log rules, 537;

    total revenue (1867-1911), 538;

    area of crown timber reserve, 538;

    potentialities of timber resources, 538;

    stand of pine, 538;

    relation of annual cut to natural growth, 538-9;

    statistics of production (1912), 539-40;

    value and extent of crown timber, 540;

    unexploited regions, 540-1;

    forestry reserves and their extent, 541;

    province’s primacy in, 541;

    unexploited areas and their estimated productiveness, 543-4;

    water-power potentialities, 544;

    statistics of employment, 545;

    varieties of timber on private woodlands, 545-6;

    improvident management, 546;

    danger of exhaustion, 546-7;

    conservation measures, 547-8;

    proposed reforestation of uncultivated lands, 548;

    rapidity of second growth, 548;

    fire and its causes, 548-9;

    fire protection, 549-50;

    damage done by insects, 550;

    Provincial Forestry Service, 550-1.

  New Brunswick:

    character of forests, 597-8;

    first timber-laden ship crosses Atlantic (1700), 13 60;

    dispute over reservation of white pine, 175-6;

    proposal to restrict cut to those holding licence from lieutenant-governor, 194;

    history and progress of timber trade, 14 598-604;

    value of stave exports (1821), 633;

    first steam saw-mill built at St John (1822), 13 195;

    riots on the Miramichi, 194-5;

    table of square timber statistics (1821-1900), 14 601;

    used in shipbuilding, 602;

    early history of saw-milling industry, 602-4;

    first deal sawn (1819) and first shipment to England (1822), 603;

    total value of forest products (1910), 614;

    amount and value of lumber, lath, and shingles (1910), 614;

    different species of lumber and number of board feet cut (1910), 615;

    need for conservation, 615-6;

    a period of reckless destruction, 617;

    administration, 617-8;

    conditions of lease on crown lands, 493;

    points of difference from forest products of Nova Scotia, 629;

    pulpwood production and its value (1909), 631;

    object in prohibiting export of pulpwood, 632;

    shingles and lath statistics (1910), 633;

    statistics of stumpage on crown lands and transatlantic shipments (1906-11), 618;

    stumpage collections (1911), 618;

    estimated cut of province (1911), 618;

    Miramichi fire and subsequent second growths, 618-9;

    soil impoverishment through forest fires, 619;

    fire protection, 619;

    proposed forestry commission, 619-20;

    prevention of over-cutting, 620;

    conifers, 624-7;

    hardwoods, 613-4, 627-9.

  Masting:

    masts first cut for French navy, 13 60, 14 599;

    for British navy, 13 139, 14 599;

    mast-cutters threatened by Indians, 13 139;

    methods employed, 14 599-600;

    size and value of timbers, 600-1;

    terms of a contract cited, 600 and n.;

    reservations, 616-7;

    friction caused by reservations, 13 175-6.

  Lumbering:

    its cost in 1825, 14 613;

    the camps, 604-5;

    evolution of modern camp, 605-6;

    preliminary survey and ‘cruise,’ 606-7;

    auctioning of leases, lease renewals, and stumpage charges, 607;

    wood operations, 607-12;

    cost of yarding, hauling, and driving, 608-10;

    steam log-hauler, 609-10;

    a log-driving company and its methods, 611-2;

    approaching demand for steam haulage, 612-3;

    growth of lumber industry, 13 182-3.

  Nova Scotia:

    early development of timber industry, 13 254-5;

    leasing conditions on crown lands, 14 475;

    lumber, lath, and shingles production (1910), 614;

    total value of forest products (1910), 614;

    board feet cut (1910), 615;

    forest survey, 621-4;

    forest areas and their divisions, 623;

    lumber cut and supply, 623;

    rate of growth of spruce, 623-4;

    acreage of timber lands belonging to crown (1913), 624;

    differ from those of New Brunswick, 629;

    chief commercial species, 629-30;

    pulpwood production and value (1909), 631;

    shingles and lath production (1910), 633;

    timber resources of Cape Breton, 623, 629.

  Prince Edward Island:

    lumber, lath, and shingles production (1910), 614;

    total value of forest products, 614;

    species of lumber and board feet cut, 615;

    statistics of shingles and lath industries, 633.

  Minor Forest Industries of Maritime Provinces:

    maple sugar, 630;

    naval stores, 630-1;

    pulpwood production and value (1909), 631;

    spoolwood, 632;

    shingles and lath, 632-3;

    cooperage, 633-4;

    tan bark and tannin extracts, 634;

    Canada balsam, 634.

  Ontario, 18 585-99;

    as a revenue producer, 585-6;

    lumber cut and value (1910), 586;

    revenues of Prussia compared with Ontario, 586;

    forest area and its distribution, 586-9;

    depletion of original forests, 589;

    regulations before Confederation, 589-93;

    reservations during French régime and for British navy, 589;

    licence system introduced (1826), 589;

    square timber trade, 590-1;

    effect on lumbering of land grant abuses, 590;

    Crown Timber Act of 1849, 591;

    sawn timber trade, 591;

    development of licence system, 591-2;

    fraudulent exploitation, 592;

    a short-sighted forest policy, 592;

    denudation of best pine lands, 592-3;

    preservation since Confederation, 593-8;

    Ontario Tree Planting Act (1883), 593;

    Arbour Day, 594;

    fire-ranging system introduced (1878), 594;

    recent legislation, 595;

    national parks, 595;

    commission of 1897, 595-6;

    permanent reserves created, 596;

    reforestation of waste lands, 597;

    power to exempt woodlands from taxation, 597;

    faculty of forestry established, 598;

    advance in rates, ground rents, and dues, 598;

    prohibition of export of unmanufactured timber, 598;

    conditions of sales, 598;

    total land area, acreages alienated, under licence, and unlicensed, 598;

    present stand of pine, 598;

    pulpwood resources, 598-9;

    ravages by fire, 599;

    revenue for 1911, 17 217.

  Prairie Provinces:

    forest reserves and forest areas, 20 325-6, 557, 601.

  British Columbia, 22 487-521;

    extent of timbered water-front, 487;

    precipitation, 487;

    rate of tree growth in moist sections, 487-8;

    areas east of the Cascades, 488;

    favourably situated for transportation, 488;

    qualities of Douglas fir, 488-90;

    its average yield per acre, 520;

    red cedar, 490-1;

    alienation of resources in other countries, 491-2;

    timber leases, 492-3;

    timber lands thrown open, 494-5;

    reversal of policy and creation of reserve, 495;

    revenue (1901-13), 495;

    Forestry Commission and its recommendations (1909), 495-502;

    abolition of time-limit in timber leases, 496-7;

    fire prevention, 497-9;

    Forest Protection Fund created, 500-1;

    its financial statement (1913), 503;

    conservation, 501-2;

    forest revenue (1912, 1913), 503;

    private timber areas, 503-4;

    leasehold timber lands, 504-5;

    licensed timber lands, 505-6;

    timber lands hitherto reserved, 506-7;

    railway belt timber land, 507-8;

    acreage of timber lands and total stand of merchantable timber, 508;

    comparison of United States and Canada as forest countries, 509;

    their potentialities, 509;

    account of saw-milling industry, 509-12;

    statistics of cut and rail shipments (1909-12), 511;

    lumbering conditions compared with other parts of Canada, 9 285;

    lumber cut compared with Western States, 22 511-2;

    ‘dumping’ of inferior grades, 512;

    pulp industry, 505, 513-5;

    Panama Canal and lumber trade, 515-8;

    forests and their future value as community wealth, 518-9;

    forests and future re-afforestation, 519;

    protection and preservation of supply, 520-1.

Forget, Amédée Emmanuel (b. 1847), first lieutenant-governor of Saskatchewan (1905-10). Clerk to North-West Council, 19 200;

  lieutenant-governor, 6 156;

  calls on Walter Scott to form administration, 19 270.

Forget, Antoine (1672-1749). Teacher in St Sulpice schools, Montreal, 16 338, 384.

Forget-Dépatis. Rector of college of St Boniface, 20 421.

Forget-Duverger, François. Sells mission property on Mississippi owned by Quebec Seminary, 11 15.

Forrester, Alexander. Principal of normal school at Truro, 14 523;

  superintendent of education of Nova Scotia, 13 295.

Forster, John Wycliffe Lowes (b. 1850). Portrait painter, 12 629.

Forster, Captain, 8th Regiment. His capture of the Cedars, 3 97-98.

Forsyth, Charles Codrington. Sent on Franklin search expedition (1850), 5 301.

Forsyth, George, of Montreal. On proportion of immigrants passing through Canada to United States, 4 579.

Forsyth, Richardson and Co. Interested in proposed Canada Banking Company, 4 604.

Fort Abitibi. Founded (1686), 8 900.

Fort à la Corne (St Louis, or des Prairies). Constructed (1753), 8 900;

  its location, 1 144, 145;

  Anthony Hendry entertained at, 198;

  visited by Alexander Henry, 4 647.

Fort Albany, at mouth of Albany River, west coast of James Bay. Captured by d’Iberville (1686), 8 881;

  retaken by English (1693), 1 182-3, 8 884;

  only post held by Hudson’s Bay Company after Treaty of Ryswick, 1 189.

Fort Albert. See Victoria.

Fort Babine. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Babine Lake, northern British Columbia, 21 127 n.

Fort Beauharnois, on Lake Pepin, Mississippi River. French trading-post built (1727), 1 117.

Fort Beauséjour. See Fort Cumberland.

Fort Boise. Founded (1835), 21 70.

Fort Bourbon. French post constructed on Cedar Lake, 1 134, 8 900, 11 118;

  La Vérendrye purposes wintering at, 1 137;

  site of, 144;

  reached by Thomas Curry, 4 643.

Fort Bourbon, on Hayes River, Hudson Bay. Founded by Radisson (1682), 1 174-5, 8 880.

  See also York Factory.

Fort Bull, between Albany and Oswego. Destruction of (1756), 1 251.

Fort Camanistigoyan, at entrance to Lake Nipigon. Built by La Tourette (1678), 1 105.

Fort Camosun (Victoria). Founded by James Douglas, 21 76;

  origin of the name, 76 n.;

  name changed to Fort Albert, and afterwards to Fort Victoria, 78.

  See also Victoria.

Fort Carleton, on Deer Island, eastern end of Lake Ontario, 4 532.

Fort Carlton. Hudson’s Bay Company post on North Saskatchewan. Indian treaty signed at (1875), 7 597.

Fort Charles, on Rupert River, James Bay. Founded by Groseilliers and Gillam (1668), 1 163, 8 880;

  first Hudson’s Bay Company expedition at, 1 170-1;

  captured by d’Iberville, 178-9, 8 881.

Fort Chartres. Last post held by French east of Mississippi, 3 58, 69.

Fort Chimo, in Northern Ungava. Construction of (1827), 8 915.

Fort Chipewyan, North-West Company’s post on Lake Athabaska, near mouth of Athabaska River. Founded by Peter Pond (1778), 4 651;

  Alexander Mackenzie at, 652, 673, 678;

  Sir John Franklin sets forth from (1820), 680;

  prize won at Philadelphia for grain grown at (1876), 20 587.

Fort Churchill. See Fort Prince of Wales.

Fort Colvile. Hudson’s Bay Company post on upper Columbia, 21 70.

Fort Confidence. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Great Bear Lake. Built by Simpson and Dease, 4 689;

  Richardson winters at, 5 299.

Fort Connolly, on Bear Lake, at head of Skeena River. Built by James Douglas (1826), 4 690.

Fort Cowlitz. Founded (1837), 21 70.

Fort Crèvecœur, on the Illinois River. La Salle journeys to Fort Frontenac from, 1 102.

Fort Cudahy. Hudson’s Bay Company post at mouth of Fortymile River, Yukon Territory, 22 606.

Fort Cumberland. Situated on disputed territory on north bank of Missiquash River, 1 239, 245;

  captured by British (1755), 244, 13 89-90;

  Acadians assembled at, prior to deportation, 95, 97;

  submission of Acadians at accepted, 114;

  ‘rebel’ attack on (1776), 135, 217-8.

Fort Daer. Established by Miles Macdonell at Pembina (1812), 19 22, 24.

Fort Dauphin, on Lake Dauphin, Manitoba. Constructed (1741), 1 134;

  rebuilt, 136.

Fort Dearborn (Chicago). Its garrison massacred by Indians, 3 225.

Fort des Français, near forks of the Kenogami and Albany. Built by La Tourette (1685), 1 105.

Fort des Prairies. See Fort à la Corne.

Fort Douglas, on Red River, below mouth of Assiniboine. Built by John McLeod, 19 34, 35;

  surrendered to Cuthbert Grant, 37;

  recaptured by Miles Macdonell, 40-41;

  first missionaries arrive at, 11 122.

Fort Dunvegan, Peace River. Crops raised at (1809-10), 20 587.

Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg). Occupied by French (1753), 1 236, 237, 239;

  Braddock’s defeat at, 240-2;

  its effect on British colonies, 13 89-90;

  abandoned by French, 1 268;

  name changed to ‘Pittsbourgh,’ 268.

Fort Durham, at Taku Inlet, on the Stikine. Hudson’s Bay Company post, 21 69.

Fort Edmonton. See Edmonton.

Fort Edward, on Hudson River, Washington County, New York. Webb’s indecision at, 1 258, 259.

Fort Ellice, in Marquette County, Manitoba. Anglican mission established at (1862), 11 228.

Fort Enterprise. Built by Sir John Franklin at Winter Lake, Yellowknife River, 4 680;

  Franklin expedition reaches, 681, 682, 683.

Fort Erie, on Niagara River, opposite Buffalo. Captured by Jacob Brown, 3 255;

  unsuccessful British siege of, 259-60;

  heavy percentage of British losses at, 260;

  Fenian occupation of, 7 408-9.

Fort Essington. Founded as an intermediate station on coast between Fort Simpson and Fort McLoughlin, 21 67.

Fort Frances, on Rainy River. Sir George Simpson’s ceremonial meeting with Indians at (1841), 5 319.

  See also Glenlyon House.

Fort Frances Lock, Rainy Lake. Construction begun and abandoned, 10 530.

Fort Franklin, Great Bear Lake. Constructed by Sir John Franklin (1825), 4 683, 684.

Fort Fraser (Fort Natleh), near outlet of Fraser Lake, British Columbia. North-West Company post founded by Simon Fraser (1806), 4 657, 8 849, 21 55.

Fort Frederick, at mouth of St John River. Its construction, 13 128;

  raided by American marauders, 134.

Fort Frontenac. Built at Cataraqui (Kingston), 1673, 1 86, 2 349;

  dismantled and abandoned, 360 n.;

  re-established, 360;

  captured by Bradstreet, 1 268.

  See also Cataraqui; Kingston.

Fort Garry, at junction of Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Seat of government of Red River Colony, 6 32, 20 284;

  rebuilt of stone, 19 53;

  early postal services at, 7 630;

  occupied by Riel, 6 34;

  forces of Schultz imprisoned in, 36.

Fort George, at mouth of Oswego River, 1 252-3;

  captured by Americans (1813), 3 239-40;

  investment of, 243;

  American abandonment of, 251.

Fort George, at confluence of Fraser and Nechaco Rivers. Built by Simon Fraser, 4 658, 21 56, 246.

Fort George, Astoria. Its disputed ownership, 8 855.

  See Astoria.

Fort George Cañon, Fraser River. Simon Fraser’s descent of, 4 658.

Fort Gibraltar. North-West Company’s trading-post at north-west angle of junction of Red and Assiniboine Rivers, 19 22;

  Duncan Cameron’s hospitality at, 32;

  arrest of Cameron at, 36;

  dismantled, 36.

Fort Good Hope. Hudson’s Bay Company post situated below ramparts of Mackenzie River, 5 306.

Fort Halkett. Hudson’s Bay Company post on branch of Liard River. Robert Campbell’s journey from, 5 307, 22 605.

Fort Hall. Founded (1834), 21 70.

Fort Hayes (Moose), on Hudson Bay. Captured by d’Iberville, 1 178, 8 881.

Fort Hope. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Fraser River, 21 127 n.;

  first headquarters of government of mainland colony of British Columbia, 149 n.

Fort Howe. Constructed at mouth of St John, 13 137-8;

  arrival of loyalist vanguard at, 142;

  treaty of peace with Indians signed at, 138.

Fort Jemseg, at the mouth of the Jemseg River. Villebon organizes war parties of Indians at, 13 56.

Fort Kootanae, on Windermere Lake, British Columbia. Built by David Thompson, 4 666.

  See also Kootenay House.

Fort Kootenae Falls. Constructed by North-West Company (1808), 8 850.

Fort la Jonquière. Disputed location of, 1 139, 140, 146, 11 118.

Fort La Maune. Its location, 8 903-4.

Fort Langley. Hudson’s Bay Company post on lower Fraser River. Built (1827), 21 67;

  inauguration of colony of British Columbia made at, 149-50.

Fort l’Arbre Croche, on eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Occupied by British, 3 58;

  abandoned, 64.

Fort la Reine, on the Assiniboine. Constructed by La Vérendrye, 1 122, 134, 136;

  Saint-Pierre’s courageous conduct at (1752), 142;

  burned by Indians, 11 118;

  reached by British traders, 4 643.

Fort la Tourette, on the Ombabiha River. Constructed (1684), 1 105.

Fort le Bœuf, Erie County, Penn. Occupied by British, 3 58;

  Indian attack on, and withdrawal of garrison, 64.

Fort Liard. Hudson’s Bay Company post on lower Fraser River. Wheat cultivation at, 20 586.

Fort Ligonier, Bedford County, Penn. Indians repulsed at (1763), 3 64.

Fort Lyman. Dieskau plans attack on (1755), 1 243.

Fort McLeod, on McLeod Lake, British Columbia. North-West Company post founded by Simon Fraser, 21 55.

Fort McLoughlin. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Millbank Sound, British Columbia. Founded (1834), 21 67, 22 559.

