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Title: A Cyclopædia of Canadian Biography

Date of first publication: 1888

Author: George MacLean Rose (1829-1898) Editor

Date first posted: Aug. 17, 2018

Date last updated: Aug. 17, 2018

Faded Page eBook #20180867

This ebook was produced by: Mardi Desjardins & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net































Entered according to the Act of Parliament of

Canada, in the year one thousand eight

hundred and eighty-eight, by Hunter, Rose

& Co., at the department of Agriculture.





It has been too long a custom to regard as proper subjects for biographical literature only persons who have figured in political life. In preparing the present work, any man or woman who has, in any conspicuous way, contributed to the moral, intellectual, industrial or political growth of the country, has been deemed a suitable person for these pages. To the heroism and uncomplaining industry of the men who hewed out homes in the wilderness, and little by little overcame the obstacles of nature, are we indebted now for our thriving cities, and for our wide stretches of cultivated lands; and to omit a record of their labors, and select only for permanent record the deeds of those who came upon the scenes when the rugged work was done, would be singularly unjust. We have had, and still have amongst us, men of great genius in engineering skill, and in mechanical contrivance; and it was fitting that a brief record of their lives, and what they accomplished for the community, should be handed down in the history of our common country. The same may be said of men prominent in every branch of commerce, of our notable divines, our eminent judges, our great lawyers, our talented medical men, and those who have contributed to the educational growth of the country. These it was considered were worthy of place side by side with the men who chose political careers, and have won more or less distinction therein. There is to be said in justification of all these records, that even the history of the man in an obscure village is a portion of the history of the country, and the aggregate record of “Representative Canadians” may be regarded in a young country like Canada, as a full historical account, in every sense, for the period covered by the biographical matter in the volume. Men are forever drifting down the slow stream, and most of their deeds like themselves, pass into oblivion; it is well while the opportunity is at hand to save as much of the record as possible for posterity. The labor, the time, and the pains spent in securing data for the sketches herein contained have been greater than would be believed; and the more so since accuracy of statement of fact, and the chronological order of incidents, have been so rigidly aimed at. Dates and facts have all been verified either by reference to the best published authorities, or to the persons themselves. For the most part, the call for the coöperation of the public in furnishing data for the records has been cordially responded to. As for the literary portion of the work, no pains have been spared to make that equal to the other features. To make the volume complete in the historically “representative” sense, memoirs of the most illustrious of the dead of this country will be found in its pages. The enterprise has been tedious, laborious and expensive; but if it will supply a record that the country should not let die; if it preserves the names of worthy men and women whose deeds deserve to be remembered, it surely will have well repaid the time, the anxiety, and the pains that have been expended upon it. A work of this kind could not be else than tedious; and, therefore, since its commencement, several changes have taken place: some of the persons in its pages have died; others have passed from one office to another, and dropped from public places; but with these latter exceptions and some other minor ones, each memoir, it is believed, will be found to be an accurate record up to the present date.


Toronto, March, 1888.

Transcriber’s Notes can be found at the end of this eBook.


Adam, G. M., Toronto,759
Adam, L. A. S., Sheriff, St. Hyacinthe,490
Adams, Aaron A., Coaticook,376
Adams, Hon. Michael, Newcastle,230
Adams, Rev. Thomas, M.A., D.C.L., Lennoxville,403
Aikins, Hon. James Cox, P.C., Lieut.-Governor, Winnipeg,609
Aikins, William T., M.D., LL.D., Toronto,797
Alexander, Rev. Finlow, M.R.C.S., L.S.A., Fredericton,300
Allan, Hon. G. W., D.C.L., Toronto,781
Allard, Joseph Victor, Berthierville,483
Allen, Hon. John C., Fredericton,261
Allison, Charles F., Sackville,50
Allison, Charles, Yarmouth,312
Allison, David, M.A., LL.D., Halifax,719
Allnatt, Rev. F. J. B., D.D., Lennoxville,497
Alward, S., A.M., D.C.L., M.P.P., St. John,101
Amherst, Lord Jeffery,513
Anderson, Alexander, Charlottetown,54
Anderson, Captain Edward Brown, Sarnia,179
Angers, Hon. Auguste Réal, Quebec,242, 815
Angus, Richard Bladworth, Montreal,465
Antliff, Rev. J. C., M.A., D.D., Montreal,251
Archambault, Urgel-Eugène, Montreal,36
Archibald, Abram Newcomb,211
Archibald, Hon. Sir Adams Geo., K.C.M.G., D.C.L., P.C., Q.C., Halifax,164
Archibald, Peter S., Moncton,257
Archibald, John S., Q.C., D.C.L., Montreal,526
Armour, Hon. John Douglas, Judge, Cobourg,654
Armstrong, Hon. James, Q.C., C.M.G., Sorel,325
Armstrong, Rev. W. D., M.A., Ph.D., Ottawa,49
Aubrey, Rev, François Fortunat, St. John’s,586
Baby, Hon. L. F. G., Judge, Montreal,192
Badgley, Rev. E. I., M.A., B.D., LLD., Cobourg,366
Baillairgé, Chev. C. P. F., M.S., Quebec,166
Baillairgé, Louis de G., Q.C., Quebec,252, 815
Bain, James William, M.P., St. Polycarpe,603
Ball, George, Nicolet,769
Baptist, George, Three Rivers,771
Barbeau, Henri Jacques, Montreal,427
Barclay, Rev. James, M.A., Montreal,124
Barclay, Rev. John, D.D., Toronto,320
Barker, Frederic Eustace, M.A., D.C.L., Q.C., M.P., St. John,207
Barnard, Edmund, Montreal,710
Barrett, M., B.A., M.D., Toronto,160
Barry, Denis, B.C.L., Montreal,723
Baudouin, Philibert, St. John’s,582
Baxter, Robert Gordon, M.D., Moncton,103
Bayard, William, M.D., St. John,23
Bayly, Richard, B.A., Q.C., London,38
Baynes, William Craig, B.A.,371
Beaton, Alexander H., M.D., Orillia,187
Beaubien, Hon. Louis, Montreal,631
Beckwith, A. G., C.E., Fredericton,86
Beckwith, Hon. John Adolphus,88
Beek, James Scott, Fredericton,218
Begg, Alexander, Dunbow Ranch, N.W.T.,350
Bégin, Rev. Louis Nazaire, D.D., Quebec,177
Belanger, Louis-Charles, Sherbrooke,673
Bélanger, Rev. François Honoré, Quebec,274
Bell, Andrew Wilson, Carleton Place,109
Bell, J. H., M.A., M.P.P., Summerside,269
Belleau, Sir Narcisse, K.C.M.G., Q.C., Quebec,347
Benson, Rev. Manly, Toronto,59
Bentley, Hon. G. W. W., Kensington,259
Bergeron, J. G. H., B.C.L., M.P., Montreal,438
Bernier, Michael Esdras, M.P., St. Hyacinthe,595
Berryman, Daniel Edgar, M.D., C.M., A.R.S., St. John,268
Berryman, John, M.D., M.P.P., St. John,674
Berthelot, Hon. J. A., Judge, Montreal,43
Bethune, J. L., M.D.C.M., M.P.P., Baddeck,285
Bethune, R. H., Toronto,764
Bingay, Thomas Van Buskirk, Yarmouth,550, 815
Binney, Irwine Whitty, Moncton,42
Binney, Right Rev. Hibbert, D.D.,699
Blackadar, Hugh William, Halifax,706
Black, Charles Allan, M.D., Amherst,474
Black, J. Burpee, M.D., Windsor, N.S.,549
Black, Thomas R., M.P.P., Amherst,733
Black, William Tell, Windsor,808
Blair, Frank I., M.D., St. Stephen,352
Blair, Hon. A. G., Fredericton,440
Blake, Hon. E., P.C., Q.C., M.P., Toronto,690
Blanchet, Hon. Jean, Q.C., M.P.P., Quebec,431
Blanchet, Hon. Joseph Goderic, Quebec,107
Boak, Hon. Robert, Halifax,682
Boire, Louis Henri Napoleon, Three Rivers,430
Boivin, Charles Alphonse, St. Hyacinthe,646
Borden, F. W., B.A., M.D., M.P., Canning,317
Boswell, G. M. J., Judge, Cobourg,131
Botsford, Hon. Bliss, Moncton,603
Boulton, Lieut.-Col. D’Arcy E., Cobourg,769
Bourgeois, G. A., M.D., C.M., Three Rivers,766
Bourgeois, Hon. Jean Baptiste, Three Rivers,646
Bourinot, John George, LL.D., Ottawa,326
Bowell, Hon. Mackenzie, M.P., Belleville,701
Bowser, Rev. Alex. Thomas, B.D., Toronto,473
Branchaud, Moise, Q.C., Beauharnois,104
Bresse, Hon. Guillaume, Quebec,583
Bridges, Henry Seabury, Fredericton,749
Brock, Major-General Sir Isaac, K.B.,113
Brock, Rev. Isaac, M.A., D.D., Halifax,480
Brodie, Robert, Quebec,374
Bronson, Erskine Henry, M.P.P., Ottawa,153
Brooks, Hon. E. T., Judge, Sherbrooke,766
Brown, H. B., Q.C., LL.M., Sherbrooke,499
Brown, William,577
Bruce, Rev. George, B.A., St. John,202
Brymner, Douglas, Ottawa,806
Bryson, Hon. George, Senr., Fort Coulonge,470
Buchanan, Wentworth James, Montreal,744
Buller, Frank, M.D., Montreal,172
Bullock, Joseph, St. John,41
Burland, George B., Montreal,441
Burns, Rev. Robert Ferrier, D.D., Halifax,40, 815
Burrill, James, Yarmouth,716
Burrill, William, Yarmouth,720
Burwash, Rev. Nathaniel, S.T.D., Cobourg,90
Cabana, Hubert Charon, Sherbrooke,602
Cadman, James, C.E., Quebec,565
Cairns, George Frederick, Smith’s Falls,57
Cairns, Thomas, Perth,57
Call, Robert Randolph, Newcastle,121
Cameron, Allan, M.D., Collingwood,807
Cameron, Charles, Collingwood,333
Cameron, Sir Matthew, Toronto,156
Cameron, Wm., M.P.P., Sutherland River, Pictou,333
Campbell, F. W., M.A., M.D., L.R.C.P., Montreal,321
Campbell, George W., A.M., M.D., LL.D.,205
Campbell, Hon. Wm., Park Corner,473
Campbell, Rev. Kenneth A., Orillia,202
Campbell, Rev. R., M.A., D.D., Montreal,132
Campbell, Sir Alexander, K.C.M.G., Lieut.-Governor, Toronto,531
Cannon, Lawrence Ambrose, Quebec,400
Carbray, Felix, Quebec,499
Cardin, Louis Pierre Paul, M.P.P., Sorel,688
Cargill, Henry, M.P., Cargill,272
Carignan, Onesime, Three Rivers,525
“Caris Sima” (Clara H. Mountcastle), Clinton,292
Carleton, John Louis, St. John,100
Carling, Hon. John, London,680
Caron, Hon. Sir Jos. Philippe Rene Adolphe, K.C.M.G., B.C.L., Ottawa,663
Carrier, Charles William, Levis,421
Carson, Rev. W. Wellington, Ottawa,556
Carswell, James, Renfrew,478
Cartier, Jacques,17
Cartier, Sir George Etienne,569
Casavant, Joseph Claver, St. Hyacinthe,590
Casavant, Samuel, St. Hyacinthe,590
Casgrain, T. C., Q.C., LL.D., M.P.P., Quebec,278
Castle, Rev. J. H., D.D., Toronto,768
Chabot, Julien, Quebec,381, 815
Chagnon, Hon. H. W., Judge, St. John’s,633
Chamberlain, David Cleveland, Pembroke,242
Champlain, Samuel de,612
Chapleau, Hon. J. A., Q.C., LL.D., M.P., Montreal,634
Chapman, Robert Andrew, Dorchester,263
Charland, Hon. Justice Alfred N., B.C.L., St. John’s,721
Charlebois, Alphonse, Quebec,607
Chauveau, Hon. Justice Alexander, B.C.L., Quebec,213
Chênevert, Cuthbert Alphonse, Berthierville,751
Chesley, John Alexander, Portland,138
Chicoyne, Jerome Adolphe, Sherbrooke,369
Child, Marcus, Coaticook,647
Chisholm, Mrs. Addie, Ottawa,604
Chisholm, Peter J., Truro,408
Choquette, P. A., LL.B., M.P., Montmagny,341
Church, Hon. Charles Edward, Halifax,171
Cimon, Hon. M. H. E., Judge, Fraserville,377
Clarke, Edw. Frederick, M.P.P., Toronto,525
Clarke, Henry Edward, M.P.P., Toronto,746
Clark, Rev. W. B., Quebec,279
Clemo, Ebenezer,349
Clinch, Robert Thomson, St. John,581
Cloran, Henry Joseph, B.C.L., Montreal,342
Cluxton, Wm., Peterboro’,63
Coburn, George H., M.D., Fredericton,206
Cockburn, G. R. R., M.P., Toronto,600
Coldwell, Albert Edward, M.A., Wolfville,506
Coleman, Arthur Philemon, Ph.D., Cobourg,196
Colfer, Lieut.-Col. George William, Quebec,448
Cook, Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., Quebec,578
Cooke, Richard S., Three Rivers,767
Cooke, Right Rev. Thomas, Bishop,779
Cooke, Thos. Vincent, Moncton,127
Cooley, Rev. John W., Hamilton,740
Corning, Thomas Edgar, Yarmouth,549
Costigan, Hon. John, Ottawa,709
Coté, Louis, St. Hyacinthe,588
Coursol, Capt. C. J. Q., St. John’s,563
Courtney, Right Rev. Bishop Frederick,586
Cowperthwaite, Rev. H. P., A.M., St. John,260
Craig, James, B.A., Renfrew,55
Cram, John Fairbairn, Carleton Place,117
Creed, Herbert Clifford, Fredericton,106
Creelman, Hon. Samuel, M.L.C., Round Bank, Upper Stewiacke,306
Crinion, Rev. James Eugene, Dunnville,248
Crisp, Rev. Robert S., Moncton,125
Crocket, William, A.M., Fredericton,123
Cross, Hon. Alexander, Judge, Montreal,165
Currey, Lemuel Allan, M.A., St. John,89
Currie, John Z., A.B., M.D., Fredericton,90
Curry, Matthew Allison, M.D., Halifax,627
Cuthbert, Edward O. J. A., Berthierville,191
Daly, Thomas Mayne, M.P., Brandon,316
David, Laurent Oliver, M.P.P., Montreal,290
Davidson, Hon. Justice C. P., Montreal,562
Davie, George Taylor, Levis,728
Davis, D. W., M.P., Macleod,783
Dawson, Sir J. William, Knight, C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., Montreal,598
de Cazes, Paul, Quebec,378
de La Bruère, Hon. P. B., St. Hyacinthe,424
de Lottinville, J. B. S. L., Three Rivers,809
de Martigny, Adelard Le Moyne, Montreal,147
Denoncourt, N. L., Q.C., Three Rivers,541
Derbishire, Stewart,487
Desaulniers, D. B. W., M.D., Nicolet,561
Desaulniers, F. S. L., B.C.L., M.P., Yamachiche,348
DesBrisay, Theophilus, Q.C., Bathurst,181
Deschenes, G. H., M.P.P., St. Epiphane,774
Desilets, Joseph Moise, Q.C., Three Rivers,746
Desjardins, Dr. Louis Edouard, Montreal,115
Desjardins, Lieut.-Col. L. G., M.P.P., Levis,472
De Sola, Abraham, LL.D.,97
Dessaint, Major A., LL.B., Kamouraska,773
Dessaulles, George Casimir, St. Hyacinthe,483
De Wolfe, C. E., Judge, Windsor, N.S.,397
Dickson, George, M.A., Toronto,760
Dickson, William Welland, M.D., Pembroke,116
Dionne, N. E., S.B., M.D., Quebec,256
Dobell, Richard Reid, Quebec,421
Dobson, Rev. William, Fredericton,335
Doney, Charles, Ottawa,328
Dorion, Hon. Sir A. A., Knight, Montreal,641
d’Orsonnens, Lieut.-Col. the Count Louis Gustave d’Odet,596
Doucet, Laman R., Sheriff, Bathurst,405
Doutre, Joseph, Q.C., Montreal,305
Dowdall, James, Almonte,122
Drolet, Jacques François Gaspard, Quebec,364
Drummond, A. T., B.A., LL.B., Montreal,311
Drysdale, William, Montreal,794
Duchesnay, Lieut.-Col. H. J. J.,775
Duclos, Silas T., St. Hyacinthe,775
Duhamel, Most Rev. J. T., Archbp., Ottawa,683
Dunbar, James, Q.C., Quebec,724
Duncan, John, St. John,496
Dunn, Timothy Hibbard, Quebec,542
Dunnet, Thomas, Toronto,304
Duplessis, L. T. N. Le N., Three Rivers,745
Dupré, Rev. L. L., Sorel,608
Dymond, A. H., Brantford,809
Earle, Sylvester Zobieski, M.D., St. John,229
Edgar, James David, M.P., Toronto,594
Edgar, William, Montreal,664, 815
Edwards, William Cameron, Rockland,345
Elliott, Andrew, Almonte,92
Elliott, Edward, Perth,370
Elliott, George, Guelph,629
Ellis, James, Toronto,813
Ellis, William, St. Catharines,121
Ellis, Wm. Hodgson, B.A., M.B., L.R.C.P., Toronto,662
Emmerson, H. R., LL.B., Dorchester,500
Emmerson, Rev. Robert Henry,498
Evanturel, Francis Eugene Alfred, LL.B., M.P.P., St. Victor d’Alfred,323
Fabre, Most Rev. E. C., Archbp., Montreal,446
Falconbridge, Hon. William Glenholme, M.A., Toronto,64, 815
Farrell, E., M.D., Halifax,777
Fenwick, G. E., M.D., C.M., Montreal,402
Ferguson, Hon. D., M.P.P., Charlottetown,135
Fielding, Hon. W. S., M.P.P., Halifax,297
Finnie, J. T., M.D., L.R.C.S., Montreal,101
Fiske, Edward, Joliette,723
Fitch, Edson, Quebec,365
Fitzgerald, Rev. D., D.D., Charlottetown,112
Fitzpatrick, Charles, Quebec,494
Fizét, L. J. C., Lieut.-Colonel, Quebec,275
Fogo, Hon. James, Judge, Pictou,184
Foster, Hon. G. E., B.A., D.L.C., Ottawa,752
Foster, James Gilbert, Q.C., Halifax,206
Fothergill, Rev. M. Monkhouse, Quebec,185
Flewelling, William Pentreath, Fredericton,67
Flint, T. B., M.A., LL.B., Yarmouth,264
Flynn, Hon. E. J., Q.C., LL.D., M.P.P., Quebec,244
Fournier, Hon. Telesphore, Judge, Ottawa,481
Fowler, Rev. Robert, London,161
Fraser, Hon. D. C., B.A., New Glasgow,458
Fraser, Hon. J. J., Judge, Fredericton,183
Fraser, John A., M.P.P., Big Bras d’Or,750
Freer, Lieut. Harry Courtlandt, St. John’s,567
Fry, Edward Carey, Quebec,508
Fulford, Right Rev. Francis, D.D., Bishop,425
Fullerton, James S., Toronto,350
Fulton, Dr. John, Toronto,697
Futvoye, I. B., St. John’s,782
Gagnon, Hon. C. A. E., M.P.P., Kamouraska,529
Galbraith, Rev. W., B.C.L., LL.B., Orillia,55
Garneau, Hon. Pierre, Quebec,187
Gauvreau, Rev. Antoine, Levis,451
Gaynor, John Joseph, M.D., St. John,145
Gendreau, Jean Baptiste, N.P., Coaticooke,391
Genest, L. U. A., Three Rivers,405
Germain, Adolphe, Sorel,606
Gervais, Marie Emery, M.D., Three Rivers,444
Gibbons, Robert, Sheriff, Goderich,798
Gibsone, W. C., Quebec,776
Gilmour, John Taylor, M.D., M.P.P., West Toronto Junction,175
Gilmour, Lieut.-Col. H., Stanbridge East,774
Gilpin, Edwin, Jr., Halifax,177
Gilpin, Rev. Edwin, D.D., Halifax,169
Gingras, Hon. Jean Elie, Quebec,660
Girard, Abbé Pierre, M.A., Sherbrooke,496
Girouard, Désiré, Q.C., D.C.L., M.P., Dorval,226
Girouard, Theophile, Quebec,558
Glackmeyer, Charles, Montreal,176
Gouin, Antoine Nemese, Sorel,581
Gould, George, Walkerton,792
Grant, Henry Hugh, Halifax,678
Grant, Rev. George Monro, D.D., Kingston,388
Grant, Rev. R. N., Orillia,212
Gravel, Rev. J. A., St. Hyacinthe,750
Graveley, Lieut.-Col. John Vance, Cobourg,216
Gray, James, Perth,93
Green, Harry Compton, Summerside,184
Greenwood, Stansfield, Coaticook,679
Griffin, Martin J., Ottawa,436
Guest, Sheriff G. H., Yarmouth,566
Guevrement, Hon. J. B., Sorel,780
Guilbault, Edouard, Joliette,597
Guillet, Major George, M.P., Cobourg,409
Guthrie, Donald, Q.C., M.P.P., Guelph,49
Guy, Michel Patrice, N.P., Montreal,726
Haanel, E. E., F.R.S.C., Ph.D., Cobourg,526
Hale, Frederick Harding, M.P., Woodstock,363
Hale, Hon. Edward,518
Hale, Hon. John,552
Haliburton, Hon. Thomas Chandler,443
Hall, Francis Alexander, Perth,82
Hall, John Smythe, Jr., B.A., B.C.L., Q.C., M.P.P., Montreal,357
Hall, Robert Newton, B.A., LL.D., Q.C., M.P., Sherbrooke,685
Hamilton, Hon. C. E., Q.C., Winnipeg,472
Hamilton, Robert, D.C.L., Lennoxville,742
Hammond, John, St. John,521
Hanington, Hon. Daniel L., Q.C., M.P.P., Dorchester,245
Harper, J. M., M.A., Ph.D., F.E.I.S., Quebec,231
Harris, Christopher Prince, Moncton,86
Harris, John Leonard, Moncton,354
Harris, Joseph A., Moncton,126, 815
Harris, Michael Spurr, Moncton,108
Harris, Very Rev. W. R., B.D., St. Catharines,224
Harrison, Hon. Archibald, Maugerville,175
Harrison, Thomas, LL.D., Fredericton,107
Hart, John Semple, Perth,621
Hatt, Samuel Staunton, Quebec,286
Haythorne, Hon. Robert Poore, Charlottetown,657
Hearn, David A., M.P.P., Arichat,225
Heavysege, Charles,32
Hemming, E. J., D.C.L., Drummondville,71
Henderson, D., M.P., Acton,777
Hensley, Hon. J., Judge, Charlottetown,427
Hetherington, George A., M.D., L.M., St. John,298, 815
Hewson, C. W. U., M.D., L.R.C.P., L.M., Amherst,312
Hill, Andrew Gregory, P.M., Niagara Falls,53
Hill, Hon. G. F., St. Stephen,763
Hincks, Sir Francis,812
Hind, Professor H. Y., M.A., Windsor, N.S.,308
Hingston, William Hales, M.D., L.R.C.S., D.C.L., Montreal,436
Hinson, Rev. Walter, Moncton,50
Hodder, Edward M., M.D.,647
Holmes, Hon. Simon H., Halifax,163
Honan, Martin, Three Rivers,773
Honey, John S., Montreal,772
Hopper, Rev. J. E., M.A., D.D., St. John,336
Hossack, William, Quebec,330
Hould, J. B. L., LL.B., Three Rivers,625
Howard, R. P., M.D., L.R.C.S.E., Montreal,511
Howe, Henry Aspinwall, T.C.D., M.A., LL.D., Montreal,565
Howe, Hon. Joseph,587
Hudspeth, Adam, Q.C., M.P., Lindsay,463
Huggan, W. T., Charlottetown,805
Humphrey, John Albert, M.P.P., Moncton,186
Hunt, Henry George, St. Catharines,126
Hunter, Rev. Samuel J., D.D., Hamilton,66
Hunton, Sidney Walker, M.A., Sackville,197
Inch, James R., M.A., L.L.D., Sackville,322
Inches, P. R., M.D., M.R.C.S., St. John,133
Inglis, George, Owen Sound,643
Ingram, Andrew B., M.P.P., St. Thomas,301
Irvine, Hon. George, Q.C., D.C.L., Quebec,564
Irvine, Matthew Bell, C.B., C.M.G., Com.-General, Quebec,337
Irving, Andrew, Pembroke,352
Irving, J. D., Brigade Major, Charlottetown,105
Ives, Herbert Root, Montreal,629
Jack, William Brydone, M.A., D.C.L.,260
Jaffray, Robert, Toronto,675
Jamieson, Philip, Toronto,676
Jarvis, Frederick William,171
Jennings, Rev. John, D.D.,462
Jetté, Hon. L. A., LL.D., Judge, Montreal,432
Johnson, Hon. F. G., Montreal,114
Johnston, C. H. L., M.D., L.R.C.S., St. John,234
Johnston, Hon. J. W., Judge, Dartmouth,266
Jolicœur, Phillippe Jacques, Q.C., Quebec,602
Joliffe, Rev. William John, B.C.L., Quebec,324
Joncas, Louis Zephrim, M.P., Grand River,355
Jones, Hon. A. G., P.C., M.P., Halifax,385
Jones, Sir David,345
Jones, R. V., A.M., Ph.D., Wolfville,466
Jones, Rev. Septimus, M.A., Toronto,637
Jones, Simeon, St. John,387
Joseph, Abraham, Quebec,274
Kay, Rev. John, Hamilton,198
Keating, Edward Henry, C.E., Halifax,214
Keirstead, Rev. Elias M., M.A., Wolfville,493
Kellond, Robert Arthur, Toronto,102
Kelly, Francis, J.P., Joliette,565
Kelly, Samuel James, M.D., M.S., Joliette,535
Kelly, Thomas Eugene, Joliette,527
Kelly, Thomas, Judge, Summerside,84
Kemble, William, Quebec,345
Kennedy, George, M.A., LL.D., Toronto,142
Kennedy, George Thomas, M.A., B.A.Sc., F.G.S., Windsor,229
Kennedy, James Thomas, Indiantown,331, 815
Kenny, Thomas Edward, M.P., Halifax,729
Ker, Rev. Robert, Mitchell,295
Kerr, W., M.A., Q.C., LL.D., Cobourg,290
Kerr, W. W. Hastings, Q.C., Montreal,619
Kilgour, Robert, Toronto,278
Killam, Amasa Emerson, M.P.P., Moncton,398
Kincaid, Robert, M.D., Peterboro’,591
King, Edwin David, M.A., Q.C., Halifax,249
King, James, Quebec,562
Klein, Alphonse B., Walkerton,771
Klotz, Otto, Preston,26
Knowles, Charles William, Windsor, N.S.,310
Labelle, Capt. Jean B., M.P., Montreal,189
Labelle, Rev. F. X. A., St. Jerome,358
Lacerte, Elie, M.D., Three Rivers,618
Lachapelle, E. P., M.D., Montreal,261
Lafrance, Charles Joseph, Quebec,622
Lake, John Neilson, Toronto,96
Laliberté, Jean Baptiste, Quebec,353
Lamarche, Felix Oliver, Berthierville,582
Lambly, William Harwood, Inverness,170
La Mothe, G. J. B., Montreal,94
Langevin, Hon. Sir Hector Louis, K.C.M.G., Q.C., M.P., Ottawa,748
La Rocque, Basile, M.D., St. John’s,732
La Rocque, Gedeon, M.D., Quebec,484
La Rocque, Rev. Paul S., St. Hyacinthe,701
La Rocque, Right Rev. Bishop Charles,689
La Rocque, Right Rev. Bishop Joseph,712
Larue, Hon. Jules Ernest, Judge, Quebec,628
La Rue, Thomas George, Quebec,370
Laurie, Maj.-Gen. J. W., M.P., Oakfield,356, 816
Laurier, Hon. Wilfrid, B.C.L., Q.C., M.P., Quebec,592
Laviolette, Hon. J. G., M.L.C., Montreal,320
Law, William, M.P.P., Yarmouth,356
Lawson, John A., Charlottetown,460
Lawson, Prof. Geo., Ph.D., LL.D., F.I.C., F.R.S.C., Halifax,717
Leach, Ven. Archdeacon William Turnbull, D.C.L., LL.D.,134
Leblanc, P. E., M.P.P., Montreal,782
Leclerc, Rev. J. U., Montreal,753
Lefebvre, Guillaume, Waterloo, Q.,721
Lefebvre, Joseph Herbert, Waterloo, Q.,587
Le May, Léon Pamphile, Quebec,220
Lemieux, François Xavier, M.P.P., Quebec,601
LePan, Frederick N. D’Orr, Owen Sound,68
Lewis, W. J., M.D., M.P.P., Hillsborough,316
Long, Thomas, Collingwood,81
Longley, Hon. James Wilberforce, M.P.P., M.E.C., Halifax,186
Longworth, Hon. John, Q.C.,329
Loranger, Hon, L. O., Judge, Montreal,299
Lord, Major Artemas, Charlottetown,219
Lorrain, Right Rev. Narcisse Zephirin, Bishop, Pembroke,193
Lount, William, Q.C., Toronto,743
Lugrin, Charles H., A.M., Fredericton,382
Lugrin, Charles S., Fredericton,407
Lyall, Rev. William, LL.D., Halifax,233
Lyman, F. S., B.A., B.C.L., Montreal,313
McCaffrey, Charles, Nicolet,544
McCallum, G. A., M.D., Dunville,418
McCaul, Rev. John, D.D., Toronto,165
McClelan, Hon. Abner Reid, Hopewell,349
McConnell, J., M.D., M.C.P.S.O., Toronto,367
McConnell, J. B., M.D., C.M., Montreal,386
McConnel, William George, Berthierville,490
McConville, Joseph Norbet Alfred, Joliette,541
McCosh, John, Orillia,74
McDonald, A. R., River du Loup (en bas),279
McDonald, Hon. J., Chief Justice, Halifax,712
McDonald, Rev. Clinton Donald, B.A., B.L., B.D., M.A., Ph.D., B.Sc., Thorold,505
McEachran, Professor Duncan McNab, F.R.C.V.S., Montreal,162
McGee, Hon. T. D’Arcy, B.C.L., M.R.I.A.,302
McHenry, Donald C., M.A., Cobourg,482
McIsaac, Angus, Judge, Antigonish,388
McIsaac, Colin F., M.P.P., Antigonish,395
McIlwraith, Thomas, Hamilton,722
McIntyre, Right Rev. P., D.D., Charlottetown,110
McKinnon, Hon. John, M.P.P., Whycocomagh,410
McKnight, Robert, Owen Sound,392
McLachlan, Alexander, Erin,411
McLelan, Hon. Archibald Woodbury, M.P.,703
McLellan, Hon. David, M.P.P., Indiantown,433
McLeod, Hon. Neil, M.A., Charlottetown,220
McLeod, Howard Douglas, St. John,387
McLeod, Hon. J. D., M.L.C., Pictou,764
McLeod, Rev. Joseph, D.D., Fredericton,137
McMaster, Hon. William, Toronto,286
McMicken, Hon. Gilbert, Winnipeg,346
McMillan, John, M.D., Pictou,711
McNeil, Hon. Daniel, Port Hood,381
McNeill, John Sears, M.P.P., Barton,180
McNicoll, David, Montreal,662
McPherson, R. B., Thorold,154
McRitchie, Rev. George, Prescott,215
Macallum, A., M.A., LL.B., Hamilton,738
MacCallum, D. C., M.D., M.R.C.S., Montreal,138
MacColl, Evan, Kingston,95
MacCoy, W. F., Q.C., M.P.P., Halifax,190
Macdonald, Augustine Colin, Montague,354
Macdonald, Charles De Wolf, B.A., Pictou,285
Macdonald, Duncan, St. John’s,630
Macdonald, Hon. A. A., Lieut.-Gov., Charlottetown,466
Macdonald, Hon. John, Senator, Toronto,579
Macdonald, L. G., Q.C., St. John’s,543
Macdonald, Lieut.-Col. C. J., Halifax,268
Macdonald, Rev. J. C., Charlottetown,199
Macdonald, R. Tyre, Sutton,811
Macdonald, Right Hon. Sir John Alexander, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Ottawa,670
Macdonnell, Rev. D. J., B.D., Toronto,196
MacDowall, D. H., M.P., Prince Albert,611
MacFarlane, Foster, M.D., Fairville, St. John,39
Macfarlane, Thomas, Ottawa,88
MacGillivray, Hon. A., Antigonish,767
Machin, Henry Turner, Quebec,554
Mackay, Alexander Howard, B.A., B.Sc., F.S.Sc., Pictou, N.S.,210
Mackay, N. E., M.D., C.M., M.R.C.S., Halifax,269
Mackay, W., M.D., M.P.P., Reserve Mines,556
Mackenzie, Hon. A., P.C., M.P., Toronto,522
Mackenzie, J. M., Moncton,798
MacKinnon, Tristiam A., Montreal,502
Mackintosh, Charles H., Ottawa,446
Maclaren, James, Buckingham,540
MacLean, Alexander, Ottawa,284
MacLeod, Rev. John M., Charlottetown,46
MacMahon, Hon. Hugh, Judge, Toronto,733
Macpherson, Alexander, Montreal,778
Macpherson, Henry, Judge, Owen Sound,200
MacVicar, Rev. Malcolm, Ph.D., LL.D., Toronto,30
Madill, Frank, M.A., M.P., Beaverton,528
Magnan, Adolphe, N.P., Joliette,637
Mara, J. A., M.P., Kamloops,784
Martin, Joseph, LL.B., Quebec,555
Mason, T. G., Toronto,811
Masson, Hon. Louis François Roderique,346, 816
Masson, James, Q.C., M.P., Owen Sound,666
Matheson, David, Ottawa,688
Matheson, Hon. Roderick,459
Matheson, Lieut.-Col. Arthur James, Perth,465
Mathews, Rev. George D., D.D., Quebec,258
Mathieu, Hon. Michel, Judge, Montreal,265
Mathison, George, Quebec,66
Maunsell, Lieut.-Col. G. J., Fredericton,102
Maynard, Rev. T., M.A., D.D., Windsor,491
Medley, Rev. C. S., B.A., Sussex,284
Meek, Edward, Toronto,725
Mellish, John Thomas, M.A., Halifax,246, 816
Mercier, Hon. Honoré, M.P.P., Premier, Quebec,234
Meredith, Sir William Collis, K.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Quebec,223
Merritt, Jedediah Prendergast, St. Catharines,714
Methot, Joseph Edouard, Three Rivers,648
Méthot, Right Rev. M. E., A.M., D.D., Quebec,342
Miller, John Stewart, M.P.P., Centreville,341
Milligan, Rev. George M., B.A., Toronto,79
Mills, John Burpee, M.P., Annapolis,666
Mitchell, Hon. James, St. Stephen,39
Mitchell, Samuel E., Pembroke,217
Moffat, William, Pembroke,413
Moles, Robert George, Arnprior,327
Molony, Thomas J., LL.B., Quebec,655
Monk, Hon. S. C., LL.D., Judge, Montreal,537
Montagu, Walter H., M.D., M.P., Dunville,686
Montgomery, Donald, Charlottetown,568
Moodie, Mrs. Susanna,710
Moody, James Cochrane, M.D., Windsor,435
Moody, Rev. John T. T., D.D., Yarmouth,247
Moore, Alvan Head, Magog,567, 816
Moore, Dennis, Hamilton,792
Moore, Paul Robinson, M.D., Sackville,35
Moreau, Right Rev. Bishop L. Z., St. Hyacinthe,584
Morin, Eusebe, St. Hyacinthe,611
Morin, Louis Edmond, Quebec,385
Morris, John Lang, B.C.L., Q.C., Montreal,747
Morrison, Alfred Gidney, Halifax,464
Morison, Lewis Francis, St. Hyacinthe,697
Morrow, John, Toronto,223
Morse, Hon. W. A. D., Judge, Amherst,222
Morson, W. A. O., Charlottetown,92
Motton, Robert, Q.C., Halifax,783
Mountain, Right Rev. G. J., Bishop, Quebec,439
Mountcastle, Clara H., Clinton,292
Mowat, Hon. O., Q.C., LL.D., Toronto,559
Mowatt, Rev. Andrew Joseph, Fredericton,38
Murchie, James, St. Stephen,221
Murphy, Martin, C.E., Halifax,319
Murphy, Owen, M.P.P., Quebec,208
Murray, Lieut.-Col. John Robert, Halifax,717
Murray, William, Sherbrooke,800
Nantel, G. A., M.P.P., St. Jerome,669
Nault, Joseph, St, Hyacinthe,450
Nelles, Rev. Samuel Sobieski, D.D., LL.D.,363
Nelson, Hon. Hugh, Lieut-Governor, Victoria,649
Nettleton, John, Collingwood,161
Nolin, Charles, Sheriff, St. John’s,502
Norman, Rev. Richard Whitmore, M.A., D.C.L., Montreal,74
Normand, Telesphore Euzebe, Three Rivers,682
Norquay, Hon. John, M.P.P., Winnipeg,479
Noyes, John Powell, Q.C., Waterloo, Q.,605
O’Connor, Hon. John,412
Ogden, Charles Kinnis, Three Rivers,511
Ogden, W. W., B.M., M.D., Toronto,716
Ogilvie, Hon. A. W., Senator, Montreal,131
Ostigny, Joseph Henry, Joliette,545
O’Sullivan, D. A., M.A., D.C.L., Toronto,592
Otter, Lieut.-Col. William Dillon, Toronto,620
Ouellette, Rev. J. R., St. Hyacinthe,677
Ouimet, Hon. Gédéon, Q.C., D.C.L., Quebec,450
Ouimet, Hon. Lieut.-Col. Aldric Joseph, LL.B., Q.C., M P., Montreal,413
Oulton, Alfred E., Judge, Dorchester,394
Owens, John, St. John,548
Owens, William, M.P.P., Lachute,410
Pacaud, Ernest, Quebec,405
Pacaud, Gaspard, M.P.P., Windsor,558
Palmer, Caleb Read, J.P., Moncton,135
Panneton, Louis Edmond, Q.C., B.C.L., LL.D., Sherbrooke,351, 816
Papineau, Hon. Louis Joseph,679
Paquet, Hon. A. H., M.D., St. Cuthbert,535
Paquet, Rev. Benjamin, Quebec,531
Park, William A., M.P.P., Newcastle, N.B.,322
Parker, Rev. W. R., M.A., D.D., Toronto,516
Partridge, Rev. F., M.A., D.D., Halifax,644
Paton, Andrew, Sherbrooke,448
Paton, Hugh, Montreal,396
Patton, Hon. James, Q.C., LL.D., Toronto,174
Payan, Paul, St. Hyacinthe,638
Payzant, J. Y., M.A., Halifax,778
Peck, Charles Allison, Hopewell Hill,451
Pelland, B. L., Berthierville,810
Pelletier, Hon. H. C., Judge, Rimouski,275
Pelton, S. H., Q.C., Yarmouth,296
Perley, William Dell, M.P., Wolseley,665
Perrigo, James, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S., Montreal,284
Peters, Simon, J.P., Quebec,459
Peterson, Peter Alexander, C.E., Montreal,707
Pettit, Rev. Charles Biggar, M.A., Cornwall,724
Phelan, Cornelius J. F. R., M.D., C.M., Waterloo, Q.,595
Phillips, Rev. Caleb T., Woodstock,432
Philp, Rev. John, M.A., Montreal,395
Piché, E. U., Berthierville,780
Pickard, Rev. Humphrey, D.D., Sackville,140
Pidgeon, J. R., J.P., Indiantown,455
Pim, Richard, Toronto,563
Pipes, Hon. W. T., Amherst,791
Plumb, Hon. Josiah Burr, Niagara,706
Pope, Edwin, Quebec,512
Pope, Hon. James Colledge,605
Pope, Hon. John Henry, M.P., Ottawa,650
Pope, Hon. Joseph, Charlottetown,417
Pope, P. W. T., Charlottetown,428
Poupore, Wm. Joseph, M.P.P., Chichester,645
Power, Hon. L. G., LL.B., Halifax,503
Power, Michael Joseph, Halifax,530
Prefontaine, R. F., B.C.L., M.P., Montreal,779
Prévost, Major Oscar A., Quebec,612
Price, Evan John, Quebec,628
Price, Herbert Molesworth, Quebec,594
Prince, Right Rev. John C., Bishop,689
Prior, James, Merritton,600
Proudfoot, Hon. William, Judge, Toronto,270
Proulx, Hon. Jean Baptiste George, Nicolet,607
Pugsley, Hon. William, D.C.L., St. John,649
Purcell, Patrick, M.P., Summertown,669, 816
Quinton, William A., M.P.P., Fairville,632
Radenhurst, W. H., Perth,719
Ratcliffe, John,546
Ratcliffe, Rev. J. H., St. Catharines,378
Raymond, Rev. Joseph Sabin, St. Hyacinthe,686
Read, John, Stratford,416
Read, Rev. P. C., M.A., Lennoxville,704
Reddin, James Henry, Charlottetown,54
Reddy, John, M.D.,85
Reed, Robert, St. John,557
Reid, Rev. Charles Peter, Sherbrooke,530
Rexford, Rev. Elson Irving, B.A., Quebec,486
Reesor, Hon. D., Toronto,704
Rice, Charles, Perth,75
Richard, Rev. Cannon Louis, A.M., Three Rivers,476
Richey, Hon. Matthew H., Q.C., D.C.L., Lieut.-Gov., Halifax,380
Richey, Rev. Matthew, D.D.,471
Ritchie, Hon. J. N., Judge, Halifax,193
Ritchie, Hon. Robert J., M.P.P., St. John,702
Rivard, A. M., M.D., Sheriff, Joliette,568
Robb, Alexander, Amherst,179
Robb, David W., Amherst,183
Roberts, C. G. D., M.A., Windsor, N.S.,368
Robertson, Andrew, Montreal,314
Robertson, George, St. John,336
Robertson, Henry, LL.B., Collingwood,808
Robertson, Hon. T., Judge, Hamilton,799
Robertson, N., Walkerton,776
Robillard, Alexander, M.P.P., Russel,486
Robinson, D. A., M.D., Coaticook,751
Robinson, Samuel Skiffington, Orillia,252
Robitaille, Louis Adolphe, Quebec,663
Roche, William, Jr., M.P.P., Halifax,217
Rogers, Henry Cassady, Peterboro’,147, 816
Rogers, Lieut.-Col. R. Z., Grafton,765
Rogers, Rev. Jabez A., Windsor, N.S.,534
Rolland, Hon. J. B., Montreal,793
Rose, George Maclean, Toronto,731
Rose, Hon. John E., LL.D., Judge, Toronto,737
Rosebrugh, John W., M.D., Hamilton,314
Ross, Alexander Milton, M.D., Montreal,118
Ross, Hon. David Alexander, Q.C., Quebec,300
Ross, Hon. James Gibb, Quebec,648
Ross, Hon. William, Halifax,189
Ross, James Duncan, M.D., Moncton,136
Rottot, Jean Philippe, M.D., Montreal,128
Rourke, James, St. Martin’s,375
Rousseau, Joseph Thomas, St. Hyacinthe,518
Routhier, Hon. A. B., LL.D., Quebec,755
Roy, Rouer Joseph, Q.C., Montreal,667
Ruel, James Rhodes, St. John,228
Russell, Willis, Quebec,535
Rutherford, John, J.P., Owen Sound,289
Ryan, Hon. Patrick George, M.P.P., Caraquet,736
Saint-Cyr, D. N. D., Quebec,379
Saint-Pierre, Henri C., Montreal,69
Sanderson, Rev. Dr. G. R., Sarnia,65
Sandford, Hon. W. E., Hamilton,753
Sangster, Charles, Kingston,423
Scarth, William Bain, M.P., Winnipeg,624
Schiller, Charles Edward, Montreal,677
Scott, Capt. Peter Astle, R.N.,700
Scott, Hon. Richard W., Q.C., Ottawa,758
Scott, Lieut.-Col. Thomas, Winnipeg,715
Sears, Lieut. James Walker, Toronto,606
Sedgewick, Robert, Q.C., Halifax,422
Sénécal, Hon. Louis Adelard, Montreal,452
Senkler, William Stevens, Judge, Perth,52
Seymour, James, St. Catharines,544
Shakespeare, Noah, Victoria,297, 816
Shannon, Hon. S. L., D.C.L., Halifax,756
Shaw, Lieut.-Col. James,68
Shearer, James Traill, Montreal,654
Shehyn, Hon. Joseph, M.P.P., Quebec,539
Shields, John, Toronto,551
Shorey, Hollis, Montreal,651
Shortt, Rev. William, B. D., Walkerton,747
Sicotte, Hon. Louis Victor, St. Hyacinthe,438
Sifton, Hon. John Wright, Brandon,46
Silver, William Chamberlain, Halifax,318
Simcoe, Lieut.-General John Graves,181
Sinclair, Donald, Walkerton,757
Skinner, Hon. Charles N., Q.C., St. John,401
Slack, Edward, Waterloo, Q.,463
Slaven, John Wallace, Orillia,650
Smart, William Lynn, Hamilton,468
Smith, Andrew, F.R.C.V.S., Toronto,726
Smith, A. Lapthorn, B.A., M.D., Montreal,681
Smith, G. B., M.P.P., Toronto,791
Smith, Rev. H. Percy W., Dunnville,209
Smith, Rev. James Cowie, M.A., B.D., Guelph,680
Smith, Rev. John, Toronto,515
Smith, John H., Buffalo,56
Smith, Robert Barry, Moncton,331
Smith, Robert Herbert, Quebec,462
Smith, William, M.P., Columbus,503
Spencer, Charles Worthington, Montreal,507
Spencer, E. E., M.P.P., Frelighsburg,382
Sprague, Thomas Farmer, M.D., Woodstock,145
Starnes, Hon. Lieut-Col. Henry, Montreal,749
Steadman, James, Fredericton,543
Steele, Rev. D. A., A.M., Amherst,264
Steeves, Chipman Archibald, Moncton,326
Steeves, James Thomas, M.D., St. John,151
Stennett, Rev. Canon Walter, M.A., Cobourg,272
Stephen, Alexander, Halifax,762
Stephen, Sir George, Baronet, Montreal,231
Stephenson, Major James, Montreal,665
Sterling, Alexander Addison, Fredericton,705
Stevens, Hon. Gardner Green, Waterloo, Q.,585
Stevens, Rev. Lorenzo Gorham, A.M., B.D., Portland, N.B.,25
Stevenson, Major S. C., Montreal,492
Stewart, George Jr., D.C.L., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.C., Quebec,227
Stewart, John, Woodstock,204
Stewart, Rev. William James, Portland, N.B.,37
St. George, Percival Walter, C.E., Montreal,134
St. George, Rev. Charles, Iberville,720
Stockton, Alfred Augustus, D.C.L., Ph.D., LL.D., M.P.P., St. John,116
Strachan, Right Rev. John, LL.D., D.D.,371
Strange, Major-General T. B., Kingston,784
Stratford, John H., Brantford,58, 816
Strothard, Rev. James, Halifax,334
Stuart, Sir Andrew, Knight, Quebec,640
Sturdee, Henry L., M.A., Portland, N.B.,426
Sutherland, Hugh McKay, Winnipeg,620
Sutherland, Rev. Alexander, D.D., Toronto,86
Sullivan, Hon. W. W., Charlottetown,429
Sweeny, Right Rev. John, D.D., R.C. Bishop, St. John,455
Taché, Eugene Etienne, Quebec,376
Taillon, Alphonse Antoine, Sorel,537
Talbot, Hon. Thomas,157
Tartre, Joseph Raphael, M.P., Waterloo, Q.,593
Taschereau, His Eminence Elzéar-Alexandre, Cardinal, Quebec,625
Taschereau, Hon. Henry T., B.L., B.C.L., Judge, Montreal,410
Taschereau, Hon. H. E., Judge, Ottawa,434
Taschereau, Hon. J. T., LL.D., Quebec,610
Taylor, Henry, Perth,78
Tellier, Hon. Louis, Judge, St. Hyacinthe,443
Tessier, Jules, M.P.P., Quebec,608
Tetreau, Rev. F., St. Hyacinthe,508
Thomas, N. W., Coaticook,763
Thomas, Rev. B. D., D.D., Toronto,379
Thompson, David,727
Thompson, Hon. J. S. D., Q.C., M.P., Ottawa,283
Thompson, Lieut.-Col. D. C., Quebec,394
Thorne, William Henry, St. John,306
Thornton, John, Coaticook,439
Tilley, Sir S. L., K.C.M.G., Fredericton,60
Tims, Frank Dillon, Quebec,545
Tomkins, Rev. John,652
Tooke, Benjamin, Montreal,699
Torey, Edgar J.,705
Torrance, David,400
Torrance, Hon. F. W., B.C.L., Montreal,393
Torrance, Rev. Robert, D.D., Guelph,33
Torrington, Frederick Herbert, Toronto,546
Tourangeau, Adolphe G., Quebec,477
Trenaman, Thomas, M.D., Halifax,554
Trueman, Hermon Silas, M.D., Sackville,335
Tupper, Hon, Sir Charles, G.C.M.G., C.B., D.C.L., Ottawa,642
Turcotte, Hon. Arthur, Q.C., Three Rivers,445
Turnbull, Lieut.-Col. James Ferdinand, Quebec,403
Turnbull, William Wallace, St. John,143
Tyrwhitt, Lieut.-Col. R., M.P., Bradford,461
Underhay, J. C., M.P.P., Bay Fortune,415
Unsworth, Joseph Lennon, Charlottetown,653
Ure, Rev. Robert, D.D., Goderich,375
Ussher, Right Rev. B. B., M.D., Montreal,19
Valin, Pierre, Vincent, Chateau Richer,383
Vallee, Thomas E. A., M.D., Quebec,538
Van Horne, William C., Montreal,469
Van Koughnet, S. J., Q.C., Toronto,795
Van Wyck, Rev. James, Toronto,152
Vaughan, William, St. Martins,458
Vidal, Major Henry Beaufort, Toronto,533
Wade, Edward Harper, Quebec,430
Waddell, John, M.D.,29
Wainwright, William, Montreal,736
Walker, Thomas, M.D., St. John,538
Wallace, Joseph James, Truro,298
Wallace, Rev. Robert, Toronto,418
Wallbridge, Hon. Lewis,374
Wallis, Herbert, Montreal,81
Wanless, John, M.D., Montreal,128
Watson, George, Collingwood,125
Webster, Walter Chester, Coaticook,678
Weeks, Otto Swartz, M.P.P., Halifax,668
Wedderburn, Hon. W., Judge, Hampton,150
Weir, W., Montreal,527
Weldon, R. C., B.A., Ph.D., M.P., Halifax,661
Weller, C. A., Judge, Peterborough,673
Wells, Hon. R. M., Toronto,639
Welton, Rev. Daniel Morse, D.D., Toronto,529
Whelan, Hon. Edward, Charlottetown,414
Whidden, Charles Blanchard, Antigonish,190
White, Hon. Thomas, M.P., Ottawa,744
Whitney, Henry A., Moncton,364
Wickwire, William Nathan, M.D., Halifax,265
Wild, Rev. Joseph, M.A., D.D., Toronto,82
Wilkinson, W., Judge, Bushville, Chatham,270
Willets, Rev. Charles E., M.A., D.C.L., Windsor, N.S.,687
Williams, Rev. John Æ., D.D., Toronto,294
Williams, Rev. William, D.D., Cobourg,175
Williams, Richard Wellington, Three Rivers,495
Williams, Right Rev. James W., D.D., Bishop, Quebec,434
Williams, Thomas, Moncton,140
Wilmot, Hon. R. D., Fredericton,765
Willmott, J. B., M.D.S., D.D.S., Toronto,173
Wilson, Daniel, LL.D., F.R.S, Toronto,338
Wilson, J. C., M.P., Montreal,149
Wilson, Rev. Robert, St. John,80
Withall, William John, Montreal,520
Wood, Rev. Enoch, D.D.,585
Wood, Robert Edwin, Peterborough,244
Woodland, Rev. James Barnaby, Yarmouth,311
Woodward, J. R., B.A., Sherbrooke,685
Workman, Joseph, M.D., Toronto,204
Worthington, Edward D., A.M., M.D., F.R.C.S., Sherbrooke,456
Wright, Aaron A., Renfrew,57
Wright, Philemon,631
Young, Edward, Windsor,800
Young, Hon. Charles, LL.D., Q.C., Charlottetown,18
Young, Hon. James, Galt,740
Young, Sir William, LL.D.,398