Fort McPherson. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Peel River, North-West Territories. Constructed by John Bell (1840), 5 306.

Fort Malden, near Amherstburg. Rebel attack on (1837), 3 367.

Fort Maurepas, near mouth of Winnipeg River. Constructed (1734), 1 121, 8 900;

  rebuilt, 1 136, 138.

Fort Meigs, at the Maumee Rapids. Built by Harrison, 3 220, 238.

Fort Miami, on the Maumee. Occupied by British (1761), 3 58;

  surrendered to Indians (1763), 63.

Fort Mistassini. French post founded before 1703, 8 900.

Fort Moose. See Fort Hayes.

Fort Nakasleh. See Fort St James.

Fort Nascopee. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Lake Petitsikapau. Built (1840), 8 915.

Fort Natleh. See Fort Fraser.

‘Fort Necessity.’ Washington’s surrender at, 1 237, 252.

Fort Nelson. See York Factory.

Fort Nez Percés (Walla Walla). Founded (1818), 21 70.

Fort Nipawee, French post on the Saskatchewan, 1 144;

  its location, 145;

  reached by James Finlay, 4 643.

Fort Nisqually. Hudson’s Bay Company post at head of Puget Sound. Founded (1834), 21 67.

Fort Norman. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Mackenzie River, west of Keith Bay on Great Bear Lake, 22 649, 4 683.

Fort Okanagan. Founded (1811), 21 60.

Fort Ontario (Oswego), 1 252.

Fort Ouatanon, on the Wabash River. Occupied by British (1761), 3 58;

  surrendered to Indians, 63.

Fort Paskoyac, on Pasquia or Saskatchewan River. Built by La Vérendrye, 1 139, 8 900, 11 118;

  its disputed location, 1 140, 144, 145-6.

Fort Pelly-Banks. Hudson’s Bay Company post. Built (1842), 22 605.

Fort Phelypeaux, Bradore Bay, Labrador. Constructed by Courtemanche, 8 915.

Fort Piscoutagany (or St Germain), on Abitibi River. Construction of (c. 1673), 8 900;

  its location, 903-4.

Fort Pitt (Pittsburg). Occupied by British (1761), 3 58;

  successful defence of in Pontiac’s War, 64;

  Bouquet’s victorious march on, 69.

  See also Fort Duquesne.

Fort Pitt. Hudson’s Bay Company post on North Saskatchewan. Treaty with Indians signed at (1875), 7 597.

Fort Pointe de Bois, on Red River, 1 122.

Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit). Founded by Cadillac (1701), 1 107, 15 58.

Fort Pontchartrain, near mouth of Eskimo River, 8 915.

Fort Présentation. See Ogdensburg.

Fort Presqu’Isle. In hands of British (1761), 3 58;

  surrendered to Indians in Pontiac’s War, 64.

Fort Prince of Wales (Churchill). Constructed, 1 192;

  expeditions from in search of North-West Passage, 196, 197.

Fort Providence. Hudson’s Bay Company post on northern shore of Great Slave Lake. Sir John Franklin’s expedition at (1820), 4 680.

Fort Qu’Appelle. Indian treaty signed at (1874), 7 579.

Fort Rae, Hudson’s Bay Company post on Great Slave Lake, 22 650.

Fort Reliance. Hudson’s Bay Company post at eastern end of Great Slave Lake. Built by George Back (1833), 4 686.

Fort Resolution. Hudson’s Bay Company post on south-west shore of Great Slave Lake, 4 686.

Fort Rouge. Constructed at mouth of the Assiniboine, 1 122.

Fort Rouillé (Toronto). French post established at, 2 375.

Fort Rupert. Hudson’s Bay Company post at north end of Vancouver Island, 21 93-96;

  first discovery of coal in Vancouver Island at (1835), 22 558;

  danger to miners from natives at, 21 122-3.

Fort Ste Anne. See Fort Albany.

Fort St Charles, Lake of the Woods. Built by La Vérendrye, 1 119, 11 117;

  Saint-Pierre at, 1 138;

  visited by Alexander Henry, 4 644.

Fort St James, North-West Company post on Stuart Lake. Founded by Simon Fraser (1806), 4 657, 21 55.

Fort St Joseph, at mouth of River Nashwaak. Constructed by Villebon (1692), 13 57;

  successful defence of, 58.

Fort St Joseph, on St Joseph River, Michigan. Occupied by British (1761), 3 58;

  captured by Indians (1763), 63.

Fort St Louis. See Fort à la Corne.

Fort St Pierre, on Rainy Lake. Built by La Jemeraye (1731), 1 119, 8 900.

Fort Sandusky, on Lake Erie. Captured by Indians, 3 63.

Fort Saskatchewan. Its importance in 1890, 19 170.

Fort Schlosser, opposite Navy Island, on American side of Niagara River. Occupied by British (1761), 3 58;

  American outpost surprised at, 244;

  destroyed by Sir Phineas Riall, 252.

Fort Selkirk. Hudson’s Bay Company post constructed by Robert Campbell at junction of Pelly and Lewes Rivers, 5 311, 22 605;

  raided by Coast Indians, 5 311;

  returns from take seven years to reach market, 313;

  garrisoned by Canadian militia, 7 437.

Fort Sheppard. Hudson’s Bay Company post. Founded (1811), 21 127 n.

Fort Simpson. Hudson’s Bay Company post at mouth of Nass River. Constructed (1832), 21 67;

  change of site (1834), 67;

  wheat grown at, 20 586.

Fort Smith. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Slave River. Indian agency established at, 7 603.

Fort Spokane, Washington. Founded (1811), 21 60.

Fort Stanwix, on Mohawk River, near Lake Oneida. Treaty of, defining boundaries of Indian territory (1768), 3 69, 4 704, 709.

Fort Stephenson, Sandusky River, now included in site of city of Fremont. British repulse at, 3 238.

Fort Thompson (or Kamloops). Founded (1813), 21 60.

Fort Umpqua. Founded (1832), 21 70.

Fort Vancouver. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Columbia River. Erected (1825), 21 64;

  change of site, 64;

  crops grown at, 65;

  trade rivalry at, 65-66.

Fort Vermilion. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Peace River. Milling production of, 20 587-8.

Fort Walla Walla. See Fort Nez Percés.

Fort Walsh. Original headquarters of Royal North-West Mounted Police, 19 148.

Fort Wayne, American post at head of Maumee River. Abortive British attack on, 3 238.

Fort Wellington. See Prescott.

Fort William, at mouth of Kaministikwia River. Selkirk’s seizure of, 19 39;

  Sir George Simpson’s conference with Chippewas at, 5 318.

Fort William Henry, on Lake George. Montcalm’s attack on, 1 257-8;

  surrender of, 258-9;

  massacre by Indians at, 259-60.

Fort William Henry, Pemaquid. Captured by French and Indians, 13 57.

Fort Yale. Hudson’s Bay Company post on Fraser River, 21 127 n.

Fort Yukon. Hudson’s Bay Company post at junction of Porcupine with Yukon. Built by Alexander Hunter Murray on Russian territory, 5 307, 22 605;

  returns from take seven years to reach market, 5 313.

Fortin, Pierre (1823-88). Minister of Crown Lands of Quebec, 15 178 n.;

  his services to the fisheries, 16 560.

Forty-first Regiment. Brock’s criticism of, 3 209, 238.

Fortymile River, a tributary of the Yukon. Its course, 22 593;

  gold discoveries on, 606.

Forty-ninth Regiment. Brock’s criticism of, 3 209;

  at Queenston Heights, 229, 230, 232;

  at Stoney Creek, 241, 242;

  at Chrystler’s Farm, 249, 250.

Forty-second Regiment (Black Watch). Disbanded soldiers of settle in Quebec province, 15 123;

  take service with North-West Company, 125.

  See also Black Watch.

Forty-seventh Regiment. At battle of the Plains, 1 303, 304.

Forty-third Regiment. At battle of the Plains, 1 303, 304.

Fosbery, Ernest George (b. 1874). Portrait and figure painter, 12 625.

Foster, Clara. Sings ‘The Dashing White Sergeant’ in Montreal, 12 655.

Foster, Sir George Eulas (b. 1847), minister of Finance (1888-96). His period of office, 7 514;

  his revision of Bank Act (1890), 10 644-5;

  negotiates on reciprocity, 9 169;

  introduces tariff reductions, 6 122;

  resigns from Bowell ministry, 126;

  his tribute to Dr Theodore H. Rand, 14 421 n.;

  and the bribing of constituencies, 6 163;

  and naval policy, 168;

  commissioner on preferential trade, 9 213;

  extends Canadian consular service, 235.

Foster, H. S. First president of Bedford Dairymen’s Association, 16 526.

Foster, John Watson (b. 1836). American agent on Alaska Boundary Commission, 8 733, 933, 938;

  negotiates on reciprocity, 9 169;

  member of Joint High Commission, 6 135.

Foucher, Charles Louis. Impeached by assembly, 4 480-2.

Foulon, Anse au (or Wolfe’s Cove), 1 292;

  possibility of attack on, divined by Montcalm, 294;

  landing at, 297-8.

Found, W. A. Appointed to report on fisheries of British Columbia, 22 459.

Fouquet, Léon. Missionary priest in British Columbia, 11 146;

  vaccinates the Indians, 147.

Fourmond, Father. Missionary priest at St Boniface, 11 149;

  his ministrations during smallpox epidemic, 160.

Fournier, Telesphore (1824-96). Minister of Inland Revenue (1873-4), 6 64;

  and Ontario act respecting escheats, 17 160.

Fowler, Daniel (1810-94). Canadian artist, 12 603-4.

Fowler Brothers, of Lubec, Maine. First quarriers of gypsum at Hillsborough, New Brunswick, 14 694.

Fox, George. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Fox, Henry Edward (1755-1811), officer commanding in Nova Scotia. Visits locations of loyalist regiments in New Brunswick, 13 149;

  offered governorship of New Brunswick, 152.

Fox. Sails with McClintock’s Franklin search expedition (1857), 5 305.

Fox Land. Coast of explored by Captain Foxe, 1 158.

Fox River, Wisconsin. Jean Nicolet at, 1 61, 74, 80, 81, 103, 104.

Foxe, Luke (1586-1635). Leads expedition to Hudson Bay (1631), 1 158-9.

Foxes, Indian tribe, 1 80, 103.

Foy, James Joseph (1847-1916). Minister of Lands of Ontario, 17 216 n.;

  attorney-general, 184, 196 n.

France. Concludes commercial treaties with Canada (1893, 1907), 9 177-8, 237-8;

  later treaty negotiated entirely by Canadian representatives, 234.

Frances, A. H. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Frances Lake. Named in honour of Lady Simpson, 5 308.

Francheville, Pierre de. Student at Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 363;

  disputes in philosophy, 371.

Francheville, parish priest of Rivière Ouelle. Repels attack by Phips’s expedition, 15 88-89.

Francis I (1494-1547). His instructions to Jacques Cartier on missionary enterprise, 2 381.

Francis Smith. Steamer on Georgian Bay and Lake Superior route, 10 546.

Francklin, Michael (d. 1782), administrator of Nova Scotia (1766, 1767-8, 1772). His treatment of the Acadians, 13 116;

  advocates establishment of Anglican clergymen to prevent spread of republican ideas, 262;

  his description of Charlottetown in 1768, 346-7;

  surveys and superintends settlement in Prince Edward Island, 337-8;

  rebuked for his zeal, 338;

  restrains the Indians, 138, 218;

  requests protection for mast-cutters, 139-40;

  and Cumberland rebels, 217.

Francklin, Hazen, and White. Engage in masting, 14 599;

  value of a delivery of masts (1782), 600.

‘Françoise’ (Mlle Robertine Barry). Her chroniques, 12 488.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706-90). His plan for union of American colonies, 1 238;

  arranges Braddock’s transportation, 240;

  deputy postmaster-general, 4 729;

  opens post offices in Canada (1763), 731;

  and land speculation in Nova Scotia, 13 111;

  ridicules separation from mother country as a ‘visionary fear,’ 132;

  finds Canadian sentiment becoming anti-American, 3 97;

  signatory to Treaty of Versailles, 116, 8 752, 753, 797;

  marks boundaries on ‘Red Line’ map, 819;

  on the Mitchell map, 761.

Franklin, Jane Griffin, Lady (1792-1875). Equips Franklin search expedition, 5 301, 304.

Franklin, Sir John (1786-1847), Arctic explorer. His expedition of 1819-22, 4 679-83;

  employs French-Canadian voyageurs, 15 78;

  expedition of 1825-7, 4 683-4;

  his last voyage, 5 295-7;

  discovery of relics, 304-6.

Franklin Search Expeditions. Sir James Clark Ross (1848), 5 297-8;

  Moore and Kellett (1848), 297, 298;

  Sir John Richardson (1848), 297, 298-301;

  Collinson and McClure (1850), 301-3;

  Austin and Penny (1850), 301, 303;

  Sir John Ross (1850), 301, 303;

  Charles Codrington Forsyth (1850), 301;

  Edwin J. de Haven (1850), 301, 303;

  Sir Edward Belcher (1852), 303;

  Sir Francis McClintock (1857), 304-5;

  Charles Francis Hall (1865), 305-6.

Franklin. See Venango.

Franquelin, Jean Baptiste. Instructor in hydrography at Quebec, 16 375;

  returns to France, 375;

  reappointed, but does not return, 376.

Franquet, French engineer. Strengthens fortifications of Louisbourg, 1 219;

  in Prince Edward Island, 13 310-2;

  plans defence of Fort la Joye, 321.

Fraser, Charles Frederick (b. 1850). Principal of Halifax School for the Blind, 14 534.

Fraser, Christopher Findlay (1839-94). Opposes Orange Lodge Incorporation Bill in Ontario legislature, 17 142;

  commissioner of Crown Lands, 146-7;

  provincial secretary, 200 n.;

  minister of Public Works, 230 n.;

  clerk of Forestry, 18 595.

Fraser, John A. (1838-97). Canadian artist, 12 607;

  and Ontario Society of Artists, 634.

Fraser, John James (1829-96). Premier of New Brunswick (1878-82), 14 428;

  lieutenant-governor (1893-6), 427.

Fraser, Malcolm. Secretary of Quebec merchants’ committee, 15 140;

  gives alarm of Montgomery’s attack on Quebec, 3 90;

  founds seigniory at Murray Bay, 15 125, 16 508.

Fraser, Simon (1726-82). Raises the 78th or Fraser’s Highlanders, 15 123;

  applies for grant on Prince Edward Island, 13 343.

Fraser, Simon, afterwards brigadier (d. 1777). Answers the sentry’s challenge at Sillery, 1 297.

Fraser, Simon. Signs petition for assembly (1770), 15 140.

Fraser, Simon (1776-1862). His expedition to the Pacific, 4 657-63, 21 55-57;

  fails to locate the Columbia, 56-57;

  retires from fur trade, 57.

Fraser, William. Petitions for retention of Governor Blanshard, 21 121.

Fraser, Wm. Signs loyalist petition (1787), 17 39.

Fraser, William (d. 1851). Vicar-apostolic of Nova Scotia, 11 73;

  bishop of Halifax, 77;

  bishop of Arichat (1844-51), 80.

Fraser, William, Baptist pastor. On sobriety and absence of blasphemy in Breadalbane, 11 362, 364.

Fraser, William Alexander. His short stories, 12 562.

Fraser, Captain. Accused of complicity in Walker outrage, 3 36.

Fraser and Thom. Mast contractors to British navy, 14 599;

  export first cargoes of square timber from the Miramichi, 601.

Fraser Lake, in Cariboo district, British Columbia. Hudson’s Bay Company post at, 21 127 n.;

  crops raised at (1811-8), 22 525-6.

Fraser River. Simon Fraser’s descent of, 4 658-63;

  its length, 9 23.

Frazer, William (b. 1831). Member of North-West Council, 19 198.

Fréchette, Louis Honoré (1839-1908). His career and poetical achievement, 12 463-6.

Fréchette, Pierre. Missionary at Detroit, 11 24.

Frederick Island. Surveyed by authorities of Massachusetts, 8 769-70.

Frederick the Great. His varying fortunes, 1 254; 260-1, 269.

Fredericksburg, Township of. Settled by loyalists, 17 25;

  elementary school established at, 18 278.

Fredericton. Selected as capital of New Brunswick, 13 155, 158;

  named in honour of Duke of York, 160;

  post office opened at (1788), 5 373;

  barracks constructed, 13 175;

  college established, 14 546;

  province hall at, 13 181;

  King’s College founded, 11 211 and n., 13 196;

  first Anglican cathedral outside British Isles erected at, 14 424 n.

Fredin, Jean. His association with Charon, 16 339.

Free Trade Association. Formed in Montreal, 5 217;

  and Navigation Acts, 218, 224;

  proposes a tariff revision, 223;

  and canal tolls, 224.

Free Trade Union. Formed to oppose Chamberlain’s tariff reform policy, 6 144.

Free Trader. Steamboat on Toronto-Montreal route, 10 541.

Freeling, Sir Francis (1764-1836), secretary to British Post Office. His attitude to demands from Upper Canada for increased facilities, 4 734-5;

  and newspaper postage irregularities, 748-9.

Freeman, Joseph. Insulted in Nova Scotia assembly, 13 277.

Frégeau Frères. First French Canadians to open a cheese factory, 7 661, 16 526.

Freleighsburg. Pioneer Baptist Church in Eastern Townships founded at, 11 361.

Fremin, Jacques (1628-91), Jesuit. Missionary to the Senecas, 1 91.

French, Sir George Arthur (b. 1841). Organizes first permanent Canadian artillery force, 7 426;

  first commissioner of North-West Mounted Police, 19 148.

French, Sir John Denton Pinkstone, first Viscount (b. 1852), field-marshal. His report on defences of Canada, 7 465-7.

French Canadians.

  Special Article: The Habitant, his Origin and History, 15 17-117.