Cartier, Jacques.—The ancient town of St. Malo, in France, had been for centuries a nursery of hardy seamen, and among the most eminent on its list stands the name of Jacques Cartier.—This celebrated navigator was the first European who explored the shores of Canada to any extent. On the 20th April, 1534, he sailed with two ships of three score tons apiece burthen, and sixty-one well appointed men in each. He steered for Newfoundland, which he reached in twenty days, passed through the straits of Belle Isle, and advanced up the St. Lawrence, till he saw the shores of Anticosti. The approach of winter caused him to return to France. In the spring of 1535, he received a fresh commission, and three vessels, named La Grande Hermine, La Petite Hermine and L’Hémerillon, the largest about 120 tons, were placed at his disposal. On the 16th May, the officers and sailors assembled in the Cathedral at St. Malo, where, after confession and hearing mass, they received a parting blessing from the bishop, and, three days later, they set sail. After experiencing very stormy weather, during which the vessels were separated, they reached the coast of Newfoundland on the 26th July. On the 10th August, it being the festival of St. Lawrence. Cartier gave that name to the bay which he entered, and it was afterwards extended to the river and gulf. On the 16th, he reached Stadacona (now Quebec). Hearing from the Indians that a town of some importance stood by the bank of the river, many days’ journey above, and named “Hochelaga,” Cartier determined to go thither, and on the 19th September, he hoisted sail, and with his pinnace and two small boats, departed on his journey up the river. On the 28th he reached lake St. Peter. At the head of this lake he was compelled to cast anchor on account of the shoals; and finding it impossible to proceed further with his vessel (L’Hémerillon), he took to his boats, and on the 2nd October, 1535, he landed about six miles from the town, below the current St. Mary. After he had gone about four miles, he was met by one of the chiefs, accompanied by many of the natives, who gave him a cordial welcome. Having seen all that he deemed worthy of notice in the village, Cartier was conducted to the top of the mountain, the view from which filled him with feelings of joy and gratification. In honour of his king he named it “Mont Royal,” which name has been extended to the city. On his return to the boats he was accompanied by a large number of natives, who appeared to be anxious to have him stay longer. He, however, embarked the same evening, and on the 4th October, he reached his vessel, in which he passed down the St. Lawrence, and rejoined his company at Stadacona. As the season was far advanced Cartier made the bold resolve to winter in the country. His party suffered much during the winter from want of proper food and clothing, and in addition to this, they were all attacked by the scurvy, twenty-six of whom died. The remainder soon recovered their health by the use of a decoction of the spruce fir, which had been recommended to them by an Indian. When spring returned Cartier sailed for France, taking with him several of the natives, and among them, Donacona, a chief. None of them ever returned, all dying before the French again visited Canada. On his return to France, Cartier found his native land distracted with religious dissensions, and it was not until 1541, that he sailed with five vessels, and full power to make discoveries and settlements in Canada. Jean François de la Rocque, superior of Roberval, was appointed by the king viceroy and lieutenant of Canada, and was to have accompanied Cartier, but through insuperable obstacles he was unable to leave until the next year, when he left with three vessels, having on board two hundred persons, male and female. Cartier passed the winter at Cape Rouge, where he erected a fort, but fearing the natives he resolved to return to France. On his way he fell in with Roberval, at St. John’s, Newfoundland, but he refused to return with him to Canada, and proceeded on his way to France, where he died shortly after his return. Cartier manifested in all his expeditions adventurous courage. No contemporary navigator had as yet dared to advance so far into the lands of the new world as he. In his braving the rigours of a Canadian winter, and shutting himself up for six months, without means of escape, he gave a signal example of the intrepidity of the mariners of his time and country. Of right therefore in every sense, he heads the long file of visitors of inner North America.

Young, Hon. Charles, LL.D., Q.C., Judge of Surrogate and Probate, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born on the 30th of April, 1812, at Glasgow, Scotland, and is the younger brother of Sir William Young, Chief Justice of Nova Scotia. The father of these illustrious men was John Young, of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland, and subsequently of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Judge Young received his early education in Dalhousie College, Halifax, and studied law in the office of his brother, Sir William Young, in that city. He was called to the bar of Nova Scotia in 1838, and to the bar of Prince Edward Island the same year. He practised his profession for a short time with his brothers, Sir William and the Hon. George Young, now deceased; and on November 23rd, 1847, was created a Queen’s Counsel, being the first barrister in Prince Edward Island on which this honour was conferred. Judge Young entered public life a young man in 1840, where he was returned for Queen’s County to the Island Assembly, and in December following, he was appointed to the Legislative Council. In this latter body he accepted a seat until 1863, ten years of which period he acted as president. He filled the office of Attorney-General from 28th May, 1851 to the 2nd of May, 1852; and from 26th June, 1858 to 11th April, 1859; and held the commission under the Royal Sign Manual as administrator of the Government of the Island for four years. Judge Young has the honour of being the first public man who advocated the question of responsible government for the Island, and he and his co-workers had the pleasure of seeing this boon granted in 1851, together with other important reforms, such as free schools, free lands for tenantry, savings banks, etc. He received his appointment as judge of probate in 1852, and judge in bankruptcy in 1868. On retiring from the latter position in March, 1875, he was presented with the following address, which was signed by every member of the bar in Prince Edward Island, viz: —

To His Honour Judge Young, LL.D., etc.

Sir,—We, the undersigned barristers and attorneys, cannot permit the opportunity to pass of your honour’s retiring from the judgeship of the Insolvent Debtor’s Court—the jurisdiction of which is now merged in another court by virtue of ‘The Insolvent Act, 1875,’ of the Dominion of Canada—without expressing our entire satisfaction at the manner in which you presided over the meetings of the court; and at the same time thanking you for your many courtesies extended to us during the eight years Your Honour presided over said court.—(Signed), F. Brecken, Attorney-General; W. W. Sullivan, Solicitor-General; John Longworth, Q.C.; Charles Palmer, Q.C.; Charles Binns, Richard Reddin, E. H. Haviland, Edward J. Hodgson, Louis H. Davies, R. R. Fitzgerald, W. D. Haszard, Henry E. Wright, Malcolm McLeod, Neil McLean.

“Charlottetown, P.E.I., March 29th, 1876.”

To which His Honour Judge Young replied:—

Gentlemen,—Be pleased to accept my best thanks for the address you have so unexpectedly presented, and be assured that I do most highly value it on account of the expressions it contains of your entire satisfaction with the manner in which I have presided over the Insolvent Debtor’s Court for the last eight years. Where I have always been treated with marked consideration by yourselves, gentlemen, I could not do otherwise than reciprocate the courtesies to which you kindly refer. (Signed),

Charles Young.”

While Judge Young was practising at the bar, he had a large and lucrative business, and was generally engaged on one side or the other in most of the leading cases then before the courts. He was invariably retained on behalf of those he was pleased to style the “Bleeding tenantry of Prince Edward Island” against the landlords, and generally succeeded in gaining a verdict in favour of his clients. He was always the friend and advocate of the oppressed. It is pleasing to note here that Judge Young has held no position which he has not adorned. In office and out of office he has rendered great service to the community. In 1838, a Mechanics’ Institute was established in Charlottetown, mainly through his efforts, and he had the honour of delivering the introductory lecture, which was afterwards published in the Gazette. He has since 1845 taken a very deep interest in the cause of temperance, and was Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Sons of Temperance of Prince Edward Island several terms, and is a member of the National Division of the Sons of Temperance of North America. He is also an active member of the Methodist church, a local preacher, and a Bible-class teacher, and fills several other important offices in that church. He was instrumental in founding the second Methodist church in Charlottetown, and is president of Prince Edward Island Auxiliary Bible Society. The Judge is a thorough working Christian. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the Newton (United States) University; and in 1858 he was offered the honour of knighthood by Her Majesty, but respectfully declined the royal gift. In Masonry he takes an interest, and belongs to the Royal Arch Chapter. In 1838 Judge Young married Lucretia, daughter of John Starr, of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and he and his wife, there being no children, enjoy life in their beautiful home, “Fairholm,” Charlottetown.