  General outlines, 3-13;

  first habitants, 16 505-7;

  land clearing and means of livelihood, 15 36-37;

  their partiality for contiguity of settlement and a river frontage, 2 559, 15 88;

  ordinary extent of holding, 2 559;

  large families of proverbial, 582, 15 50;

  table of births and deaths in three parishes (1741-54), 51;

  rewards and preference given to fathers of large families, 51;

  encouragements to early marriage, 51;

  prevented from returning to France, 51-52;

  New England prisoners elect to remain in New France, 52;

  partiality for horses, 2 581, 15 55;

  character, conditions, social life, manners and customs, 2 581-4, 15 56, 92, 111-4, 16 518-21;

  their consideration for Indians, 15 92;

  litigious temper of, 2 575-7;

  fêtes, festivals, and holidays, 544;

  purity of morals, 417;

  their origins, 583, 15 59-68;

  statistics showing provinces of origin and deductions therefrom, 60-62;

  criticism of claim that Normandy sent out largest number of settlers, 60-63;

  influence of Norman stock on manners and language, 62-63;

  names of immigrants (1615-41), 62 n.;

  language and idiom, 63-64;

  their points of dissimilarity and of resemblance with inhabitants of France, 64-68;

  as soldiers, 79-85;

  their skill as skirmishers, 79;

  heroism and privations during Seven Years’ War, 80-85;

  Montcalm’s opinion of military qualities of, 82;

  houses and barns destroyed by Wolfe’s soldiers, 83;

  as sailors, 80;

  Saint-Vallier on their piety and skill in handicrafts, 90;

  Parkman on, 91-92;

  education of, 91-92;

  and the seigneur, 2 580;

  physique of, 15 94;

  aptitude in mechanical labour, 95;

  settlement of in Ontario at the Cession, 17 13;

  between Conquest and passing of Quebec Act, 15 96-100;

  their recognition as neutrals refused, 3 23, 15 261;

  Murray’s opinion of, 3 24;

  sympathy between Murray’s army and, 30;

  admitted as jurors, 31;

  Dorchester on climatic and economic conditions as likely to determine their predominance, 45-46;

  and American Revolutionary War, 107-10;

  effect of alliance between France and rebel colonies on, 114;

  in Invasion of 1775, 86, 97, 15 101, 143;

  number at defence of Quebec, 3 85;

  effect of British rule on respect for authority, 109;

  effect of loyalist invasion on, 118;

  estranged from France by Revolution, 148, 15 101;

  contribute to expenses of war with France, 101-2;

  services in War of 1812, 3 212-3, 224, 247-9, 249-50, 15 101;

  seigneurs give place to lawyers as their political leaders, 3 160;

  effect of Bonaparte’s successes on, 165;

  uninfluenced by Papineau’s reform movement, 15 105;

  insolence of British immigrants to, 114-5;

  distrust grant of municipal institutions, 293;

  hostile to direct taxation, 4 553, 15 292-3, 16 416;

  Sydenham and, 5 87-88;

  Bagot makes first move to understanding with, 88;

  Elgin’s attitude to, 68, 82;

  migrations to Upper Canada, 15 107;

  repatriation of, in Manitoba, 11 161;

  danger of absorption outside Quebec, 15 116-7;

  pioneers of civilization, 117;

  Grande Ligne Mission (Baptist), 11 371-3.

  See Coureurs de bois; Emigration; Literature; Nationalism; New France.

French-Canadian Missionary Society (Presbyterian). Formed (1839), 11 278.

French Immigration. To Prince Edward Island, 13 312, 313, 314, 315;

  émigré settlements in Upper Canada, 17 51-57;

  recent, in Dominion, 7 563, 19 180.

French Mills, on Salmon River. Wilkinson goes into winter quarters at, 3 250.

French Revolution. Its effect in United States and Canada, 3 147-8.

French River. Explored by Champlain, 1 53.

Frenchman’s Creek. Engagement at, in War of 1812, 3 235-6.

Freneuse, Mathieu d’Amours, Sieur de (b. 1657). Granted seigniory in Acadia, 13 59;

  erects first saw-mill in New Brunswick, 14 602;

  death of, 13 59;

  his widow indiscreet, 59-60.

Fréret, Louis. Canadian sculptor, 12 632.

Freshwater Cove, Louisbourg. New Englanders effect landing at, 1 215;

  Wolfe’s attack on, 224, 268.

Friend. Schooner built at Lunenburg, 10 581.

Friends, Society of. Its tenets and influence, 11 388-9;

  the Hicksite schism, 389;

  history and organization in Canada, 389-90;

  inconsistencies of Pennsylvanian Quakers, 1 239-40;

  form settlements in Upper Canada, 17 46-47, 63.

Frobisher, Benjamin (d. 1787). Director of North-West Company, 4 642.

Frobisher, Joseph. Co-operates with Alexander Henry the Elder, 4 542;

  joins Henry’s expedition, 645;

  partner in North-West Company, 543;

  signs western traders’ memorial to Dorchester, 642.

Frobisher, Sir Martin (c. 1535-94), navigator. Equips expeditions and brings back cargoes of a gold-bearing stone from Baffin Land, 22 654-5.

Frobisher, Thomas (1744-88). Co-operates in trade with Alexander Henry the Elder, 4 542;

  joins Henry’s expedition, 645-6;

  partner in North-West Company, 543.

Frog Lake. Massacre by Indians at, 7 599, 11 170.

Frolic. British ship defeated in War of 1812, 13 257.

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Comte de Palluau et de (1620-98), governor of New France (1672-82, 1689-98). Summons the three estates, 1 6, 2 347;

  favours acquisition of winter port, 348;

  policy one of expansion, 352, 15 48-49;

  concerned in illicit trading, 2 484;

  recalled (1682), 350;

  returns as governor, 357;

  repels Iroquois raids, 358;

  defends Quebec against Phips, 358;

  urges measures of defence, 360;

  his proposed representation of Tartuffe banned, 16 372;

  and ‘frenchification’ of Indians, 15 43;

  grants seigniories, 52-53.

Frontenac.

  (1) First Canadian steamboat on Lake Ontario, launched at Ernestown (1816), 10 496;

  burnt by incendiaries, 497.

  (2) Toronto-Kingston steamboat, a noted cutter of rates, 10 538, 540.

Frozen Strait. William Baffin at, 1 157;

  exploration of, 197.

Fruit-growing. Development of in Dominion, 7 676, 9 120, 182-3.

  Nova Scotia:

    history of industry, 14 654-6;

    export (1911), 655;

    co-operative shippers’ associations, 656-7;

    fruit experiment station established, 657.

  New Brunswick, 667.

  Prince Edward Island, 662-3.

  Ontario:

    its expansion, 18 566-7, 578.

    Production of an apple that will grow in Prairie Provinces, 7 668.

  Manitoba, 20 531-2.

  Suitability of Alberta for, 591.

  British Columbia:

    expansion of area devoted to, 9 243;

    government aid in, 549-50;

    causes inflation of land values, 22 550.

Frul, Peter. Signs loyalist petition (1787), 17 39.

Fry, Henry. Member of Council of Public Instruction of Quebec, 16 491.

Frye, Joseph, major. Permits Acadians to winter at Fort Cumberland, 13 114.

Fulford, Francis (1802-68). Anglican bishop of Montreal (1850-68), 11 220.

Fuller, Francis. Murderer of Bishop Seghers, 11 177-8.

Fuller, Valancey E. A supporter of reciprocity, 6 109.

Fulton, Frederick John (b. 1862). Provincial secretary of British Columbia, 21 231;

  attorney-general, 232;

  resigns on railway policy, 233;

  member of Forestry Commission (1909), 22 496.

Fundy, Bay of. Entered by Stephen Gomez, 1 26;

  fishing privileges in, conceded to United States, 8 687-9.

Funter, Robert. Visits Queen Charlotte Sound, 21 39.

Fur Trade. Begun as auxiliary of fishing trade, 1 26, 2 447;

  financial basis of exploration, 1 48;

  supersedes discovery of North-West Passage as object of exploration, 159;

  diverts colonists from agricultural and industrial pursuits, 10, 2 317-8, 351, 460, 476-7, 15 54, 59;

  number of skins exported annually to France by Companies of Rouen and de Caën, 2 452;

  only article of export, 474;

  exports (1718-58), 15 55-56;

  price of furs fixed by council, 2 331;

  chief articles of barter, 447-8;

  rivalries cause inter-tribal wars, 1 64;

  profits to be devoted to expenses of government, 2 329;

  exaggerated expectations as to its gains, 483;

  arrested development of, through Iroquois raids, 1 69;

  French monopoly broken, 79;

  taxes on moose and beaver skins, 2 462;

  moose skins at market price made legal tender, 480;

  decline in trade (1683-5), 495;

  issue of government licences, 494;

  renewal of licence system, 502;

  failure of issue of trading licences, 503;

  causes of its diversion to English and Dutch, 472-3, 486, 493;

  preventive measures against smuggling furs, 466;

  dependence of colony on, 1 171, 2 494;

  handicapped by having only one market, 493;

  presents to Indians returned in furs, 506;

  its fascinations, 541-2;

  French interest in, threatened by Cession, 3 55;

  regulations for control (1767), 4 525-6;

  during first years of British rule, 526-7;

  its diversion to Lake routes, 532;

  proposed prohibition of export of peltry into United States, 534;

  opposition to restrictions, 541;

  indebtedness of western traders to Montreal merchants, 542;

  relative trading by alternative routes, 542;

  opposed to surrender of western posts to United States, 542-3;

  relative cheapness of furs at different centres, 9 285;

  geological conditions and, 9 72-74.

  British Columbia:

    its beginning, 21 27;

    first voyages to west coast, 30-39;

    in Russian hands, 241-2;

    early English traders, 243-4;

    and imperial expansion, 243-5, 249-50;

    the sea-otter, 247-8;

    made possible by fish wealth of estuaries, 22 446;

    its present position, 21 249.

  See also

    Company of New France;

    Company of the West Indies;

    Hudson’s Bay Company;

    North-West Company;

    Coureurs de bois;

    Indians;

    Liquor Traffic.

Fur Trader. Lake Superior vessel, wrecked (1812), 10 490.

Furnace. Ship sent on expedition in search of North-West Passage (1742), 1 197.

Furness, Withy and Company, 10 615.

Fury. One of Parry’s ships in Arctic expedition of 1821, 4 685.

Fyfe, R. A. (1816-78). His services to the Baptist Church, 11 368.

Fyshe, Thomas (1845-1911). Member of Civil Service Commission of Inquiry (1907), 6 163.

 

Gabriel. Ship of Bering’s first expedition, 21 39.

Gadois, Pierre (d. 1667). One of first habitants of Montreal, 16 507.

Gage. Lake warship, 10 488.

Gage, Thomas (1721-87), British general. Lieutenant-governor at Montreal, 3 23;

  commander-in-chief at New York, 32, 68;

  disavows Bradstreet’s treaties with Indians, 69;

  requests two regiments from Canadian garrison, 107.

Gagnon, Antoine. Missionary priest in New Brunswick, 11 42, 77.

Gagnon, Clarence. French-Canadian painter and etcher, 12 618-9, 631.

Gagnon, Ernest (1834-1915). French-Canadian author, 12 484-5.

Gagnon, Jean. Learns carpentering and roofing at Little Seminary of Quebec, 16 378.

Gagnon, Noël. Prize-winner at Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 372.

Gagnon, Pierre Paul. One of first students in Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 363.

Gaillon, Michel. Hanged for theft at Charlesbourg Royal (1542), 1 42.

Gaines, Edmund Pendleton (1777-1849), American general. Defends Fort Erie in War of 1812, 3 260.

Gale, Samuel (d. 1826). A patentee of township of Farnham, 15 150, 3 306.

Galiano, Dionisio. His surveys on north-west coast, 21 48.

Galicians. See Ruthenians.

Galinée, René de Bréhant de (d. 1678), Sulpician. His journey with Dollier de Casson, 1 81-82, 84, 89, 96-100, 10 477;

  at council of Senecas, 1 90-91;

  describes Niagara, 92-93;

  takes possession of Lake Erie basin, 96.

Galinier, Dominique (1616-71), Sulpician. Assists in founding seminary at Montreal, 2 415.

Galiote. First vessel launched at Quebec (1663), 2 463, 10 479.

Gallands. Acadian settlers in Prince Edward Island, 13 312-3.

Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849), American secretary of the Treasury. On financial losses of United States in War of 1812, 3 197;

  signatory to Treaty of Ghent, 8 771;

  on Governor Sullivan’s blunder, 782 n.;

  his conclusions on the Jay map, 822;

  negotiates boundary arbitration treaty, 791-2, 845;

  and Oregon boundary, 863 and n.

Galli, Spanish navigator. His farthest north in Pacific (1582), 8 846.

Gallia. Cunarder purchased for the Beaver Line, 10 612.

Galloway, J. G. Congregational Church leader in Nova Scotia, 11 381.

Galt, Sir Alexander Tilloch (1817-93), minister of Finance (1858-62, 1864-6, 1867). Interested in railway projects, 10 377, 396, 397;

  his opportunist railway policy, 396;

  secures federal union a place in conservative programme, 5 7;

  inspector-general, 283;

  claims fiscal freedom for Canada, 79-80;

  his protective budget of 1859, 6 78, 9 133;

  his financial policy inconsistent with reciprocity, 5 253-6;

  negotiates on reciprocity, 9 127-8;

  defines ‘incidental’ protection, 133;

  his budget speech of 1866, 134;

  and commercial union, 166;

  a promoter of Eastern Townships Bank, 5 278;

  and a provincial bank of issue, 283, 284-5;

  his Banking Act, 286-7;

  relations with Bank of Upper Canada, 289;

  member of committees on defence, 7 401, 421;

  minister of Finance, 6 22, 7 514;

  and educational safeguards for Protestants in Quebec, 16 483;

  demands independent treaty-making powers for Canada, 9 176;

  his limited powers in negotiating trade conventions, 176-7;

  fisheries compensation commissioner, 6 69, 8 695;

  high commissioner, 6 370;

  sketch of, 24.

Galt, John (1779-1839). Proposes formation of a Canada colonization scheme, 3 333, 17 88;

  secretary of Canada Company, 3 334, 17 89;

  ceremony at naming of Guelph, 89-90;

  and destitute Columbian immigrants, 90-91;

  charged with slighting Goderich, 91;

  his scheme for a paper currency, 4 621-2;

  his closing years, 17 92.

Galt, Township of. Settled by Canada Company, 3 334;

  named after John Galt, 17 89.

Gamache, Nicholas Rohault, Marquis of. Contributes to Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 361.

Gambia. First vessel built at Moncton by the Salters, 10 584.

Gambier, James, first Baron Gambier (1784-1856). British signatory to Treaty of Ghent, 8 771.

Gamey, Robert Roswell (b. 1865). Alleged attempted corruption of, 17 182-3.

Gammage. Anglican clergyman in British Columbia, 21 147.

Gananoque. Successful American attack on (1812), 3 217-8.

Gandy, James. Captain of a Halifax privateer, 13 224.

Garden, John. Wounded at siege of Quebec, applies for grant in Prince Edward Island, 13 343.

Gardinerston. Rendezvous of American expedition against Quebec, 3 84.

Gardner, Bartlett. Shipbuilder at Yarmouth, 10 581.

Garneau, Alfred (1836-1904), French-Canadian poet. His volume of verse, 12 469.

Garneau, François Xavier (1809-66). Sketch of, 12 452-4;

  his Histoire du Canada, 454-5;

  stimulates poetry, 460;

  his statistics on origins of settlers, 15 60-61.

Garneau, Pierre. Commissioner of Crown Lands of Quebec, 15 193, 201.

Garnier, Charles (1605-49), Jesuit. His mission and martyrdom, 2 405-6.

Garnier, Julien (1643-1730). Superior of Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 366.

Garreau, Léonard (1609-56). Jesuit martyr, 2 408.

Garrow, James Thompson (1843-1916). Minister without portfolio in Ontario cabinet, 17 180.

Garvie, William, of the Halifax Citizen. An opponent of Confederation, 14 380.

Gascon, Father, O.M.I. Missionary priest in the West, 11 140;

  assists in making first clearing near Grand Rapid, Mackenzie River, 147.

Gaspé, de. See Aubert de Gaspé, Philippe.

Gaspé Bay. Jacques Cartier’s intercourse with Indians at, 1 32;

  cross erected by Cartier at, 32-33, 2 379.

Gaste, Father, O.M.I. Founds mission on Lake Cariboo, 11 142, 164.

Gastineau, Jn. A. Signs Quebec traders’ petition (1764), 15 134.

Gaston, William (1778-1844), American jurist. Maintains prescriptive right of inalienable allegiance, 3 193.

Gates, Horatio (1728-1806), American general. One of first settlers at Halifax, 13 82.

Gatineau River. Fish in its drainage system, 16 565.

Gaudais, Louis. Royal commissioner in New France, 2 459-60.

Gaulin, Rémi (1787-1857). Roman Catholic bishop of Kingston (1840-57), 11 54;

  visits Ottawa River settlements, 55.

Gaulin, Simon. One of first pupils in school at Château-Richer (1702), 16 334.

Gaultier, G. In charge of school at Château-Richer (1705), 16 334.

Gaume, Jean Joseph (1802-69). His campaign against liberalism, 11 102-3.

Gauthier, Charles Hughes (b. 1845). Roman Catholic archbishop of Ottawa, 11 58.

Gauthier, Georges (b. 1871). Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Montreal, 11 92.

Gauthier, Joseph Nicholas (1689-1752). Acadian settler in Prince Edward Island, entertains Franquet, 13 311;

  sketch of, 311-2.

Gautier, Gabriel. Receives grant of Cape Breton, Island of St John, and Magdalen Islands, 13 53.

Gavazzi, Alessandro (1809-89). Riots at Quebec and Montreal occasioned by his anti-Romanist propaganda, 5 72.