Ussher, The Right Rev. Brandram Boileau, M.D., Montreal, Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal church in the Dominion of Canada and the Island of Newfoundland, was born in the city of Dublin, Ireland, on the 6th day of August, 1845. He is the youngest son of Captain Richard Beverly Ussher, late of H. M. 86th Regt., and Henrietta Ussher (née Boileau). On both sides of the house his ancestors were most distinguished. Captain R. B. Ussher was descended from Richard Neville, the great Earl of Warwick, one of whose descendants (for political reasons took the name of the office which he bore, viz., Usher of the Black Rod, thus retaining his influential and lucrative position when the name of Neville had become unpopular and the “Kingmaker’s” influence had waned,) subsequently settled in Ireland. To distinguish the family name from the office, the second letter, s, was added some eighty years ago. The subject of this sketch is descended from a long line of churchmen. His great-grandfather was rector of the parish of Clontarf, near Dublin, which was held in the family from father to son for over one hundred and fifty years. The Rev. John Ussher, afterwards Astronomer Royal for Ireland, was the last of the family to hold the incumbency. His sons were Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Ussher, K.C.A., who figured in the history of the great Napoleon, taking him to Elba in H.M.S. Undaunted. He died Naval Commander-in-Chief, at Cork, Ireland, and lies buried in one of the vaults of Monkstown church, County Dublin—his record was that of a gallant sailor. John Ussher, of Woodpark, who left four sons, the youngest of whom, Richard Beverly, was the father of Bishop Ussher, of Montreal. He is directly descended from Archbishop Henry Ussher, one of the founders of Trinity College, Dublin, whose brother Arland was the father of James Ussher (Trinity’s first student, buried in Henry VII. Chapel in Westminster Abbey), the celebrated Primate of Ireland, author of “Ussher’s Chronology,” etc., with whom the Duke of Wellington was also connected, owing to the fact that Mary Ussher married Henry Colley, of Castle Carberry, who was the mother of the first Lord Mornington, who was the grandfather of the Duke of Wellington. The Venerable Archdeacon Adam Ussher, rector of Clontarf, was the brother of the above named Mary Ussher and son of Sir William Ussher, clerk of the Council. The Rectory of Clontarf descended to his son Frederick, and from him to his son Henry Ussher, D.D., who held the Andrew’s Professorship of Astronomy in Trinity College, Dublin, and from him is directly descended Captain R. B. Ussher, the father of the Right Rev. Bishop Ussher. Three hundred years ago two brothers of the name of Ussher were driven from Ireland during one of the troubles, and settled in the neighbourhood of Melrose, in Scotland, where they acquired considerable lands, and amongst them the property of Huntley-burn, one of the most celebrated spots on the Borders. The grandfather of the present Thomas Ussher, of Edinburgh, for seventeen years secretary of the Borders’ County Association for the Advancement of Education (and out of which arose the celebration of the centenary of Sir Walter Scott), sold to Sir Walter Scott the chief part of the estate of Abbotsford (vide “Lockhart’s Life of Scott”). By unbroken tradition this branch claims kinship with Archbishop Ussher; and the Rev. W. Neville Ussher, cousin of the above named Thomas Ussher, is a canon of the Cathedral in Edinburgh. The Ussher family have had the honour of having four distinguished church dignitaries; two Archbishops of Armagh; one Bishop of Kildare (Robert Ussher); and Bishop B. B. Ussher, of Montreal, who has at present five surviving brothers and two sisters as follow:—Major-General John Theophilus Ussher, Beverly Ussher, Henry Ussher, M.B., Rev. P. R. C. Ussher, a prominent minister in Australia; and James Ussher, solicitor; Henrietta Buchanan and Arabella Madelina Buchanan. On his mother’s side Bishop Ussher has an equally distinguished ancestry, the Boileau family being one of the few that can trace their genealogy back without a break for a period of over six hundred years. The present Baron Boileau de Castleneau is the seventeenth in descent from Etienne Boileau, who, born early in the thirteenth century, was appointed by Louis IX., in the year 1255, Grand Provost of Paris, at that period the highest officer of state. In 1371, Jean Boileau was ennobled by Charles V. At the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, A.D. 1685, Jacques Boileau, the 10th baron, was arrested as a Protestant, tortured, and, after an imprisonment of ten and one-half years, died in the prison of St. Jean de Vedas, one mile from Montpellier, a noble martyr for the Protestant faith, having been beheaded by order of the Duke de Nemours. His son, Charles Boileau, then a youth, having taken refuge in England and having entered the British Army, firm to his Protestant faith, formally renounced his rights and titles to the honours and estates of the family which thereby devolved on his younger brother Maurice, who became the eleventh Baron Boileau. From that time the barony fell into the hands of the junior and Roman Catholic branch of the family of which the present Baron Boileau de Castleneau is now the representative. He holds, too, the ancient château de Castleneau, six miles from Nimes, which has been for three and a half centuries in the family to which it gives the present title of the barony. Five of the Barons de Castleneau held in succession the office of Royal Treasurer. Charles Boileau died in 1733, leaving three children who had issue, whose grandchildren and more remote issue are now living to the number of six hundred and fifty. The Right Rev. Bishop Ussher, when a child, was sent from under the jurisdiction of a governess at a very early age. At Delgany College, in the county Wicklow, the Rev. Dr. Daniel Flyns, of Harcourt street, Dublin, and the Rugby of Ireland, the Rev. Dr. Stackpools, of Kingstown, he received his education as a youth. As a lad he was older than his years and sought the company of those much his seniors, showing a decided penchant for those given to study. Thrown chiefly amongst medical students he followed the course of study so closely with one companion, that he was almost as well fitted as he to pass the examinations. At a little over sixteen years he secured the diploma of the Royal Dublin Society, taking sixth place out of seventy-three candidates. Owing to heavy financial losses, through the dishonesty of associates, the father of young Ussher was unable to permit him to continue his studies and the determination was formed to visit the United States. The resolve was put into execution, and, in the city of New York, mercantile life was entered upon; successful, though not in harmony with it, it was abandoned after a year, and a visit undertaken to Washington, where several of the United States’ army hospitals were visited; the old medical love rekindled and much practical knowledge gained in the treatment of surgical diseases and gun-shot wounds. The resolve was then formed to adopt medicine as a profession, and after pursuing his medical studies in the University of Michigan, he finally received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in Illinois, became a member of the State Medical Association, and was ultimately elected a member of the National Eclectic Medical Association. As a practitioner he was most successful, and as a citizen highly esteemed in the city of Aurora, Illinois, where he practised for over ten years. He was vigorously identified with the welfare of the community, and at one time it seemed that he would enter into political life, being offered the nomination by the Democratic party as a candidate for the legislature. Politics, however, were too impure to have any permanent attraction for him, and he devoted himself to his professional duties and the interests of the Anglican Church, of which he was a member. Set thinking by a sermon preached by the well-known evangelist, Mr. Moody, the instructions of pious parents were revived, and earnest Christian work entered upon with marked evidence of the divine favour. Under the license of the Right Rev. Dr. Whitehouse, then bishop of Illinois, he kept alive several mission fields and taught a large Bible-class with great acceptability. It was then pressed upon him that he should enter the ministry of the Anglican Church in the Diocese of Illinois. Steadily the conviction of the need of entire consecration to God’s service deepened; it was fought back, but the urging of Bishop Whitehouse was strong, and as there was then little evidence of the sacerdotalism that subsequently manifested itself, the course of study was entered upon under the bishop’s direction. In time it became apparent that the bishop of Illinois held strong High Church views. He was a guest in Dr. Ussher’s house on the evening of the day of the publication of Bishop Tozer’s letter condemning Bishop Cummins of Kentucky, for partaking of and administering the communion of the Lord’s Supper with Dr. John Hall, Drs. Arnot and Dorner, of the Presbyterian church, and reading it with a sense of indignation, he (Dr. Ussher) asked Bishop Whitehouse what he thought of such a letter, to which Bishop Whitehouse replied in cold, severe tones, “I think Bishop Tozer is perfectly right, and Bishop Cummins deserves the severest condemnation.” Those words decided the mind of Dr. Ussher, and realizing that as an Evangelical Protestant Churchman, he would be out of sympathy with Bishop Whitehouse, he determined to abandon the idea of entering the Anglican ministry. He felt, however, that his heart was so bound up in the Episcopal Church, and his love for her liturgy was so great, that he could not be at home in any other branch of Christ’s Church. At this juncture the Right Rev. Bishop Cummins, D.D., took steps to organize the Reformed Episcopal Church, which being made public, proved the open door. Under the guidance of that distinguished Protestant prelate, he pursued his studies and was ordained deacon in the city of Chicago, by the Right Rev. Bishop Cheney, in Christ Church, June 9th, 1874, and presbyter, July 16th, 1876, in Emmanuel Church, Ottawa, Ontario, by Bishops Cheney, Nicholson, Cridge and Fallows. His pastorates in Canada have been, one of three years in Toronto, during which was built the church on the corner of Simcoe and Caer Howell streets, and his present charge in St. Bartholomew’s, Montreal, over which he has been pastor since 1878. For good and sufficient reasons he and his congregation withdrew from the jurisdiction of the Reformed Episcopal Church in the United States and united with the English branch of the Reformed Episcopal Church under the Right Rev. T. H. Gregg, M.D., D.D., otherwise called the Reformed Church of England. By the General Synod in England, in the following year, the Rev. Dr. Ussher was elected to the episcopate, but declined. Two years after he was elected again, the Canadian Synod electing him as their bishop, and in 1882, on the 19th day of June, he was consecrated in Trinity Church, Southend, by the Right Rev. Bishop Gregg, and seven presbyters, as “a bishop in the Church of God.” Returning to Canada he took charge of the Diocese of Canada and Newfoundland. The bishop believing in benevolent societies as handmaids to the church, has been a member of the Order of Oddfellows since 1865, and has held the office of Grand Master of the Province of Quebec; he has also been, and is at present, a member of the Order of Knights of Pythias, in which he holds the rank of Past Grand Chancellor, and has had the honour of being Supreme Representative for the State of Illinois, and the authorship of one of the degrees in use by the order. Bishop Ussher is a graceful and forcible writer and an eloquent speaker, and poet of acknowledged merit. In his religious views he is an old-time Evangelical believer, pronounced in his Protestant views, in fact, a keeper in the old paths, for which reason he is ecclesiastically where he is to-day. On the 16th day of July, 1867, he was married by the Rev. Dr. Kelly, in the city of Chicago, to Elizabeth Leonora Thompson, third daughter of the Rev. Skeffington Thompson, of Broomfield, near Lucan, in the county of Dublin, Ireland, and Elizabeth Margaret D’Arcy. The father of Mrs. Ussher, the Rev. Skeffington Thompson, is the thirteenth child of the late Skeffington Thompson, of Rathnally, county of Meath, by Anna Maria Carter, only child and heiress of Thomas Carter, of Rathnally, county Meath. Skeffington Thompson the elder was an unsuccessful candidate in the last Irish Parliament against the Duke of Wellington for the borough of Trim, both candidates being neighbours in the same county, Dangan Castle, the Wellesley seat, being near Trim. The family of Thompson, according to Burke, descended from the Thompsons of Barton, Cumberland, a branch of which settled about the 16th century in the county of Hertford, England. The Irish branch are descended from those who crossed over to Ulster when that province was first taken in hand by King James, and engaging in the prosperous linen trade made large fortunes. Mrs. Ussher’s family history on the male side is interesting, as leading back to the famous Thomas Carter, who took so active a part in the Irish revolution, ending with the battle of the Boyne, 1690. This Thomas Carter was sergeant-at-arms, a partisan of King William III. at the siege of Derry, and battle of the Boyne. He was, as Burke, Ulster King of Arms, says “a gentleman whose services to his country at the revolution were very considerable, for he not only served King William at the battle of the Boyne (July 1st, 1690), but secured divers useful books and writings belonging to King James and his secretaries.” These documents he secreted in the vaults of Christ’s Church Cathedral, Dublin, until after the disturbances. He married for his second wife, the Countess of Roscommon, widow of Wentworth Dillon, the poet, who was publicly buried in Westminster Abbey. By her he had no family, but his only son Thomas became Master of the Irish Rolls, for twenty-four years, Privy Councillor, and Secretary of State. This Right Hon. Thomas Carter had two sons and three daughters, from the eldest of whom Mrs. Ussher is descended. The eldest sister of this Thomas Carter married Doctor Philip Twysden, bishop of Raphoe, and son of Sir William Twysden, baronet, of Roydon Hall, Kent. The issue of this marriage, Frances, married George Bussey, fourth Earl of Jersey and first cousin to Anna Maria Carter, Mrs. Ussher’s grandmother. This latter alliance resulted in the birth of two sons and six daughters, her eldest son being George, fifth Earl of Jersey, and the daughters became Ladies William Russell, Ann Lambton, Sarah Bailey, Lady Ponsonby, Lady Henrietta, who married the bishop of Oxford, and Lady Anglesey, wife of the Marquis of Anglesey, a hero of Waterloo, and for her second husband the Duke of Argyll, which Duchess of Argyll was cousin german to Mrs. Skeffington Thompson, Mrs. Ussher’s paternal grandmother. The Right Hon. Thomas Carter’s second daughter, Susan, married Thomas Carter, of Duleek Park and Castle, county Louth, and her grand-daughter, Elizabeth, became Marchioness of Thomond by entering the family of William O’Bryen, descendant from Brien Boroimhe, King of Ireland, and whose line was continued by the King of Munster and of Thomond to the reign of Henry VIII., King of England (see Sharpe’s Peerage). Mrs. Ussher’s family history on the female side is even more interesting. Her mother was Elizabeth Margaret, eldest daughter of the Rev. Joshua D’Arcy, Rector of Lacka, county Kildare. This D’Arcy family came to Ireland early in the 14th century and settled at Platten in the county Meath. In a book “Maynooth Castle,” written by the present Duke of Leinster when Marquis of Kildare, on page 5, we read, “Sir John D’Arcy, Lord Justice of Ireland, married the Countess Johanna de Burgh, daughter to the Red Earl of Ulster, and sister to Ellen, wife of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland. They had a son, William, born at Maynooth, in 1330, from whom the present family of D’Arcy are lineally descended, and are represented by George James Norman D’Arcy, of Hyde Park, county Westmeath (see Burke’s “Landed Gentry”, also Walford’s “County Families”), the worthy head of both English and Irish families and representative of twenty-eight peerages of Great Britain.” The Irish D’Arcys were governors of Ireland in the reign of the three Edwards, with extraordinary privileges, the power to appoint a deputy, which as Fynes Thompson remarks, neither before nor after was granted to any but some few of the royal blood (and which he exercised on two several occasions). A descendant, Sir William D’Arcy of Platten (or Platyn) was the person who carried Lambert Simnel on his shoulders through Dublin after he had been crowned in Christ Church Cathedral, for which he was obliged to do homage to his viceroy, in 1488. This Sir William D’Arcy’s descendant, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, in 1523, was the author of a work entitled, “The Decay of Ireland and the causes of it,” the MS. of which is now in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. It is quite beyond the limit of this sketch to give a full history of a family dating back to their ancient seat in Arcques, in Normandy, whence they came to England with the Conqueror, into whose family they had married previously—then settled in Lincolnshire and are given in extenso in Burke’s “Extinct Peerages.” The Yorkshire histories contain a full pedigree of about twenty-five generations, and the English and Irish pedigree illuminated by Camden, the historian, and author of the “Brittania,” dating from 1066 to 1617, is in the possession of the present head of the D’Arcy house, Mrs. Ussher’s cousin. This history says, that Nicholas D’Arcy, of Platyn, espoused the cause of King James II., and was a captain in his army. He was consequently attained in 1690, and his estates were forfeited and sold in 1691; his only son Christopher, dying unmarried, George D’Arcy, the surviving lineal heir, male, succeeded to the family headship. This George D’Arcy entertained James the Second in his Castle of Dunmow the night after the battle of the Boyne, and King William was his guest previous to the battle. King James in his hurried departure next morning forgot his pistol which yet remains in the D’Arcy family. It is related of him that on the occasion he repeated the following couplet:

“Who will be king I do not know,

 But I’ll be D’Arcy of Dunmow.”

He was declared an innocent Papist in 1693, and died in full possession of his estates in Meath and Westmeath, in 1718. His descendant John D’Arcy, born 1700, married, 1727, and was the first of the family to conform to the Protestant faith, which took place before his marriage with Miss Judge, of Grangebey, county Westmeath. He died in 1785, leaving four sons, Judge, Francis, Arthur, and James. Francis D’Arcy, on the death of his brother, Judge D’Arcy, became heir male of Sir William D’Arcy, of Platyn, second son of Lord D’Arcy, viceroy of Ireland. On the death of Robert D’Arcy, fourth Earl of Holderness, in Yorkshire, 1778, heir male of John D’Arcy and Norman D’Arcy. Francis D’Arcy died in 1813, without issue, and his youngest brother James D’Arcy, who alone had sons and daughters, thus continued the line—his eldest son, John, claimed the older D’Arcy baronies, held by the last Earl of Holderness, and this claim after trial was established. But it appears that as Robert D’Arcy, fourth Earl of Holderness, left an only child, Lady Amelia, who married the Marquis of Carmarthan, afterwards fifth Duke of Leeds, thus carrying off the Yorkshire estates into the Osborn family, the title has not been resumed by the present family. James D’Arcy, born in 1740, had three sons, John, born 1767, Joshua, the grandfather of Mrs. Ussher, and Thomas, who was a major in the army, and at his death, Inspector General of Police, in Ulster. It is interesting to know that the marriage of Lady Amelia D’Arcy, Baroness Conyers in her own right, was dissolved by Act of Parliament in May, 1779, after the birth of three children, and both parties remarried the following year, the Lady Amelia marrying John Byron, father of the poet, Lord Byron (she died January 20th, 1784, Dodd’s Peerage, Genealogical Volume and Plates of Arms, page 5). The foregoing is a very condensed account, necessarily, of Mrs. Ussher’s family history. A more extended history involving, as it would, the introduction of many other distinguished families in every department of the state, and covering many professions, literary, scientific, military and naval, we must ask our readers to spare us. Reference to the usual standard histories, genealogies and heralds of Great Britain, would confirm the above. It must be remembered that all the history of the English D’Arcys, dating from 1066, their possession of thirty-three baronies in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, their active part with the other barons in extracting Magna Charta from King John, their subsequent prominent part in the state during every reign down to that of George III., the Pilgrimage of Grace, these and many other matters have been omitted, but what has been said will suffice to show whence we have come, and we trust that the present and future will verify the wise man’s saying (Prov. xvii, 6.) in the history of Mrs. Ussher, that if “Children’s children are the crown of old men, the glory of children are their father’s.” The following are the surviving children of Bishop and Mrs. Ussher:—Sydney Lahmire Neville Ussher, Clarence Douglas Ussher, Charles Edward Cheney Ussher, George Richard Beardmore Ussher, Elizabeth Henrietta Ussher, Warwick Wellesley Ussher.

Bayard, William, M.D., Edin., St. John, New Brunswick, was born in Kentville, Nova Scotia, on the 21st day of August, 1814. The ancestors of our subject were Huguenots, and directly connected with the family, represented by the famous knight, “sans peur et sans reproche,” whose coat of arms is carried by them to this day. Having been driven from France, they landed in New Amsterdam, now New York, in the month of May, 1647. There were three brothers, Petrus, Balthazer and Nicholas; one remained in New York, and became one of the most prominent men in that city; one went to Baltimore and his branch gave senators to that city for the last hundred years, among them the present United States Secretary; and the other one went to England, giving numerous soldiers of distinction to that country, among them Colonel Samuel Vetch Bayard and Colonel John Bayard, brothers. Colonel Samuel Vetch Bayard had three sons; one a captain in the army, was killed at the battle of Waterloo; one a captain in the English navy, was murdered at Fordham, near New York city; and the third son, Robert, the father of our subject, was a lieutenant in the British army at the age of thirteen years, and was allowed to proceed with his studies at Windsor, Nova Scotia, while his father’s regiment was stationed at Halifax, N.S. He left the army and graduated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh in 1809, was a D. C. L. of Windsor College, N.S., and for three years professor of Obstetrics in the University of New York. When the war of 1812 was declared against Great Britain, he was required to take the oath of allegiance or leave the country. He chose the latter course, found his way to Portland, Maine, left that city in an open boat, and arrived in the city of St. John, N.B., in the month of May, 1813. From that city he went to Halifax, N.S., and there married Frances Catherine Robertson, daughter of Commissary Robertson, who was killed in the Colonial war which commenced in 1775. Her grandfather was Colonel John Billop, who owned a large part of Staten Island, near New York, and being a Loyalist, his property was confiscated. He died in the city of St. John. Dr. Robert Bayard practised his profession in Kentville, N.S., for several years, and in 1824 removed to St. John, N.B., where he died in June, 1868 at the advanced age of eighty-one years. He stood at the head of his profession, and was a fluent speaker and an able writer. His son, Dr. W. Bayard, when twelve years of age, was sent to a popular educational institution, conducted by the Rev. William Powell, at Fordham, near New York city, where he remained five years. He then entered as a private student with Dr. Valentine Mott, the eminent surgeon of New York, at the same time attending the medical lectures at the College. While in Dr. Mott’s office he took high honours for proficiency in anatomy. The next year he matriculated at the University of Edinburgh, from which institution he received the degree of doctor in medicine in 1837. He then walked the hospitals in Paris, and visited many in Germany, and on returning to St. John, practised in company with his father. He has since that time frequently visited the hospitals in England, France and Germany. “His reputation for skill has,” says a writer who has noted this gentleman’s career “almost from the start, stood high, and of his profession he has made a brilliant success. He has been greatly honoured, alike by the medical fraternity and his fellow citizens generally, and it is safe to say, that no man in his profession, in the Province, is held in higher esteem. There is not a city or large town in the Province of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island, to which he has not been called upon professional business.” It may be said that the general public hospital in the city of St. John owes its existence to the energy and perseverance of Dr. Bayard. Prior to 1858 he brought the subject prominently before the authorities, but no action was taken. He then endeavoured to obtain money to build one by subscription, but finding that many of the most wealthy men in the city refused to subscribe, he abandoned the idea, and employed and paid a lawyer to draft an Act to assess the community for the purpose. This bill he placed before the Legislature of the Province, and with the assistance of Sir Leonard Tilley, Judge the Hon. John H. Gray and other members of the House, got the bill passed granting power to raise the funds required for the building, and the support of it. He has been President of the Board of Commissioners since its establishment in 1860. He is chairman of the Board of Health for the city and county of St. John, having been appointed by the Government in 1855 to carry out the Sanitary Act passed in that year. He was elected President of the New Brunswick Medical Society for four years in succession, resigning the situation in 1881. He was elected President of the Council of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick in 1881, and resigned the situation in 1885, not feeling justified in assuming the responsibility of carrying out the Act, the Legislature having declined to pass amendments to it required. He was appointed Coroner for the city and county of St. John in 1839, resigning the situation in 1867. During his tenure of office, there was but one coroner, now there are six with very small increase of population. The above situations were unsolicited. Dr. Bayard was at one time the New Brunswick editor of the Montreal Medical and Surgical Journal, in which many interesting articles from his pen may be found. The arduous duties of his profession compelled him to give up the work. “He is regarded as a high authority on any branch of medical science which he sees fit to discuss.” His address to the Medical Society upon the “use and abuse of alcoholic drinks,” and his lecture at the Mechanics’ Institute in St. John upon the “Progress of Medicine, Surgery and Hygiene during the last one hundred years,” has received high commendation. His politics are liberal-conservative. He is a member of Trinity Episcopal church, and an exemplary man in all the walks of life. The wife of Dr. Bayard was Susan Maria Wilson, daughter of John Wilson, Esq., of Chamcook, near St. Andrew’s, in his day a large ship owner and merchant, and one of the most enterprising men in the county. It may be said that the St. Andrew’s and Woodstock railway owes its origin to his energy. It was from him that Dr. Bayard received the first telegram ever sent to St. John, as follows:—“To Dr. W. Bayard, April 30th, 1851. Being the first subscriber to the Electric Telegraph Company, I am honoured by the first communication to your city, announcing this great and wonderful work God has made known to man, by giving him control of his lightning. Signed, John Wilson.” Dr. Bayard was married in the year 1844, and his wife died in the year 1876, leaving no children. She was a woman of ability and fine social qualities, always happiest when she had a house full of friends, and was a splendid entertainer. She had wonderful energy as shown in attending to the details of domestic life, in looking after the poor and unfortunate, and in visiting the Home for Aged Women, the Protestant Orphan Asylum, etc., etc. She was truly an angel of mercy, and her death was nothing short of a calamity to the city. Dr. Bayard has not again married.

Stevens, Rev. Lorenzo Gorham, A.M., B.D., Portland, St. John, was born in Bedford, Mass., U.S.A., on 26th December, 1846, and is the eldest son of Lorenzo Dow Stevens and Mary Gorham Parsons Stevens. His grandparents on his father’s side were Abel Stevens, whose nephew, Abel Stevens, D.D., LL.D., is one of the leading divines of the Methodist Episcopal church in the United States; and Hadassa Mills, whose brother, Luther Mills, was a distinguished graduate of Harvard University, in the class of 1792. His father’s cousin, Edward Lewis Stevens, a graduate of Harvard, of the class of 1863, and afterwards first lieutenant in the 44th Mass. Volunteer Militia, was killed at Boykin’s Mills, near Camden, S.C., April 18th, 1865. His grandfather on his mother’s side was Wilhelm Edlund, ship owner and merchant, born in Stockholm, Sweden. The brother of this gentleman was private secretary to Gustavus III. His grandfather left no male issue, and the name, so far as can be learned, is now extinct in America. His grandmother, on his mother’s side, was Abigail Hodges, daughter of Abigail Davis, who was cousin of Chief Justice Parsons, of Massachusetts, and whose brother, Aaron Davis, served at the battle of Bunker Hill, under Gen. Warren, and received a musket ball in his thigh at the time. His mother’s grandfather, Joseph Davis, after the early death of his wife Abigail, married Christina Greene, niece of Gen. Greene, one of the Division Commanders under Gen. Washington. After leaving the Francis St. grammar school, Boston, Lorenzo Gorham Stevens entered the (Roxbury) Latin School, professor Buck, principal, where he remained five years, graduating July, 1865. He then entered Harvard University, and remained four years, graduating in the class of 1869. His favourite studies in the college were the languages, history and mental and moral philosophy. The year following his graduation he was principal of the English department of the German-American School, in Morrisania, New York. In September, 1870, he entered the Episcopal Theological Seminary, Cambridge, Mass., and remained one year. The years 1872 and 1873 he spent in foreign travel, at the same time prosecuting his theological studies. While in Berlin he attended at the University the lectures of the celebrated Dr. Dörner. Mr. Stevens travelled as far east as St. Petersburg, and as far north as Upsala, Sweden. After a most enjoyable tour in which sight-seeing and study were about equally combined, he returned to the Cambridge Seminary, and graduated June, 1874. His diaconate he spent in Massachusetts, preaching in several places. In September, 1875, he became rector of Trinity Church, St. Stephen, N.B., and in January of the following year, was admitted to the order of priesthood in the cathedral, Fredericton, by Bishop Medley, now Metropolitan. He served as rector of Trinity church three years. On November, 1878, he entered upon the rectorship of St. Luke’s church, Portland, St. John, a position he still holds. Rev. Mr. Stevens was chaplain of the Sussex Lodge, F. and A. M. (St. Stephen), and has acted as chaplain for other lodges at various times. On August, 30, 1881 he was married to Susan Lynds, only surviving child of Dr. John Waddell, superintendent for twenty-seven years of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, St. John. (A sketch of his life will be found elsewhere in this book.) Of this marriage two children have been born, Henry Waddell, March 24, 1883, and Edlund Archibald, August 23, 1885.

Klotz, Otto, Preston, Ontario, is a native of Germany, having been born in the city of Kiel, on the shores of the Baltic sea, on the 25th of November, 1817. His father, Jacob Klotz, was the junior of the firm of Klotz & Son of that place. After the death of the senior member, the firm was continued for many years, first by Jacob Klotz, and subsequently by his younger brother, Christian Klotz, their business being chiefly the purchase of grain and shipping it to England. Otto Klotz received his primary education at a public school in his native place, but was subsequently educated in Luebeck; after having passed his final examination creditably, he was confirmed in conformity with the rites of the Lutheran Church at Kiel, and thereupon apprenticed to a wine merchant in Luebeck, where, in addition to his mother-tongue, he had ample opportunity of making use of French and English, which languages he had by this time fairly mastered. At the expiration of his apprenticeship, he returned home. In the spring of 1837, his uncle, Christian Klotz, under the old firm of Klotz & Son, sent on speculation a cargo of wheat to America (the crops having failed in 1836), and young Otto Klotz was permitted to make a trip to the new world in his uncle’s brig, laden with wheat. The requisite arrangements for that voyage were soon made, and since neither himself nor his relations and friends considered the departure as being of long duration, but rather a pleasure trip, the farewell at the wharf was neither gloomy nor sombre, although his father had advised him to inquire for a good situation, and if found to stay for a few years, and then return with a good store of general knowledge, as many young men of the town had done before him. On the 27th of March, 1837, the anchor was weighed, the sails set, and the Friedericke, heavily laden with wheat, sailed out of Kiel harbour with young Klotz on board. The voyage was completed in seventy-nine long days, and on the 14th of June, anchor was cast in the East River, at New York. On arrival it was found that the wheat was heated, and the market overstocked, hence the speculation was a failure. Otto Klotz found to his regret that owing to great depression in business and the numerous failures, he could not procure a situation in New York. He visited Newark, New Jersey, and there met a German farmer from Canada, who proposed to him the taking up of wild land and going into farming. The novelty of this proposal appeared to have some charm and was really entered upon. Writing to his father informing him of his resolution, he handed the letter to the captain of his uncle’s brig, bade him farewell, and left for Canada. Arrived in the township of McKillop, in the Huron Tract, he endeavoured to learn what was required in order to become a successful farmer, and soon ascertained that for a young man standing alone without relations or friends and without any knowledge of farming, it would be unwise to take up land and “roughing it in the bush;” however he stayed about two months, during which time he acquired considerable proficiency in the use of the axe, helping to chop and put up log houses in the neighbourhood. He left McKillop in October, 1837, and went to Preston, which place was then all alive with new settlers from Germany. He engaged for some time as clerk in a store, and thinking he saw a good opportunity, he started in business on his own account in February, 1838, using his father’s letter of credit in the purchase of his first stock of goods. In 1839, he married the daughter of a farmer of the township of Wilmot. This marriage proved to be a happy one, his good wife being an excellent helpmate, a good housewife, a dutiful mother and an exemplary spouse. Shortly after young Klotz had settled in Preston, he became acquainted with an old English gentleman, William Scollick, who was a surveyor, conveyancer and a commissioner of the Court of Request, and who took a particular fancy to him and his penmanship. He advised him to learn conveyancing, and promised to instruct him therein. This kind offer was readily accepted; the pupil employed his spare moments in studying to perfect himself, became an apt scholar, and after the death of old Mr. Scollick, became his successor as conveyancer, a business which proved no mean help for improving his pecuniary circumstances. Mr. Klotz was made a naturalized British subject in 1844, was appointed a notary public in 1846, a commissioner for taking affidavits in 1848, a clerk of the Division Court in 1848, and a justice of the peace in 1853. For a long term of years, he was director of the County Agricultural Society, and once its president. Of the Preston Mechanics’ Institute and Horticultural Society he has been president from the establishment of the same. Of the Executive Committee of the Association of Mechanics’ Institutes for Ontario, he was a member for twelve years, during six of which its vice-president and for two years its president, and by virtue of these offices a member of the Agricultural Council of Ontario. But the office which he has occupied longest and in which he has worked with greater energy than in any other, is that of School Trustee. When in 1841, the Public Schools Act became law, he was elected one of the School Commissioners in the township (the title was subsequently changed to School Trustee); at the expiration of his term he was re-elected, and has been so re-elected ever since. A good stone school building with a teacher as good as in those days could be obtained was the result of his early work in the cause of education. He next succeeded in getting permission from the District Council to have all property in the Preston school section taxed for a free school, and that school has been free ever since, although in former years it was optional with the rate-payers whether their school should be free or supported by a rate bill per pupil attending school. After Preston became incorporated, he was appointed local superintendent of schools, and in that capacity he was seventeen years a member of the County Board of Examiners of Teachers. The scarcity of good teachers was often severely felt, while at present they are plentiful, and Mr. Klotz obtained permission for German teachers to be examined in German, and he had charge of preparing the questions for such examinations. At the insistance of several teachers, he prepared and published a German grammar for use of German pupils and others studying German. In 1853, he agitated a public examination of all the schools in the county; in this move he was ably assisted by the late Dr. Scott, who was then the warden of the county. The county council granted $100 for the purchase of prizes to be distributed among the successful competitors, and appointed Mr. Klotz to make the requisite arrangements, which were successfully carried out. In 1865, Mr. Klotz, assisted by two of the teachers of the Preston school, prepared an exposé of “The Irish National Readers,” which at that time were the authorized readers for the common schools. In that exposé the writer criticised the spelling, grammatical construction, historical blunders, unsuitable words and expressions for children, unfitness of the books for Canadian schools, and the entire absence therein of any article which might tend to cultivate in the minds of the pupils a patriotic feeling. A lengthy and animated correspondence between the chief superintendent, the Rev. Dr. Ryerson, and Mr. Klotz was the result; but notwithstanding the same, Mr. Klotz had the gratification of seeing “The Irish National Readers” superseded by a Canadian series of Readers. As president of the Mechanics’ Institute, Mr. Klotz has been indefatigable in providing for the inhabitants of Preston and neighbourhood a large library of well selected books, numbering in 1886 4,000 volumes, of which 2,800 are English, and 1,200 German. In politics Mr. Klotz commenced as early as 1838, then hardly a year in Canada, to take an active part, having been required to shoulder a gun and to stand guard at the Grand River bridge, upon a report that a band of rebels under lead of one Duncan, was coming from London to invade Waterloo, which, however, afterwards proved a false report. He concluded that if, though yet an alien, he was required to risk his life in defence of Canada, he would claim it as a right to speak and vote upon political questions. Shortly after the Earl of Durham’s Report had been published, mass meetings were held in several parts of Upper Canada to discuss the same; and Mr. Klotz was one of thirty-six men, mostly old settlers of Waterloo county, who by hand-bills called a public meeting to be held at Preston, on the 10th day of August, “to take into consideration the deplorable state of the province of Upper Canada, and to express their opinion thereon, in concurrence with the great county meeting lately held at Dundas, upon the glorious report of the Earl of Durham.” One of those handbills is still preserved by Mr. Klotz as a relic of his younger days. The first parliamentary election which came on was held at Guelph, and Mr. Klotz went there to vote. A scrutineer, the late Colonel Hodgins, asked him: “How long are you in this country, sir?” The answer was given with firmness: “Not quite ten years, sir;” the response was: “Oh, that will do; for whom do you vote?” “for Mr. James Durand, sir,” said Mr. Klotz and left the polling place. Mr. Durand was afterwards declared elected. After responsible government had been granted to the people of Canada, and the political party which adopted the name “Conservatives” had been formed, Mr. Klotz joined that party, and he has ever since supported it with all his energy. He held for a number of years the office of secretary of that party in his electoral division, and in later years that of president of the same. For the celebration of the Peace Jubilee, held at the county town, Berlin, shortly after the Franco-German war, he was elected president of the German societies, and as such he delivered on May 2nd, 1871, in front of the Court House, to an audience of several thousands, the Peace Jubilee address; and subsequently at the town of Waterloo, on the occasion of the first “German Saenger Fest” in Ontario, being held there, he delivered to an overcrowded house at the Agricultural Hall, the address in German and also in English. The old Alien Act requiring a residence of seven years before a foreigner could become a naturalized subject, was felt by many Germans to be too long a period of probation, especially since it only required five years’ residence in the United States to become a citizen there. Accordingly Mr. Klotz agitated the matter through the medium of the public press, and by letters to members of Parliament and to the government. In this he was ably assisted by other Germans, and their united efforts were crowned with success, the seven years being first reduced to five, and later to three years’ residence. An attempt was made by him to induce the British government to extend the privileges of a person naturalized in Canada, over the whole British empire; but in this attempt he failed, although his arguments upon that subject had been kindly forwarded to the British government, by His Excellency the Governor-General. It appeared that the reasons for refusal were not on account of Canada, but of such of the numerous British possessions which still number among its inhabitants a large body of semi-civilized peoples, through whom serious difficulties might arise, if such colonies were also to apply and obtain the like privileges which were asked for Canada. Among the Masonic fraternity, the name of Otto Klotz has become a household word. He became a member of the same in 1846, and has ever since been an active and energetic worker of the Mystic tie. He is an old member of the Grand Lodge and served without interruption as a member of the Board of General Purposes since 1864. He made the subject of Benevolence his special study, and the present system of distributing aid, and of regulating grants is his work; in acknowledgment of which, the Grand Lodge presented him in 1873 with a handsome testimonial. He continued his noble work with unabated energy, adding from time to time improvements suggested by experience, and in 1885, after twenty-one consecutive years as chairman of the Committee on Benevolence, the Grand Lodge conferred upon him the highest honour, by unanimously electing him a Past Grand Master, and voting for the purchase of a handsome and costly Grand Master’s regalia, which, with an elaborate address beautifully engraved, were presented to him at a later day at his mother lodge, the old Barton, No. 6, in the city of Hamilton, in presence of one of the largest gatherings of the fraternity ever assembled there. Besides this great honour conferred upon him, and the many fraternal greetings and tributes paid him on that occasion by the brethren assembled, he had the additional pleasure of the presence of three of his sons, two of whom as Past Masters of Preston lodge, and the youngest as Master of the Lodge of Strict Observance, in Hamilton; and the gratification of a most cordial and fraternal reception of them by the brethren assembled, as worthy sons of a worthy father. The family of Mr. Klotz and his good wife consists of four sons and two daughters, of whom three sons and one daughter are married and have families, while the eldest son and youngest daughter have remained single. They are all living in comfortable circumstances, highly respected by all who know them, and the just pride of their aged parents. A family gathering which occurs once a year is always accompanied by those genuine pleasures which are in store for a happy family in which strife and bickerings are unknown quantities. At one of these gatherings the unanimous wish of Mr. Klotz’s children was expressed that he should retire from business, and spend with his good wife the remaining years of his life in rest and comfort. Arrangements were made accordingly, and in 1881, he retired from business, since which time he has been living on his income, with his wife and unmarried daughter in a commodious dwelling, enjoying that repose and comfort which is the just reward of honest industry.

Waddell, John, M.D. The late Dr. Waddell, of St. John, New Brunswick, was the son of the Rev. John Waddell, a native of Shotts, Scotland. The latter was educated at Glasgow, and came to Nova Scotia in 1797, and became pastor of the Presbyterian church of Truro. He was married in 1802 to a daughter of Jotham Blanchard (a loyalist from Massachusetts, and a colonel in one of the loyalist regiments). The Rev. Mr. Waddell officiated on the occasion of the opening of the old St. Andrew’s Kirk, in St. John, N.B. (destroyed by the great fire), having delivered the first sermon in the church in which his son, the subject of this sketch, fifty years afterwards became a prominent and influential elder. Dr. Waddell was born in Truro, Nova Scotia, on the 17th of March, 1810. When quite a boy, his mother died. After attending the Grammar school at Truro, kept by Mr. James Irving, he entered the Pictou Academy, under the presidency of Dr. McCulloch (the able Biblical controversialist, whose discussions with Bishop Burke, of Halifax, made his name famous throughout Nova Scotia). After leaving the academy, he went into mercantile business in his native town, and so continued until the autumn of 1833, when he commenced the study of medicine under Dr. Lynds. He next proceeded to Glasgow, Scotland, where he pursued his studies with untiring assiduity, and received his diploma, October 18th, 1839, from the Royal College of Surgeons, London. He then went to Paris, and continued there two years, attending the medical lectures given by some of the most scientific men of the French capital. On his return to Nova Scotia, in 1840, he commenced the practice of medicine in Truro. The same year he married Susan, the only daughter of his first medical teacher, Dr. Lynds. The following year she died. Five years afterwards he married Jane Walker Blanchard, daughter of Edward Blanchard, of Truro. In 1849, Dr. Waddell was appointed by His Excellency, Sir Edmund Head, to the situation of medical superintendent of the New Brunswick Lunatic Asylum, a position whose arduous and multifarious duties he discharged with signal success, until his retirement in the spring of 1876, a period of twenty-seven years. When he took charge of the asylum, at the age of thirty-nine, he was the very personification of vigorous health. He was tall and finely proportioned. Humanly speaking there was in him the promise of the attainment of a life of four score years and more. He sprang from a long-lived race. His step was elastic and his form erect; his mind was buoyant and full of love for the work he had but just undertaken. By his kind and gentlemanly manner, he was singularly capable of dealing with those unfortunates who required so much of paternal care and solicitude. And yet, with this urbanity and goodness, there was firmness of character, so much required by the rules of discipline, which never failed to exact obedience, but it was the obedience of a child to a parent. When Dr. Waddell assumed the duties of his office, there were but eighty patients in the establishment, which number gradually increased until the figures reached, at the time of his retirement, three hundred, besides about fifty domestics. With every successive year, from 1849, there was a steady increase of work—work of the most sorrowful description—and with it a corresponding amount of care, anxiety and responsibility. And yet, Dr. Waddell worked on, day after day, in the same unwearied round for twenty-seven years, devoting the flower of his days, his vigour, his manhood to a task which led ultimately to the destruction of a once powerful constitution. At the earnest request of his family—whose members had always been closely knit and compacted together by the most tender cords of affection—he retired from the asylum in the spring of 1876, under the expectation that with rest and freedom from care and anxiety, he would be enabled to take a new lease of life. But instead of that repose for which retirement was sought, it was found that a change from an active to a passive life was more than his shattered constitution could withstand. The day he laid down his staff and turned his back upon the asylum he loved so well and served so faithfully, that day Dr. Waddell’s work upon earth was ended. Bowed down with the infirmities of a premature old age, he lingered till August 29th, 1878, when he passed away at the age of sixty-eight. Probably no man in the province of New Brunswick was better or more generally known than Dr. Waddell, and there are few whose name and works will be held in more grateful remembrance by its inhabitants. His only surviving child, Susan Lynds (by his second marriage), was married August 30th, 1881, to the Rev. Lorenzo Gorham Stevens, rector of St. Luke’s Church, Portland, St. John, N.B., a sketch of whose life will be found elsewhere.

MacVicar, Rev. Malcolm, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Apologetics and Christian Ethics, McMaster Hall (Baptist College), Toronto, was born on the 30th September, 1829, in Argyleshire, Scotland. His father, John MacVicar, was a farmer in Dunglass, near Campbeltown, Kintyre, Scotland, and was known as a man of great physical and intellectual vigour, and was well known in his native Scotland and the land of his adoption, Canada, for his ability, generosity and sterling integrity. His wife, Janet MacTavish, possessed a similar character, and reached the age of ninety-two years before she died, having seen her children’s children in positions of usefulness and influence. Malcolm, the subject of this sketch, was one of twelve children, and came with his parents to Canada in 1835, and settled on a farm at Chatham, Ontario. His early years were spent at first on a farm, then at Cleveland, Ohio, where he learned the trade of ship carpenter. Being ambitious and anxious to get on, he decided to secure an education, and along with his brother Donald, now Principal of the Presbyterian College in Montreal, went to Toronto, in 1850, and entered Knox College to study for the Presbyterian Ministry, where he remained for two years. In the meantime his views of doctrines having undergone a change, he became connected with the Baptist denomination, and turned his attention to teaching and fitting young men for the Toronto University, preaching occasionally. He was ordained to the Baptist Ministry in 1856. In 1858 he went to Rochester, New York State, and entered the senior class at the University of Rochester, taking his degree of B. A. the following summer. He immediately went to Brockport, in the same county, where he became a member of the faculty of the Brockport Collegiate Institute, then under the principalship of Dr. David Barbank. Here, with the exception of one year spent in the Central School at Buffalo, he remained until the spring of 1867 (when that institution was transformed into a Normal School), first as subordinate, then as associate principal, and from April, 1864, sole principal of the school. He was a very successful teacher from the first, being full of energy, and ambitious to devise new and improved methods of illustrating and impressing the truth. Nor were the class-room walls the limit of his intellectual horizon, but he was constantly seeking some better plan of organizing the educational work immediately in hand, and over the whole state. He was quickly recognized by the regents of the University as one of the foremost teachers and principals in the state. In August, 1865, he, by appointment, read a paper before the convocation of that body on Internal Organization of Academies, which looked towards and proved the first step towards putting in practice regent’s examinations in the academies as a basis for distribution of the income of the literary fund. He was shortly afterwards appointed by the chancellor, chairman of a committee of principals of academies to consider the practical workings and results of the system of regent’s examinations just being instituted. During these years of his connection with the Collegiate Institute, he took a lively interest in the subject of the so-called normal training in academies, and became convinced that the utmost that could be done for teachers’ classes under the circumstances was too little to meet the needs of the common schools of the state. He, therefore, with the advice and cooperation of friends of education in Brockport and Rochester, and the Hon. Victor M. Rice, then state superintendent, proposed to the State Legislature, in 1865-66, a bill authorizing the establishment of a Normal and Training School at Brockport, and offering to transfer the Institute property to the state for that purpose on very liberal terms. Subsequently this measure was so modified as to provide for four schools instead of one, and to leave the location of them to a board consisting of the governor, state superintendent and state officers and others. In this form the bill became law. It now became necessary to adopt some definite plan of organization for the new schools, and Superintendent Rice at once turned to Professor MacVicar for assistance. The professor submitted a plan, which, with some slight modifications, was adopted and became the basis for the organization of all the schools under the law. In consideration of the services rendered by Professor MacVicar and other friends of the cause, the first school was located in Brockport, with Professor MacVicar as its principal, and he immediately set to work to organize this school, and opened it in the spring of 1867, having among the members of his faculty, Professor Charles McLean, William J. Milne and J. H. Hoose, now the Principals of the Normal schools of Brockport, Genesee and Courtland. The first year of Normal school work, carried on as it was in connection with planning and supervising the erection of the new buildings, proved a very trying one to Principal MacVicar, and his health giving way under the pressure, he resolved to offer his resignation at the end of the school year of 1867-8. This he accordingly did, but the state superintendent, preferring not to lose him from the state, granted him a year’s leave of absence, instead of accepting his resignation. He then took a trip west, during the summer of 1868, and was invited to become superintendent of the schools of the city of Leavenworth; after some consideration, he accepted this position, and remained there until the following April, in the meantime reorganizing the schools from bottom to top, a work that had been neglected hitherto. His western trip having restored him to perfect health, he returned to New York state, but thought it best not to again take up his work at Brockport. A Normal School having been located in Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, and about ready to open, he was invited to become its principal, and accepted the office. He at once gathered around him a corps of teachers, and opened his second Normal school, three weeks after he left Leavenworth. The regents of the University welcomed him back to the state, and expressed their estimation of his ability by conferring upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in the summer of 1869, and his alma mater added an LL.D. the following year. The school at Potsdam was no sooner organized than he gave himself anew to the study of methods of instruction and the philosophy of education, for which he possessed a peculiar aptitude. Being encouraged by the other principals to work out his ideas into permanent shape for the general good, he became the author of several books on arithmetic; he also became the author and inventor of various important devices to illustrate, objectively, principles of arithmetic, geography and astronomy. Meanwhile there arose a degree of friction between the academies and Normal schools of the state, which made itself felt in the legislative session of 1876, in a threat to cut off the appropriations from the Normal schools, unless the academies were treated more liberally. At the next meeting of the Normal school principals, the matter was discussed, and the cause of the difficulty was found to be the double-headed management of their educational system. It was agreed that the remedy for the existing difficulties was found in uniting the management of all the schools of the state under one head. Dr. MacVicar and Dr. Sheldon, of the Oswego Normal school, were appointed to urge this view on the State Legislature at its next session. They conferred with a deputation of academy principals, and won their approval of the plan prepared. It was then embodied in a bill, and brought before the legislature in 1877. Although much time was spent in bringing the matter before the committees of the assembly and the senate, and many of the prominent men of both houses, who generally approved of the measure, yet the private interests of aspirants to the office of state superintendents conflicted with it, and it was thrown out when it came up for a hearing. In the autumn of 1880, Dr. MacVicar was invited to take the principalship of the Michigan State Normal school, at Ypsilanti, and finding it the only school of the kind in that state, and there being no diversity of interest in the educational management of the state, it seemed to offer an opportunity for something like ideal Normal school work, so he accepted the position. He remained there, however, but one year, when, being thoroughly worn out with hard work, and being urgently pressed to join the faculty of the Toronto Baptist College, just then opened, he resigned his position in Michigan and came to Canada. Dr. MacVicar excels as a mathematician and metaphysician, having read extensively in both directions, as well as in the natural sciences. He has also made the relation of science and religion a special study, and is now investigating the wide field of Christian Apologetics. As a writer and in the classroom, he is characterized by the utmost clearness and force, and his career as an educator has been eminently successful. It has fallen to his lot to perform a vast amount of hard work in all of which he has shown a spirit of self-sacrifice in a remarkable degree, through which he has been the means of advancing many others to positions of high trust and usefulness. His investigations in the science of education are critical and original, being based upon extensive observation and a large induction of facts. Having for twenty-five years taught a wide range of subjects, and being naturally possessed of strong and well trained logical powers, he is well qualified to analyze the human mind and all that is concerned in its proper education and harmonious development. To this work he now devotes such time as can be spared from strictly professional duties. As a theologian his views are definite and comprehensive, thoroughly evangelical and uncompromisingly opposed to the materialistic pantheism, and philosophical and scientific scepticism of the present day. On the 1st of January, 1865, Dr. MacVicar was married to Isabella McKay, of Chatham, and has a family consisting of three sons and one daughter.

Heavysege, Charles, the gifted author of “Saul,” was born in Liverpool, England, May 2nd, 1816. On his arrival in Canada in 1853, he took up his residence in Montreal, where for a time he worked as a machinist, earning by hard labour a modest subsistence for himself and his family. Afterwards he became a local reporter on the staff of the Montreal Daily Witness; but, as has been the case with many another son of genius, his life was one long struggle with poverty. Through all his earlier years of toil and harassing cares, he devoted himself to study and poetical composition, but published nothing till he was nearly forty years of age. A poem in blank verse saw the light in 1854. This production, crude, no doubt, and immature, met with a chilling reception, even from his friends. Some time afterwards appeared a collection of fifty sonnets, many of them vigorous and even lofty in tone, but almost all of them defective in execution, owing to the author’s want of early culture. “Saul,” his greatest work, was published in 1857, and fortunately fell into the hands of Hawthorne, then a resident of Liverpool, who had it favourably noticed in the North British Review. Longfellow and Emerson, too, spoke highly of its excellence, the former pronouncing it to be “the best tragedy written since the days of Shakespeare.” Canadians then discovered that Heavysege was a genius, and made partial atonement for their neglect; but even to the end the poet’s struggle with fortune was a bitter one. In 1857, he published “Saul: A scriptural tragedy.” “Count Flippo or, The Unequal Marriage:” a drama in five acts (1860). This production is inferior to “Saul,” not only because it does not possess the epic sublimity of the sacred drama, but because in it there is too much straining after effect, the characterization is defective, and the criticism of life displayed is not of the highest quality. “Jephthah’s Daughter,” (1865): a drama which follows closely the scriptural narrative, and, so far as concerns artistic execution, is superior to “Saul.” The lines flow with greater smoothness; there are fewer commonplace expressions, and the author has gained a firmer mastery over the rhetorical aids of figures of speech. His mind, however, shows no increase in strength, and we miss the rugged grandeur and terrible delineations of his earliest drama. “The Advocate:” a novel (1865). Besides these works, Heavysege produced many shorter pieces, one of the finest of which, “The Dark Huntsman,” was sent to the Canadian Monthly just before his death. To Art Heavysege, so his critics say, owed little. Even his most elaborate productions are defaced by unmusical lines, prosaic phrases and sentences, and faults of taste and judgment. But he owed much to Nature; for he was endowed with real and fervid, though unequal and irregular, genius. To the circumstances of his life, as much as to the character of his mind, may be attributed the pathetic sadness that pervades his works. Occasionally, it is true, there is a faint gleam of humour; but it is grim humour, which never glows with geniality or concentrates into wit. Irony and quaint sarcasm, too, display themselves in some of the Spirit scenes in “Saul.” But for sublimity of conception and power of evoking images of horror and dread, Heavysege was unsurpassed except by the masters of our literature. He possessed also, an intimate knowledge of the workings of the human heart; his delineations of character were powerful and distinct; and his pictures of impassioned emotion are wonderful in their epic grandeur. Every page of his dramas betrays an ardent study of the Bible, Milton, and Shakespeare, both in the reproduction of images and thoughts, and in the prevailing accent of his style. But he had an originality of his own; for many of his sentences are remarkable for their genuine power, and keen and concentrated energy. Here and there, too, we meet with exquisite pieces of description, and some of the lyrics in “Saul” are full of rich fancy and musical cadence. Without early culture, and amid the toilsome and uncongenial labours of his daily life, Heavysege has established his right to a foremost place in the Canadian Temple of Fame: what might he not have done for himself and his adopted country, had he been favoured by circumstances as he was by Nature! His death took place at Montreal, in August, 1876.

Torrance, Rev. Robert, D.D., Guelph, Ontario, was born at Markethill, county of Armagh, Ireland, on the 23rd of May, 1825, and was the youngest of seven sons. His ancestor on his father’s side—M. Torrance—left Ayrshire, Scotland, during the times of the persecution, and settled in the north of Ireland, and their descendants have lived there, in the same locality, ever since. Robert Torrance, the subject of this sketch, went to school at an early age in his native village, and remained under the same tutor until he was ten years old, when he began the study of the Latin and Greek languages. In 1837, his parents removed to Glenluce, Wigtonshire, Scotland, and here Robert entered the school in this place, and continued the studies he had already begun before leaving Ireland, and began others preparatory to the life-work selected for him by his parents. In 1839, he was enrolled as a student in the Royal Academical Institution, Belfast, then or shortly afterwards affiliated with the London University; then he studied Greek and logic, and belles-lettres; mental and moral philosophy under Dr. Robert Wilson; mathematics under Prof. Young; natural philosophy, including astronomy and optics, and Hebrew under Professor Harte, assistant to Dr. Hincks, who was then an old man, and confined his attention to the senior class. This Dr. Hincks, was the father of the celebrated Oriental scholar, Dr. Hincks, and of the late Sir Francis Hincks, whose name is well known in Canada. After the completion of his art course and passing the usual examination by the Presbytery in whose bounds he resided, he entered on the study of divinity, in the halls of the United Secession Church in Scotland. His first session was spent in Glasgow, and the subsequent ones in Edinburgh. His course was completed in 1845, with the exception of one session, and, as there was great want at that time for missionaries to go out to Canada, he offered his services, and was accepted, it being agreed, under the circumstances, to exempt him from attending the last or fifth session on his furnishing testimonials as to fitness for the field and work. These having been produced to the satisfaction of the Committee on Foreign Missions, of which Dr. John McKerrow was convener, the Presbytery of Kinross was instructed to take him on trials for license, with a view to his proceeding to Canada. According to appointment, these trials were delivered in the church at Inverkeithing, a village in Fifeshire, about four miles south from Dunfermline. Having passed the Presbytery and been licensed, he preached two Sabbath days in Scotland, one for Rev. Dr. MacKelvie, in Balgedie, in whose family he had been tutor for three seasons; and the other for Rev. Mr. Puller, in Glenluce, where he had spent his boyhood. He then at once left for Liverpool, taking his parents with him, and from that port sailed, in a few days, for New York, which was reached safely after a voyage of four weeks. Without delay, he proceeded to Toronto, and there occupied the pulpit of Rev. Mr. Jennings for a few Sabbaths, Mr. Jennings being at the time in Scotland recruiting his health. Mr. Torrance spent one year as a probationer, travelling through the western section of Canada, from Toronto to Goderich and Detroit, as he had determined not to settle down in a charge till he had gone over a good part of the mission field, and given as much supply as in his power. Travelling in those days was far from possessing the conveniences and comforts now enjoyed. There were no railways; in several of the districts there were no stage coaches. The probationer was thus under the necessity of purchasing a horse, and making his journeys on horseback. In winter he was exposed at times to intense cold, and in summer to prostrating heat. He had to clothe himself for such changes of temperature. Roads were sometimes obstructed with snow, and he had to wait till parties turned out and made them passable, or opened up a way through adjoining fields; in spring and fall there was deep mud and often the horse had difficulty in getting through, and some of the stations were difficult of access from other causes, such as their recent formation. Accommodation when he reached his destination, was not always such as he had been accustomed to in the fatherland. But the people were uniformly kind and courteous; they gave the best they had ungrudgingly, often wishing it were better; and extended a cordial welcome. Many an event then befell him which interested him at the time and still lingers in his recollection. After receiving and declining calls from three or four congregations, he accepted a call from a congregation in Guelph, and was ordained and inducted on the 11th of November, 1846. He remained in this charge till January, 1882, when his resignation was placed in the hands of the Presbytery, and its acceptance pressed. Towards the close of the same month the pastoral relationship to his congregation was dissolved, the General Assembly giving permission to retain his name on the Roll of Presbytery. Since that time he has not had a stated charge, but has been frequently employed as moderator of sessions of vacant congregations in the bounds, and doing other work of a ministerial character. Shortly after his settlement in Guelph, he was appointed a trustee on the High School Board, and filled that position for a number of years. He succeeded for a time to the superintendence of the Common (now called Public) schools, in the south riding of the county, having the oversight of the townships of Erin, Eramosa, Guelph and Puslinch. Finding the labours too onerous in connection with his pastoral work, he resigned the position after two years occupancy to the hands of the County council. Previous to this, however, in 1855, he had been chosen by the Guelph Board of Trustees superintendent of the schools in the town, then only three or four in number. This situation he has since filled without interruption, and has seen the progress made up to this date, the number of schools having increased to twenty-six, and a class of buildings provided unsurpassed by any in Ontario. Shortly after the Rev. Mr. Torrance’s settlement in Guelph, a new presbytery was formed, called the Presbytery of Wellington, and of this he was chosen clerk, and this office he filled till the union of the churches, which took place in 1861, when Mr., now Rev. Dr. Middlemiss, who had been clerk of the Free Church Presbytery, was chosen clerk of the united one. In 1870, Mr. Middlemiss resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Torrance, who still occupies the office. The church with which he was connected was known in his early days as the “United Secession,” a name afterwards changed to “United Presbyterian,” when the union between the Relief and Secession churches was effected. For some years he filled the position of convener of their committee on statistics, and also of their committee on the supply of vacancies and distribution of probationers. In 1874, his name appears for the first time as convener of the committee of the united church on statistics, and he was continued in the office at the farther union, which took place in 1875, and still occupies it. For some time the supply of vacancies and allocation of probationers were under the charge of the Home Mission committee, but they chose a sub-committee for the purpose, and for a few years the burden of the work fell to him with the other members. Ultimately a distinct committee was appointed by the General Assembly, to whom this service was assigned, and he was chosen convener. In 1880 he was chosen moderator of the Synod of Toronto and Kingston, which met in St. James’ Square Church, Toronto, and occupied the office for the usual period of one year. In 1883, he tendered his resignation, when Rev. Mr. Laidlaw of St. Paul’s Church, Hamilton, was chosen to succeed him. The scheme fell out of use, and it was considered unnecessary to continue the committee after 1884, till 1886, when the want of it having made itself felt, a new committee was appointed under a revised scheme, of which Rev. Mr. Laidlaw was appointed convener by the Assembly, and Mr. Torrance clerk by the committee, Mr. Laidlaw feeling that he could not carry on the work of the committee in connection with the weight and responsibility of his labours as the minister of an important city charge. In 1884, Mr. Torrance was chosen a life member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Montreal. In 1885, he was installed as a member of the Canadian Postal College of the natural sciences, and in September of the same year, he was constituted a life member of the Canadian Short-Hand Society. For several years he has been a member, by the appointment of the General Assembly of the Board of Examiners of Knox College, Toronto, and the senate of that institute conferred upon him, in 1885, the honorary degree of D.D. In 1851, he revisited Scotland, for the restoration of his health, which had become impaired through the labours that had been undergone; and again in 1881 he visited the old country, accompanied by his wife. On this occasion he travelled over the greater part of Scotland, visited Ireland and its chief cities, with the lakes of Killarney, and crossed over to Paris, where a week was spent amid the scenes of that gay and enchanting city. Rev. Mr. Torrance’s religious views are Presbyterian; these he says he acquired from his parents and is satisfied with their scriptural character, and has not changed his mind since boyhood. Rev. Mr. Torrance may now be considered as having retired from very active duties. In 1857, he purchased ten acres of fine land in the neighbourhood of Guelph, and having built thereon for himself a comfortable house, he resides there and devotes his spare time to gardening and the cultivation of flowers, having gone to the expense of importing from Scotland, and even China, some very rare flower seeds. In August, 1854, he was married to Bessie Dryden, of Eramosa, whose father and mother had come from the neighbourhood of Jedburgh, in Scotland, and took up land in that township soon after it was thrown open to settlers. Four children, two sons and two daughters, were born, all of them now grown up; two of them married, one of the latter, a daughter, having gone with her husband to China, under an engagement for four years at the close of which they have returned.

Moore, Paul Robinson, M.D., Sackville, New Brunswick, was born on the 30th of March, 1835, in Hopewell, Westmoreland county, New Brunswick. (Since the county was divided, Hopewell is in Albert county). His father, Thomas Benjamin Moore was a lawyer in Albert and Westmoreland counties, and died in Moncton, Westmoreland county, April, 1875, aged sixty-eight years. His mother’s maiden name was Apphia Robinson, daughter of Deacon Paul C. Robinson, of Hopewell. She bore thirteen children, six sons and seven daughters, of whom three sons and four daughters still survive, the subject of this sketch being the third child. His paternal grand-father was John W. Moore, sergeant of the 1st battalion of Royal Artillery, and died a pensioner in Ballymena, Ireland, at eighty-five years of age. His paternal ancestors resided in the north of Ireland, and it is a family tradition that at the siege of Londonderry there were seven brothers Moore, engaged in the fighting, five of whom were slain in one attack. The remaining two survived the perils of the siege, and their descendants are still for the most part settled in the north of Ireland. His father was five years old when he came to this country in 1813, when the regiment to which his grand-father belonged was ordered out to defend Fort Cumberland. Paul Robinson Moore received a mathematical and classical education at the Mount Allison Institution, in Sackville, New Brunswick, up to the age of fifteen, when on account of ill health his studies were abandoned. Three years later, having regained his health, he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Wm. T. Taylor, of Philadelphia, U.S., but had to give it up at the end of the first year, on account of another serious attack of illness which threatened to end in phthisis. He then returned to New Brunswick, and after recruiting his health, took a clerkship at the Albert mines in Hillsborough, New Brunswick, for eighteen months, and afterwards he was employed as bookkeeper and pay-master of the Boudreau stone quarries in Westmoreland county for a year. His health being then perfectly restored, he went to New York, and resumed his medical studies at the university of the city of New York, receiving private instruction at the same time from Dr. Gaillard Thomas. He graduated in March, 1859, and was appointed house physician and surgeon of Brooklyn City Hospital the following May, which position he held till May, 1860, when he returned to Albert county, New Brunswick, and commenced the practice of his profession. In January, 1875, he removed to Sackville, and entered into a professional co-partnership with Dr. Alexander Fleming, which continued till April, 1881, when Dr. Fleming removed to Brandon, North-West Territory, since which time Dr. Moore has been attending closely to his professional duties in Sackville. He was appointed coroner for Albert county in 1866, and magistrate for the same county in 1873. The doctor has taken an interest in various companies, and is at present a stockholder in the Moncton Cotton Company, the Sackville Music Hall Company, and the Baptist Publishing Company. He joined the Howard lodge of Free Masons in 1867, and Sackville division of the Sons of Temperance in 1875; became honorary member of the Glasgow Southern Medical Society in 1880, and president of the New Brunswick Medical Society in 1885. He is also a member of the Medical Council. He has never taken an active part in politics, but supports a Liberal government, and is an uncompromising Prohibitionist. He has travelled in England, Ireland, France, Scotland, and the United States. He has been a member of the Baptist church since 1865. On the 12th of December, 1866, he was married to Rebecca, eldest daughter of John Weldon, of Dorchester, Westmoreland county, by whom he has had nine children, four boys and five girls, of whom one boy and five girls survive.