Gazelle. Steamboat on St John-Annapolis route, 10 561.

Geary, Mr Accompanies Talbot settlers to Canada, 17 74.

Geddes, of Calgary. A member of North-West Council, 19 214;

  and revenues from public lands, 215;

  agitates for reforms, 216, 219.

Geddie, John (1815-72). Presbyterian missionary to New Hebrides, 11 277.

Gendre, Florimond. Founds first industrial school for native children on Pacific coast, 11 146.

General Hunter. Brock challenged from deck of, 3 224.

General Mining Association. Formed to operate coal-mines of Nova Scotia, 14 675-6;

  experiments in working iron ore in Pictou County, 687;

  resentment aroused by its monopoly, 676-7;

  agreement reached with provincial government, 677;

  subsequent history of, 678, 682.

General Smythe. First steamboat of Maritime Provinces, 10 561, 13 185.

Genest, Charles (1761-1827). Missionary priest in New Brunswick, 11 42.

Genet, Edmond Charles (1765-1834), French minister in United States. His intrigues in Canada, 3 148.

Genner, Samuel. Sculptor in service of Little Seminary of Quebec, 16 382.

Genova. First inward-bound steamship to arrive at Quebec, 10 603.

Gens de la Mer, Indian tribe, also known as Puants or Winnebagoes, 1 60, 61.

Gens de l’Arc. See Bow Indians.

Gentil, Widow. Entertains Franquet at her inn on Prince Edward Island, 13 312.

Geoffrion, Christopher Alphonse (1843-99). Involved in stationery contract irregularities, 15 206;

  minister without portfolio in Laurier’s administration, 6 131.

Geoffroy, curé. Replaces the school at Champlain which was burnt down (1687), 16 356.

Geological Survey. Organization of, begun (1843), 6 344-5.

Geology. See Physical Features.

George II (1683-1760). His opinion of Wolfe, 1 279.

George III (1738-1820). Endeavours to establish personal rule, 15 126;

  his compliment to Madame de Lery, 93;

  Papineau’s eulogium on, 102-4.

George IV (1762-1830). Grants to Duke of York, for a period of sixty years, reserved mines and minerals of Nova Scotia, 14 394, 675.

George V (b. 1865). At Quebec Tercentenary celebrations, 11 107;

  lays corner-stone of University of Manitoba, 20 445.

George, James. Advocates use of wooden rails in Champlain and St Lawrence Railway, 10 370.

George, Sir Rupert D. Challenges Joseph Howe to a duel, 13 292.

Georgian Bay. Champlain at, 1 53;

  Jesuit mission on, 64-67;

  Groseilliers and Radisson on, 74;

  islands of surrendered by Chippewas and Ottawas, 5 337.

Georgian Bay Canal. Proposals for construction, 10 534.

Gérin-Lajoie, Antoine (1824-82). His literary work, 12 457;

  his novel Jean Rivard, 474-5.

Germain, Charles (1707-79), Jesuit. A leader of Acadians who came to surrender at Fort Frederick, 13 115.

Germain, Lord George, first Viscount Sackville (1716-85), secretary for Home and the Colonies (1776-82). His hostility to Carleton, 3 110-1;

  and the proposed Vermont secession, 115;

  approves Haldimand’s plan for settling loyalists at Niagara, 17 18.

Germain, Joseph (1633-1722), Jesuit, superior of missions in Canada. On the courses of study at Jesuit College, and character and disposition of students, 16 363-4, 366.

Germain. District teachers’ association formed at St Eustache by, 16 430.

German Immigration. In Halifax, 13 83-84;

  at Lunenburg, 14 647-8;

  in Niagara district, 17 47;

  at Markham, 50-51;

  settlements in the ‘thirties,’ 11 51;

  in Dominion, 7 564;

  homestead entries in Prairie Provinces, 20 316;

  in Saskatchewan and Alberta, 19 168, 178, 179;

  educational claims of immigrants, 20 459;

  ministrations to immigrants, 11 187-8.

German, William Manly (b. 1851). Opposed to reciprocity, 6 179-80.

Germanic. Steamer on the Georgian Bay and Mackinac route, 10 555.

Germany. Commercial Treaty of 1865 between Canada and, blocks inter-imperial trade preference, 9 173;

  treaty denounced (1897), 206-7;

  tariff war with, 6 145, 9 235-6;

  growth of its trade with Canada, 179.

Gerow, G. C. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Gerrish, Lloyd, Armstrong and Bard. Begin first coal-mining operations after British occupation of Nova Scotia, 14 394.

Gerristma. Missionary priest to European immigrants of the West, 11 190.

Gervais, Benjamin (1786-1876). One of first inhabitants of St Louis, 15 77.

Gesner, Abraham (d. 1864). Overestimates productive coal-seams of New Brunswick, 14 683.

Geyer, Governor. Sends Henry Kellsey on exploring expedition, 1 193.

Ghent, Treaty of (1814). Preserves the status quo, 3 271;

  fishery rights under, 8 683;

  provisions re ‘Oregon Country,’ 21 61.

Gibbon, Wm. R. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Gibbons, George C. (b. 1848). Member of International Waterways Commission, 6 366, 8 838.

Gibbons, James (b. 1834), cardinal. At Eucharistic Congress of Montreal (1910), 11 92.

Gibbons, Captain. Sent on search for North-West Passage, 1 156.

Gibbons, Major-General. Entertains Father Druillettes at Boston, 2 333.

Gibbs, M. W. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Gibbs, Thomas Nicholson (1821-83), superintendent-general of Indian Affairs (1873), 7 620.

Gibson, Alexander. Founder of Marysville, New Brunswick, 13 202.

Gibson, of Marysville. Supports commercial union, 9 166.

Gibson, Sir John Morison (b. 1842). Provincial secretary of Ontario, 17 200 n.;

  minister of Lands, 179, 216 n.;

  attorney-general, 180, 196 n.;

  his remark on Sault Ste Marie election frauds, 182;

  resigns as attorney-general, 183-4;

  lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 190 n.

Giffard, Robert (1587-1668), first seigneur of New France. Granted seigniory of Beauport (1634), 2 325, 536-7, 15 27;

  crops grown by, 16 506;

  brings out settlers, 15 27;

  nominated member of council, 2 330;

  ennobled, 569.

Giffin, T. H. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Gifford, Dr Retta. Canadian Methodist missionary to West China, 11 325.

Gilbert, Arthur. Returned for Drummond and Arthabasca on navy issue, 6 171-2.

Gilbert, Charles Henry (b. 1859), of Leland Stanford, Jr. University. Results of his researches into age of salmon through scale readings, 22 466-7.

Gildersleeve, Henry. Builder of the Sir James Kempt and the Commodore Barry, 10 499.

Gildersleeve. Lake Ontario steamboat, 10 538.

Gill, Charles. French-Canadian poet, 12 471.

Gill, Charles Ignace (d. 1901), judge. Descended from New England prisoner of war, 15 52.

Gill, Valentine. Makes second survey for Shubenacadie Canal, 13 270.

Gillam, Ben, son of Zachariah Gillam. Made prisoner by Radisson, 1 173-4.

Gillam, Zachariah. Sails for Hudson Bay but returns, 1 161;

  in first fur-trading expedition of Hudson’s Bay Company, 162, 20 366;

  connives at illicit trading, 1 173-4.

Gillespie, Thomas (1708-74). Forms Relief Presbyterian Church in Scotland, 11 257.

Gilmour, Boyd. Coal-mining expert, 21 122.

Gilmour, James. Assists in coal-mining development at Nanaimo, 21 122-3;

  returns to Scotland, 123.

Gilmour, John (1792-1869). Organizes first Baptist church in Montreal, 11 364.

Gingras, Apollinaire. French-Canadian poet, 12 469.

Gingras, Louis (1786-1866). Missionary priest in New Brunswick, 11 42.

Ginseng Trade. Its growth and decline, 2 513-4;

  value of the imports from Quebec in 1752, 514.

Gipps, Sir George (1791-1847). Member of commission for investigation of Canadian affairs, 3 320.

Girard de la Chaussée. Obtains grant from Company of New France, 15 27.

Girard, Jean (1696-1765). Teacher in Sulpician schools of Montreal, 16 338, 384.

Girard, Marc Amable (1832-92). His services during the Red River troubles, 11 158;

  member of provisional North-West Council, 19 198;

  premier of Manitoba (1874), 19 107.

Girard, curé. Embarks with his parishioners at Fort la Joye for Brest, 13 327;

  on foundering of the ship, 327-8.

Girod, Amury (d. 1837). Leader in insurrection in Lower Canada in 1837, 3 363, 364.

Girouard, Antoine (1762-1832), curé. Opens Latin school at St Hyacinthe, 16 411.

Gist, Christopher. Sent to prospect on behalf of British Ohio Company, 1 236.

Givins, James. Chief superintendent of Indian department for Upper Canada, 4 723.

Gjoa. Amundsen’s ship, completes the North-West Passage, 5 302 n.

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-98), secretary for War and the Colonies (1845-6). His position on colonial autonomy, 5 45-47;

  distinction between maritime and inland commerce routes drawn by, 133;

  and preference on colonial timber, 203-4;

  on imposition of differential duties by colonies, 213;

  and abolition of colonial preference, 216;

  favours fiscal freedom for self-governing colonies, 220-1;

  aids reciprocity movement, 222-3, 236;

  and Intercolonial Railway survey, 14 407;

  and Rebellion Losses Bill, 5 57-58;

  and postponement of responsible government in Prince Edward Island, 13 368, 14 500;

  opposes grant of Vancouver Island to Hudson’s Bay Company, 21 81;

  subscribes for founding of Trinity College, Toronto, 18 374.

Gladwyn, Henry (d. 1791), major. His defence of Detroit, 3 61-63, 65-67, 69.

Gladwyn. Lakes schooner, built (1763), 10 485;

  aids in defence of Detroit, 3 61.

Glapion, Augustin Louis de (1719-90), Jesuit. Appeals on behalf of Jesuit College, 16 365;

  requests that Jesuits may be permitted to resume teaching, 401.

Glasgow Colonial Society (Presbyterian). Its work in Nova Scotia, 11 263-4.

Glasier, John. Builds saw-mills on the Nashwaak River, 14 602.

Glasier, John (the ‘main John Glasier’), (d. 1894). First lumberman to bring a drive over Grand Falls, 14 602.

Glass, Charles Gordon. Forms Scottish Presbyterian settlement in Carleton County, New Brunswick, 14 404.

Glave, E. J. First to employ horses in the Yukon, 22 618.

Glazunof, Russian explorer. Explores the Yukon River, 5 307.

Gleason-Huguenin, Mrs (‘Madeleine’). Author of Premier péché, 12 488.

Glenelg, Charles Grant, Baron (1778-1866), secretary for War and the Colonies (1835-9). Negotiates boundary treaty with United States, 8 791;

  recalls Colborne, 3 351;

  his instructions to Sir F. Bond Head, 352-3;

  and responsible government, 353-4;

  regards clergy reserves as a Canadian question, 4 442-3;

  and popular control of executive council, 3 355-6;

  Indian policy of, 5 335-6, 339-40;

  favours Canadian postal reform, 4 756;

  his instructions to Durham, 391, 407.

Glengarry Fencibles. First Catholic military corps to be formed in Great Britain after Reformation, organized by Father Alexander Macdonell (1794), 11 41, 17 67;

  their services in Guernsey and Ireland, 67;

  settle in Upper Canada after Peace of Amiens, 11 41, 17 67-68;

  re-embodied in War of 1812, 3 210, 17 69;

  at battle of Lundy’s Lane, 3 258;

  locate along Rideau Canal route, 17 76.

Glengarry Settlement. First Scottish Catholic immigrations, 11 26-27;

  disbanded Glengarry Fencibles in, 41, 17 65-69.

Glenie, James (1750-1817), radical reformer. Elected to New Brunswick assembly, 13 174;

  in conflict with Lieutenant-Governor Carleton, 174;

  fights duel with General Coffin, 174;

  radical measure of, summarily rejected by council, 178;

  discredited on boundaries on upper St John, 179.

Glenlyon House (afterwards Fort Frances). Built by Robert Campbell (1840), 5 308, 22 605.

  See also Fort Frances.

Glenmount. Lakes freighter, 10 556.

Globe, newspaper. Established by George Brown (1844), 5 61.

Glynn, Mills, Currie and Company. Financial agents of Dominion government, 7 485.

Godé, François. One of first habitants at Montreal, 16 507.

Godefroy, Jacques. Treats with Pontiac, 3 62.

Godefroy, Jean Paul, Sieur. Obtains grant from Company of New France, 15 27;

  nominated a member of council, 2 330;

  ambassador to New England, 334.

Goderich, Frederick John Robinson, Viscount, afterwards Earl of Ripon (1782-1859), secretary for War and Colonies (1827, 1830-3). Negotiates boundary convention with United States (1818), 8 842;

  and John Galt’s scheme of settlement, 17 88, 91;

  gives name to township in Upper Canada, 91;

  condemns proceedings against Mackenzie, 3 344-5;

  his interviews with Mackenzie, 346;

  on alternative to dissolution in Upper Canada, 347-8;

  and endowment of church rectories, 351;

  opposes an elective council, 4 467;

  and proposed Lower Canada convention, 443.

Godfrey, Alexander. Captain of Liverpool privateer Rover, 13 111;

  his fight with the Santa Ritta, 253.

Goforth, Jonathan (b. 1859). Presbyterian missionary to China, 11 291.

Goggin, David James (b. 1849). Rector of Protestant normal school at Winnipeg, 20 439;

  superintendent of education in North-West Territories, 466;

  on separate schools question, 19 262.

Gold.

  Deposits of Appalachian Region, 9 32-33;

  of Cordilleran Region, 54-55;

  Knight’s expedition to Far North in search of, 1 194-5;

  fall in production (1867-78), 9 121;

  production, (1879-96) 184-5, (1896-1912) 247.

  Quebec: discoveries and production (1911), 16 581.

  Nova Scotia:

    discoveries and methods of working, 14 691-3;

    fall in production (1867-74), 9 121;

    production (1896-1912), 247;

    royalty, 14 475.

New Brunswick:

    royalty on, and prospecting licence, 493;

    poverty in deposits, 691.

  Ontario:

    Huronian Mine and other discoveries, 18 609-20;

    a ‘boom,’ 623-4;

    raid on Richardson mine, 624;

    Porcupine area (with plan), 631-3, 9 247;

    production (1911), 17 219-20.

  British Columbia:

    early discoveries, regulations, and development, 21 140-2, 155, 22 558-62;

    rush in 1858, 21 134-6, 139, 22 560-1;

    a period of depression, 21 154;

    a newspaper of the fields, 156;

    evasion of payment of royalty, 158-9;

    values (1858, 1863, 1860-9), 22 561;

    yields of Williams and Lightning Creeks, 561-2;

    other placer diggings, 562;

    discoveries (1896-1912), 9 247, 257;

    potential wealth of Cariboo, 22 557;

    placer statistics, 567;

    lode statistics, 568, 569.

  Yukon:

    the Klondike rush, 606-7;

    criticism of administration (1901), 610;

    account of industry, 619-34;

    ‘ground-sluicing and shovelling in’ and ‘drifting,’ 620-3;

    steam-thawer, 623-5;

    use of pulsometer in thawing pay-dirt, 625;

    the ‘Dawson carrier,’ 626;

    open-cutting and ground-sluicing, 626-7;

    methods on ‘hillside’ claims, 627-9;

    washing and separating apparatus, 629-30;

    hydraulic plant, 630;

    impounding dam near Bonanza Creek, 630-1;

    an artificial waterway, 631;

    wealth of gravels, 631-2;

    table showing quantities and values of output from 1885 to 1911, 633.

  North-West Territories:

    Sir Martin Frobisher’s stampede, 654-5;

    occurrences of the metal, 655.

Gold Harbour (or Mitchell), west coast of Queen Charlotte Island. Gold discoveries and workings at, 22 559-60.

Golden Hind (formerly the Pelican). Ship in which Drake circumnavigated the globe, 21 16.

Goldsmith, Oliver (1787-1861). Publishes The Rising Village, 12 566-7, 13 244.

Gomez, Stephen, Portuguese navigator. At Cape Breton Island and in Bay of Fundy, 1 25-26.

Gonzales, João. Granted exploring privileges, 1 24.

Good, Charles. Clerk of council, British Columbia, 21 148, 166 and n.

Good Intent.

  (1) Prize taken by the Revenge of Halifax, gives rise to lawsuit, 13 224.

  (2) Lake Erie vessel, 10 491.

Good Shepherd, Sisters of the. Established in St John, 11 79;

  in diocese of Montreal, 88;

  in Quebec, 98;

  in Chicoutimi, 109, 16 439;

  in Halifax, 11 83;

  at New Westminster, 179;

  in Winnipeg, 195.

Goodeve, Arthur Samuel (b. 1860). Provincial secretary of British Columbia, 21 230;

  member of Forestry Commission, 22 496.

Goodside, Abram. Boatswain’s mate of the Beauport, murdered in Halifax harbour, 13 85.

Goold, Colonel. His warning to settlers at Maugerville, 13 136.

Gordon, Dr Alexander. Son-in-law of Lieutenant-Governor Patterson, of Prince Edward Island, 13 351.

Gordon, Sir Arthur Hamilton, Baron Stanmore (b. 1829), lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (1861-6). His attitude to Confederation, 14 413-4;

  aids militia organization, 414;

  intervenes in railway navvies’ disputes, 414-5.

Gordon, Charles William, ‘Ralph Connor’ (b. 1860). Sketch of, 12 553;

  his romances and sketches, 554-6.

Gordon, Daniel Miner (b. 1845). On agricultural productiveness of the Territories, 20 587.

Gordon, George Tomlin, colonial treasurer of Vancouver Island. His contest with DeCosmos, 21 132.