Archambault, Urgel-Eugène, Principal of the Catholic Commercial Academy, Montreal, was born at L’Assomption, on the 27th of May, 1834. His parents were Louis Archambault, farmer, and Marie-Angélique Prud’homme, belonging to a very old family of the province of Quebec. The Archambault family came from France and settled on the Isle of Montreal about the year 1650, thence off-shoots established themselves in different parts of the province of Quebec, especially at L’Assomption, from which place three or four members of this family were, at various times, elected to the Canadian parliament. Urgel-Eugène having attended school at Saint-Jacques de l’Achigan and at L’Assomption, became a teacher at the age of seventeen years (1851), taught during six years at Saint-Ambroise de Kildare, L’Assomption, Chateauguay, and finally completed his own studies at the Jacques-Cartier Normal School, from which institution he received an academic diploma. In 1858, he taught at Saint-Constant, and the following year he became head-master of the Catholic Commercial Academy of Montreal, the principal work of his life, and which he still directs. This school, established in Coté street, was transferred to the Plateau in 1871; it has become one of the principal educational institutions of the city, and even of the province of Quebec. In 1873, Mr. Archambault was named local superintendent of all the schools controlled by the Catholic Board of School Commissioners. The interior plans of the Plateau, Belmont and Olier schools are the work of his hands. This same year, 1873, he laboured successfully to bring about the foundation of an institution destined to form civil, mining, and industrial engineers. This was the Polytechnic School of Montreal, founded by the Catholic school commissioners and the Honorable Gedéon Ouimet, superintendent of education for the province of Quebec. Intended principally for Catholics, it was annexed to the Laval University in January, 1887. The university, which retains Mr. Archambault as principal of the Polytechnic School, has named him titular professor of the arts faculty. Much of the success attending the Jacques-Cartier Normal School conventions has been due to the active interest which he has taken in them. He is the author of the Teachers’ Pension Fund Bill, which became law in 1880, and was amended in 1886. In 1870, Mr. Archambault visited Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond (Virginia), and became acquainted with the best educators in the United States. Since then he has kept himself informed of their methods of teaching and management. With the same object in view, he visited the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876. In 1878, Mr. Archambault was sent to the Paris Exhibition, to represent the Educational department of the province of Quebec; and while in France he was named member of the International Educational Jury, and was the first Canadian ever decorated with the Palmes Académiques, and honored with the title of Officier d’Académie. On this occasion he was commissioned, by the Minister of Public Instruction in France, to deliver the Palmes Académiques to Dr. J. B. Meilleur, and to the Honourable P. J. O. Chauveau and G. Ouimet, who, each in turn, had directed the Educational department of the province. To allow him to fulfil his mission at the Paris Exhibition, he was granted a seven months’ leave of absence, during which time he gathered an ample store of pedagogic ideas, which he has since utilized for the benefit of his country. In 1883-4, he made a second trip to Europe and to Northern Africa, during a six months’ leave of absence granted to him on account of his health. These voyages brought him into communication with several eminent persons, and with different societies. Already a member of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste and of the Historical Society of Montreal, he became a member of the Geographical Society of Paris; in 1882, he received the title of Knight of the Sacred and Military Order of the Holy Sepulchre, and in 1886 he was named honorary member of the first degree of the Universal Humane Society of Knight-Saviors. In 1860, Mr. Archambault married Marie-Phélonise Azilda, daughter of Dr. Robitaille, of Saint-Roch de l’Achigan. Of the eleven children born to them, six, a son and five daughters, are still living (1887).

Stewart, Rev. Wm. James, Minister of the Baptist Church, Portland city, St. John county, New Brunswick, was born at Second Falls, St. George, Charlotte county, New Brunswick, on the 22nd of April, 1850. His parents, David and Agnes Stewart, were born in Newtownards, county Down, Ireland. They came to America with their parents, and were married in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, soon after their arrival. Shortly after this event they removed to Second Falls, where they lived happily together and raised a family of eleven children, William being the youngest. In February, 1857, his mother was removed from her family by death, and laid to rest by loving hands in the village church-yard. His father married again, his second wife being a Mrs. Manzer, a widow lady, who still survives him. He had no issue by this wife. In July, 1876, his father was called to his reward, and buried beside his first wife. Both were consistent members of the Baptist church. William James Stewart, the subject of this sketch, was not a very rugged boy, and was therefore kept constantly at school from his earliest boyhood. At the age of sixteen he finished the studies in the primary schools, and as there was no high school near his home, he was allowed to drop his studies for a few years. In the meantime he went on a visit to his brother and sister, both of whom were married and lived in the State of Minnesota, and after a year and a half he returned home a young man of twenty years, with no very definite idea of life or what he should do in the future. Not long after this, however, there came a change into his life which decided the future for him. The sermons of Rev. Edward Hickson, then pastor of the Baptist church in his native place, made a very deep impression on his mind. His father was a deacon of that church, and a very godly man, his life and influence being in perfect accord with the truth preached from the pulpit; and so after a good deal of anxiety of mind and earnest prayer to God, William was led to give his heart to the Saviour, and experience in his life that “peace which passeth all understanding.” On the 16th of June, 1872, he was immersed in the name of the Trinity by the Rev. E. Hickson, and received into the fellowship of the Second Falls Baptist church. He at once felt a desire in his heart to do something for Him who had done so much for the world, and his first work was to organize a Sunday school in connection with the church of which he was then a member. He also resolved to take up his long neglected studies and prepare himself for a life of usefulness, in the world. In October, 1872, he entered the Baptist Collegiate School in Wolfville, Nova Scotia. He did not at that time have the ministry in view, but not long afterward it was pressed upon him with such weight that he could not rest day or night until he yielded to the voice of God in his soul, and began to shape his course with this in view. On 21st May, 1874, he received a license from the church of which he was a member, signed by George Allen, clerk, to preach the gospel according to the faith and practice of the Baptist church. He spent the vacations of each year of his student life in preaching the word as opportunity offered. The vacation of 1876 he spent at Musquash, near St. John, New Brunswick, and God poured out His Holy Spirit wonderfully upon the people and many precious souls were saved. There was no minister near to baptize, and he consented to be ordained, although he was but a student. His ordination took place on the 23rd day of May, 1876, in the Carleton Baptist church. In May, 1877, he finished his studies at Acadia College, and received a unanimous call to the churches at St. George and Second Falls, the latter of which he was a member. He at once entered upon his work, and was greatly blessed in his labours among his own people. On 1st July, 1878, he was married to Lillie S. Hanson, daughter of Vernon and Helen Hanson, in the city of Boston, by the Rev. Dr. Lorimer. After a pastorate of about four years in his native place, he received and accepted a call to the Baptist church in Parrsborough, Nova Scotia. He spent one year with this church, and then received and accepted a call to the Baptist church in Portland city, St. John county, N.B., and on 1st June, 1882, he entered upon his duties in the church of which he is at present (1887) the pastor. About two hundred souls have been added to this church since he took up the work, and God is now very graciously blessing it. The church edifice has been improved at a cost of about fifteen hundred dollars, and a fine parsonage purchased since he began his ministry in it. The outlook for the future is very hopeful. To God be all the praise. Rev. Mr. Stewart has had two children, a boy and a girl. The eldest is now a bright boy of seven years. The little girl, too sweet and pure for earth, was taken at the age of four by Him who said, “Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven.”

Bayly, Richard, B.A., Q.C., Barrister-at-law, London, Ontario, was born in Dublin, Ireland, on the 25th of May, 1834. He is the son of Rev. Benjamin Bayly, and Cassandra Henrietta Bayly, who, previous to coming to Canada, resided in Dublin, Mr. Bayly’s ancestors having resided in or near that city for over three hundred years. The Rev. Mr. Bayly occupied the important position of principal of the London Grammar school (afterwards the London Collegiate Institute) for over thirty-five years, until the 17th January, 1879, when he died, greatly respected by all who had the honour of his acquaintance. Richard received his education at the London Grammar school, in London, and at the University of Toronto, where he graduated with the degree of B.A. He then studied law in the office of the Hon. John Wilson (afterwards Justice John Wilson), and became a barrister and solicitor in 1857, and has successfully practised his profession in London ever since. He occupied a seat on the London Board of Education from 1876 to 1885 inclusive, and was chairman of the board for one year, and chairman of the School Management Committee for four years. For nine years Mr. Bayly was a warden of St. Paul’s Episcopal church, and for several years a delegate to the Diocesan and Provincial synods. In politics, he belongs to the Liberal-Conservative party, and for many years has taken an active interest in political issues. He was brought up in the Episcopal fold, and has seen no reason to change his religious belief. On the 22nd June, 1864, he was married to Eliza, eldest daughter of the late Dr. Chas. G. Moore, of London, and the issue of this marriage has been ten children, eight of whom survive—five boys and three girls.

Mowatt, Rev. Andrew Joseph, Pastor of St. Paul’s (Presbyterian) Church, Fredericton, New Brunswick, is a native-born Canadian, having first seen the light on the 11th of February, 1838, in the town of Woodstock, Carleton county, N.B. His father, Thomas Mowatt, and mother, Elizabeth Scott Moffatt, emigrated from Great Britain to New Brunswick, and settled in Woodstock in 1837, where they remained for about two years, and then moved to Harvey, York county, where Andrew, the subject of our sketch, was brought up, and whose early recollections of the place is a little log hut in the forest, and a small log school-house where he received a common school education. After leaving this school, he went for two winters to the Collegiate school in Fredericton, then in charge of Dr. George Roberts, and afterwards he spent three terms at the Presbyterian college at Truro, Nova Scotia, taking the regular arts course there. He then studied theology under Rev. Dr. King, at Gerrish Theological Hall, Halifax, N.S., and completed his studies in 1866. On the 2nd of May of the same year, he received a license to preach the gospel from the Presbytery of Pictou, was called to the new congregation of Sharon church, Albion Mines, now Stellarton, and was ordained pastor on the 5th of June following. The Rev. Mr. Mowatt retained the charge of this church for seven years, and then left on receiving a call from St. John’s church, Windsor, N.S., and was inducted its pastor by the Presbytery of Halifax on the 8th of July, 1873. Here he laboured in the Lord’s vineyard for six and a half years. He then was called to the pastorate of St. Paul’s church in Fredericton, and was inducted into this charge on the 8th of January, 1880, by the Presbytery of St. John; and here he has laboured ever since. This church has greatly prospered under Mr. Mowatt’s able ministration, and, on the 10th of January, 1886, the congregation abandoned their old church edifice and moved into a fine stone building, which is an ornament to the town. Rev. Mr. Mowatt was brought up in the faith as taught by the Presbyterian church, and has so far seen no reason to change his opinion with regard to it. He has spent his life in his Master’s service, and he has the satisfaction of knowing that he has done something to advance His kingdom in this world, and, under God’s grace, fitted many a poor soul to enter the Father’s home of many mansions. He was married to Louisa Jane Annand, of Gay’s River, Colchester county, N.S., on the 30th of June, 1868. Her brother, the Rev. Joseph Annand, is a missionary on the island of Espiritu Santo, in the New Hebrides. Rev. Mr. Mowatt has a family of nine children.

Mitchell, Hon. James, St. Stephen, New Brunswick, was born at the Scottish Settlement, York county, N.B., on the 16th March, 1843. His father, William Mitchell, was a native of Inverkip, Renfrewshire, Scotland, and came to America in 1827, settling in York county, N.B. His mother, Ann Dobie, was a native of Dumfries, in Scotland. James Mitchell received his education first in the public school, then in the Collegiate Institute, and latterly in the University of New Brunswick, at Fredericton, where, in 1867, he graduated with the degrees of B.A., and M.A. He afterwards studied law, and was called to the bar in October, 1870, and has since practised his profession at St. Stephen, Charlotte county, where he now resides. Mr. Mitchell was inspector of schools for Charlotte county from 1872 to 1875, and from 1877 to 1879, and during these years exercised a very material influence on the educational affairs of his town and county. He occupied the position of Census commissioner in 1881. He is at present a member of the Senate of the University of New Brunswick, and a member of the Alumni Society; also a member of the Lunatic Asylum Commission and of the Board of Education of the province of New Brunswick. At the general election in 1882 his fellow-citizens of Charlotte county chose him to represent them in the New Brunswick parliament; and, on the 3rd of March, 1883, he was appointed a member of the Executive Council, and surveyor-general of the province. On his presenting himself for re-election, he was returned by acclamation. He was again elected at the general election in 1886. Hon. Mr. Mitchell is a Liberal-Conservative in politics, having always identified himself with the party of progress in the country, and is an active promoter of railways, manufactures, and other public works. As a barrister he stands high at the bar of his native province. He is a past-master of the Free and Accepted Masons, and past-principal Z of the Royal Arch Chapter. He has followed in the footsteps of his parents, and is a consistent adherent of the Presbyterian church. On the 17th December, 1873, he was married to Miss Ryder, of St. Stephen.

MacFarlane, Foster, M.D., Fairville, St. John, New Brunswick, was born in the parish of Studholm, Kings county, N.B., on the 12th December, 1834. His father, Matthew MacFarlane, was born in the parish of Dramore, county of Tyrone, Ireland, and was a descendant of a family of that name, who, with others, sought refuge from the persecution then prevailing in the Highlands of Scotland. The record of the family dates back to the beginning of the thirteenth century. The family name of “MacFarlane” took its origin from a grandson of the Earl of Lennox, named Bartholomew, the Gaelic of which is “Pharlan,” whose son was named MacFarlane (or son of Bartholomew). The seat of the Earl of Lennox was Dumbarton castle, which was held by his descendants the MacFarlanes, at intervals, and for six centuries they held possession of their original lands, the principal seat of which was Arrochar, at the head of Lochlong. The MacFarlane clan fought, and distinguished themselves, in the battle of Langside, May 13th, 1565, their valour mainly contributing to decide the fortunes of the day, and the defeat of Mary, Queen of Scots. For their bravery they received from the Regent their crest and motto which has ever since been inscribed on their family escutcheon, “This I’ll defend.” Chief among the descendants of this ancient family may be mentioned Walter MacFarlane, of MacFarlane, who is justly celebrated as the indefatigable collector of the ancient records of his country, and whose historical writings, according to Mr. Skeen, “form the best monuments to his memory; and as long as the existence of the ancient records of the country, or a knowledge of its ancient history remains an object of interest to any Scotchman, the name of MacFarlane will be handed down as one of its benefactors, which monument will be found more enduring than the barbaric splendour of his warlike countrymen, which has long since faded away, thus showing that it is not the destroyer but the benefactor of his fellow-creatures who is secure of immortality.” In 1815, when but a lad of twelve years of age, Matthew MacFarlane, accompanied his father, James MacFarlane, and other members of the family, to America, and on their arrival settled at Rockland, in Kingston, Kings county, N.B. Some years afterwards, and when the family had grown up, Mr. MacFarlane, sr., left his eldest son, Charles, on the homestead, and removed, with Matthew and his other sons and daughters, to Studholm, in the same county. About the year 1827, being amongst the pioneer settlers of that part of the country, Matthew MacFarlane married Sarah Foster, whose father, Ezekiel Foster, came from New England during the American war. One of his brothers fought at the battle of Lexington, and died in defending what he considered his rights, having espoused the cause of the colonists. Foster MacFarlane, the subject of our sketch, was the fifth child of this marriage, and first saw the light in a log cabin, the common abode of the pioneer farmers of those days. His earliest education was received in the parish school, and was limited to the rudiments of an ordinary English education. At the age of twenty, having passed the required examination before the local board then existing, he received a license to teach in the public school. After teaching for a time, he entered upon a course of study at the Baptist Seminary, Fredericton, and afterwards took a special course for a time at the University of New Brunswick. After leaving the university, he pursued a course in medicine at Harvard University, Cambridge, United States, and was privileged to sit at the feet of such men as Professor Agassiz, Jeffries Wyman, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and E. Brown-Sequard, of Paris, graduating in 1868. He first practised medicine in his native parish for two years and a half. During this time he was appointed by the government a coroner for Kings county. He then removed to Fairville, St. John, N.B., where he has ever since practised his profession. He has been a member of the Senate of the University of New Brunswick since the spring of 1883, and a director of the Union Baptist Education Society since its incorporation. He was one of the promoters of the Dominion Safety Fund Life Association, filling for a number of years the position of director, and is now its medical superintendent. He united about thirty years ago with the Sons of Temperance, and has since belonged to other temperance organizations, being now a member of the Independent Order of Good Templars. He was brought up in connection with the Methodists, but in the year 1858 his views underwent a change, and he united with the Baptists, and is at present a member of the Fairville Baptist church. On July 20, 1868, he was married to Elizabeth A. Babbitt, daughter of Samuel Perry and Phœbe Babbitt, of St. John, N.B. He has five children—one son and four daughters.

Burns, Rev. Robert Ferrier, D.D., Pastor of the Fort Massey Presbyterian church, Halifax, Nova Scotia. This popular minister was born in Paisley, Scotland, on the 23rd of December, 1826. His father was Robert Burns, D.D., and his mother, Janet Orr, daughter of the first provost of Paisley. His mother’s sister, Susan, was mother of Sir Archibald Orr Ewing, baronet, M.P. for Dumbarton. His father had three brothers in the ministry of the Church of Scotland,—namely, Rev. James Burns, who for forty years was minister of the parish of Brechin; Rev. William H. Burns, D.D., Kilsyth; and Rev. George Burns, D.D., first Presbyterian minister of St. John, New Brunswick, afterwards of Tweedsmuir and Corstorphine, Scotland,—and two uncles in the service of their Sovereign—Major-General Islay Ferrier, the last governor of Dumbarton castle, and Sir William Hamilton, baronet, who commanded the marines that pulled the guns up to the Plains of Abraham, in 1759, at the taking of Quebec. Miss Ferrier, author, and friend of Sir Walter Scott, was a second cousin. Rev. Dr. Burns, sr., was pastor for thirty-three years of Dr. Witherspoon’s church (Laigh Kirk and St. George’s), Paisley, and moved to Toronto in 1845, and became the first pastor of Knox’s Church in that city, and professor in Knox’s College. He died at Toronto on the 19th of August, 1869; and his widow on the 22nd of August, 1882. Rev. Dr. Robert Ferrier Burns received his early education at the High school of Paisley, and then entered the University of Glasgow, where he remained four years, taking honours in Latin, Greek, logic, and moral philosophy. He studied theology in the New College (Free Church), Edinburgh, and Knox’s College, Toronto. In April, 1847, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Toronto, and on the 1st of July following he was ordained pastor of Chalmer’s Presbyterian church, Kingston, Ontario. He was Presbyterian chaplain in the 71st Highland Light Infantry for a year. He remained in this charge for eight years, and, during his ministry there, succeeded in having built for his congregation a handsome church edifice. In July, 1855, he moved to St. Catharines, and was settled over Knox Presbyterian church of that place. A fine building was erected by his people for him. Here he ministered until March, 1867, when he accepted a call from the Scotch Presbyterian church in Chicago, United States, to become its first pastor, and, during his residence there of three years, a church was built. In 1866, the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Hamilton College, New York. In April, 1870, he was translated to Côté Street Presbyterian church (now Crescent street), Montreal, as successor to Principal MacVicar, where he did good work. On the 18th of March, 1875, he became pastor of Fort Massey Presbyterian church in Halifax, as successor to the Rev. J. K. Smith, M.A., now of Galt, who for two years had been first pastor of this influential congregation. In 1873, Dr. Burns occupied the position of moderator of the Synod of Montreal, and in 1883 he was moderator of the Synod of the Maritime provinces. During his residence in Montreal he was chairman of the Presbyterian College Board; and, for the past twelve years, has acted as chairman of the Halifax College Board. In 1880 he was sent as a delegate to the Raikes’ centenary celebration in London, and during the same year he represented the Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in the Presbyterian Council at Philadelphia. In 1884 he was a delegate from the same church to the council held in Belfast, Ireland, where he read one of the papers presented to that body, and was appointed one of its executive committee. This year (1887) the doctor has been nominated for the moderatorship of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, which meets in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in June next. Rev. Dr. Burns takes a great interest in Sunday-school work, and was one of the first to advocate the establishment of Sunday-school conventions in Canada, which have done so much of late years to advance this branch of Christian work. As a platform speaker he stands high, and has often spoken on subjects, professional and otherwise, before large audiences. At present he is lecturer on theological themes in the Presbyterian College at Halifax. As a book-writer, too, he has done his share. His life of his father, a volume of nearly five hundred pages, published in Toronto in 1873, soon went through three editions. His other writings, “Sketch of Abraham Lincoln,” “The Presbyterian Church,” “Modern Babylon,” “The Maine Law,” “Christian Liberality,” “Confession and Absolution,” and a variety of sermons and tracts—have all been favourably received, and commanded a good sale. He has also contributed largely to the columns of the newspaper press and our periodicals. Dr. Burns has travelled a good deal, and has visited Great Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, and various other places in Europe, and is very familiar with Canada and the United States. He was married on the 1st of July, 1852, at Belleville, Ontario, to Elizabeth, second daughter of Rufus Holden, M.D., a much esteemed physician, and elder of the Presbyterian church, in Belleville. Dr. Burns has eight children—four sons and four daughters.

Bullock, Joseph, Oil Merchant, St. John, New Brunswick, is a native of Springfield, Ohio, and was born on September 6th, 1833. His father was William Bullock, a native of Staffordshire, England, who came to the United States a few years prior to the birth of Joseph. His mother’s maiden name was Ann Clark Peacock, she being of the Yorkshire family of that ilk. His mother’s parents came out to Ohio about the same time as Mr. Bullock, sr. Mr. Peacock went there to accept the position of engineer for the state of Ohio. Joseph Bullock’s parents removed to Hamilton, Ontario, in the spring of 1834, he then being only a few months old. Two years later they removed to what is now known as Bullock’s Corners, near Dundas, the place taking its name from his father. It was here Mr. Bullock spent his boyhood, and got what education could in those days be procured in the public school of the vicinity. On leaving school he helped his father in his business, which, by the way, was that of lumberman. During the time he was so engaged, he married when in his 25th year, Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac Duffield, a farmer of the township of Glanford, South Wentworth. Two years after his marriage, the lumber business declining, he commenced business as general store-keeper at Bullock’s Corners, which he continued for about three years. After this he settled upon a farm he owned in West Flamboro’, and worked it for two years. His father having died in the meantime, he left West Flamboro’ and took up his residence at the old homestead. Here he remained about three years, travelling occasionally for his brothers-in-law, Duffield Bros., of London, oil refiners. In the year 1869, Confederation being an accomplished fact, Mr. Bullock removed to St. John, New Brunswick, to engage in the oil business, which has now assumed such large proportions. His original intention was to handle Canadian oil exclusively, but as the years rolled on, American products had also to be handled, and he is now the largest dealer in oils in the maritime provinces. In politics, Mr. Bullock is thoroughly independent, voting more on the character of the man than from purely party motives. It is, however, in the religious world that Mr. Bullock is most conspicuous. As a boy he was identified more particularly with the Church of England, but at the age of about twenty years he became a member of the Methodist church, of which he is a consistent and earnest member. Prior to the great fire of 1877, Mr. Bullock was a trustee of the old German Street Methodist Church, the oldest church in the city, and after its destruction by that fire, was chairman of the building committee of the present Queen Square Methodist Church, and of which he still continues a trustee. It was largely to his energy and liberality that the erection of this church was due. He is also a member of the quarterly board of his church, and is one of the board of directors of the British and Foreign Bible Society for the city of St. John. He is a total abstainer, and has been for the most of his life, and is pronounced in favour of the prohibition of the liquor traffic. When Gen. Booth visited St. John, he was the guest of Mr. Bullock. Mr. Bullock has had a family of three children, one of whom is deceased, and the remaining ones, two sons, are associated with him in business.

Binney, Irwine Whitty, Collector of Customs, Port of Moncton, New Brunswick, was born on the 10th of July, 1841, at Halifax, Nova Scotia. He is a son of the late Stephen Binney, who for many years was a leading merchant in Halifax, and who, when the city was incorporated, was elected its first mayor. Mr. Binney, sr., acting as mayor, on the occasion of the birth of the Prince of Wales, visited England, and presented an address to Her Majesty the Queen, signed by a large number of the citizens. This gentleman was grandson of the late Hon. Hibbert N. Binney, who for a period of nearly forty years, filled the office of collector of customs and excise at Halifax, and was also a member of the Legislative Council; and great-grandson of the late Hon. Jonathan Binney, one of the first residents of Halifax, who was a member of the first Legislative Assembly (1758) of the province. He and Frederick des Barras met the Indian chiefs at Arichat, New Brunswick, in 1761, and concluded a lasting peace, and was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1768; second judge at St. John’s Island (near Prince Edward Island); and also collector of customs for the island. I. W. Binney, the subject of this sketch, is brother to William Pryor Binney, Her Britannic Majesty’s consul at Syra, Greece, and was educated at various schools, including the Sackville Academy, New Brunswick, receiving a commercial education. In his younger days he found employment as a clerk in several commercial houses; and from 1861 to 1864, he was in the old established and well known lumber firm of Gilmour, Rankin & Co., Miramichi, New Brunswick. He also carried on a wholesale business at Chatham, New Brunswick, for a few years, and afterwards engaged in mining operations in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, in company with the late Sir A. J. Smith and others. He was appointed a clerk in Her Majesty’s customs in 1874, and promoted to the collectorship at the port of Moncton, New Brunswick, in 1883. He joined the Freemasons in 1862; was made a Royal-Arch-Mason in 1866, and Knight Templar in 1870. At present he is a past master of Keith lodge of Moncton, New Brunswick. He is an Episcopalian in his religious views. Mr. Binney’s father moved to Moncton, New Brunswick, from Halifax, in 1845, and died there in 1872. Mr. Binney is unmarried, and his mother and widowed sister reside with him.

Berthelot, Hon. Joseph Amable, Judge of the Superior Court of Montreal. This learned judge was born on the 8th of May, 1815, at St. Eustache, county of Two Mountains, by the marriage of Joseph Amable Berthelot, notary, and Dame Marie M. Hervieux. Mr. Berthelot’s father was from Quebec, where he finished his classical studies in 1796, having been the classmate of the late Hon. Judge Thomas Taschereau, the father of his eminence the Cardinal, and also that of the late Hon. Judge Vanfelson, who died in Montreal. Judge Berthelot began his Latin course in 1824, and finished it on the 9th of June, 1832, when at the age of seventeen. The course that year was suddenly terminated, on account of the cholera, the professors having deemed it prudent to send back the scholars to their families in the month of June. In the month of October of the same year he began his legal studies, being indentured with the late Hon. Sir. L. H. Lafontaine, who had married his cousin in 1830. Sir George E. Cartier, who was his classmate at college, also commenced studying law in 1832, in the office of the late Etienne E. Rodier, advocate, M.P.P. for the county of l’Assomption. After being admitted to the bar in November, 1836, he became the partner of Mr. Lafontaine, and continued to practise his profession in such partnership until July, 1853, when Mr. Lafontaine was appointed chief justice of the province of Lower Canada on the demise of the late Sir James Stuart. A few days after, Mr. Berthelot entered into partnership with his friend, the late Sir George E. Cartier, and continued this partnership until he was appointed assistant judge of the Superior Court, succeeding the late Hon. C. D. Day, who was appointed codifier in February, 1859. On Justice Day’s resignation having been accepted by the government, in 1860, Judge Berthelot was immediately appointed permanent judge of the Superior Court. On this occasion, in December, 1860, the bar of Montreal held a meeting in order to express publicly their satisfaction of the appointment of Judge Berthelot to the bench, and adopted resolutions, copies of which were transmitted to the judge, and also published in the newspapers of the day, amongst others in La Minerve. These resolutions read as follow:

At a special meeting of the members of the bar of Lower Canada section of this district, which was held on Wednesday, the 12th of December instant, it was unanimously resolved:

1. Moved by Henry Stuart, seconded by Gédéon Ouimet, M.P.P., That the bar of Montreal has seen with real pleasure the promotion of the Honourable J. A. Berthelot, whose talents, high sense of honour, integrity, conscientious work and services already rendered as assistant judge, are a sure guarantee of the faithfulness with which he will fulfil the difficult duties of the new office which he has just entered as permanent judge of the Superior Court.

2. Moved by Andrew Robertson, seconded by C. A. Leblanc, That as citizens, and with due regard to public interest, the barristers of Montreal cheerfully greet the appointment of Mr. Justice Berthelot, and as his confrères, they are highly honoured as a body by this new appointment.

3. Moved by the Honourable T. J. J. Loranger, seconded by J. C. Daly, That copies of the foregoing resolutions be transmitted by the bâtonnier and secretary to Mr. Justice Berthelot, and that the secretary be authorized to publish them in the city papers.

      (Signed)         Robert Mackay, Bâtonnier,

      (Signed)         Mederic Marchand, Secretary.

The French paper, L’Ordre, made the following comments on the foregoing resolutions:

We have already fully expressed our opinion on this subject, and to-day we are happy to see the bar of Montreal confirming our appreciation of this appointment.

During the time that Mr. Berthelot practised at the bar, his confrères elected him twice to the dignity of bâtonnier, in 1858 and 1859. Whilst he exercised his duties of judge in Montreal, in the space of fifteen years, he was called upon to perform the same duties of judge at Ste. Scholastique, district of Terrebonne. In February, 1872, he was invited by the members of the bar of that district, numbering seventeen, to a complimentary public dinner by the following resolutions, which were then published in the press:

At the meeting of the bar of the district of Terrebonne, held at Ste. Scholastique on the 7th of February, 1872, it was resolved:

1. Moved by J. H. Filion, seconded by Mr. Boisseau, that Mr. Burroughs be appointed chairman, and Mr. Rochon be requested to act as secretary.

2. Moved by Mr. Wilfrid Prévost, seconded by J. A. H. Mackay, That a public dinner be given to the Hon. J. A. Berthelot, by the bar of the district of Terrebonne, as an acknowledgment of our esteem and respect for his honour.

3. Moved by J. A. H. Mackay, seconded by J. H. Filion, That the chairman and Mr. Wilfrid Prévost be delegated to interview his honour, and express the desire of the bar to give him a dinner, and in order that he may fix the date that he will find convenient.

      (Signed)         C. S. Burroughs, Chairman,

      (Signed)         A. Rochon, Secretary.

Judge Berthelot regretted that he could not accept a demonstration which would be so creditable for himself from the bar of the district of Terrebonne, being on the eve of sailing for Europe, during a leave of absence which had been granted to him by the Government for recuperating his health, which was slightly impaired by his strict attendance to his judicial duties. Before his appointment to the bench in 1859, he had been called upon to fulfil the office of assistant judge in Montreal for six months, in 1855 and 1856, during which time the judges of the province had to act as such during the sittings of the Seignorial Court for Lower Canada. On the 28th of November, 1875, his Lordship Archbishop Bourget, intimated to Judge Berthelot that he had just received from Rome a letter from his Excellency Monsignor Roncetti, Ablegate, informing him that His Holiness Pius IX. had been pleased to appoint him Commander of the Order of St. Sylvestre, by an apostolical writ, dated the 24th of September then last, enclosed with the Ablegate’s letter, adding that His Holiness had been so kind and so generous that through the agency of His Eminence Cardinal Antonelli, he had consented to give to Mr. Berthelot himself the decoration of the Commandery of the Order of St. Sylvestre, which he had confided to the care of Mr. Harel, procurator of the archbishop. The newspaper Le Monde, of Paris, France, on the 28th of December, 1875, noticed this honour granted to Judge Berthelot in the following terms:

We do not doubt that the appointment of Judge Berthelot will be hailed with pleasure by the numerous friends that he has in France, who have had occasion to appreciate, during his several visits to our continent, how he was worthy in all respects, of the high distinction which had been conferred upon him.

His Excellency, Monsignor Roncetti, in a letter bearing date of February, 1876, wrote as follows to Judge Berthelot:

My Dear and Honoured Commander,—With your very kind letter of the 20th of January, for which I am very thankful, I have also received, through the agency of Mr. Harel, your letter for his Eminence Cardinal Antonelli, who entrusted me with his answer, which you will find herewith:—In renewing my sincere congratulations, I beg to present my homage to the most excellent lady, Madame Berthelot, to your dear children, and to accept at the same time the assurance of my most perfect esteem and profound respect. Expecting with the greatest impatience the day when I will see you in Rome, I have the honour to be, my dear and honoured Commander,

Your most humble and devoted servant,

Cesar Roncetti.

In the same month of February, 1876, Judge Berthelot was in receipt of a letter from his Eminence, Cardinal Antonelli, in Italian, which read as follows:

Illustrissime Signor,—I have presented, with great pleasure, to the Holy Father the expressions of gratitude which your illustrissime lordship has given me in his letter of the 20th of January last, because our Holy Father had conferred upon you the Commandership of St. Sylvestre, which you acknowledged to be entirely due to the apostolic benevolence. His Holiness was raptured when he saw these expressions of veneration and love for his venerable person, and could not refrain from answering to them by words of gratitude, and by giving you, from the bottom of his heart, his apostolic benediction. Having thus accomplished the wishes which you expressed to me, I have the honour to be, your illustrissime lordship,


Sec. Giacomo Antonelli.

The following particulars about the knighthood are found in the supplement of “Bouillet’s Dictionary,” page 42:


A Roman order founded by Paul III., in 1554, or by Pius IV. in 1559, has been established, according to some writers, by Constantinus, as far back as 312, to commemorate his victory over Maxencius, and approved since then by the Pope St. Sylvestre. Its object was to reward civil merit, admitting only noblemen; it could also be conferred on foreigners. Some princely families of Rome and a few high dignitaries could confer the order, which soon occasioned serious errors. Gregory XVI. reformed the order in 1841, and gave the name of St. Sylvestre, or the Reformed Golden Spur. The knights wore a golden cross with eight points, and white enamelled, showing the portrait of St. Sylvestre. It is worn with a ribbon striped red and black; between, the branches of the cross hangs a golden spur. Before the Reformation, when England was Catholic, and when the relations of that country with the court of Rome were uninterrupted, as soon as a chief justice of the Court of King’s Bench, was appointed, the writ of commandership of the order of St. Sylvestre was forwarded to him by the Pope, and he wore on his chain of office the letters S. S. Since England has become Protestant, the writ is not sent to that country; nevertheless, when a new chief justice is appointed, and when he orders at the court goldsmith the chain of office which he wears on his neck, he receives it still with the same initials S.S., as in olden times.

This fact is warranted by photographs of Chief Justices Bovill and Campbell, which Judge Berthelot has in his possession, and which were given him by his friend, Judge Mackay. In a legal review, entitled Albany Law Journal for 1874, in the issue of the 8th of August, we find an article headed, “Article on Campbell’s Lives of Chief Justices,” with the following comments:

And while there were among the wearers of the collar of S. S., men whose lives are neither helpful nor inspiring, there were many of whom it is good to read.

In Canada the first person who received a writ of commandership of St. Sylvestre, was the late Sir L. H. Lafontaine, chief justice, in the year 1853. Judge Berthelot was appointed in 1875, as above mentioned. In 1876, after eighteen years of judicial services, he asked and obtained his superannuation, and on this occasion the Montreal Gazette, of the 28th of August, 1876, published the following:

The Ottawa Government has at last come to a determination which enables it to accept the resignation of Mr. Justice Berthelot. Nearly a year has elapsed since it was generally understood that Mr. Justice Berthelot desired to obtain that relaxation from judicial duties to which twenty years service had fairly entitled him, but as our readers are aware, ministers were seriously embarrassed in the disposal of this piece of patronage, and the learned judge was requested to defer his proposed relinquishment of official duties. Before reference is made to his successor, it is but justice to say a word or two respecting Hon. Judge Berthelot. If the hon. judge has not obtained the first rank of judicial fame, no one will venture to deny that he has occupied a most honourable position on the bench of this province, or that his services have been of a highly beneficial character. It were scant justice to say that his character has been constantly honourable, his impartiality unchallenged, and his intelligence of the most vigorous type. Laborious without complaining, diligent without ostentation, Mr. Justice Berthelot has never proved unequal to the arduous demands of his position. His knowledge of real estate and insurance law, extensive and profound, and his decisions upon these, as well as many other branches of the law, were received with the utmost respect and confidence. In determination of cases in which juries are more or less liable to be influenced by sympathy for the sufferers, he did not hesitate to adhere to those leading principles which have been consecrated by time and experience, in preference to yielding to impulses which might create a dangerous precedent. In fine, Mr. Justice Berthelot’s judicial career has been conscientious, able and upright, and entitles him to the gratitude of his countrymen.

Le Nouveau-Monde, on 29th of August, 1876, reprinting the above article from the Gazette, accompanied it with the following remarks:

This testimony is corroborated by all those who had occasion to appreciate personally the talents, the carefulness, the integrity, and the knowledge displayed by this hon. judge in the exercise of his judicial duties. Some of his decisions in cases of the highest importance fully demonstrated the fact, that he was imbued with a sound judgment and a knowledge of jurisprudence and statutory laws sufficient to make his reputation and authority cope with that of the most distinguished judges who have illustrated our Canadian bench. Liberated from the toils and fatigues of the important position which he has just vacated, Judge Berthelot, we hope, will not withdraw entirely from public life, and the population of this province could still benefit by his great experience, his serious studies, and his deep knowledge of men and things, which he has acquired during more than twenty years on the bench.

Judge Berthelot has since remained in private life, without an occasion to make himself useful to his country. Whilst he was practising at the bar, he had been often requested to enter parliament by several counties of the district of Montreal, and in 1858, when the division of Alma was to elect its first representative in the Legislative Council, he had been requested to be a candidate by a great number of the citizens of the division, one of the two candidates at that time being willing to withdraw in his favour if he accepted the candidature. But Mr. Berthelot had always refused, in order that his partners and friends, Sir L. H. Lafontaine and Sir George E. Cartier, be not deprived of the services he was rendering them, while these statesmen were engaged in political life, with so much credit to themselves and satisfaction for the country. Mr. Berthelot since that time has travelled several times in England, France and Italy, where he has made several friends, with whom he still keeps an active correspondence. In conclusion, we may say that during the second rebellion, in November, 1838, Mr. Berthelot was arrested and sent to gaol without cause or warrant, with many of the best citizens of Montreal, viz., Messieurs Lafontaine, the two Messieurs Viger, M. Papineau, a brother of the speaker, Dr. Lusignan, Mr. Fabre, Mr. DeBoucherville, sr., Amable Badeaux, his cousin, and his young friend Dr. Perreault. The latter was soon let free to attend his young wife. Mr. Berthelot, having inquired, by a letter addressed to Colonel Goldie, secretary of his Excellency the Governor, Sir John Colborne, for the cause of his arrest, expressing by his letter his readiness to be brought to trial, received no written answer, but a few days after was invited to leave the gaol and go to his home. At the same time he had also written to the late Andrew Stuart, solicitor-general, residing at Montreal, with whom he was well acquainted, representing in proper terms against his unjust detention, and always thought that he owed much to the interest of Mr. Stuart for his immediate release. Of Mr. Stuart, the solicitor-general, much can be said; that he was at least equal, if not superior to his brother, the late Sir James Stuart, chief justice of Quebec.

MacLeod, Rev. John M., Presbyterian minister of Zion church, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This greatly respected divine was born at the West River of Pictou, in the province of Nova Scotia, on the 25th of August, 1827. His father, Ebenezer MacLeod, was also a native of the West River of Pictou. He was a man of fair education, of sound judgment, of extensive information, and of deep and fervent piety. He was for many years an elder in the congregation of Salem, Green Hill, and was secretary of what is claimed to have been the first temperance society in this Dominion. His parents were from Scotland. He was married to Barbara Benvie, daughter of James Benvie, of Musquodoboit, and died in the 82nd year of his age. The subject of this brief sketch, having received a good English education in the common schools of the country, entered a printing office in the town of Pictou, and served a regular apprenticeship to the printing business. He, however, in compliance with the earnest wish of his parents, resumed his studies with a view to the ministry. He entered the Pictou Academy, where for two years he studied Latin, Greek, natural philosophy, and mathematics, under Professors Bell and Hay. About this time the Presbyterian church of Nova Scotia, for the purpose of training a native ministry, opened what was known as the West River Seminary, the head teacher of which was the Rev. James Ross, D.D., afterwards principal of Dalhousie College, Halifax. Mr. MacLeod was one of twelve students who entered the first year this institution was opened. Here he took the regular arts course of four years, and studied theology three years under Rev. John Keir, D.D., and Rev. James Smith, D.D. He was licensed in the spring of 1853, was called to the congregation of Richmond Bay during the following summer, and after taking another term in the Theological Hall, was ordained and inducted into the pastoral charge of the above named congregation on the 9th Nov., 1854, where he laboured with much success for nearly seven years. During the fourth year of his ministry he was married to Amelia Parker, daughter of Francis R. Parker, of Nova Scotia, who for many years was a member of the Provincial legislature. He was married to his present wife, Mrs. L. G. Taylor, in 1879. In 1860 Rev. Mr. MacLeod accepted a call to Newport, Hants county, Nova Scotia, where he continued to labour with acceptance and success for ten years. While in Newport he declined a call to Boston, Massachusetts, and in 1870 accepted one to New Glasgow, Pictou, Nova Scotia. But there being at this time four Presbyterian congregations in the small town of New Glasgow, and Rev. Mr. MacLeod, believing that his labours were more required elsewhere, accepted a call to his present charge, into which he was inducted on the 19th of July, 1871. His labours in this field have been crowned with a fair measure of success. On two different occasions additions of over one hundred and twenty, mostly young persons, were made to the communion roll. Mr. MacLeod is at present clerk of the presbytery. He has held that position for twenty-one years in the Presbytery of Prince Edward Island, and for seven years in the Presbytery of Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Sifton, Hon. John Wright, Brandon, Manitoba, was born in the township of London, county of Middlesex, Ontario, on the 10th August, 1833. He is the youngest son of Bamlet and Mary Sifton, who came from the county of Tipperary, Ireland, in 1832, and settled in London township. His ancestors on both sides were English. He received his education in the public and grammar schools of London. Up until 1860 he devoted his time to farming and other business, when he removed to Oil Springs, in Lambton county, and engaged in the oil business as producer and refiner. Here he purchased a large tract of oil lands immediately surrounding the famous gum beds, and afterwards sold them to an American company. This was the first foreign company that invested in Canadian oil property, and they continued to develop the resources of their territory until the enormous yield of oil at Petrolia made it impossible for them to successfully compete with this more productive locality. In 1870, Mr. Sifton removed to Paris, Brant county, with the object of having his children educated at the grammar school there; and in 1872, in company with his brother, contracted for and built forty miles of the track of the Canada Southern Railway. In 1873, he moved to London, and was appointed secretary of the Oil Association, and this office he held until the association ceased operations. In 1874, in company with two other gentlemen, whose interests he soon after bought out, he was awarded the contract for building and maintaining for five years a telegraph line from the city of Winnipeg to Fort Pelley, and clearing the track a hundred feet wide, for a distance of about three hundred miles, for the then contemplated Canadian Pacific Railway. Although this contract, when it was entered into, appeared to be one likely to give a fair profit, yet it afterwards turned out the opposite way. The fearful wet seasons of 1876, ’77, and ’78, flooded the country for forty miles east of Lake Manitoba, and sixty miles west along the line to, in some places, a depth of six feet, making it impossible to keep the line up, and as the Government refused to make any allowance for this, the loss was very great. Some idea may be formed of the difficulty of performing work in this country at that time, when we state that, one winter, provisions having ran out at one of Mr. Sifton’s camps, he had to send supplies by dog-trains 160 miles, and then have it carried on men’s backs, 60 miles further, making it to cost twelve cents per pound freight from Winnipeg to the camp, and at no time during the best part of the season could he deliver the same goods at their destination for less than five cents per pound freight. In 1875, the firm of Sifton, Ward & Co. were awarded the contracts for sections thirteen and fourteen of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and Mr. Sifton, the senior member of the firm, undertook charge of section fourteen, which commenced at Red River, and extended a distance of seventy-seven miles to Cross Lake. During this time he removed to Manitoba, settling at Selkirk, and here he remained until the completion of his telegraph and railroad contracts. The money involved in these two operations amounted to about a million and a half dollars. In 1879, he took up his abode in Winnipeg, where he purchased some real estate outside the city limits, and erected for himself a fine residence. Taking advantage of the “boom of 1881,” he sold out this property and moved to Brandon, where he now resides. Here he has invested a considerable sum of money in farming lands, and for four years succeeded in raising in each year from 10,000 to 18,000 bushels of grain. But the years of frost (1883, ’84, ’85) having made the raising of wheat or grain in large quantities a risky business, and the collapse in values of all kinds of property, especially real estate, have forced Mr. Sifton to suspend business operations in this direction for the present. However, from his experience of over twelve years in the North-West country, and a thorough practical knowledge of farming, he thinks that although extensive farming has been in the past, and may prove in the future from certain causes, a failure, when compared with Ontario, yet he is impressed with the idea that it cannot be equalled on this continent for fertility; always providing, however, that the present hindrances to its prosperity be removed. What Mr. Sifton wants for his country is fair competition in freights; the abolition of all monopoly; readjustment of our present tariff, so that it may have the same chance as Ontario; a reasonable homestead law that will not be changed every year, and pre-emptions at such a price that the settler can meet it in a reasonable time. If these concessions were made, he thinks the North-West would make such strides onward that the most sanguine of us would fail to realize. Mr. Sifton, during his busy life, has devoted time to other things besides purely business matters. In 1852, he became a member of the Order of the Sons of Temperance, and in 1854, he also joined the Good Templars, and has kept up his connection with these active temperance organizations to the present time. In 1867, he became one of the United Templars, and from 1876 to 1883 he acted in the capacity of president of their Grand Lodge in Manitoba. He was grand worthy chief templar of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba of the Independent Order of Good Templars in 1884, and is at present president of the Manitoban Branch of the Dominion Alliance for the suppression of the liquor traffic, and has been since its formation in 1879. He took the leading part in the contest for the Scott Act, when it was passed in the counties of Lisgar and Marquette. These counties extend over about three quarters of the old province of Manitoba. The act was carried by very large majorities,—more than two to one voting in its favour; but on account of the vagueness of the meaning of some of its provisions in reference to counties in Manitoba, and the impossibility of getting it amended, it still remains a dead letter. In politics, Mr. Sifton is a Liberal. In 1878, he received the unanimous nomination of the Liberal party for the Commons for the county of Lisgar, and organized and carried on the campaign up to the memorable day, the 17th of September, 1878. The 18th being nomination day in Manitoba, and the news reaching there of the defeat of the Mackenzie government, his committee had a hurried meeting on the morning before nomination, and decided that it would be better for the county if he would withdraw, and allow a supporter of the Macdonald government to be elected by acclamation, and this he consented to do. In the fall of the same year he received the nomination for the Local House for the electoral division of St. Clemens, and was elected by a large majority, and on the assembling of the house he was elected speaker. During the sitting of this parliament a redistribution bill was passed, giving the new settlers something like fair representation, which they had not hitherto enjoyed. At the next general election he ran for one of the new electoral divisions, and was defeated. In 1881, when the province was enlarged, he ran for the division of Brandon and was elected. In the general election of 1883 he was defeated; and again at the last general election for the division of West Brandon he met the same fate by a small majority. Mr. Sifton was reeve of Oil Springs and a member of the County council of Lambton during the years 1867, ’68 and ’69. He was chairman of the school board of same place in 1868-69, and was reeve of the municipality of Cornwallis for 1885-86, but declined the nomination in 1887. He has been a justice of the peace for the province since 1875. He has travelled over the whole of the Dominion of Canada, and is familiar with all parts of the United States north and south, and as far west as Omaha. Mr. Sifton is a member of the Methodist church from choice. Before the union he was a Wesleyan Methodist, and since then his opinions have not changed much on religious subjects, except that he has more confidence in those who differ from him in church affairs than he had in his younger days, and now has a greater love for and confidence in the teachings and doctrines of the church of his choice. He was a member of the General conference of 1882, and a member of the committee appointed by that conference to confer with committees appointed by other branches of the Methodist church on union. He was strongly in favour of union, and was a member of the conference held in Belleville when the union was consummated. At the conference in 1882, he took the leading part in having Manitoba and the North-West set apart as a separate annual conference, which was agreed to at that conference. He was also a member of the General conference held in Toronto in 1886. He is now a member of the general board of missions of the Methodist church, and has been a member of the local board of missions in the Manitoba and the North-West conference since its formation. He has also been a member of Manitoba and North-West annual conference since the admission of laymen, and is president of the Brandon branch of the Upper Canada Bible Society. He has always been actively engaged in Sabbath school and church work, and is superintendent of the Brandon Sabbath-school. And as for temperance work, he has spent much time and labour in this direction, and has spoken in almost every section of the country on the subject. He was married 1st October, 1853, to Kate, third daughter of James and Sarah Watkins, of Parsonstown, King’s county, Ireland, and has three children living. His oldest and only daughter, Sophia, was educated at Hamilton Female College, and is married to A. N. Molesworth, civil engineer, now construction engineer for the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. His oldest son, Arthur Lewis, graduated from Cobourg University in arts, studied law in Manitoba, was called to the bar in 1882, and is now practising law in Prince Albert. His youngest son, Clifford, graduated from Cobourg, and is a gold medallist; he studied law in Manitoba, was called to the bar in 1882 in his twenty-second year, and is now practising law at Brandon.

Armstrong, Rev. W. D., M.A., Ph. D., Pastor of St. Paul’s (Presbyterian) Church, Ottawa, Ontario, was born at Cavan, Durham county, Ontario, on the 28th of July, 1845, and is the son of John D. Armstrong, yeoman, of that place. After a preliminary education in the schools of his native place, he entered Upper Canada College, and soon attained to a front place in his classes. At the close of his term he carried off the Governor-General’s prize, and the classical, the mathematical, and modern language prizes. He then entered the Toronto University, and graduated from that institution in 1870, the silver medallist in metaphysics and ethics, and prizeman in Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac. During his course in the university he also obtained a number of scholarships and prizes in various departments. After leaving Toronto University he took a course in theology in Knox (Presbyterian) College, Toronto, where he likewise distinguished himself. On the 14th of May, 1874, he was ordained pastor of his present charge, and has continued ever since (with one short break, when he was sent to Great Britain in 1883 for a few months, in the interest of the French Canadian missions), as the faithful exponent of Christ’s message of love to the world, greatly appreciated and esteemed by his congregation. In 1886, the Boston University conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Rev. Dr. Armstrong has a strong liking for literature, and amidst his various arduous parish cares and duties, has found time to contribute a good many articles to the newspaper press, and publish several sermons. On the 29th of September, 1886, he married Jean W., daughter of Henry J. Johnston, of Montreal, a very accomplished lady, and one who has proved a true helper to him as minister of a large congregation.

Guthrie, Donald, Q.C., M.P.P. for South Wellington, Guelph, Ontario, was born on the 8th May, 1840, in Edinburgh, Scotland. His father was Hugh Guthrie, and his mother, Catharine Macgregor, sister of Patrick Macgregor, M.A., barrister-at-law, Toronto, a distinguished Gaelic and general scholar. Mr. Guthrie received his early education in his native city, and, when about fourteen years of age, he left his fatherland. He reached Toronto in August, 1854. Here he entered the office of the Hon. Oliver Mowat, as a junior clerk; and afterwards became managing clerk for John Helliwell, barrister. In 1859 he left Toronto and settled in Guelph as managing clerk for Fergusson & Kingsmill, barristers. The Hon. Fergusson-Blair, one of the partners of the firm, having retired in December, 1863, Mr. Guthrie was admitted into partnership, and the name of the firm was changed to Kingsmill and Guthrie. Under this style the business was carried on until Mr. Kingsmill was appointed judge of the County Court of Bruce, in January, 1867, when Mr. Guthrie became head of the firm, and has continued such ever since, the firm now being known as Guthrie and Watt. Mr. Guthrie was admitted an attorney in 1863; barrister in 1866, passing his examinations with distinction; and, in March, 1876, was created a Queen’s counsel by the Lieut.-Governor of Ontario, and by the Governor-General of Canada, October, 1885. In December, 1882, he was elected a bencher of the Law Society, and was re-elected for five years in April, 1886. Since 1863 he has been solicitor for the county of Wellington, and also for the same period he has been solicitor for the city of Guelph, and acts in this capacity for several other municipalities, banks, etc. He has been president of the Guelph Gas Company since its incorporation in 1870; is a director of the Guelph Junction Railway Company, and of the Wellington Hotel Company. He occupied the position of treasurer of the St. Andrew’s Society of Guelph, from 1862 to 1869, and in 1870 was chosen its president. Mr. Guthrie was elected a member of the House of Commons in 1876, as representative for South Wellington, and served until the general election in 1878, when he presented himself for re-election, and was returned by 303 majority. He continued in the House of Commons until the general election of 1882, when he voluntarily retired from active political life, with the view of devoting his whole attention for some years to his professional duties. However, in 1886, he once more sought parliamentary honours, and the sturdy Liberals of South Wellington sent him to the Ontario legislature as their representative on the 28th of December in the same year, by the handsome majority of 671. Mr. Guthrie was selected in February, 1877, to move the reply to the speech from the throne in the House of Commons; and on the 2nd March, 1887, he moved the reply to the Lieut.-Governor’s address in the Ontario legislature. While in the House of Commons—1876-78—Mr. Guthrie was a supporter of Mr. Mackenzie’s government, and was an active member of the special committee appointed to inquire into the affairs of the Northern Railway Company. This committee sat for several weeks, took an immense mass of evidence, and made an exhaustive report, which enabled the government to secure from the railway company a large sum in place of moneys improperly expended in elections, etc. Mr. Guthrie was also an active member of the Committee of Privileges and Elections at the time when it investigated the charges against Mr. Speaker Anglin, and other members, for alleged breaches of the Independence of Parliament Act. After the defeat of Mr. Mackenzie’s government in 1878, Mr. Guthrie, with his political friends, went into opposition. He actively opposed the new government on the tariff, the Letellier matter, the Canadian Pacific Railway contract, the disallowance of the Streams Bill, the Gerrymander Act, etc. Mr. Guthrie is a member of the Presbyterian church. On the 17th of December, 1863, he was married in Montreal to Eliza Margaret MacVicar, youngest daughter of John MacVicar, formerly of Dunglass, Argyleshire, Scotland, and latterly of Chatham, Ontario. Mrs. Guthrie is a sister of the Rev. D. H. MacVicar, D.D., LL.D., principal of the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and of the Rev. Dr. Malcolm MacVicar, professor of theology in the Toronto Baptist College (McMaster Hall), Toronto.

Hinson, Rev. Walter, Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Moncton, New Brunswick, was born at Chesham, England, on the 14th of May, 1858, and came to Canada in 1879. His father, Thomas Hinson, and mother, Mary Benwell, are both alive, and are residing in Hertfordshire, Eng.; he has a brother and sister in London. Rev. Mr. Hinson was educated at Hulme Cliff College in Derbyshire, and Harley House, East London, England. He studied for the ministry, and was ordained in 1880. He is a member of the Eastern New Brunswick Baptist Association, and the church of which he is pastor is one of the most important centres of religious activity in the district. It has a membership of between six and seven hundred, and over four hundred scholars in its Sunday-school. For general benevolence and Christian aggressiveness its record is good. Rev. Mr. Hinson has always been a total abstainer, and from early youth connected with temperance societies. He is at present a member of the Moncton Division, Sons of Temperance, and is considered one of the most aggressive of the temperance army in New Brunswick. Mr. Hinson was brought up among the Baptists, and very naturally feels greatly at home in, and is one of the leading lights of, the denomination. In the pulpit he possesses a peculiar power, his manner and matter being forcible and original, and we have no doubt there is a great future of usefulness before this young and rising divine. He was married in July, 1886, to Jennie A. Austin, of Herts, England.

Allison, Charles F.—The late Charles F. Allison, of Sackville, New Brunswick, who was born on the 25th of January, 1795, and died the 20th of November, 1858, at the age of sixty-three years, was the second son of James Allison, whose father, Joseph Allison, of Newton Limavady, county of Londonderry, Ireland, emigrated to Nova Scotia in 1769, and settled at Horton, Kings county, where he continued to reside until his death in 1794. James Allison married and settled at Cornwallis, where he lived and died at the ripe age of ninety years. Here Charles F. was born, and received his education at the Grammar school, and in 1812 moved to Parrsboro’, where he found employment as a clerk in the establishment of James Ratchford until 1817, when he went to Sackville, New Brunswick, and entered into partnership with the late Hon. William Crane, in a general mercantile business, and in this he continued until 1840. On the 4th of January, 1839, Mr. Allison addressed a letter to the chairman of the New Brunswick district of Wesleyan ministers, in which he proposed “to purchase an eligible site and erect suitable buildings in Sackville, in the county of Westmoreland, for the establishment of a school, in which not only the elementary, but the higher branches of education may be taught, and to be altogether under the management and control of the British conference in connection with the Wesleyan missionaries in these provinces;” and he proposed to give £100 ($400) per annum for ten years towards the support of the school. This generous offer having been accepted, he made arrangements to proceed with the erection of a suitable edifice for the academy—the corner-stone of which was laid on the 9th of July, 1840, and from that time to the close of his life in 1858, he devoted a large share of his time and business talent to watching over and promoting the financial interests of the educational enterprise which, under his fostering care, developed wonderfully. In addition to the $20,000 which he had given to establish the older branch of the institution, he gave $4,000 to aid in the erection of the ladies’ branch, which was opened in 1854; and in his will he left $2,000 for the academies, and $1,000 for the college whenever it should be organized. So that of the moderate fortune which he had accumulated before retiring from mercantile life in 1840, at least $30,000 were employed in founding and establishing the educational institutions which bear his name, and which stand as the enduring monument of the far-seeing wisdom and liberality of this unselfish Christian patriot. Mr. Allison was married to Milcah, daughter of John and Anne Trueman, on June 23rd, 1840. Mrs. Allison survived him, but died on the 14th of June, 1884. Mary, their only child, was born 1st Sept., 1847, and died 1st Jan., 1871. At the date of Mr. Allison’s demise, The Borderer, a local weekly paper, thus kindly alluded to him:

“Our sheet this week appears in mourning, because we are called to record the death of one whose removal is indeed a public loss, and one, too, of no ordinary magnitude. Almost every individual in our community feels the death of Charles F. Allison as a public bereavement. But far beyond the circle of personal acquaintanceship, everywhere throughout the lower British American colonies, Mr. Allison’s name has been known and his influence felt, as the most munificent public benefactor who has yet arisen in these provinces, to bless his country and benefit the world. Mr. Allison was a native of Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, but came to this place when a young man, and here carried on, in connection with his partner, the late Hon. Wm. Crane, an extensive business until 1840. In all his business transactions he was remarkable for diligence, promptitude, punctuality, and rigid honesty. He did not make haste to be rich by embarking in any rash speculation, being, doubtlessly, more inclined to the safe than to the rapid mode of acquiring wealth. He was, however, quite successful, so that when he was led, many years since, to the more earnest consideration of the fundamental doctrine of the Christian system of practical ethics, ‘Ye are not your own, but bought with a price,’ etc., he found himself in possession of a considerable amount of property, of which he evidently, thenceforward to the end of his life, considered himself but the steward; and as such he was eminently wise and faithful, so that, we doubt not, he has been greeted by his Divine Master with the commendation, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant.’ A large portion of the last eighteen or twenty years of his life was most unostentatiously employed in various works altogether unselfish. The noble educational institutions which he founded, and which he has so largely helped to build up to their present state of pre-eminent usefulness, have occupied a great deal of his time and attention, for he not only cheerfully paid six thousand pounds and upwards to ensure their establishment, but without fee or reward discharged the onerous duty of treasurer, and watched and labored with parental kindness, solicitude and devotion, to promote their prosperity. These, we believe, will long stand, monuments of the wisdom as well as of the benevolence of the Christian patriot and philanthropist. We have not room to enlarge upon the modesty, gentleness, affability, and other traits of character which so endeared him to all who had the privilege of his personal acquaintance. Nor yet can we speak of the many ways in which his quiet influence will be so much missed in our neighborhood. ‘He rests from his labors, and his works do follow him.’”

In The Provincial Wesleyan, of the same week, published at Halifax, Nova Scotia, a similar notice of Mr. Allison’s death appeared, in which the writer said:

“He was a benefactor to his race, a blessing to his country, an ornament to the age in which he lived. He lived not for himself, but for his generation and for generations yet unborn. Fortune, this world’s wealth, he sought and won; but lavished it not on personal pleasures or selfish aggrandizement. His time and his means were freely given to the noble cause of securing to the youth of these provinces a sound, liberal, and religious education. His humility equalled his munificence. He thirsted not for fame. But he has left a monument for himself more noble than sculptured stone in the institutions he has reared, and with which his worthy name must be forever associated.”