Gordon, John (1792-1869), captain R.N. Sent on mission to British Columbia, 8 868;

  unfounded ‘fish’ story circulated on his opinion of the country, 868 n., 21 88.

Gordon, John Simpson (b. 1865). Member of senate of University of British Columbia, 22 442.

Gordon, Lieutenant, commander at Fort Venango. Slain by Indians, 3 64.

Gore, Sir Charles Stephen (1793-1869). In command in Lower Canada during Rebellion of 1837, 3 362.

Gore, Francis (1769-1832), lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1806-18). Encounters dissensions in executive council, 3 184-5;

  granted leave of absence, 185, 330.

Gore, Graham, lieutenant R.N. Deposits record in Ross’s cairn (1847), 5 296 n.

Gore, Captain. Succeeds to command of Cook’s last expedition, 21 29;

  proposes East India Company should engage in fur trade, 30.

Gore. First steam merchantman in Georgian Bay, 10 499, 543.

Gore Bank. Founded at Hamilton (1835), 4 628;

  claims share in government assistance, 633;

  absorbed by Canadian Bank of Commerce, 10 637.

Goreham, Joseph, lieutenant-colonel. His defence of Fort Cumberland, 13 135.

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando (c. 1566-1647). Boundaries of his grant in New England, 8 792.

Gosford, Archibald Acheson, second Earl of (1776-1849), governor-in-chief of the Canadas (1835-8). His conciliatory policy in Lower Canada, 3 320-1;

  orders arrest of Papineau and O’Callaghan, 3 362;

  returns to England, 363;

  his tribute to Bishop Macdonell of Kingston, 11 52-53.

Gosford Railway Company. Experiments with wooden rails, 15 177.

Gosselin, Amédée (b. 1863). Archivist of Laval University, 12 460.

Gosselin, Auguste Honoré (b. 1843). French-Canadian historian, 12 460.

Gosset, W. Driscoll. His salary as first treasurer of British Columbia, 21 147.

Gotteville de Belle Ile, Daniel de. See Belle Ile.

Goudge, Monson. Opposes Joseph Howe in Hants election contest, 14 382.

Goudie, James (1809-92). Designer of the Royal William, 10 592.

Goudy. Scottish pioneer settler at Georgetown, Quebec, 15 157.

Gouin, Sir Lomer (b. 1861), premier of Quebec (1905). Joins Marchand’s administration, 15 210;

  at interprovincial conference of 1901, 212;

  as premier, 212-5;

  and timber lands of province, 16 534-5.

Goulburn, Henry (1784-1856). British signatory to Treaty of Ghent, 8 771;

  boundary commissioner, 842.

Goulet, J. J. Orchestral leader, 12 649.

Goulet, Roger (d. 1902). Collector of customs in Riel’s provisional government, 19 85 n.;

  commissioner to settle half-breeds’ claims, 212.

Goulet. Implicated in death of Thomas Scott, 19 98;

  his death by drowning, 98.

Goulet. Roman Catholic schools inspector in Manitoba, 20 439.

Gourlay, Robert Fleming (1778-1863), Upper Canada reformer. His proposed reforms, trials, and banishment, 3 329-30.

Gourlay, Robert S. (b. 1852). His attitude to British preference on manufactured articles, 9 211 n.

Government.

  Dominion.

    Special Articles:

      Federal Government, 6 271-376;

      Federal Constitution, 209-67.

    Governor-general:

      mode of appointment, powers and functions, 272-7;

      disallowance of act of 1868 providing for reduction in salary, 7 509 n.;

      shrinkage in importance of office, 5 78-79.

    Governor-general’s secretary: his duties, military and civil, 6 277-8.

    Privy Council: mode of appointment, tenure of office, and membership, 278-9.

    Parliament:

      its three branches, 279;

      theory of the constitution, 280.

      The Senate: composition, mode of appointment, qualifications for membership, 280-2;

      speaker and other officers, 282-4;

      originates divorce bills, 284;

      its diminished place, 284-6;

      proposed reforms, 15 198.

      House of Commons: functions and powers, 6 286;

      opening of parliament, 286-7;

      election of speaker, 287-8;

      parliamentary procedure and party discipline, 288-90;

      party ‘whips’ and caucuses, 290-1;

      office of speaker, 292-3;

      commissioners of Internal Economy, 292;

      officers of the house, 293-4;

      its unrestricted freedom of speech, 294;

      number of representatives and qualifications for membership, 294;

      manner of giving royal assent to bills, 295;

      power of reserving and of disallowing bills, 295-7;

      manner of election of new parliament, 297-8;

      the ‘mandate’ theory, 298-9;

      ministerial resignation after defeat at polls, 299;

      nominations at hands of defeated ministries, 299-300.

      Cabinet: constitution and functions, 300-1;

      number of portfolios, 301;

      assignment of portfolios on geographical and racial lines, 302;

      advisory and executive functions, 302-4;

      quorum, 304.

    Prime minister:

      his functions and duties, 304-6;

      holds prerogative of dissolution, 297;

      rise and growth of office, 374-5;

      compared with United States president, 375;

      increase in salary, 157;

      dual first ministers, 306;

      limitations in choice of colleagues, 307;

      powers of patronage, 307-8.

    Leader of the Opposition:

      institution of salary (1905), 157;

      effect of the payment, 158.

      President of Privy Council: office and its duties, 308-9;

      issues ‘orders-in-council,’ 309-10;

      and cabinet meetings, 310.

    Minister of Finance:

      his status and duties, 311;

      framing of the Estimates, 312;

      original name and branches of his department, 313-4.

      Treasury Board: its composition and duties, 314.

    Auditor-general, 315-6.

    Minister of Justice, 316-9.

    Solicitor-general, 302, 320.

    Secretary of state: his duties, 320-2;

    custodian of the seals, 320-1.

    Department of External Affairs, 322-4.

    King’s Printer, 324-5.

    Minister of Public Works:

      his duties, 325-6;

      difficulties of his position, 326.

    Minister of Railways and Canals: undertakings under his control, 327-8.

    Department of the Interior:

      its responsibilities and organization, 328-31;

      its immigration propaganda, 330.

    Department of Indian Affairs, 331-2.

    Department of Agriculture, 333-4.

    Dominion Archives, 334-5.

    Post Office department, 336-7.

    Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 337-9.

    Department of Marine and Fisheries: commission of investigation into charges against, 164.

    Department of Naval Service, 339.

    Minister of Customs, 339-41.

    Minister of Trade and Commerce, 341-3.

    Mines department, 343-4.

    Minister of Militia and Defence:

      his functions, 345-6;

      technical and professional advisers, 346-7.

    Minister of Inland Revenue, 348-9.

    Royal North-West Mounted Police, 349-51.

    Department of Labour:

      its attitude to labour disputes, 352;

      operations under Industrial Disputes Act (1907), 353-4.

    Deputy ministers:

      duties and responsibilities, 354-5;

      suggested system of parliamentary under-secretaries, 355-6.

    Private secretaries to ministers, 356-7.

    Library of parliament, 357.

    Civil Service Commission, 357-9;

    reforms effected through commission of 1907, 359-62.

    Commission of Conservation, 363-4.

    International Joint Commission, 363-9.

    High Commissioner, 369-70;

    successive holders of office, 370.

    Agent of Canada in Paris, 370-1.

    Supreme Court, 371-2.

    Exchequer Court, 372-3;

    created a Colonial Court of Admiralty, 373-4.

  Federal Constitution:

    constituent parts and fundamental arrangements, 6 209-15;

    its statutory foundation, 215-6;

    the crown in Canada, 216-7;

    Dominion veto of provincial acts, 218-21;

    imperial legislation affecting Canada, 221-3;

    Canadian legislative powers, 223-6;

    observations on Federation Act, 226-9;

    contrasts with United States, 229-30;

    general scheme of Dominion powers, 231-2;

    provincial residuary power, 232-3;

    predominance of Dominion laws, 233-5;

    limitation of provincial powers, 235-6;

    Federation Act as a whole, 236-8;

    plenary powers of Canadian legislatures, 238-41;

    Dominion interference with provincial legislation, 241-2;

    provincial interference with Dominion legislation, 242-3;

    provincial independence and autonomy, 243-4;

    legislative power distributed by subject, not by area, 245-8;

    aspects of legislation, 248-50;

    true nature and character of legislation, 250-2;

    proprietary rights under Federation Act, 252-3;

    Dominion specific powers, 253-60;

    provincial powers, 260-4;

    a constructive feat of statesmanship, 264-7;

    Navigation and shipping, 254;

    seacoast and inland fisheries, 254-6;

    bankruptcy and insolvency, 256;

    copyright, 257;

    Indians and lands reserved for the Indians, 257;

    naturalization and aliens, 257-8;

    marriage and divorce, 258-9;

    classes of subjects not expressly excepted assigned to provinces, 259-60;

    municipal institutions, 260-1;

    shop, saloon, tavern, auctioneer, and other licences, etc., 261;

    incorporation of companies with provincial objects, 261-3;

    solemnization of marriage in province, 263;

    property and civil rights in province, 263-4;

    Position of the crown, 209-10;

    Privy Council of Canada, 210;

    composition of Dominion parliament, 210;

    readjustment of representation in House of Commons after decennial censuses, 211;

    power of disallowance, 211-2;

    proposed transference of power of disallowance, 15 198;

    the lieutenant-governors, 6 212;

    lieutenant-governor’s power in reservation of bills, 214;

    provincial constitutions after Confederation, 212-4;

    proposed abolition of legislative councils, 15 198-9;

    courts and judicature, 6 214;

    colonial governors not viceroys, 217;

    Sir Georges E. Cartier’s comparison of British with American constitution, 15 170-1;

    difference between Canadian and United States constitutions, 271;

    three factors in political development, 6 203-5;

    growth in Canada’s powers of self-government, 204-5.

  See also Confederation.

  Quebec.

    Special Article: Government of Quebec, 15 219-36.

    Legislative Council:

      number of members, mode of appointment, and qualifications, 219;

      sessional indemnity, 219.

      Legislative Assembly: members and sessional indemnity, 219-20.

    Executive Council or Cabinet:

      composition, 220;

      salaries of members, 222;

      changes in organization, 221;

      names and duties of public departments, 221-2;

      functions and powers of executive council, 222-4.

    Powers of lieutenant-governor in council, 223-4.

    Agent-general, 224.

    Attorney-general, 224-5.

    Public Utilities Commission, 225.

    Department of Provincial Secretary:

      its duties and powers, 225-7;

      incorporation of joint-stock companies, 227.

    Treasury department:

      its duties and powers, 227-30;

      mode of issue and cost of marriage licences, 230.

    Lands and Forests, 230-2;

    ‘location tickets’ and ‘patents,’ 231;

    outdoor service and fire protection system, 232.

    Agriculture, 232-3.

    Roads, 233.

    Colonization, Mines and Fisheries, 233-4.

    Public Works and Labour, 234-5.

    Public Instruction, 235-6.

  Atlantic Provinces. Special Article: Provincial and Local Government, 14 435-508.

  Nova Scotia.

    Governor:

      Cornwallis’s commission, 14 437-40;

      his negative voice in law-making, 439;

      title changed to ‘lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief,’ 442;

      his powers and jurisdiction, 442-3.

    Lieutenant-governor:

      change made in original title, 442-3;

      powers and immunities before Confederation, 444;

      his place in federal constitution, 445;

      his pardoning power, 445.

    Executive Council:

      Cornwallis’s commission with reference to nominations, 437;

      and the filling of vacancies, 437-8;

      a miniature of Curia Regis, 446;

      its presidency, 446;

      some of original appointments made by crown, 446;

      its membership, 446-7;

      duties and powers, 447;

      its abuse of privileges and entrenched position against assembly, 447;

      Joseph Howe secures its reform, 447-8;

      present constitution, 449.

    Legislative Council:

      constituted in 1838, 448;

      its establishment concurrent with suppression of law-making powers of executive, 450;

      system of nomination and membership, 450;

      disqualifications of membership, 450;

      its privileges, immunities, and powers, 451;

      its officers, 451.

    Legislative Assembly:

      Cornwallis’s commission, 438-9;

      law-making power subject to disallowance, 439;

      representative institutions the creation of no formal charter, 436, 441;

      assumes control of casual and territorial revenues, 449;

      original function solely legislative, 451;

      paralysed through lack of control over purse, 451-2;

      not co-equal with British House of Commons, 452;

      Catholic tests and their abolition, 452-3;

      the imperial Renunciation Act of 1778 waives right of levying tribute on colonies, but affirms that of imposing duties for regulation of commerce, 454-5;

      imperial acts extending colonial powers over customs, trade, and navigation, 455;

      provincial fiscal autonomy prior to Confederation, 455;

      membership, 455;

      privileges and immunities of members, 455-6;

      qualifications and disqualifications, 456;

      electoral qualifications, 456-7;

      power and procedure in finance, 457-8;

      officers of the house, 458-9;

      law-making powers, 459-60;

      sphere of jurisdiction, 460.

    Public departments:

      Attorney-general, 461-2;

      Crown Lands, 462;

      Provincial Secretary, 462;

      Provincial Treasurer, 462;

      Public Works and Mines, 462-3;

      Deputy King’s Printer, 463;

      Education, 463;

      Agriculture, 463-4.

  New Brunswick:

    Public departments, 14 487-8;

      provincial government, 480-94;

      machinery of government, 480-1;

      lieutenant-governor, 481 (see under Nova Scotia).

      Executive Council, 481;

      its first meeting, 482;

      separated from legislative council (1833), 482;

      formed into cabinet (1848), 482;

      its separation from the legislature not followed by amenity to popular control, 483.

    Legislative Council:

      deadlock with assembly on payment of members, and its result, 483, 484;

      its separation from the executive, 483.

    Legislative Assembly:

      first called (1786), 482;

      its term, 485;

      number of representatives, 486;

      qualifications of members, 486;

      provincial franchise, 486;

      its officers, 487;

      sphere of jurisdiction, 487 (see under Nova Scotia).

  Prince Edward Island:

    lieutenant-governor, 14 498;

    legislative council becomes an elective body, 501.

    Executive Council, 498.

    Legislative Assembly:

      merges legislative council, 501-2;

      qualifications for electors, 502;

      officers of the house, 502.

    Public departments of government, 503.

  Ontario.

    Special Article: Provincial Executive Organization, 17 189-240.

    The legislature, 189-90.

    Lieutenant-governor, 190-3;

    his commission, 191-2;

    lieutenant-governors (1867-1913), with dates of appointment, 190 n.

    Cabinet, 193-5;

    changes in organization, 193-4.

    President of the council, 195.

    Attorney-general, 195-8;

    attorneys-general (1867-1913), 196 n.;

    registration of land titles, 198;

    superintendent of insurance, 198-9;

    municipal auditor, 199.

    Secretary and Registrar, 200-9;

    successive holders of office (1867-1913), 200 n.;

    administration of Companies Act, 201;

    statistics showing growth of companies, 201-2;

    administration of Motor Vehicle Act, 202;

    Registry Branch, 202;

    prisons, asylums, and eleemosynary institutions, 202-4;

    Central Prison—its history and methods of administration, 202-3;

    Mercer Reformatory, 203;

    hospitals for insane and feeble-minded, with statistics, 203-4;

    provincial board of health, 205-6;

    collection of vital statistics, 206-7;

    Liquor Licence Branch, 207-9.

    Treasurer, 210-5;

    treasurers (1867-1913), with dates of appointment, 210 n.

    The Auditor, 215.

    Bureau of Archives, 216.

    King’s Printer, 216.

    Minister of Lands, Forests, and Mines, 216-20;

    ministers (1867-1913), with dates of appointment, 216 n.;

    National Parks, 218;

    Mines, 218-20.

    Minister of Education 220-9;

    ministers (1876-1913), with dates of appointment, 220 n.;

    Public Works department, 230-2;

    commissioners (1867-1913), with dates of appointment, 230 n.;

    game and fisheries, 230-1;

    Bureau of Labour, 231-2.

    Department of Agriculture, 232-5;

    commissioners and ministers (1867-1913), with dates of appointment, 232 n.

    Special commissions, 235-40.

  Prairie Provinces.

    Special Article: Provincial Executive Organizations, 20 331-46.

    Lieutenant-governor and executive council, 340-1;

    oath taken by executive, 340 n.;

    work of public officers, 341-3;

    department of Agriculture, 344;

    health officers, 344-5;

    care of mentally diseased, etc., 345;

    supervision over business corporations, 345;

    registration of land titles, 345.

  British Columbia.

    Special Article: Public Administration of British Columbia, 22 349-84.

    Early government of Vancouver Island, 351-3;

    and of the mainland colony, 353-4;

    political constitution, 357-8;

    representation in federal parliament, 358;

    executive departments, 366-7;

    sessional indemnity, 367;

    provincial board of health, 368-9;

    government inspection of mining, logging, and railway camps, 369;

    care of indigent and aged, 369;

    provincial asylum, 370;

    aids to hospitals, 370-1;

    prison farms and industrial schools, 371.

  Government.

    See

      Proclamation of 1763;

      Quebec Act; Constitutional Act;

      Constitutional Development;

      United Canada;

      Provincial Rights.

Governor. Schooner on Toronto-Halifax route, 10 540.

Governor Douglas. First steamer built in British Columbia, 10 570.

Governor-General’s Body Guard of Toronto. Employed in suppressing North-West Rebellion, 7 431, 434.

Governor-General’s Foot Guards of Ottawa. Employed in suppressing North-West Rebellion, 7 431.

Gow, Peter. Provincial secretary of Ontario, 17 129, 200 n.

Gowan, Sir James Robert (1815-1909). Commissioner to investigate Pacific Scandal, 6 58.

Gowen, Chas. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Grace, Thomas. Missionary priest in Maritime Provinces, 11 42.

Grace and Company. Owners of a Pacific line of steamships, 10 619.