The Mount Allison Academic Gazette, in its first issue after the death of Mr. Allison, said:

“The relation which Mr. Allison sustained to the institution, and to all who were connected with it, was such as no other individual can ever sustain. His removal is, therefore, to it and to them an irreparable loss. The feeling of sadness and anxiety induced by this event must, therefore, with those who understand the matter, be altogether other than an evanescent one. But although we are sure that we shall find everywhere many to sympathise with us in our abiding sorrow as we think of the deep affliction which befell us and the institution when its father was taken from us, we think it more becoming for us to ask them to rejoice with us in gratefully acknowledging how much he was allowed to accomplish for it whilst he yet lived. Nearly nineteen years were added to his life after he had formed the noble design of founding such an institution, and during all these years he labored and studied and prayed for its prosperity, as its father only could do. The value of the services which he rendered to the institution, ‘not grudgingly, as of necessity,’ but ever most cheerfully, and, be it remembered, entirely gratuitously, cannot be estimated. Probably if an accurate account had been kept of them, charging for each item its fair business value, they would be found to amount to scarcely less than the sum of his princely money benefactions to the founding and establishing this institution. Certainly it may well be questioned whether the devotion of twice the six or seven thousand pounds, which he gave, would without such personal attention and services, have secured the establishment of such an institution as he has left to perpetuate the blessed memory of his name.”

The board of trustees of the institution, at a special meeting held on 6th Jan., 1859, passed the following resolutions, among others:

“1. That although we are deeply conscious that the academy has sustained an irreparable loss in the decease of Charles F. Allison, Esq., and although the remembrance that his work on earth is done, that the invaluable services which, as treasurer, chairman of building, furnishing, and executive committees of the institution, he has ever been wont so ungrudgingly to render, have now ceased, and that the board can no more hope to be aided in its deliberations by his eminently sage counsels, induces a feeling of sadness almost overwhelming; yet the board would recognize as ground for profound gratitude to Him without whom ‘nothing is wise, nothing good,’ the magnitude of the work which our departed brother was enabled and allowed so wisely to undertake and successfully to accomplish in founding, and so essentially helping to build up to its present eminently prosperous condition, the Mount Allison Wesleyan Academy in its two affiliated branches.

“2. That in the judgment of this board, Mr. Allison, in devoting so large a portion of his time and wealth to the establishment of an educational institution which is of such wide-spread influence and usefulness, acted as a truly wise Christian steward, and fairly entitled himself to the pre-eminently honourable position which has been assigned to him as ‘the noblest public benefactor which has yet arisen in these provinces to benefit his country and bless the world;’ and believing that so long as this institution may continue in operation true to his design and worthy of its past history, it will stand the monument of the distinguished Christian patriot and philanthropist, perpetuating the memory alike of his wisdom and his benevolence, this board will, as performing a sacred duty, earnestly endeavour to maintain in ever increasing efficiency.”

Resolutions of a similar character were passed by the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America at its next ensuing annual session. See published minutes for the year 1859, pp. 21-22.

Senkler, William Stevens, Judge of the County Court of the County of Lanark, Perth, is an Englishman by birth, having been born at Docking, Norfolk county, England, on the 15th of January, 1838. His father was the Rev. Edmund John Senkler, M.A., of Cains College, Cambridge, a clergyman of the Church of England; and his mother was Eleanor Elizabeth Stevens, daughter of the Rev. William Stevens, M.A., Oxon, of Sedberg, Yorkshire, England. The parents of Judge Senkler, with their family of nine children, came to Canada in May, 1843, and resided in the city of Quebec, where the Rev. Mr. Senkler occupied for some time the position of rector of the High School. He then moved to Sorel, and in September, 1847, to Brockville, at which place he died on the 28th of October, 1872, Mrs. Senkler following him to the grave on the 16th of March, 1873. Judge Senkler was educated by his father, and commenced life in mercantile pursuits; but afterwards studied law with the Hon. A. N. Richards, late lieutenant-governor of British Columbia, and also with the Hon. Edward Blake. During the Michaelmas term of 1860, he was admitted as solicitor; and was called to the bar in Trinity term, 1861. He then began the practice of the law in Brockville, first, with J. D. Buell, then with Hon. A. N. Richards, and lastly, with his brother, Edmund John Senkler (now county judge of Lincoln), down to December, 1873, when he was appointed by the Mackenzie government, judge of the County Court of the county of Lanark. On the 15th of October, 1875, he was appointed master in chancery at Perth, by the judges of that court. On the 10th of October, 1877, referee of titles by the judges of the Court of Chancery. On the 14th of March, 1882, he was made local judge of the High Court of Justice for Ontario; and on the 26th of October, 1885, he was appointed to the position of revising officer for the south riding of Lanark by the Macdonald government. Judge Senkler has taken an active interest in military matters, and helped to organize the Brockville Light Infantry Company, which now forms part of the 42nd battalion. He held the rank of ensign in his company. True to the traditions of his house, the judge is a member of the Church of England, and served as church warden in St. Peter’s Church, Brockville, and St. James’ Church, Perth, for several years. He has also acted in the capacity of lay delegate to the Synod of the diocese of Ontario from St. James’ Church, Perth. Judge Senkler was married on the 21st of May, 1862, by the late Rev. Dr. Adamson, in the Episcopal Cathedral, Quebec, to Honor Tett, daughter of the late Benjamin Tett, of Newboro’, Ontario, who at that time represented South Leeds in the parliament of Canada, and who sat for the same riding in the first parliament of Ontario. The issue of this marriage has been two daughters and one son. Judge Senkler is a hale and hearty man, and we predict for him a long life of usefulness.

Hill, Andrew Gregory, Police Magistrate, Niagara Falls, was born on the 23rd of September, 1834, in the township of Clinton, county of Lincoln, Ontario. His ancestors were among the pioneers of the province. They came to this country immediately after the revolutionary war of 1776, and took up land as U. E. loyalists. The township of Clinton was then an unbroken wilderness, without a habitation, and without a road, save the track of the red man. Newark, now Niagara, about twenty-five miles distant, was the nearest village, and the only practicable means of reaching it was by boat down the lake. It is difficult for us now to realize the privations that the early settlers had to undergo, especially when we consider the severity of the winters, the proximity of the Indian bands, and the inaccessible condition of the country. Even in later years when small plots of land were reduced to a state of cultivation, they were compelled to manufacture their own meal by the most primitive methods. Solomon Hill was one of the second generation after these pioneers, and in 1833 he married Eleanor Gregory, also the descendant of a U. E. loyalist family. Andrew Gregory Hill was the eldest child of this marriage. Both his grandsires bore arms in the war of 1812, and were both severely wounded. Solomon Hill, his father, served with the militia in the rebellion of 1837, but privately sympathized with the patriot cause, and in later years became a great admirer of William Lyon MacKenzie, the patriot leader. Andrew was brought up to farm life, attending the public school in winter, and assisting his father in summer. At the age of eighteen he was sent to Victoria College, Cobourg, where he subsequently graduated in arts and in law, having in the meantime taught school for nearly two years in order to provide funds with which to prosecute his studies. He subsequently studied law in Cobourg, and afterwards in St. Catharines, and lastly with the late Adam Crooks, at one time minister of education for the province of Ontario, in Toronto. Mr. Hill was admitted to practice in 1862, and called to the bar in 1864. He commenced practice in St. Catharines, but only continued there a few months, when he entered into partnership with Warren Rock, late of London, and removed to Welland. Here he practised for more than ten years. He took an active interest in all local matters, being for many years in succession a member of the school board, the village council, the county council, and the county board of education. In 1864, Mr. Hill became identified with the local press, and shortly afterwards started The Welland Tribune, which paper at once became, and has since continued to be, the organ of the Reform party in the county. In 1872 Mr. Hill, being an active politician, was nominated by the Reform party of the county of Welland for the House of Commons, in opposition to the late Mr. Street, a tory, who had held the county for many years, but was defeated. In 1874 he was appointed police magistrate for the town of Niagara Falls, under the special “Act to provide for the better government of that part of Ontario situate in the vicinity of the Falls of Niagara,” which position he has held since that time. His administration in that capacity has been prompt and vigorous—some of his judgments being regarded by many as severe—but in consequence of the bold stand he took as a magistrate, he soon brought about a beneficial change in the locality, and drove away large numbers of the criminal class who formerly infested the neighbourhood. Notwithstanding his appointment as police magistrate, he still continued to practise his profession, and in 1886 was appointed solicitor for the town of Niagara Falls, for the Imperial bank of Canada at Niagara Falls, and for the Niagara Falls Street Railway Company. In 1865 Mr. Hill married Isabel Thompson, daughter of Archibald Thompson, of Stamford, who was for many years treasurer of the county of Welland, and whose ancestors were among the earliest settlers of this county.

Anderson, Alexander, Principal of the Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born at Aberdeen, Scotland, 30th September, 1836. His father, Alexander Anderson, and his mother, Margaret Imray, belonged to families residing in the adjacent parishes of Banchory Ternan and Midmar. Until 1854, he attended school in the town of Aberdeen. The six or seven years prior to that date were passed under the tuition of William Rattray, an educationist of considerable repute in the north of Scotland. Government grants and inspection were then in their infancy, and Mr. Rattray was one of the first in that quarter to hail the advent of a system which, sooner or later, was bound to develop into a national scheme of education. From Aberdeen, Mr. Anderson proceeded to Edinburgh to the Training College at Moray House, having gained the first scholarship at the annual competition held in that city. At this institution he remained two years. Moray House was then under the able rectorship of James Sime, one of the best scholars and most enthusiastic teachers of whom Scotland could then boast, and was, during his incumbency, several times reported as the best college of its kind in Great Britain. When Mr. Anderson finished his course at the Training College, he was selected as an assistant master in the public school in connection with it. He held this position for more than two years, and only resigned it to complete his studies at the university. At the University of Edinburgh, whose classes he attended for four years, his career was distinguished. In the classes of mathematics and natural philosophy he took the first place, and in both was bracketed with another for the Straton gold medals, at that time the highest mathematical honours conferred by the university. In the spring of 1862, the proposal was made, through the rector of the Training College, that he should take the second professorship in the Prince of Wales College. This appointment he accepted, and proceeded to Prince Edward Island in November of that year. In 1868 he was appointed principal, and on the amalgamation of the Prince of Wales College and Normal School, principal of the united institutions, and a member of the Board of Education. On the schools of Prince Edward Island, Mr. Anderson has made a marked and lasting impress, which is every year deepening. His remarkable accuracy of information, his thorough scholarship, and his enthusiastic devotion to the cause of education, have had a most astonishing effect in arousing an interest in the public schools throughout the province. In addition to this, his integrity of purpose, his high sense of honour, and his love of truth, have been instilled into the minds of his pupils, and made effective through that extraordinary force of character which has rendered all his teaching so impressive. He has a wonderful tact in finding out and developing talent in his pupils, and many a young man has been started by him in a career of usefulness and distinction, who might otherwise have remained unknown. Two of Mr. Anderson’s pupils won, successively, the Gilchrist scholarship. The highest honours in the Maritime provinces are generally gained by students from his classes. During the twenty-four years Mr. Anderson has been in the province, he may be said to have taken the leading part in every forward movement in the cause of education.

Reddin, James Henry, Barrister, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born at Kew, Surrey, England, on the 9th January, 1852. He is the eldest son of James Reddin, formerly a merchant in Charlottetown, but now holding the position of Government inspector of weights and measures for Prince Edward Island. His mother, Louisa Anna Matthews, was a daughter of John Matthews, a retired London merchant, and a freeman of that city, related through his marriage with the widow of Henry Monk, a scion of the family of Monk, of Albemarle, to the Kershaws, Millers, Chadwicks, and other well known commercial families of Liverpool and Manchester. James Reddin’s father, Dennis Reddin, was the son of a manufacturer in Carrick-on-Suir, Tipperary county, Ireland, by his marriage with Miss O’Meara, a daughter of an old established family in the south of Ireland. Dennis Reddin emigrated to Prince Edward Island during the latter portion of the eighteenth century, and having been possessed of a better education than most Irish settlers of his day, he taught school for some time on the island. He afterwards became engaged in mercantile pursuits, notably in the building of ships, in which he was very successful until the year 1847, when a great fall took place in this class of property, and he, like many other shipbuilders, became involved in the common ruin that ensued. The Reddin family have been for nearly a century the leading Irish Catholic family of Prince Edward Island, and one of the sons of the late Dennis Reddin has successively held the position of solicitor-general and attorney-general of the province, and is at present a county court judge,—he being the first Roman Catholic in Prince Edward Island appointed to a judicial office. James Henry Reddin, the subject of this sketch, was educated at a private school, and then at the Prince of Wales and St. Dunstan’s Colleges. After leaving school he occupied for some time the position of clerk in his father’s office, and when that gentleman gave up business, he commenced the study of law with his uncle, Richard Reddin, and continued it in the office of the Hon. Neil McLeod. In July, 1885, he was admitted an attorney of the supreme court, and a barrister the following year. Mr. Reddin has been connected with several literary societies, has written on various occasions for the press, and delivered before the public lectures on literary and other subjects. Mr. Reddin’s father is a Roman Catholic, and he has followed in his footsteps; his mother, however, was a member of the Episcopal church. In politics he is a Liberal-Conservative. In conclusion, we may add that Mr. Reddin’s father for many years filled the position of president of the Benevolent Irish Society, established by Lieut.-Governor Ready in 1825, and on his retirement from office was elected patron of the society in the room of the deceased Hon. Daniel Brenan.

Galbraith, Rev. William, B.C.L., LL.B., Pastor of the Methodist church, Orillia, was born in the township of North Monaghan, three miles from Peterboro’, on 13th of July, 1842. His parents, William Galbraith and Mary MacGlennon, were both natives of Ireland. His mother is a woman of strong mind and great force of character, and her son has inherited from her those qualities which have made him a power in the church. The subject of this sketch was converted at the age of eleven years, and united himself with the Wesleyan Methodist church, and has continued connected with that body of Christians ever since. He received his education for the ministry at Victoria College, Cobourg, and when only seventeen years of age was licensed as a local preacher. In June, 1861, before he was nineteen years old, he entered the ministry, and was ordained in June, 1865. While doing the work of a heavy city appointment, he took up the law course in McGill College, Montreal, and in 1875 received the degree of B.C.L. In 1881 he received the degree of LL.B. from Victoria College. Rev. Mr. Galbraith has been delegate at four general conferences; chairman of a district for seven years; was the last president of the Montreal Conference of the Methodist church of Canada, and the first president of the Montreal Conference of the Methodist church after the union in 1884. Apart from his pulpit duties, the Rev. Mr. Galbraith has taken a deep interest in the educational work of the church, and has contributed liberally to the support of Victoria College, Stanstead Wesleyan College, and the Wesleyan Theological College, Montreal. He has been twice married. His first wife was Hettie Howell, the only child of Isaac Reid and Nancy Howell, of Jerseyville, Ontario. She died when only thirty years of age, leaving three children. His second wife is Kate Breden, daughter of John Breden, Kingston, Ontario.

Craig, James, B.A., Barrister, Renfrew, Ontario, was born at Inveraray, Scotland, on the 31st of July, 1851. He is son of George Craig, of Arnprior, Ontario. This gentleman was born at Ellon, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and his wife, Annie Clark, was born at Daviot in the same county, and Mrs. Craig, sen., is sister of the Rev. Professor William Clark, of Trinity College, Toronto. Mr. Craig, sen., came to Canada in 1854, and after residing in Ottawa city for about three years, settled in Arnprior in 1857, where he has since resided. For many years he has been a prominent justice of the peace there. James Craig studied in McGill College, Montreal, and graduated in arts in 1874. In the same year he was articled to W. A. Ross, then barrister in Ottawa, and now county court judge for the county of Carleton, and was called to the bar and sworn in as solicitor in May 1878. In this year he began to practise his profession in Pembroke, but shortly afterwards moved to Renfrew, where he has since resided and practised with considerable success. Mr. Craig has always taken an active interest in public affairs, and was for over four years president of the Mechanics’ Institute, and occupied a similar position in the Curling Club. He is now master of Renfrew Masonic lodge. Mr. Craig is a Presbyterian, and in politics a Reformer, and is likely some day to sit in one of our legislative assemblies. He was married in New York city on the 22nd of May, 1879, to Lizzie Olivier, daughter of the late Judge E. S. Macpherson, and Elizabeth Balmer Penton, who was a daughter of William Penton, of Pentonville, England. Mr. Penton, the grandfather of Mrs. Craig, was a man owning considerable property in England, and occupied a good social position, but having taken a strange dislike to the monarchical form of government that the people of Great Britain are so proud of, he embarked in 1835 with all his family, servants, and effects to the United States of America. After residing there for some time he was induced by Lord Gosford, then governor-general of Canada, and an old friend of his, to come and settle in Her Majesty’s possessions. To this he consented, and took up his abode in Port Hope, on Lake Ontario; but feeling dissatisfied, he again returned to his favourite republic, and fixed his home at Utica, New York State, where he died. His descendants are very numerous, and during the late war many of them were found fighting on opposite sides. His grandson, a Federal officer, on one occasion chased his uncle, a Confederate colonel, with a view of taking him prisoner.

Smith, John H., Manager of the Mercantile Agency of R. G. Dun & Co., Buffalo; though a resident of that city, may be fairly claimed as a Canadian, and one who has done honour to his country. Born in Portsmouth, England, June, 1840, when but five years of age he came with his parents to Canada, and the family settled in Kingston on their arrival. Scarcely had ten summers passed over his head, when both parents died, leaving behind them very little means. Until he was seventeen years of age he resided in the Limestone City, in the meantime attending the public school, which he left when he had attained his thirteenth year, and then made a living by acting in the capacity of clerk in various stores and in a law office. In 1857 he came to Toronto, and having resolved to learn a trade of some kind, he decided on becoming a printer, and apprenticed himself to the Globe office. In this establishment he acted in the capacity of compositor and proofreader until 1863, when he gave up printing, and accepted a position in the mercantile agency of R. G. Dun & Co. (now Dun, Wiman & Co.). At this time Erastus Wiman was the manager of the Toronto branch of the firm, and Mr. Smith first met Mr. Wiman in the Globe office, where, like himself, he had been an employee, and since then the warmest friendship has continued to exist between them. Mr. Smith, through strict attention to his duties, soon won the respect of his employers, and in 1866 he was sent to the city of Buffalo to open a branch office there. Since then he has managed the business so well that it has grown to large proportions, and not only does he continue to take charge of the Buffalo office, but he has nine other branches under his superintendence. Mr. Smith, having a large capacity for work, and realizing the great truth that the world had claims upon him outside the narrow walls of his office, took an active interest in the welfare of his adopted city, and we now find him greatly interested in several public projects. Among others in two land companies that have for their object the development and settlement of several hundred acres of land in the northern part of Buffalo, just adjoining the beautiful park the citizens of Buffalo are so justly proud of. This piece of land is now being laid out in villa park lots, under the supervision of Frederick Law Olmsted, the celebrated Boston landscape architect and surveyor, and it is expected that in a very few years this section of the city will be taken up and built upon by the more wealthy of the inhabitants. Mr. Smith is also interested with Mr. Wiman in his Staten Island enterprises, and his movement for bringing the Baltimore and Ohio Railway into the city of New York. Through his business ability and tact, Mr. Smith has acquired a large amount of wealth, and is now reckoned as one of the rich men of Buffalo; yet he does not forget the land in which his early days were spent, and where he struggled so hard to get on. We, therefore, find him spending a month with his family each summer among the islands and lakes of the Muskoka district, or at Gananoque and the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, where he enjoys the sports that those regions so abundantly supply. Mr. Smith is still a favourite among his Canadian friends, and whenever he finds time to pay a visit to Toronto or other city where he is well known he is always heartily welcomed by them. He is a member of several clubs in Buffalo, among others the “Idlewood” and the “Oakfield,” and is also an honorary member of several of our Canadian clubs. Mr. Smith has been an industrious and hence a successful man, and his example cannot fail to prove an incentive to many a young Canadian now setting out to battle with the world. He married, in 1863, Jane Reeves, of Toronto, and has now a family of eight children.

Cairns, Thomas, Postmaster, Perth, county of Lanark, Ontario, is an Irishman by birth, having been born on the 4th of May, 1828, in the county of Fermanagh. He was educated in a private school in his native place, and in 1851 he came to Canada, and settled in Perth. Shortly after his arrival he took a position in the British Standard newspaper office, in which place he remained for some time. In 1861 he established the Perth Expositor. This paper he managed for about five years, when as a reward for his industry as a public man, he was appointed postmaster of Perth in January, 1866. Mr. Cairns is a member of the Board of Education of Perth, and is a member of the Methodist church. It is almost needless to add that Mr. Cairns is highly respected by the people among whom he has lived for over thirty-five years, and is a faithful public servant.

Cairns, George Frederick, Barrister and Solicitor, Smith’s Falls, county of Lanark, Ontario, was born in Perth, county of Lanark, on the 27th October, 1857, and is a son of Thomas Cairns, postmaster of Perth, his mother being Jane Meuary. He received his education in the High School of Perth, his native place. After leaving school he decided to make law his profession, and with this object in view he entered, in 1879, the office of F. A. Hall, barrister, Perth, where he spent a few years. Then in 1882 he went to Toronto, and entering the office of Watson, Thorne & Smellie, barristers, of that city, he finished his legal education with them, and was called to the bar in February, 1884. The same year he went to Smith’s Falls, where he now successfully practises his profession. Mr. Cairns is a rising man, and we have no doubt he will soon reflect great credit on his country. He is a member of the Methodist church.

Wright, Aaron A., of the firm of Barr & Wright, General Merchants, Renfrew, Ontario. This gentleman, who is one of the bulwarks of the Reform party in Central Ontario, was born near Farmersville, county of Leeds, June 6th, 1840. He comes of U. E. loyalist stock, his grandfather and grandmother on both sides being U. E. loyalists. His father, Israel Wright, was a native of Leeds county, and his mother as well, her maiden name being Stevens, a daughter of Abel Stevens. Our subject was educated in a public school of his native country, and also in a select school under John B. Holmes. In 1864 Mr. Wright entered the Normal School, Toronto, and obtained a first-class certificate there. After this he became head master of the Gananoque Public School. In 1866 he entered the Military College at Montreal, and obtained a first-class military certificate of the highest grade. Soon afterwards he succeeded in obtaining a first-class Model School certificate for French and English for Lower Canada. Late in the same year he was appointed principal of the Model School at Lachine, and the Fenian troubles of that time impelled him to organize the Lachine company of light infantry, of which he was gazetted captain. These positions he held until his removal to Renfrew, in 1870, where he entered mercantile pursuits, which still engage his attention. Mr. Wright, ever since his settlement in Renfrew, has always taken an active interest in all matters relating to the welfare of the village and county. When he first came the place was entirely without railway communication, and he soon became prominent in an agitation to extend the line of the Canada Central to that point; the terminus at that time being at Sand Point, some sixteen miles distant. Mr. Wright addressed meetings, organized deputations, &c., until the point was carried and Renfrew was made the terminus of the road. Since that time, however, the Canada Central has become merged in the vast system of the Canadian Pacific. This was not by any means all of Mr. Wright’s railroad experience, for when the Kingston and Pembroke line was mooted, he took a lively interest in the scheme, which is now completed from Kingston to Renfrew. In politics, Mr. Wright is an ardent supporter of the Mowat government and of Mr. Blake. When the Reform Association for the south riding of Renfrew was organized, in 1875 or 1876, Mr. Wright was elected first vice-president, which position he holds to this day. He has often been urged to allow his name to be used for parliamentary honours, but, unfortunately, has persistently refused, business men of his calibre being sadly lacking in our legislative halls. Mr. Wright is the president of the County of Renfrew Horticultural Society, and has held that office since its inception four years ago; he is also director for division No. 2 of the Fruit Growers’ Association of the province of Ontario. For the past twelve years he has been chairman of the High School Board of Renfrew, his earlier experiences eminently fitting him for the position. His partner in business is David Barr, and it needs scarcely be said it is the most important and wealthy firm in this locality. They have recently built what is probably the finest brick block for business purposes in Central Ontario, which they occupy exclusively for the carrying on of their extensive trade. To facilitate their extensive and largely increasing grain trade, they have also erected the finest and best equipped grain elevator in the Ottawa valley. And in addition to all this, they were not only the first to introduce gas into the town, but were also the first to put it out, and introduce the system of lighting by electricity, being the proprietors of the electric light plant, with which they light their own building, besides furnishing it to other private firms, as well as to the corporation for lighting the streets of the town. Mr. Wright’s busy life has precluded the possibility of extensive travel, save that connected with business. In this regard, however, he has on many occasions visited the markets of Europe and this continent. In religion Mr. Wright is a Baptist, and as might be expected, believes in water as opposed to whisky in the warfare now being waged against the latter, in fact, was an ardent supporter of the Canada Temperance Act, and favours the still more radical measure, viz., total prohibition. In 1871 he married Jane, a daughter of Theophilus Harvey, of Lachine, by whom he has issue five boys and one girl.

Stratford, John H., Brantford, Ontario, is a native of New York state, having been born in Oswego, on the 30th May, 1840, came over with his parents and settled in Brantford in 1844, where he has since resided. Mr. Stratford’s father, who died in 1884, was born at Sheerness, Kent, England, and was a gentleman of the old school. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Dublin, and was highly respected by the citizens of Brantford, for his charity and the strict sense of honour he had practised from the day he first took up his residence among them to the day of his death. When he retired from business in 1875, he divided his large fortune among his three sons, retaining a life annuity. His mother, who died in 1875, was also greatly respected and beloved for her charitable deeds. She belonged to an Irish family, and was niece of the late Colonel George Hamilton, for many years manager of the Canada Company at Toronto. John H. Stratford’s grandfather, Dr. John Stratford, and his uncle, Dr. Samuel John Stratford, both members of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, England, were known as eminent physicians in Canada. The latter, who was assistant surgeon in the 72nd Highlanders, sold his commission, and with a number of other British officers, settled at Woodstock, Ontario, where they received grants of land from Sir John Colborne, the then military governor of Upper Canada. In this town he successfully practised his profession for many years, and subsequently left this country, having received the appointment of emigration agent for the British government in New Zealand, where he died. Another member of the family, Elizabeth Stratford, his sister, married in 1839 Mr. Davidson, a celebrated lawyer in New York, who was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, but died just before being sworn into office. Joseph and Charles, brothers of John H. Stratford, still reside in Brantford, Joseph being a wealthy merchant, and owner of “Stratford’s Opera House,” one of the handsomest in the province. John, the subject of this sketch, received his education in Brantford; and after leaving school, for a number of years up to 1871 he managed first the retail and afterwards the wholesale drug business of his father. In 1865, he formed with the late C. Gilbert a partnership, the object of which was the carrying on of a wholesale oil business; and this firm was the first to introduce on our Canadian railways the use of natural petroleum as a lubricant for car wheels. In 1868, Henry Yates was admitted into the partnership, and it then operated under the style of John H. Stratford & Co. The following year Mr. Gilbert withdrew, and since then the firm has been known as Yates & Stratford, wholesale oil and lumber merchants. In 1870, Mr. Stratford formed, with Donald Nicholson, since deceased, and Robert Chisholm, of Hamilton, a special partnership for the construction of that section of the Great Western Railway, from Glencoe to Simcoe, a distance of seventy-five miles. This piece of work, a very difficult one, owing to the Canada Southern Railway being in course of construction at the same time, almost parallel, was completed in 1872, to the entire satisfaction of the Great Western Railway authorities. In 1884, Mr. Stratford purchased seven acres of land, beautifully situated, overlooking and within the limits of the city of Brantford, on which he erected, under his own superintendence, an hospital capable of accommodating fifty patients and a regular staff of nurses, etc., at a cost of over $20,000. And on the 10th February, 1885, it was formally opened by His Honour, John Beverley Robinson, lieutenant-governor of Ontario, and Mrs. Robinson, in the presence of a large assembly of citizens, when Mr. Stratford handed it over as a free gift to the city of Brantford. Mrs. John H. Stratford and Mrs. Arthur S. Hardy also took a deep interest in the hospital, and through their united exertions, collected from friends $4,000, wherewith to equip it with suitable furniture, instruments, etc. It is called “The John H. Stratford Hospital,” and is without doubt,—being perfect as to heating, light, ventilation, laundry, stables, and other modern improvements—one of the finest institutions of its kind in the Dominion. When of age Mr. Stratford joined the Masonic body, and has continued to keep up his connection with it ever since. He is a member of the St. James Club, Montreal. He married in 1868, Sara Juson Harris, fifth daughter of the late T. D. Harris, at one time a prominent wholesale hardware merchant in Toronto. Mr. Stratford is a member of the Episcopal church; a thorough business man of strict integrity, and has been eminently successful in all his undertakings.