Graham, Frank T. (b. 1869). Author of Histrionic Montreal, 12 654.

Graham, George Perry (b. 1859). Provincial secretary of Ontario, 17 183, 200 n.;

  Dominion minister of Railways, 184.

Graham, Hugh (1754-1829). Member of first permanent presbytery in Canada, 11 259.

Graham, H. Engraver, 12 631.

Graham, J. L. Landscape artist, 12 622.

Graham, John Wellington (b. 1871). Secretary of Methodist Board of Education, 11 338.

Graham, Stephen. A grantee of township of Murray, 17 44.

Graham, Thomas. Inspector of mines, British Columbia, 22 580.

Graham, Captain. Killed while on a punitive expedition in British Columbia, 21 152-3.

Grahame, James Allan (d. 1905). Manager at Victoria for Hudson’s Bay Company, 21 154.

Grahame. Steamer on the Mackenzie River, 19 170.

Grain-Growers’ Association of Saskatchewan. Formation of, 20 563-4.

Grain-Growers’ Grain Company. Leases provincial elevators of Manitoba, 19 133, 20 319.

Gram, M. Gregors. Arbitrator in Bering Sea dispute, 8 726.

Grampian. Allan liner, 10 606.

Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Company. Its operations in British Columbia, 22 577, 578, 579.

Granche (Grange) Mountains. Named by Jacques Cartier, 1 30.

Grand Falls, St John River. Fortified post constructed at, 13 175.

Grand Island, Niagara Falls. Exchanged for Wolfe Island, 8 829.

Grand Manan Island. Disputed ownership of, 8 769.

Grand Portage. Route first mentioned, 1 116;

  La Vérendrye at, 118;

  favourite route for traders until American independence, 106.

Grand Pré. Colonel Noble defeated at, 13 81;

  Acadian expulsion from, 95-96.

Grand River Improvement. Canal constructed from Dunnville to Brantford, 10 530-1;

  canal falls into disuse, 531.

Grand River Navigation Company. Loss of funds of Six Nations in, 5 344.

Grand Sault. See Long Sault.

Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Charter granted to Trans-Canada Railway, 10 457;

  Grand Trunk proposal for line from North Bay to Pacific, 458;

  joint project of Dominion government and Grand Trunk Railway, 6 148-9;

  route and connections, 9 148-9, 10 461-2;

  terms of construction, 6 149, 9 264, 10 459-60;

  accorded Liberal party support, 458-9;

  bill introduced by Laurier becomes law, 6 149-50;

  modifications in terms, 150, 10 460;

  Opposition’s alternative policy, 460-1;

  its stable construction, 9 199, 10 462;

  government supervision of building, 6 327-8;

  its line in Saskatchewan, 20 566;

  dry dock at Port Arthur, 10 588;

  its stimulus to British Columbia, 22 360-1;

  steamer service on Pacific coast, 10 573.

Grand Trunk Railway. Its charter real beginning of Canadian construction, 10 395;

  three acts under which it was chartered, 396-7;

  prospectus issued in London, England, 399;

  projected lines with mileage, 399-400;

  capital, 400;

  advantages as an investment, 400;

  estimates of revenue, 401;

  association of government with directorate, 401;

  its glowing prospectus, 401-2;

  incorporates other lines, 405;

  conflict and agreement with Great Western, 405-7;

  anticipations of handsome dividends, 408;

  its financial difficulties, 409-10;

  Brassey’s admission to English stockholders, 411;

  estimated compared with actual operating costs, 411-2;

  faults in construction, 412;

  reckless expenditures of, 412;

  unable to compete with waterways, 413;

  government assistance to, 413-4;

  guarantees to and treasury losses on, 5 174, 177-8;

  in financial straits, 10 416;

  its mileage rate for mail carriage, 5 398;

  refuses to undertake Canadian Pacific construction, 10 424;

  average earnings per mile per week (1867), 425;

  losses through depreciated paper currency, 425;

  rail and water competition, 425;

  imperfect through connections, 426;

  proposed change of name, 426;

  defective transportation conditions, 426;

  friction between management and directorate, 427;

  opposes North Shore charter, 429;

  involved in rate wars, 429-30;

  abortive negotiations and final amalgamation of Great Western, 430, 435-6;

  strategic expansion of, and conflict with Canadian Pacific, 435-8;

  depreciation of stocks caused by railway feud, 438;

  and Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, 465;

  its lines and connections in Prairie Provinces, 20 311-2, 566;

  its steamship and car ferry services, 10 546, 547-8;

  the father of Confederation, 5 6.

Grand Trunk Railway Brigade. Raised to guard lines of communication during Fenian raids, 7 408, 412.

Grande Hermine. One of Cartier’s ships, 1 34, 36, 38.

Grandfontaine, Hector D’Audigny, Chevalier, commander in Acadia. His census of Acadia (1671), 13 52.

Grandidier, Charles. Missionary priest at Fort Hope, Fraser River, 11 146.

Grandin, Henri, O.M.I. Missionary priest in North-West, 11 161.

Grandin, Vital Justin (1829-1902), Roman Catholic bishop of St Albert (1871-1902). Arrives at St Boniface, 11 139;

  at Lake Athabaska, 139;

  coadjutor to Bishop Taché, 140;

  an extended pastoral visitation, 143;

  his rescue on Great Slave Lake, 143-4;

  superintendent of Saskatchewan missions, 149;

  and the Métis, 167-8;

  his work after North-West Rebellion, 172;

  death of, 186.

Grannis, William, of Stanstead. One of grantors of site of Stanstead Academy, 16 460.

Grant, Alexander (1727-1813), president and administrator of Upper Canada (1805-6). Member of executive council, 3 173;

  in conflict with legislative assembly, 183-4.

Grant, Alexander. Captain of the Brunswick (1767), 10 486.

Grant, Alexander. On racial components of Halifax, and facilities for drinking (1749), 11 27.

Grant, Andrew Shaw. Presbyterian missionary to the Yukon, 11 293, 294.

Grant, Charles. Signs Quebec traders’ petition (1770), 15 140.

Grant, Charles William, Baron de Longueuil (1780-1848), 2 569.

Grant, Cuthbert (d. 1799). Sent by Pond to build trading-post on Great Slave Lake, 4 651.

Grant, Cuthbert. Raises Métis on behalf of North-West Company, 19 35;

  leads half-breeds at Seven Oaks, 36-37;

  ‘Warden of the Plains’ for Council of Assiniboia, 19 53.

Grant, David Alexander. Deputy receiver-general’s legal attorney, 4 493.

Grant, George Monro (1835-1902). Aids in re-establishing Dalhousie College, 13 263;

  his transcontinental journey in 1872, 12 517;

  literary and editorial work of, 517-8, 523;

  principal of Queen’s, 18 390;

  declines office in Ontario cabinet, 17 164-5;

  opposes commercial union, 6 110;

  as an inspirational force, 18 391-2;

  opposes university federation, 394;

  his biography, 12 510.

Grant, Richard. Justice of peace for Vancouver Island, 21 87.

Grant, Ulysses Simpson (1822-85), president of United States. Criticizes Canadian seizures of fishing vessels, 6 46;

  at a railway celebration, 14 408;

  and Alaska Boundary Commission, 8 930;

  his non-committal message on reciprocity, 6 68.

Grant, Sir William (1752-1832). Deputy receiver-general of Quebec, 4 493;

  and settlement of dues owed to crown, 497;

  favours elective assembly, 3 121;

  action taken against and amount recovered from, 4 500.

Grant, W. Colquhoun. First independent settler on Vancouver Island, 21 89, 121;

  sells out and returns to England, 121;

  on desertions from Hudson’s Bay Company’s service, 122.

Grant, William Lawson (b. 1872). Joint author of Life of George Monro Grant, 12 510.

Grant, Ensign. At siege of Louisbourg (1768), 1 224.

Granville, George Leveson-Gower, second Earl (1815-91), colonial secretary (1868-70, 1886). On transcontinental railway, 10 421;

  proposes fisheries arrangement with United States, 8 694.

Grape Island, Bay of Quinte. School for Indian children established at, 5 349.

Grass, Michael. Settles New York loyalists at Cataraqui, 17 25.

Graton, Damien (1858-91). Priest frozen to death at Regina, 11 180.

Gravel, Elphège (1838-1904). Roman Catholic bishop of Nicolet (1885-1904), 11 108.

Graves, Samuel (1713-87), British admiral. Refuses to sail up St Lawrence in October (1775), 3 77.

Gray, Andrew (d. 1826). Minister of Protestant Dissenters’ Church, Halifax, 11 258.

Gray, Hugh. Predicts commercial primacy of Quebec, 15 305.

Gray, James, major of New York King’s Royal Regiment. Signs loyalist petition (1785), 17 35.

Gray, James (1763-1804), solicitor-general of Upper Canada. Drowned on the Speedy, 10 492.

Gray, John Hamilton (d. 1887). Member of Prince Edward Island Land Commission (1860), 13 366.

Gray, John Hamilton (d. 1889), judge, British Columbia. Reports on Chinese immigration, 21 260-2.

Gray, Robert (1755-1806), American navigator. At launch of the North-West America at Nootka, 21 36-37;

  winters at Nootka Sound in the Lady Washington, 37, 42;

  exchanges for the Columbia, 38;

  explores estuary of the Columbia River, which he names after his ship (1792), 8 849, 21 38-39;

  claims based on his discoveries, 8 843.

Gray, Thomas (1787-1848). His predictions on economic and social influence of railway, 10 365-6.

Gray, Senator, of Delaware. Member of Joint High Commission, 6 135.

Gray’s ‘Elegy.’ Recited by Wolfe on evening preceding final attack on Quebec, 1 296.

G. R. Crowe. Lakes freighter, 10 557.

Great Bear Lake. Surveyed by Sir John Franklin, 4 683;

  its area, 9 24, 22 641.

Great Bear River. Blazing coal seam on, seen by Mackenzie, 4 678.

Great Britain.

  (1) Steamboat on upper St Lawrence (1830), 10 499.

  (2) Vessel, stranding of which demonstrated superiority of metal over wooden hull, 10 586.

Great Fish River (Back River). Explored by George Back (1833), 4 686-7.

Great Meadows. Washington’s surrender at, 1 237, 13 89.

Great Northern Railway. Its extension into Canada, 10 462-3.

Great Northern Transit Company. One of original constituents of Northern Navigation Company, 10 555.

Great Slave Lake. Discovered by Samuel Hearne and named Athapuscow, 4 649, 672;

  Alexander Mackenzie on, 674, 678;

  its area, 9 24.

Great Western.

  (1) Sails from Bristol to New York (1838), 5 365.

  (2) First steamer with an upper-deck cabin (1839), 10 544.

  (3) Windsor-Detroit car ferry, 10 547.

Great Western Railway. Lapse and revival of charter, 10 392;

  endeavours to obtain imperial loan, 392-3;

  beginning of construction, 393, 395;

  obtains capital in United States, 395;

  municipal subscriptions to, 397-8;

  conflict and final amalgamation with Grand Trunk, 405-7, 425, 430, 435-6;

  anticipations of large dividends, 408;

  its faulty construction, 411-2;

  position between 1860 and 1867, 416;

  lawsuit with Commercial Bank, 5 290;

  mail service and rate, 398, 7 635;

  lake steamer services, 10 545, 546;

  friction in management, 427;

  involved in rate wars, 429-30.

Great Western Steamship Company, of Bristol. Tenders for first transatlantic steam mail service, 10 596, 597.

Grecian. Canadian Navigation Company steamer, 10 539.

Greeks. As immigrants in Canada, 7 566-7.

Greeley, Horace (1811-72). Favours commercial union, 9 165.

Greely, Adolphus Washington (1844), American military officer and explorer. His Arctic expedition of 1881-4, 5 302 n.

Green, J. C. A promoter of the Agricultural Bank, 4 629.

Green, R. F. Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 21 230.

Green Bay, Wisconsin. Explored by Jean Nicolet, 1 60;

  Ottawas at, 69;

  tribes on, 80, 101, 102, 103, 111.

Greene, Henry. Mutineer of the Discovery, 1 152;

  killed by Eskimos, 154-5.

Greenland. East coast named ‘Labrador’s Land’ by John Cabot, 1 22;

  west coast sighted by Gaspar Corte Real, 23.

Greenway, Thomas (1838-1908), premier of Manitoba (1888-1900). Denounces ‘better terms’ agreement, 19 118-9;

  premier, 120;

  and ‘disallowance,’ 122;

  and separate schools controversy, 11 175-7.

Gregory, George. Signs Quebec traders’ petition (1770), 15 140.

Gregory and McLeod. Montreal fur traders, sometime employers of Alexander Mackenzie, 4 652.

Grenadier Guards. First battalion sent to Canada during Trent crisis, 14 409 and n.

Grenville, Charles Cavendish Fulke (1794-1865). His impressions of Sydenham, 5 16, 27-28.

Grenville, William Wyndham, Baron (1759-1834), secretary for Home and the Colonies (1789-91). Sends draft of Constitutional Bill to Dorchester, 3 129-30;

  on difficulty of delimitating Upper Canada boundary, 132;

  negotiates Jay’s Treaty, 150;

  and St Croix boundary dispute, 8 760, 762.

Grenville and Carillon Railway. Placed under control of wardens of counties, 10 414.

Grenville Canal. Its construction and disuse, 10 517-8.

Grey, Charles (d. 1870), colonel. His mission to Washington, 4 393-4;

  member of Durham’s special council, 395.

Grey, Sir Charles Edward (1785-1865). Member of Canada Commission (1835), 3 320.

Grey, Sir Edward (b. 1862), foreign secretary. His position on fisheries dispute between Newfoundland and United States, 8 707-8;

  and Franco-Canadian commercial treaty of 1907, 9 234;

  favours freedom to self-governing colonies to withdraw from commercial treaties, 6 197.

Grey, George, United States judge. Member of Hague Tribunal, 8 708.

Grey, Sir Henry George, third Earl (1802-94), secretary for War and the Colonies (1846-52). And Hudson’s Bay Company’s territorial aspirations in North-West, 21 79;

  and grant of Vancouver Island, 85, 86;

  favours railway construction as best form of imperial aid to colonies, 10 379;

  on Canadian federation, 5 151-2;

  defers grant of responsible government in Prince Edward Island, 13 368, 14 500;

  favours colonial representation in London, 5 162;

  vetos differential duties against United States, 134;

  on colonial policy, 3 16-17.

Grey Nuns. Community founded at Montreal, 2 438;

  at Red River, 11 132, 164, 20 420, 439;

  at Ottawa, 11 66-67;

  at Charlottetown, 77;

  at Saskatoon, 190-1;

  at Regina, 194;

  at Hull, 16 439.

  See also Charity, Sisters of.

Gridley. Exterminates ‘sea-cows’ of Prince Edward Island, 13 345.

Grier, Edmund Wyly (b. 1862). Portrait painter, 12 629.

Grier, John (1798-1871). Anglican clergyman at Carrying Place (1824), 11 223.

Griffin, Martin Joseph (b. 1847). Literary commentator, 12 529.

Griffith, Admiral. Conquers and annexes part of Maine, 3 261.

Griffith, Sir John. Original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 166.

Griffon. First ship to sail upper lakes, built on Cayuga Creek, 1 101;

  loss of, 102.

Grijalva, Hernando. His exploration in North Pacific, 21 14.

Grim, Peter. One of Opposition candidates at St John election of 1785, 13 164.

Grimmington, Captain Mike. Captures Fort Albany, 1 182-3, 185.

Grinnell Land. Discovered by de Haven’s expedition, 5 303.

Groghan, George, deputy superintendent of Indian Affairs. Makes treaty of peace with Indians, 3 69.

Grollier, Henri (d. 1864). Arrives at St Boniface, 11 137;

  at Lake Athabaska and Fort Good Hope, 138, 141, 142;

  death of, 148.

Groseilliers, Jean Baptiste. Surrenders Fort Bourbon, is kidnapped, and enters English service, 1 175.

Groseilliers, Médart Chouart, Sieur des (c. 1621-91). His rank as explorer, 1 72, 20 365;

  his explorations, 1 73-79, 111;

  visits Cree country, 11 116;

  his marriages, 1 73;

  enters English service, 161;

  founds Fort Charles on Hudson Bay, 162-3, 171, 20 366;

  re-enters French service, 1 173-4;

  death of, 175-6.

Grosse-Ile. Quarantine station at (1847), 11 96.

Grouard, Emile (b. 1840). Vicar-apostolic of Athabaska-Mackenzie, 11 173, 179.

Gruppe, Charles P. Painter of Dutch scenery, 12 621.

Guadeloupe. Arguments for its retention in place of Canada after Seven Years’ War, 3 25-26.

Guelph. Account of settlement of, 3 335, 17 88-92.

Guelph Agricultural College. See Ontario Agricultural College.

Guercheville, Antoinette de Pons, Marquise de (d. 1632). Acquires rights of Poutrincourt in Acadia and transfers them to Jesuits, 2 385-6, 13 32, 33;

  territorial dispute founded on her patent, 13 34.

Guernsey settlement formed at Pisquid, Prince Edward Island, 13 358.

Guerrière. British ship captured by United States frigate Constitution, 3 216.

Guibord, Joseph (d. 1869), member of Institut Canadien. Denied Christian burial by his bishop, 11 89;

  subsequent legal proceedings, 89.

Guienne, Battalion of. Arrives in Canada, 1 250;

  at siege of Quebec, 291, 292, 294, 300.

Guignas, Michel (1681-1752). Professor of hydrography in Jesuit College, Quebec, 16 376.

Guigues, Joseph Eugène Bruno (1805-74), Roman Catholic bishop of Ottawa (1847-74). His labours in the diocese, 11 66-68;

  founds mission of Maniwaki, 68-69.

Guillaume le Breton. Accompanies Jacques Cartier’s second expedition, 1 34.

Guillemin. Teacher at Beauport (1750), 16 348.

Guillet, Blaise. Clears land at Montreal, 16 507.

Guillet. One of the first pupils in school at Château-Richer, 16 334.

Guillon, Mathieu (1713-83), Sulpician. Teaches Latin at St Sulpice, Montreal, 16 384.

Guire, De, priest. Subscribes to Patriotic Fund (1799), 15 102.

Gummersal, Thos. Signs loyalist petition (1785), 17 35.

Guodor. Teacher at La Durantaye (1747), 16 348.

Gwillimbury, East and West. Colonists from Red River settle in, 17 72.

Gwynne, William Charles. First professor of medicine in King’s College, Toronto, 18 364;

  supports Baldwin’s university bill of 1843 at college council, 368, 372.

 

Habeas Corpus Act. Suspension of, blocked by Upper Canadian assembly, 3 222.

Habord, David. Condemned, and afterwards pardoned, for shooting an Indian, 13 171.

Hacamaugh Indians. Simon Fraser’s interview with chief of, 4 662.

Hadden, Sir Charles Frederick (b. 1854), master-general of the ordnance. On provision of reserve stores, 7 453-4.

Hagarty, Beatrice. Canadian artist, 12 627.

Hagarty, Clara Sophia. Canadian artist, 12 626.

Hagerman, Christopher Alexander (1792-1847), solicitor-general of Upper Canada. Dismissed on account of expulsion of Mackenzie from assembly, 3 344-5;

  reinstated, 345;

  appointed to bench, 4 414.

Haggart, John Graham (1836-1913). Resigns from Bowell ministry, 6 126.

Hague Tribunal. Reference of fisheries disputes with United States to, 6 172;

  its decisions, 174-5.

  See also North Atlantic Coast Fishery Disputes.

Hahn, Gustav. Canadian artist, 12 625.

Haidas, Indian tribe. Territory of, 11 116;

  Father Crespi’s description of, 21 20.

Hailes, Harris William. President and commander-in-chief in New Brunswick (1816-7), 13 184.

Haines, Fred. Animal painter, 12 625.

Haines, Captain Hiram. His disastrous voyage to West Indies, 10 584.

Haines, William. Shipbuilder at Moncton, 10 584.

Hairm. Sloop trading between Digby and St John, 10 561.

Haldane, Richard Burdon, Viscount Haldane (b. 1856), secretary for War (1905-12). Favours creation of imperial general staff, 6 192.

Haldimand, Sir Frederick (1718-91), governor-in-chief of Canada (1778-86). Holds line of communications at Oswego, 1 273;

  and iron-mines of St Maurice, 4 529;

  his Indian policy, 3 112-3;

  his view of Quebec Act, 113, 120;

  on dispositions of French Canadians, 113, 114;

  on British disaffection, 114;

  fears a second invasion, 114;

  his work in settling the loyalists, 115-6, 15 147, 17 18, 20, 22-23, 26;

  negotiates for return of Vermont, 3 115;

  withholds instructions from council, 119, 4 431;

  improves communications with the Madawaska, 13 139;

  opposes extension of British institutions, 3 120;

  resents proposed supersession by Carleton, 118-9;

  persuaded to remain, 119;

  on Indian respect for treaties, 4 708;

  and Six Nations reserve, 17 42;

  returns to England, 3 119;

  sketch of, 112, 120.

Haldimand, Lieutenant. Rescue of his survey party in Prince Edward Island, 13 333.

Haldimand, Township of. Original grantees of, 17 44;

  pioneer Baptist church formed at, 11 360.

Haldimand. War vessel on Lake Ontario, 10 487.

Hale, John (b. 1728). Leader of Wolfe’s landing-party up the Heights, 15 122;

  receiver-general of Lower Canada, 4 512.

Hale, John. Agent in Boundary Commission (1818), 8 828.

Half-Moon. Hudson’s ascent of Hudson River in the ship, 1 46, 150-1.

Haliburton, Thomas Chandler (1796-1865). Visits the Shannon, 13 258;

  supports abolition of Catholic tests, 11 74-75, 13 272;

  contributions to history, 12 501;

  History of Nova Scotia published (1829), 501, 13 272-3;

  publishes Sam Slick (1835), 245;

  an incident on voyage to England and its historic sequel, 10 596-7, 13 286;

  advocates railway extension, 10 388;

  sketch of, 12 538-9;

  his literary achievement, 539-41;

  some of his aphorisms, 542.

Haliburton. Appointed schoolmaster at Windsor, N.S. (1769), 11 205.

Haliburton Settlement. Its failure, 17 98.

Halifax. Founding of (1749), 1 219, 13 81-82;

  number of original settlers, 81;

  site chosen for military reasons, 82, 14 645;

  founding of St Paul’s Church, 13 82;

  population (1751), 83;

  population and its racial components (1763), 11 27;

  early history of Anglican Church at, 201-3;

  first schools and schoolmasters at, 202, 14 512, 515;

  foreign Protestant immigration (1750-1), 13 83-84;

  excessive drinking at, 86-87;

  post office opened (1755), 4 732, 5 372;

  expedition against Louisbourg concentrates at, 1 222, 13 100;

  Wolfe’s expedition at, 1 277;

  a privateering and smuggling centre, 13 99;

  panic caused by capture of St John’s, Newfoundland, 120;

  at beginning of American Revolutionary War, 214, 215;

  signs of disaffection, 215;

  outbreak of smallpox in, 215;

  Legge’s measures for defence, 215-6;

  serious increase of prices at, 219, 225;

  first cargo of masts arrive at, 14 599;

  landing of loyalists, 13 235;

  their arrival followed by famine prices, 235;

  packet service opened with Falmouth (1788), 5 373;

  effect of War of 1812 on, 3 207, 13 257-8;

  celebrates Wellington’s victories, 256, 260;

  the Chesapeake at, 258;

  business collapse follows on Peace of 1815, 260;

  a free port, 4 567, 10 559;

  removal of government dockyard from, 13 260;

  outbreak of cholera at, 282;

  mail steamer service with Liverpool begun, 5 380-1;

  discontinued as a port of call, 382, 10 600 and n.;

  its incorporation, 14 478;

  a base for blockade-runners during American Civil War, 386;

  effect of Intercolonial Railway on its wholesale trade, 387;

  South African War memorial at, 398;

  as a railway and shipping terminus, 10 621-2;

  shipping tonnage in 1911, 623.

Halifax and Quebec Railway project, 10 378-84, 14 407.

Halifax Banking Company. Private Bank established (1825), 10 628, 13 269;

  opposes charter to Bank of Nova Scotia, 270, 282;

  members of council partners in, 282;

  merged in Bank of Commerce, 270.

Halifax Bob. Privateer, 13 224.

Halifax College and Academy (Presbyterian). Founded (1848), 11 275.

Halifax Company. Incorporated with Acadia Coal Company, 14 678.

Halifax Garrison Artillery. Engaged in suppression of North-West Rebellion, 7 431.

Halifax Gazette. First newspaper published in Canada (March 23, 1752), 12 520, 13 84.

Halifax Institution for the Deaf. Founded (1851), 14 534.

Halifax Monthly Magazine, 13 245.

Halifax Platform. Sir Robert Borden’s declaration of principles in 1907, 6 165.

Halifax School for the Blind. Established (1867), 14 534.

Halifax, University of. Attempt to unify university systems of Nova Scotia in, 14 518.

Halkett, Alexander, colonel. Leads 104th Regiment on snow-shoes from Fredericton to Quebec, 13 187.

Halkett, James H., actor. Plays in Montreal (1831), 12 655.

Halkett, John. Demands return to Red River of French Catholic settlers at Pembina, 11 124.

Hall, Charles Francis (1821-71), American explorer. Discovers relics of Franklin’s last expedition, 5 305-6.

Hall, John. Presbyterian missionary in British Columbia, 11 284.

Hall, Richard. Member of British Columbia Fisheries Commission of 1905, 22 456.

Hallam, J. S. Holstein cattle imported by, 7 658.

Halliburton, Sir Brenton (1775-1860). Chief justice of Nova Scotia (1833-60), 13 281;

  on limited application of English statute law in province, 14 464-5.

Halliburton, John Croke (1806-84). Fights a duel with Joseph Howe, 13 292.

Hamblin, Thomas. Plays Hamlet at Montreal, 12 655.

Hamburg-American Line of steamships, 10 618.

Hamel, Ignace Germain (1672-1732). Director of Little Seminary of Quebec, 16 387.

Hamel, Théophile (1814-70). Quebec artist, 12 602.

Hamilton, Alexander (1757-1804), American statesman. Establishes Bank of United States (1791), 4 606, 609;

  advocates neutrality in war between France and Great Britain, 3 147.

Hamilton, Alexander Douglas Hamilton, tenth Duke of (d. 1852). Aids the Lanark settlement, 17 77.

Hamilton, Charles (b. 1834). Anglican archbishop of Ottawa (1896-1915), 11 226.

Hamilton, Charles Frederick (b. 1879). Joint author of Life of George Monro Grant, 12 510.

Hamilton, Gavin (d. 1909). In charge of Fort Babine, British Columbia, 21 127 n.

Hamilton, George, lumberman at Hawkesbury. His misfortunes, 15 160-1.

Hamilton, Henry (d. 1796), lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada (1782-5). Captured by Americans (1778), 3 112;

  promotes introduction of British institutions and opposes Haldimand, 120;

  dismissed, 121;

  favours reciprocal trade with United States, 4 534, 535.

Hamilton, John. United Empire Loyalist of New Brunswick who returned to United States, 13 173.

Hamilton, John (1801-82). Builder of the Great Britain, 10 499;

  interested in Royal Mail Line, 539.

Hamilton, Robert (1787-1856). Builder of Lake Ontario steamboats, 10 498.

Hamilton, Robert (d. 1809). Hostile to Simcoe’s political ideals, 18 412.

Hamilton, Robert. Member of North-West Council, 19 197, 198.

Hamilton, Captain, R.N. At defence of Quebec (1775), 3 85.

Hamilton. First iron steamer of Royal Mail Line (1847), 10 539.

Hamilton, City of. Population (1830), 18 558;

  incorporated (1833), 424;

  polls closed at, in order to attend divine service, 11 224;

  export of sewing-machines from, in seventies, 9 142;

  iron production of (1910), 18 634.

Hamilton, Township of. Original grantees of, 17 44.

Hamilton and Goderich Railway project, 10 393.

Hamilton Board of Trade. Favours repeal of Navigation Acts, 5 224.

Hamilton Campbell Kidston. Vessel built at Pictou, 10 582.

Hamilton Inlet, Labrador. Traces of French settlements discovered at, 8 915;

  Hudson’s Bay Company post established at, 915.

Hamilton River, Ungava. Its pre-eminence as a trouting river, 16 566.

Hamilton Steamboat Company. Merged in Niagara Navigation Company, 10 553-4.

Hamiltonian. Lakes freighter built at Port Arthur, 10 557, 588.

Hamley, Wymond O. Collector of customs of British Columbia (1858), 21 147;

  member of first legislative council, 166.

Hamlin, Hannibal (1809-91), vice-president of United States. At railway celebration at Vanceboro (1871), 14 408.

Hammond, John (b. 1843). Canadian painter, 12 614.

Hamonic. Northern Navigation Company’s steamboat, 10 555.

Hampshire. In the fight with d’Iberville (1697), 1 185.

Hampton, Wade (1754-1835), American general. In command on Lake Champlain, 3 246;

  indecision of, 247;

  defeated at Châteauguay, 247-50.

Hanbury, David. His discoveries of copper in the Territories, 22 657-9.

Hancock, John (1737-93), governor of Massachusetts. Complains of British encroachments, 8 757.

Hancock, John. Commander of the Success in search for North-West Passage (1719), 1 196.

Hancock, American privateer. Engaged in fight with the Revenge (1779), 13 224.

Handfield, John. Fails to round up Acadians at Annapolis Royal, 13 96.

Handyside, George. Punished for contempt by assembly of New Brunswick, 13 188.

Hanington, Daniel L. (1804-89). Member of assembly of New Brunswick, 13 200.

Hanington, Daniel L. (1835-1909). Premier of New Brunswick (1882-3), 14 428.

Hanna, James (1842-1910). His fur-trading expedition to Nootka, 21 30-31, 242.

Hanna, William John (b. 1862). Provincial secretary of Ontario, 17 184, 200 n.

Hannah Bay. Henry Hudson at, 1 152.

Hannan, Michael (1820-82). Roman Catholic archbishop of Halifax (1877-82), 11 82.

Hannay, James. His historical works, 12 502-3.

Hannen, Sir James, Baron Hannen (1821-94). Arbitrator in Bering Sea dispute, 6 121, 8 726.

Happy Return. Sails with Radisson for Hudson Bay, 1 175.

Harbridge, George. Teacher at Red River, 20 423.

Harcourt, Lewis (b. 1863), colonial secretary (1910-5). And reconstitution of Colonial Office, 6 193.

Harcourt, Richard (b. 1849). Provincial treasurer of Ontario, 17 179, 210 n.;

  minister of Education, 220 n.;

  his educational policy, 18 332-4.

Harding, Harris (1761-1854). Baptist preacher, 11 353.

Harding, Theodore Seth (1773-1855). Baptist pastor at Horton, Nova Scotia, 11 354.

Hardisty, Richard (d. 1889). Conveys Commissioner Smith’s papers from Pembina to Fort Garry, 19 82;

  candidate at Edmonton school election contest (1884), 20 482.

Hardy, Arthur Sturgis (1837-99), premier of Ontario (1896-9). Provincial secretary of Ontario, 17 200 n.;

  protests against intrusion of armed forces from Manitoba, 6 95;

  endorses commercial union, 110;

  minister of Lands, 17 216 n.;

  premier and attorney-general, 178-9, 196 n.;

  retires from public life, 179.

Hardy, Sir Charles (1716-80), British admiral. At Louisbourg, 1 222;

  at New York, 256;

  lays waste along Gulf of St Lawrence, 276.

Hardy, Elias (1744-99). Member of New Brunswick assembly, 13 163;

  takes part in St John election (1785), 164.

Hare Indians. Richardson’s description of, 5 299-300.

Haren, Peter William de. At the battle of Beaver Dam, 3 242.

Harlan, John Marshall (b. 1833). American arbitrator in Bering Sea dispute, 8 725;

  his dissent, 745-6.

Harlequin. Lake Erie vessel, 10 491.

Harmon, Daniel Williams (1778-1845), first farmer of British Columbia. Raises crops at Fort Dunvegan, Peace River (1809-10), 20 587;

  his diary at Fort McLeod, 21 57;

  his crops at Fraser Lake, 22 525-6.

Harnett, Leigh. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Harney, William Selby (c. 1798-1889), American general. Lands troops on San Juan Island, 8 874.

Harper, Jean (1801-69). Joins mission at St Boniface, 11 124, 20 418.

Harper. Schoolmaster at Kildonan, 20 426.

Harpooner. Ship which conveyed first immigrants to Vancouver Island, 21 89, 121.

Harrington, Benjamin. Shipbuilder at Mahone Bay, 10 582.

Harrington, Isaac. Captain of steamboat United Kingdom, 10 498.

Harris, Joseph, Upper Canada College. His classical attainments, 18 361.

Harris, Lloyd (b. 1867). Opposes reciprocity, 6 180.

Harris, L. S. Canadian painter, 12 624.

Harris, Michael. Anglican clergyman at Perth (1819), 11 222.

Harris, M. L. Shipbuilder at Moncton, 10 585.

Harris, Robert (b. 1849). His eminence in portraiture, 12 628.

Harrison, David Howard (d. 1905). Premier of Manitoba (1887-8), 11 175, 19 120.

Harrison, Edward. Signs Quebec traders’ petitions (1764, 1770), 15 134, 140;

  member of legislative council, 135.

Harrison, John. Holds first Anglican service in Nova Scotia (1710), 11 201.

Harrison, Robert Alexander (1833-78), chief justice of Court of Queen’s Bench, Ontario (1875-8). Arbitrator in Ontario boundary dispute, 6 93, 8 896.

Harrison, Samuel Bealey (d. 1867). His resolutions on responsible government, 5 20-21;

  resigns over change of capital from Kingston to Montreal, 40;

  member of provisional council, 42.

Harrison, S. Frances (‘Seranus’). Writer of verses, 12 588.

Harrison, Thomas (d. 1906). President of University of New Brunswick, 14 558.

Harrison, William Henry (1773-1841), American general. Defeats Indians at Tippecanoe, 3 214, 4 714;

  in War of 1812, 3 238, 244.

Harrison Direct Line. Its service between Europe and Vancouver, 10 618.

Harrowby, Dudley Ryder, first Earl of (1762-1847), British foreign secretary. Criticizes failure of United States to ratify treaties as a whole, 8 840 and n.

Hart, Aaron. Signs petition of Quebec traders (1770), 15 140.

Hart, Ezekiel. Jew expelled by assembly of Lower Canada, 3 161, 162, 4 477.

Hart, Mrs Julia Catharine (1796-1867). Author of first book printed in Upper Canada (1824), 12 535.

Hart, Thomas (b. 1835). Professor in Manitoba College, 11 287, 20 426.

Hart, Vincent C. (1840-1904). Methodist missionary to West China, 11 325.

Hartley, David (1732-1813). British signatory to Treaty of Versailles, 3 116, 8 753.

Hartshorne. Quaker refused recognition at Government House, Halifax, 13 250.

Hartwell, George E. (b. 1862). Methodist missionary to West China, 11 325.

Harty, William (b. 1847). Commissioner of Public Works of Ontario, 17 179, 230 n.

Harvard College. United Empire Loyalist graduates of, 13 133.

Harvey, Arthur. Secretary of Fruit-Growers’ Association for Upper Canada (1859), 18 567.

Harvey, Horace (b. 1863), chief justice of Alberta. Great Waterways Railway Inquiry commissioner, 19 277.

Harvey, Sir John (1778-1852), lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (1837-41). Defeats Americans at Stoney Creek, 3 241-2;

  at Chrystler’s Farm, 249;

  member of Canada Company Commission, 334, 17 89;

  his popularity in New Brunswick, 13 202, 204;

  and Maine boundary dispute, 203;

  on condition of Indians, 5 360.

Harvey, of Indian Head. Pioneer farmer in Saskatchewan, 20 559-60.

Harvey, near Pigeon Lake. Unsuccessful pioneer settlement at, 17 84.

Harvoough, Warren. One of fathers of Confederation in British Columbia, 21 171 n.

Haskell, E. E. American representative on International Waterways Commission, 8 838.

Hassack, Alexander. Pioneer settler on the Châteauguay (1801), 15 157.

Hassler, Frederick Rudolph (1770-1843). Discovers error in boundary-line on Lake Champlain, 8 789.

Hatch, I. T. Instructed to inquire into reciprocity treaty, 5 256.

Hathorne, Colonel. His unsuccessful attack on Fort St Joseph (1696), 13 58.

Hatley. Charleston Academy erected at (1829), 16 460.

Haultain, Sir Frederick William Gordon (b. 1857). Member of North-West Council, 19 214;

  member of first Territorial assembly, 224;

  on advisory council on finance, 227;

  agitates for control of public funds by assembly, 228-9, 230, 231;

  premier of Territories, 6 153, 19 240;

  obtains financial concessions from Dominion, 240-1;

  defeat and resignation of his executive, 241-2;

  re-elected to executive committee, 243-4;

  affirms assembly’s right to advise lieutenant-governor, 244;

  agitates for full provincial status, 250, 256-61, 264-5;

  his relations with conservative party, 251;

  on finance, 254-5;

  and exemption from taxation of Canadian Pacific Railway, 258;

  and schools question, 262;

  on work accomplished by Territories, 263;

  on financial requirements, 264;

  criticizes Laurier’s scheme for Territorial division, 6 154, 19 267;

  leader of opposition in Saskatchewan, 268;

  his claim to premiership, 6 157;

  denounced by Langevin, 157, 19 271;

  his ‘platform’ in 1905, 271;

  as educational legislator and administrator, 20 473-4;

  sketch, characteristics, and services, 19 214, 225.

Haultain, Theodore Arnold (b. 1857). Essayist and reviewer, 12 529.

Hauser, Frederick. Visits the St John River as loyalist agent, 13 142-3.

Haven, Edwin J. de (1819-65), American explorer. Commands Franklin search expedition (1850), 5 301, 303;

  discovers Murdaugh Island and Grinnell Land, 5 303.

Haviland, T. H. (1822-95). Confederation delegate from Prince Edward Island, 13 373.

Haviland, William (1718-84), British general, 1 310, 311.

Havre à l’Anglois. Former name of Louisbourg, 1 203.

Hawke, Sir Edward (1705-81), British admiral. Disperses French fleet at Isle of Aix, 1 222;

  before Rochefort, 255;

  his victory at Quiberon, 270, 308.

Hawkesbury, Robert Banks, Baron, afterwards second Earl of Liverpool (1770-1828). Concludes King-Hawkesbury Convention, 8 770, 783.

Hawkins, John Summerfield. Boundary survey commissioner, 8 877.

Hawkins, Samuel. United States agent in boundary survey, 8 828.

Hay, John (1838-1905), American secretary of state. And alleged encroachments at Portland Canal, 8 935;

  concludes reciprocity treaty with Newfoundland, 705;

  signs Alaska Boundary Convention, 936.

Hay, John James. Administers Roman Catholic diocese of Toronto, 11 60.

Hayes, James. Original member of Hudson’s Bay Company, 1 166.

Hayes River. Radisson on, 1 173;

  name changed to Ste Thérèse, 183-4.

Hays, Charles Melville (d. 1912). His management of Grand Trunk Railway, 10 457-8.

Haythorne, Robert Poore (1815-91). Confederation delegate from Prince Edward Island, 13 373.

Haywood, William Henry (1801-52), United States senator. And Oregon boundary dispute, 8 866.

Hazard, Stanton. Defeated in Northumberland County, New Brunswick, 13 163, 164.

Hazen, John Douglas (b. 1860), minister of Marine and Fisheries. Premier of New Brunswick, 14 431;

  and Japanese control of salmon fishing in British Columbia, 22 459.

Hazen, William (1738-1814). Captured by American privateer, 13 136;

  member of first council of New Brunswick, 154, 155.

Hazen, Captain. In command of the American Rangers, 15 122.

Hazen, Simonds, and White. Their premises plundered by privateers, 13 137.

Head, Sir Edmund Walker (1805-68), governor-in-chief of Canada (1854-61). Favourable to reciprocity, 5 230;

  and establishment of municipal institutions, 13 206;

  at inauguration of European and North American Railway, 14 407;

  and the Brown-Dorion episode, 5 78;

  on governor’s presence at council meetings, 128-9;

  and the ‘double shuffle,’ 129;

  his view of fiscal autonomy, 134;

  condemns ‘double majority,’ 149;

  governor of Hudson’s Bay Company, 19 61 n.

Head, Sir Francis Bond (1793-1875), lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1836-8). His instructions, 3 352-3;

  and reorganization of common schools, 18 285;

  publishes Gosford’s instructions, 3 321;

  absolutist rule of, 354-5, 356;

  and suspension of specie payments, 4 633, 635;

  inspects Indian settlements, 5 336;

  his method of obtaining Indian lands, 336-7;

  views on Indian question, 337-40;

  his conduct during Rebellion of 1837, 3 365, 367;

  resignation of, 356.

Head, Lady. Turns first sod of St John-Shediac Railway, 14 407.

Hearne, Samuel (1745-92). His journey to mouth of the Coppermine River, 4 670-3;

  discovers Great Slave Lake, 649, 672;

  present at massacre of Bloody Fall, 671-2;

  his formal act of possession, 672;

  discovers copper, 22 656.

Hearst, George (1820-91), of California. Abandons project of acquiring Blue Bell mines, British Columbia, 22 563.

Hearst, William Howard (b. 1863). Minister of Lands of Ontario, 17 216 n.

Heather Bell. Steamer trading from Prince Edward Island, 10 563.

Heaton, Sir John Henniker (1848-1914), postal reformer, 7 643.

Heavysege, Charles (1816-76). His drama of Saul and other poems, 12 569-71.

Hébert, Anne. Wife of Étienne Jonquest, 2 393.

Hébert, Guillaume. Granted seigniory of St Joseph de l’Espinay, Quebec, 16 508.

Hébert, Henri. Sculptor, 12 634.

Hébert, Louis (d. 1627). First colonist of New France, 2 323 n., 393, 15 18;

  granted seigniory of Sault au Matelot, 2 452, 536;

  his industry, 15 19;

  location of his farm, 16 506;

  number of his descendants in 1687, 15 19.

Hébert, Louis Philippe (b. 1850). His work as a sculptor, 12 632.

Heceta, Bruno, Spanish navigator. Discovers the Columbia River, 8 846, 849, 21 21.

Heck, Paul. Pioneer Methodist of Upper Canada, settles in Augusta township (1778), 11 304.

Hecla. Ship of Parry’s Arctic expedition of 1821, 4 685.

Hector. Ship which conveyed first Scottish Highland immigrants to Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 13 111.

Height of Land Lake. Explored by de Noyon, 1 113.

Heliopolis. Name of Royal George when employed in Mediterranean service, 10 614.

Helm, Boone (desperado). Visits Victoria during gold influx of 1858, 21 139.

Helm, of Cobourg. Awarded prize at Cobourg agricultural exhibition (1848), 18 563.

Helmcken, John Sebastian (b. 1825). Justice of peace of Vancouver Island, 21 94, 22 388;

  on a punitive expedition, 21 95-96;

  member of first legislative assembly, 112;

  appointed speaker, 113;

  opposes Confederation, 171;

  delegate to Ottawa, 174;

  elective member of council, 176;

  sketch of, 117-8.

Heming, Arthur Henry Howard (b. 1870). Black-and-white artist, 12 631.

Henderson, Alexander (b. 1861). Attorney-general of British Columbia (1899-1900), 21 224.

Henderson, Lieutenant, afterwards Sir Edmund Yeamans Walcott (1821-96). Surveys for Halifax-Quebec railway, 14 407.

Hendrick, Mohawk sachem. On the quarrels between English and French, 1 238;

  slain at Fort George, 243.

Hendrie, Sir John Strathearn (b. 1857). Minister without portfolio in Ontario cabinet, 17 184.

Hendry, Anthony. On Red Deer River, 1 140;

  his journey from Hudson Bay to the Saskatchewan, 197-8.

Hendryx, W. A. Interested in Blue Bell mine, Kootenay Lake, 22 563.

Heneker, R. W. Member of Protestant Committee of Council of Public Instruction, Quebec, 16 491.

Henley House, Albany River. Its construction, 1 192, 8 899.

Hennepin, Louis (1640-1706), Récollet. Takes up mission at Kenté, 1 86;

  with La Salle on Lake Michigan, 101;

  rescued by Dulhut, 112;

  reports presence of coal on Illinois River, 14 672.

Henrietta.

  (1) Lake Ontario vessel, 10 494.

  (2) Steamboat on St John and Annapolis route, 10 561.

Henrietta Maria. Sails for Hudson Bay (1631), 1 158.

Henry IV of France (1553-1610). Conditions for evangelization of Indians, 2 381;

  effect of his assassination on French expansion in Acadia, 13 32.

Henry VII of England (1457-1509). Patron of John Cabot, 1 19;

  awards pension to Cabot, 21;

  makes grants to western voyagers, 24.

Henry, Prince of Wales (1594-1612). Patron of Merchant Adventurers (1612), 1 155.

Henry, Alexander, the Elder (1739-1824). Taken captive by Indians at Michilimackinac, 3 64, 15 125-6;

  partner in co-operative trading company, 4 542;

  joins North-West Company, 543;

  his explorations, 643-50, 15 126;

  on manner in which Indians obtained supplies from him, 4 644;

  ascends the Saskatchewan, 645;

  on Chatique’s manner of exacting tribute, 645-6;

  describes a buffalo hunt, 647-9;

  on his voyageurs, 15 72-73;

  signs Quebec traders’ petition, 140;

  applies for grant in Eastern Townships, 126, 148;

  his Travels and Adventures, 12 512.

Henry, George (1709-95). Organizes first Presbyterian congregation at Quebec, 11 265, 15 124.

Henry, John. Sells confidential reports to United States, 3 195.

Henry, Robert. On the Seven Oaks affray, 19 36.

Henry, Samuel. His farming operations on Stewart River, 22 615.

Henry, William Alexander (1816-86). Negotiates on reciprocity, 9 128.

Henry Clay. Lake Erie steamboat, 10 501.

Herald.

  (1) British survey ship on Pacific coast, 21 88.

  (2) Kellett’s ship in Franklin search expedition, 5 298.

Herbert, Sir Ivor John Caradoc, Bart. (b. 1851), major-general commanding the militia in Canada (1890-5). Reforms Canadian militia, 7 428-9.

Herbert, Michael H. British signatory to Alaska Boundary Convention, 8 933, 936.

Herbomez, Louis Joseph d’ (1822-90). Vicar-apostolic of British Columbia (1863-90), 11 146, 147, 149, 179.

Hercules. First towboat on St Lawrence, 10 495-6.

Herdman, J. C. Presbyterian superintendent of missions for British Columbia, 11 295.

Heriot, Frederick George, major-general (1766-1843). Founder of Drummondville, 15 152.

Heriot, George. Deputy postmaster-general of Canada, 4 734, 736;

  his literary works, 12 496-7.

Heriulfsson, Biarne. His voyage to North American coast, 13 15.

Hermione. French frigate engaged in action near Sydney, 13 222.

Hermitte, L’. Engineer at Louisbourg, 1 203.

Hero. Privateer fitted out at Chester, Nova Scotia, 13 221.

Heron, Andrew. Associated in building the Alciope, 10 498.

Héroux, Omer (b. 1876). Editor of Le Devoir, 12 477.

Herschel Island. Franklin at, 4 683.

Herschell, Farrer, first Baron Herschell (1837-99). Chairman of Joint High Commission (1898), 6 135, 9 169;

  dies at Washington, 6 135.

Hertel, François (d. 1722). His reason for permitting himself to be taken alive by Mohawks, 15 31.

Hertel, Jacques (d. 1651). Pioneer immigrant at Quebec, 15 19.

Hesker, Samuel. Preaches at first Anglican service in Nova Scotia (1710), 11 201.

Hesperian. Allan liner, 10 606.

Hesse, District of. Created (1788), 17 39;

  its boundaries, 18 521.

Hett, J. R. Attorney-general of British Columbia, 21 208.

Hewlett, Richard (d. 1789). Commands loyalist regiments settling in Nova Scotia, 13 150.

Hey, William (d. 1797), chief justice of Quebec (1766-77). On the dispositions of French Canadians, 3 109;

  retirement of, 111;

  on opposition of clergy and noblesse to English laws and institutions, 4 530.

Hibben and Carswell. Contractors for supply of books to schools of Vancouver Island, 22 410.

Hibernia. Cunarder which replaced the Columbia, wrecked on Cape Sable, 10 598-9.

Hicks, Elias (1748-1830). Leader of Quaker secession, 11 389.

Hicks, Richard. Revenue officer at Yale, British Columbia, 21 148 n.

Hicks, William H. Principal of Protestant Normal School, Montreal, 16 486.

Hicks-Beach, Sir Michael, first Viscount St Aldwyn (1837-1916). On respective functions of lieutenant-governor and governor-general, 15 186-7.

Hierliky, Major. Sent to defend Prince Edward Island (1779), 13 354.

Higgins, David. Applies for grant on Prince Edward Island, 13 343.

Higgins, David William (b. 1834). Resigns speakership of assembly of British Columbia, 21 222;

  elected to assembly on recount, 223;

  member of Fisheries Commission, 22 453;

  his reminiscences of early days of Vancouver Island, 21 129-30;

  his estimate of DeCosmos, 130-1.

Higgins and Young. Send first shipment of wheat from Red River Settlement (1876), 20 295.

Higginson, J. M. Superintendent-general of Indian Affairs, 5 355.

Highland Emigrants. See Royal Highland Emigrants.

Highlander. Steamer on Hamilton-Montreal route, 10 540.

Hildreth, Isaac. Makes first survey for Shubenacadie Canal, 13 270.

Hill, E. E. Establishes first cheese factory in Province of Quebec, 7 661.

Hill, George S. Member of assembly of New Brunswick, 13 200.

Hill, George William (b. 1862). Sculptor, 12 634.

Hill, James J. (b. 1838). Runs first general trading steamer on Red River, 20 287;

  secures freight monopoly, 287;

  in alliance with Hudson’s Bay Company, 287;

  manager of St Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Company, 19 111;

  opposes Grand Trunk Pacific charter, 10 458;

  makes Canadian extensions of Great Northern, 463;

  leases fishing rights on the St John, 16 563.

Hill, Philip Carteret (1821-94). Premier of Nova Scotia (1875-8), 14 390.

Hill, Sir Rowland (1795-1879). Secures establishment of penny postage, 5 367, 369;

  case for penny postage as applied to Canada, 370-1.

Hill, Captain, officer at Charlottetown. Sends schooner to rescue a surveying party, 13 333.

Hill, Captain. Secures the release of Maquinna’s white captives at Nootka, 21 53-54.

Hill Line of steamships. Absorbed by Allan Line, 10 607.

Hillgartner, H. Imports Holstein cattle into Canada, 7 658.

Hillier. Gives formal possession to Miles Macdonell of Selkirk’s grant, 19 22.

Hills, George (1816-95). Anglican bishop of Columbia (1859-92), 11 232, 21 147;

  presides at trial of Rev. Edward Cridge, 107.

Hillsborough, Wills Hill, first Earl of, afterwards first Marquis of Downshire (1718-93), British colonial secretary (1768-72). Alarmed at growth of cloth manufacture in Quebec, 4 527-8;

  censures Lieutenant-Governor Francklin for his actions, 13 338.

Hincks, Sir Francis (1807-85), Dominion minister of Finance (1869-73). Manager of People’s Bank, 4 630;

  chairman of committee on currency and banking, 5 263;

  inspector-general of accounts, 33, 166;

  founds University College, Toronto, 18 384-5;

  joins La Fontaine-Baldwin administration, 5 51;

  first chairman of trustees of Toronto University, 18 372;

  reforms Canadian banking, 5 270-2;

  on lack of confidence of British capitalists in Canadian securities, 233;

  on public debt, 171-2;

  criticizes sending of indigent immigrants to Canada, 205-6;

  Hincks-Morin administration formed, 69;

  at Boston railway celebration, 10 375;

  his resolutions on clergy reserves, 5 66;

  his equivocal financial dealings, 70, 71;

  a fruitful session, 70;

  his relations with French-Canadian party, 72;

  his scheme of municipal aid for public enterprises, 18 444;

  his Municipal Loan Fund measures, 443-50, 10 415;

  on weakness of Municipal Loan, 18 449;

  introduces decimal currency, 5 274-6;

  favours imperial construction and control of Halifax and Quebec Railway, 10 380;

  advocates the ‘Valley’ route, 384;

  his opportunist railway policy, 396;

  original director of Grand Trunk Railway, 401, 407;

  attacked on his association with Grand Trunk, 5 71, 10 408-9;

  what his railway policy cost the country, 414;

  favours reciprocity, 5 228;

  on missions to Washington, 238, 242;

  his arguments in favour of reciprocity, 238-40;

  on retaliation as the alternative to reciprocity, 240-1;

  causes of defeat in 1854, 72-74;

  on the state of parties in 1854, 81;

  minister of Finance, 7 514, 10 630;

  details of his banking measures of 1870 and 1871, 5 264, 10 630-5;

  proposes, and after