Benson, Rev. Manly, Pastor of the Central Methodist Church, Bloor street, Toronto, was born in Prince Edward county, Ontario, in 1842. His parents, Matthew R. and Nancy Ruttan, were of U. E. loyalist stock, and were among the early founders of Canadian nationality on the beautiful shores of the Bay of Quinté. To this, doubtless, may be attributed the sturdy mental and moral, as well as physical fibre, which characterizes the so worthy a son of so worthy parents—the subject of our sketch. His parents removed to the town of Newburgh, and here Manly received a good education at the academy, and prepared himself for the work of a teacher. At the age of ten years he was converted to God at a special service held by the late Rev. Joseph Reynolds, the superintendent of the Demorestville circuit, and he grew up under the fostering influence of the Sunday-school and the class-meeting, both of which had a marked influence on his young life, and spared him from the many bad influences that are apt to surround young men. For a few years Mr. Benson applied himself as a teacher, at the same time continuing his studies with the principal of the Newburgh Academy. The piety and cultivated talent of the young teacher attracted the attention of the members of the Methodist church of the town in which he lived; and having undergone the preliminary training in Christian work as a local preacher, he was recommended by the official board of the Newburgh circuit for the ministry. He was received on trial in 1863, and made his first acquaintance with the activities of the work in the western extremity of the province. For four years he travelled successively as junior preacher on the Romney, Chatham, Windsor, and Sarnia circuits; and having given full proof of his ministry, passing with credit all the prescribed examinations, he was received into full connexion, and ordained at the Hamilton conference in 1867. He then travelled, as superintendent, the Ridgetown, Newbury, and Cooksville circuits. After one year on the latter circuit, he was invited to the Centenary Church, Hamilton, as colleague of the Rev. W. J. Hunter, D.D. At the end of his first year in this charge, which date also completed the full pastoral term of the superintendent of the circuit, he was invited by the official board to take Dr. Hunter’s place as superintendent of the church and circuit; but instead of accepting, suggested the name of the Rev. Hugh Johnston, M.A., who was appointed superintendent, and with whom he was associated for the balance of his pastoral term of two years. The closing year of his three years’ term in this city was signalized by the building of the elegant and commodious Zion Tabernacle. From Hamilton he went to Stratford and St. Thomas, and spent three years in each of these places. When closing his pastoral term at St. Thomas, in 1881, he was invited to the pastorate of the Central Methodist Church (Bloor Street), Toronto. No transfers were made that year, and, on this fact becoming known, he was immediately and unanimously invited to the Brant Avenue Church, Brantford. On the closing of his three years’ pastoral term in that city he was again invited by the same church in Toronto, and entered upon his duties in the Central Methodist Church, Toronto, in June, 1855. Since he took charge of the Central Church it has greatly prospered under his care, both spiritually and financially. Its membership has increased from two hundred and seventy to four hundred and fifteen, and the congregation has also doubled in attendance. By special collections taken on the first Sabbath of each of the three years of his pastorate, $6,000 was contributed, being $2,000 at each collection, and, with other moneys in hand, $7,000 has been paid off the church debt, and the regular Sunday collections and pew rents also show a very large increase. In recognition of Rev. Mr. Benson’s services as pastor, the official board raised his salary from $1,500 to $2,000, and in addition to this have furnished and provided him with a comfortable parsonage free. It is almost needless to say that Rev. Mr. Benson is not only a favourite with the people of his own church, but with others of the same denomination in the city, in proof of which he has been unanimously invited, at the close of his term in the Central Church, to take charge of the large congregation worshipping in Berkeley Street Methodist Church. Rev. Mr. Benson has largely enjoyed the advantages of travel, both throughout the Dominion of Canada and in foreign countries. In 1871, in company with the late illustrious Rev. Dr. Punshon, he crossed the continent, and beheld the wonders of the Rocky mountains, and the Sierra Nevadas, the Geyser springs, the Yosemite Valley, and Salt Lake City. He also enjoyed the pleasure, or perhaps, endured the pain, of a sea voyage, and visited Victoria, New Westminster, Fort Yale, and places on the Pacific coast. In 1879 he crossed the Atlantic and made a still more extended tour through France, Italy, Switzerland, South-eastern Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, and Ireland; and during his stay in London was the guest of Rev. Dr. Punshon, who kindly helped him to see London in all its phases. After his return to Canada, Rev. Mr. Benson communicated the many spirit-stirring scenes he had witnessed in distant lands to appreciative audiences throughout Ontario, by eloquent lectures on “The Wonders of the Yosemite,” “Across the Continent,” “British Columbia,” and more recently, on “Memories of Rome,” “Switzerland,” “In Rhineland,” and on London, Paris, and some of the Italian cities he had visited. He is an earnest worker in the Sunday-school, and is always ready to labor for the Master. As a teetotaller he is most pronounced, and is strongly impressed with the idea that nothing short of the total prohibition of the liquor traffic will save this Canada of ours from becoming like many of the places he has visited in Europe—slaves to the intoxicating cup. Rev. Mr. Benson is one of the directors of the Grimsby Park Company, and has been director of services for the past four years. Under his able management this park has been an extraordinary success, and year after year it is becoming one of the most favourite resorts for those who seek quiet, with a moderate amount of physical and intellectual excitement, during the summer months. On the 9th of July, 1867, he was united in marriage to Julia, third daughter of the Hon. Walter McCrea, judge of Algoma county, Ontario, and has had a family consisting of nine children, seven of whom are now living, five daughters and two sons.

Tilley, Sir Samuel Leonard, K.C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Brunswick, Fredericton, one of the most prominent of our Canadian statesmen, is the son of Thomas M. Tilley, of Queen’s county, New Brunswick, and great-grandson of Samuel Tilley, of Brooklyn, New York, a U. E. loyalist, who, at the termination of the American revolutionary war, came to New Brunswick, and became a grantee of the now city of St. John in that province. Sir Leonard was born at Georgetown, Queen’s county, on the 8th May, 1818, and received his education at the Grammar school of his native village, and when he had attained his thirteenth year, went to St. John, and became apprenticed to an apothecary. Before beginning business for himself, Mr. Tilley was for a time in the employ of William O. Smith, druggist, a gentleman of superior intellectual parts, and who took an active interest in all the political movements of the day. It was probably from him that the future lieutenant-governor of the province derived his first lessons in political economy, and which served him so well when he was minister of finance for the Dominion of Canada, and we say, without being far astray, that Mr. Smith plainly saw that his lessons were not likely to be wasted on this clear-headed and enthusiastic young man. Young Tilley too, being sprung from loyalist stock, it is only fair to assume that whenever, if ever he should bring himself before the public, he would find a prepossession in his favour. He became a prominent member of a debating society when seventeen, and took a leading part in political discussions, and shortly afterwards became an able advocate of the cause of temperance. It may be said here that from that far-past day to this Mr. Tilley has always been loyal to his temperance principles, has always seized the opportunity to forward the movement, and upon all occasions has shown the sincerity of his character by the practice of his precepts. In recognition of his distinguished services in the cause, the National Division of the Sons of Temperance of America, in 1854, elected him to the highest office in the order, namely, that of Most Worthy Patriarch, and which position he held for two years. In enlarged politics the first heard of Mr. Tilley was in 1849, when he was the seconder on the paper of B. Ansley, who was returned by a good majority. He was one of the foremost promoters of the Railway League, organized to secure the construction of a railway from St. John to Shediac. In 1850 he was elected to the New Brunswick legislature for the city of St. John. Mr. Tilley was at this time a Liberal. The following year the Tory manipulators began to undermine the foundations of their opponents, and they seduced from allegiance the Hon. J. H. Gray and the Hon. R. D. Wilmot [Mr. Gray was afterwards appointed a judge, and Mr. Wilmot a lieutenant-governor], and these two leading gentlemen entered the government. On the day that their secession became known, the Liberal party was naturally shocked and pained at the treachery, but closed up their ranks and resolved still to fight the enemy. Messrs. Tilley, Simonds, Ritchie and Needham thereupon published a card to the people, declaring that if Mr. Wilmot, who had accepted office, was re-elected, they would resign their seats in the house, as they could not, in that case, represent their views. The electors, however, returned Mr. Wilmot, and all the parties on the card, except W. H. Needham, resigned their seats. Mr. Tilley then returned to private life. But he was not long to remain “a mute, inglorious Milton.” In 1854 the Liberals were triumphant, and Mr. Tilley obtained a portfolio in the new administration. From that time up to 1885, when he resigned his seat in the House of Commons at Ottawa, with the exception of a couple of breaks, he had enjoyed a remarkable lease of power, having been a member of the New Brunswick and Dominion governments during many long years, except the session of 1851, and part of the extra session of 1854. In 1856 he was beaten on the liquor question, but in 1857 regained power, and became leader of the administration in 1860, which position he retained till March, 1865. He attended the conference held in Prince Edward Island to discuss maritime union, and subsequently appeared at the Quebec conference, where he made a telling speech on the importance of the province he represented. The proceedings of the Quebec conference were kept from the public with the most zealous care, but one member belonging to a sea province told his wife one day that “it was no use,” he was unable “to keep it any longer.” He unburthened himself to a newspaper editor, when with the speed of the wind intelligence of the affair was spread through the British North American provinces. At once in the lower provinces a storm of opposition was raised to the scheme, and presses rolled out tons of pamphlets, placards, circulars and open letters, denouncing the scheme, and calling upon the people to rise and thwart Tilley and other enemies of his country. The ministry fell. The Irish were all the time rampant and unappeasable. They all remembered how Ireland had once been sold, and their representative newspaper became so bitter as to eventually overreach its aim. To help along the scheme and defeat the great booming of the Irish, fate brought along the Fenian scare. The government resigned, and Mr. Tilley was sent for to form an administration. A new election took place in 1866, and the antis got a still worse drubbing than had fallen to the lot of the supporters of confederation. A short time afterwards Mr. Tilley attended the conference in England, formed to procure a Chart of Union, and he was, in July, 1867, made a C.B. (civil), in recognition of his distinguished services. He resigned his seat in the New Brunswick legislature and government to become minister of customs in the new Canadian cabinet. From November, 1868, to April, 1869, he acted as minister of public works, and on the 22nd of February, 1873, he was made minister of finance. This office he held until the downfall of the administration on the 5th of November of the same year. He then became lieutenant-governor of his native province, which office he held till 1878, when he took the field again, with the triumphant result so well known. In the new Conservative administration he became once again finance minister, and shortly afterwards framed the legislation with which his name will be connected so long as the history of Canada is read, namely the National Policy. On May 24th, 1879, he was created a Knight of the Order of St. Michael and St. George by the Governor-General, acting for the Queen. During the session of 1885, at Ottawa, Sir Leonard’s health having given way, he was compelled to relinquish his parliamentary duties, and seek comparative rest and recreation by a visit to London, England, where he gave attention to some matters relating to the finances of the dominion, and also considerably improved his health. On his return to Ottawa in the fall, he however suffered a relapse, and it became very evident to his friends, that he could no longer successfully cope with his departmental duties, and if he would prolong his usefulness, he must abandon parliamentary life. He accordingly sent in his resignation, which was accepted at a meeting of the Cabinet held on the 31st October, at which meeting Sir Leonard was appointed lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick for a second time, the term of lieutenant-governor Wilmot having expired several months before. On his return to his native province, he was accorded a hearty reception by the people among whom he had grown up who gladly welcomed him back to the position he had so worthily filled from 1873 to 1878. He was sworn into office in the legislative council chamber at Fredericton, on the 13th November, by the chief justice of the province, in the presence of a large number of prominent persons, who had assembled to witness the ceremony. It may here be stated that in December following, the Liberal-Conservative Club of St. John, N.B., was presented by Mr. Rogerson, with a bust of Sir Leonard, on which occasion C. A. Everett, then M.P. for the city, who had known him from boyhood, delivered an address in which he sketched his career, and spoke in the most complimentary terms of his great public services. It may also be stated that before Sir Leonard entered upon his duties as lieutenant-governor, he sent the following farewell letter to his constituents, addressed to the Hon. T. R. Jones, M.L.C., chairman of the Conservative Election Committee, in St. John, in the following kindly tones: —

St. Andrews, Nov. 9, 1885.—My Dear Mr. Jones,—I understand there is to be a meeting of our friends in the city to-morrow night, to select a candidate for the vacancy caused by my resignation. I avail myself of the opportunity thus offered to address a few words to the electors who may there be present. When in 1882 the electors of the city returned me to parliament for another term, I then intimated to them that it was probably the last time that I would be a candidate for their suffrages, but I then hoped that I would be spared, and my health permit of my remaining in parliament and in the government until the next general election. But I had not taken into account the wear and tear to body and mind, to which I would necessarily continue to be subjected in the discharge of my parliamentary and departmental duties. My health was completely broken down last winter, but after a serious operation there was a hope that I might continue my work for a short time longer. I regret that my symptoms of late have been such that I have been forced to the conclusion that my only chance of a measure of health, and possibly a few more years of life, is in taking comparative rest and relief from the mental strain to which I have of late years been subjected. I feel certain that my many indulgent friends would cheerfully, in view of my long service, accord me that rest. It is difficult to find words to express the very great regret that I have felt, and still feel, at being compelled to take that course. I took great pleasure in the work of my department, and I flatter myself that I have been able to perform it in a way that was acceptable to a majority of the people. My relations with my constituents were pleasant, and I may be pardoned if I at this time remark that recent events have given evidence that my regard for them is reciprocated. To say good-bye to the men who have been so true and faithful to me for more than a third of a century is not pleasant, but it must be said. My colleagues in the government have placed me in a position where my responsibilities are not great, but where I hope I may still be able to do something for my native province and for my country. Thanking one and all for their unwavering confidence in the past, I still wish to be considered as their friend. By causing this to be read you will much oblige,

Yours sincerely,

(Sd.) S. L. Tilley.

Sir Leonard and Lady Tilley visited Toronto, the Queen City of the West, in May, 1887, and spent a week among their many friends there, who were overjoyed at Sir Leonard’s improved health, and while here they took part in the festivities so lavishly bestowed on the Governor-General, Lord Lansdowne, and his party, who, at the time, were enjoying the hospitality of the citizens. Sir Leonard Tilley has been twice married, first to Julia Ann, daughter of James T. Hanford, of St. John, N.B.; and second, in 1867, to Alice, eldest daughter of Z. Chipman, of St. Stephen, N.B. Sir Leonard Tilley’s career has been an honour to his country, and one that young men who aim to do well in public life should seek to remember and imitate.

Cluxton, William, Peterboro’, Ontario, was born in Dundalk, county of Louth, Ireland, on the 31st of March, 1819. When but six years of age his father died, and six years later his mother was also removed by death. His education had been carefully looked after by his mother. On the break-up of the family, William, the subject of this sketch, went to reside with an uncle and aunt who was in business in Cootehill, Cavan county, and this worthy couple soon afterwards, having determined to improve their condition, emigrated to America, taking with them the orphan lad. Arrived in Canada, the family located themselves on a farm near the then small village of Peterboro’, but now one of the most thriving towns in the province. Here he soon discovered that nature never intended him to spend his life on a farm. Therefore, with the consent of his relatives—long deceased, and of whom he still speaks with the utmost affection—young as he was, and without a single cent in the world, he sought and obtained a very humble situation in the employment of the late John Hall, father of the late Judge Hall, who was then the leading merchant in the village; and in this place he remained for some time, gradually acquiring knowledge. In 1835, after having given the utmost satisfaction to all who had reposed trust in him, Mr. Cluxton accepted a position in the dry goods store of John R. Benson, and subsequently became the sole manager of his store on Aylmer street. Here, after business hours, he devoted himself so earnestly and labouriously to the cultivation of letters and of music, that he soon became remarkable for his attainments, especially in the latter. In 1836, such flattering offers had been made to him, that he was induced to leave Peterboro’ and take charge, in Port Hope, of the business of the late John Crawford, a wealthy and well-known merchant. In this place, however, from indisposition, being then only seventeen years of age, he remained but one month, and again returned to Peterboro’ to take sole charge of a branch of that gentleman’s business which had been established there, and that was not, it seemed, succeeding so well as desired. Here his management became so successful, that in three years he found himself the sole buyer for all of Mr. Crawford’s establishments, and this position he held until the death of that gentleman, when he was appointed by the trustees of the estate to wind up the business, which he did to their entire satisfaction. In 1842, and after some years of the most unwearied and honourable toil, Mr. Cluxton purchased a stock of general goods, and launched forth his bark in Peterboro’ on his own account. From that time to the present, his success has been of the most marked character, although it may be fairly supposed that he has met, like all others in business, with occasional reverses by the way. In 1872, considering his means sufficiently ample, he retired from the drygoods business. One of its branches established in Lindsay he disposed to a clerk, who had come to him a mere lad, but who now, under his strict and able training, has become one of the wealthiest and best business men in that town. To two of his sons and another clerk he sold the Peterboro’ establishment; but he continued his operations in produce, and of late years has only done sufficient to occupy his mind, so as to prevent the change from an active business life to one of leisure having an injurious effect. For thirty years or more he moved the principal part of the grain along the whole line of railway from Lindsay to Lake Ontario, his transactions amounting to half a million annually. In 1852 he became manager of the Peterboro’ branch of the Commercial Bank of Canada, which position he held for eight years, without having lost a single dollar to the institution, resigning it only because of its wear and tear, and because of his desire to visit Europe for the sake of his health—which visit he made in 1862, accompanied by his wife and a portion of his family. When he did withdraw from this post, however, the estimation in which he was held by the directors may be gathered from the fact that he was appointed confidential adviser to the new manager. Few men in Canada have ever held so many offices of important public trust as Mr. Cluxton, and no man in the whole Dominion can boast of a more honourable record or name. He was for years president of the Midland Railway Company, and has been president of the Marmora Mining Company, the Little Lake Cemetery Company, the Port Hope and Peterboro’ Gravel Road Company, and the Peterboro’ Water Works Company. He has in his time occupied seats in the town and in the county council, and is at present one of the commissioners of the town trust. He took a lively interest in the education of the young, and for twenty-five years was an active member of the school board. He is captain in the Sedentary militia, and in 1872 he was chosen to represent the people of West Peterboro’ in the House of Commons. Mr. Cluxton is a Liberal-Conservative in politics. In private life he is neither banker, merchant nor politician, but simply one of the great brotherhood of mankind, who makes common cause with his numerous tenants and his friends, as well as with the fatherless children and the widow.

Falconbridge, William Glenholme, M.A., Q.C., Barrister, Toronto, was born on 12th May, 1846. He is the eldest son of John Kennedy Falconbridge, J.P., of Richmond Hill, in the county of York, a very well known and highly respected retired merchant, who for many years carried on a large and successful business in the counties of York and Simcoe. The subject of this sketch received his chief preliminary training at the Barrie Grammar School, and at the Model Grammar School for Upper Canada, and matriculated with a general proficiency scholarship in the University of Toronto in 1862. His course at the University was one of rather unusual distinction, inasmuch as there was hardly any department in the curriculum in which he did not at some period obtain first-class honours. After winning college prizes and university scholarships in each year, he graduated B.A. in 1866, with a gold medal. He then filled for a year the chair of professor of modern languages in Yarmouth College, N.S., and returned to Toronto on being appointed lecturer on Italian and Spanish in University College, which position he occupied for one year. In 1868, he commenced the study of law in the office of Patton, Osler and Moss, and was called to the bar in 1871. (While he was a student at law he entered the Military School, which was then established in Toronto, as a gentleman cadet, and in due course obtained his certificate of fitness for a captain’s commission in the active militia—under the instructions of the officers of Her Majesty’s 29th regiment of foot). On the 1st of July, 1871, the firm of Harrison, Osler and Moss was formed, the members of which were the late Chief Justices Harrison and Moss; the present Justice Osler, Charles Moss, Q.C., W. A. Foster, Q.C., and Mr. Falconbridge. He was examiner in the University of Toronto for several years, and was elected registrar in 1872, and held that office until 1881, when he resigned and was immediately elected by his fellow graduates a member of the senate of that institution, and again elected at the head of the poll in 1886. In 1885, he was elected a bencher of our only Inn of Court—the Law Society of Upper Canada,—and was re-elected at the general election in 1886, ranking No. six, out of the thirty successful candidates, those who received a larger number of votes being W. R. Meredith, Charles Moss, Dalton McCarthy, C. Robinson, and B. M. Britton. He was gazetted as one of Her Majesty’s counsel in 1885. Mr. Falconbridge is a pronounced and steadfast Conservative in politics, and has frequently been solicited to enter public life, particularly at the general elections for the House of Commons of the Dominion in February, 1887, when he was offered the nomination for Centre Toronto. His friends think that his abilities and personal qualities eminently fit him for the political arena, but he has hitherto felt obliged by the pressure of professional engagements to decline the honour. But he has never been chary of rendering gratuitous public services when called on to do so. He was a prominent member of the Citizens’ Committee appointed at the time of the terrible accident at the Humber, in January, 1884, when twenty-nine men were killed outright or died of their injuries, and fifteen were more or less injured, the other members of the Committee being the then mayor, A. R. Boswell, J. H. Morris, Q.C., T. McGaw, Jno. Livingstone, H. E. Clarke, M.P.P., and John Hallam. Largely through the intervention and efforts of these gentlemen, more than one hundred thousand dollars were received by way of compensation from the Grand Trunk Railway, and about fifteen thousand dollars collected from the general public. For their services in this connection, given ungrudgingly over a period of nearly two years, they were publicly thanked by resolution of the City Council. Mr. Falconbridge is now a member of the firms of Moss, Falconbridge and Barwick, and Moss, Hoyles and Aylesworth, a strong association, representing the survival of the numerous judicial appointments which have been made from their ranks. In religion he has always adhered to the Church of England, and has been for years an officer of the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society. He is a keen sportsman and a skilful and enthusiastic angler, and he is very popular within the circle of his acquaintance. In 1873, he married Mary, youngest daughter of the late Hon. Mr. Justice Sullivan, and step-daughter of the late Hon. Sir Francis Hincks, C.B., K.C.M.G., by whom he has issue one son and five daughters.

Sanderson, Rev. Dr. G. R., Pastor of the Methodist church, Sarnia. This worthy and greatly respected minister was born in the city of Kingston, in the year 1817, so that he is now seventy years of age. He is of English parentage. With his parents he attended the church of the Wesleyan Methodists in Kingston, and in the year 1834, through the ministry of the Rev. Dr. Stinson, was converted, and at once connected himself with the church. Having a fair English education, possessing a good voice, good judgment, and above all, a renewed heart, he was by the quarterly official board made a local preacher in connection with the Kingston circuit. Engaged in this relation and realizing his need of better qualification for the work, he entered the Upper Canada Academy, which formed the nucleus out of which Victoria University has risen, where he completed his education. He then left the college to enter the full work of the ministry. The late Rev. Dr. Carroll writes of him: “His going out as chairman’s supply, one year before his formal reception on trial, was at the conference of 1836, and his introduction into his ministerial work was under circumstances which entitle him to rank among the pioneer preachers. He was first sent to the extensive boundaries, miry roads and miasmatic atmosphere of the old Thames circuit; and received a fitting seasoning for its toils by a ride on horseback from Kingston to Chatham. In the course of this journey the writer first met and admired the pluck and heroism of the boy of twenty.” A list of the circuits on which Dr. Sanderson has travelled since entering the ministry will no doubt interest many readers. In 1837, he travelled the old Thames circuit, going thence to Newmarket, Grimsby and Hamilton respectively. In 1841 he was ordained and sent to Stamford, where he remained for two years, then to St. Catharines for two years, and thence to Toronto, where he was elected and ably performed the duties of editor of the Christian Guardian. Upon relinquishing the editorial chair, which position he held for five years, he was appointed to Cobourg for three years, during which period he was elected secretary of the conference, and was thence sent back to Toronto to take charge of the Methodist Book and Publishing House. From the successful discharge of these important interests of the church he came to the city of London, where he remained for three years. In the year 1861 he was elected representative from the Canadian Conference to the Wesleyan Conference of Great Britain. In 1860 he was elected chairman of the London district, which position he has held without a break on the several districts on which he has been placed from that period until the present. From London he went to the following places in order, remaining in each the full allotted time of three years: Port Hope, Picton, Belleville, Kingston, St. Catharines, London (Wellington street), London (Dundas street east), and Strathroy. In 1876 he was elected president of the Conference of the Methodist church of Canada, for which position his many years’ experience as chairman well qualified him. The honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by his alma mater, Victoria University, in May, 1876. Victoria has never honoured a more worthy son, and Dr. Sanderson has always been a noble representative of the claims of this university upon the Methodist people of this dominion. Dr. Sanderson is a fine specimen of the Christian minister. During his long period of service there has been no time that he has been laid aside from work by illness, and no year that there has not been a revival of religion on his circuit. The statement may be ventured that Dr. Sanderson has been the instrument in God’s hands of winning more souls to Christ than any other minister in the regular work in the Methodist church. He is now the oldest man in the active work of the ministry, and at a conference lately held in St. Thomas, a testimonial in the shape of a purse of $120 was presented to him in honour of his advent upon the 50th year of his ministry. Dr. Sanderson as a preacher is at times eloquent, always practical and strictly evangelical. As a speaker he is chaste, polished and powerful, and when in debate he waxes warm with his theme he invariably carries his hearers with him. As a man he is sympathetic and tender and withal firm and unflinching in what he believes to be right. To quote Dr. Carroll again—“He has not been without difficult positions to keep, and has had his trials; yet he has proved faithful to his trust, and has usually triumphed. He is self-contained, manly and enduring, and has never failed in a connexional trust.”

Hunter, Rev. Samuel James, D.D., Pastor of the Centenary Church, Hamilton, Ontario, one of the leading preachers in connection with the Methodist denomination, is a Canadian by birth, having been born in the village of Phillipsburg, province of Quebec, on the 12th April, 1843. He is of Irish parentage, his father and mother having been born and married in Strabane, county Tyrone. The subject of our sketch removed, with the other members of the family, to Upper Canada, and settled in East Gwillimbury, which was then almost a wilderness. He early developed an unconquerable thirst for knowledge, and when a mere lad had reached the limit of the common school teacher’s power to instruct. The few books in scanty libraries here and there amongst the neighbours were read with avidity and studied with care. The first money he ever earned was invested in three works that opened to him the vast world of thought, namely: Dick’s works, Rollin’s Ancient History, and a Latin grammar and reader combined. When seventeen years of age he was led into a religious experience through the ministry of the Methodist church, which he subsequently joined. At the age of eighteen he was received as a probationer for the ministry, and began his labours in the township of Walpole. Four years afterwards he was publicly ordained in London, Ontario. For many years he did the hard work of a Methodist preacher, and at the same time pursued secular study under private masters. His fields of labour have been—one year in Walpole, two in Oakville, two at Thornhill, one at Bowmanville, six in Montreal, twelve in Toronto (six of which were in Elm street, three in Queen street, and three in Sherbourne street Church). He is now completing his second year in Centenary Church, Hamilton, one of the largest and most important congregations in the Dominion. At the convocation of 1886 the Senate of Victoria University conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. Dr. Hunter, though a member of every general conference that has been held, has no taste for debate, and seldom enters the arena. He is regarded as orthodox in his teachings, but never takes things on trust merely. He thinks for himself, and never burkes his opinions, even when they seem to be out of harmony with the generally accepted creeds. He married, in 1871, Miss Ruston, of Montreal, and has a family of two children.

Mathison, George, Senior Past Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance of the Province of Quebec, was one of the most energetic and enthusiastic temperance advocates in that section of our country. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 1st May, 1801, he received his education there, and after leaving school was apprenticed to the baking business. Having faithfully served the prescribed term, he worked for a short period as a journeyman, and wishing to see the world, enlisted in His Majesty’s 70th regiment of foot, and soon attained the position of colour-sergeant. Seeing the evil effects of drink on his comrades, he soon became convinced that a life of total abstinence was the safest and best for him to secure success in his profession, and accordingly adopted the principle. At that time very few had abandoned the entire use of intoxicating liquors as a drink, and those who had were looked upon with suspicion by the “moderate drinkers,” but his example soon began to tell upon his comrades, and many of them were induced to abandon liquor-drinking. In due course of time, with the permission of his commanding officer, he established a total abstinence society in the regiment. He soon afterwards attained to the rank of quarter-master-sergeant, and still continued to use his influence to further the good work he had begun. In the year 1842, having served his country for twenty-one years in Gibraltar, Malta, West Indies and Canada—proving the practicability of the principles of total abstinence in all these varied climes—he was discharged with a pension, and at the same time received a situation in the Commissariat department as keeper of the government woodyard in Quebec. This gave him greater opportunities to work in the temperance cause, and shortly afterward he and several other citizens started the first total abstinence society in that city, and it proved a great blessing to many. In October, 1850, having heard of the order of the Sons of Temperance, which was then making rapid strides in enrolling men in the total abstinence ranks, he and other members of the society secured a charter from the National Division, and Gough Division, No. 3, of Canada East, was organized. This division continued to prosper, and the order to increase in the province, when in January, 1852, the Grand Division of Canada East (now Quebec) was organized, Mr. Mathison being one of the charter members, and in October, 1854, he was elected its Grand Worthy Patriarch. In February, 1852, St. Lawrence Division was organized under very favourable auspices, and in the following year he left Gough Division and joined St. Lawrence, in the hope of extending his usefulness among the military men who had joined in large numbers the younger division. In June, 1867, he was initiated into the National Division of North America, at the session held at Providence, Rhode Island, and continued to attend the meetings of that body as opportunity offered, the last time being at the session held in Halifax, N.S., in 1884. In 1859 he was removed to Halifax to fill another position in the Commissariat department, and later on to Prince Edward Island. In each place he was well known as an enthusiastic worker in the cause of temperance, and other good works. In the year 1866, after serving twenty-four years in Her Majesty’s service, he was superannuated, with another pension, and took up his residence in the city of Quebec, and again associated himself with St. Lawrence Division, and continued to work persistently in the cause he had so much at heart up to the last month of his life, not only in connection with the order of the Sons of Temperance, but in the formation of Cadets of Temperance, Bands of Hope, and other kindred societies. He was ever ready to help, and very few of the youth of the city of Quebec have failed in being influenced to a certain extent by his efforts. He was a consistent member of the Methodist church for over fifty years, and for several years superintendent of the Sabbath school. The class meetings and prayer meetings were always faithfully attended by him and highly appreciated. He passed away after a few days’ illness on the 30th October, 1886, in the eighty-sixth year of his age and the sixtieth of his temperance work, deeply regretted by all his co-laborers in the church, as well as in the cause of total abstinence. George Mathison earned the benediction: “Well done, good and faithful servant.”

Flewelling, William Pentreath, Accountant and Lumber Agent, Crown Lands department, Fredericton, New Brunswick, was born at Clifton, Kings county, New Brunswick, on the 31st of May, 1850. His father, William Puddington Flewelling, was a native of New Brunswick, and resided most of his life-time in Kings county, where for a long time he carried on a large ship-building business. He also represented Kings county in the New Brunswick legislature for a number of years, and part of the time he was a member of the government, and held the office of surveyor-general. His mother, Esther Ann Merritt, was a native of Marlborough, Ulster county, New York state. William received his early education in the public school of his native place, and at a later period attended the superior school at Studholm, Kings county. While preparing for a collegiate course, ill health overtook him, and he was obliged to give up further study and betake himself to out-door pursuits. He having become as a boy familiar with the use of tools in his father’s ship-yard, he betook himself to the lumber regions of New Brunswick, and joined a lumbering party; and after a winter spent in the forest he became restored to his usual ruggedness, and returned to civilization. In the spring of 1869 he removed from Clifton to Fredericton and entered the service of the government as a clerk in the Crown Lands department. In 1873, some changes occurring in the staff, he was promoted to the position of accountant; and in 1881, in addition to this office, he was made lumber agent. This dual office he has since held—the first having put him in charge of all the financial matters in connection with the Land department, and the second the general supervision of the lumbering on the Crown lands throughout the province, and the collection of the revenue therefrom. As a young man, Mr. Flewelling took an active interest in military matters. Having joined a local militia corps as private he gradually rose in the ranks, and when he retired from the service in 1874 he held the rank of paymaster of the 74th battalion, Kings county militia. He has been an active member of various societies, especially temperance societies, in all of which he has held offices. For about fifteen years he has belonged to the Independent Order of Oddfellows, and is a past-grand master of Victoria lodge, No. 13, of Fredericton. He has always been connected with the Episcopal church, but is, nevertheless, a strong believer in freedom of opinion, especially in religion. On the 17th of January, 1874, he was married to Harriet E. Lugrin, daughter of the late Charles S. Lugrin, editor of The Colonial Farmer, and for a number of years secretary of the Board of Agriculture for New Brunswick, and grand-daughter of the late George K. Lugrin, for many years Queen’s printer in New Brunswick.

Le Pan, Frederick Nicholas D’Orr, Owen Sound, Ontario, is the son of Louis Noailles Le Pan and Mary Anne Brown, of Belfast, Ireland, and was born in the year 1819. His father was a native of Paris, France, and was a professor of French in the Royal Academy of Belfast, and other colleges in that city. Mr. Le Pan emigrated to the United States at the age of nineteen, and was for some time employed in a large flouring mill as head book-keeper in St. Louis, Missouri. Being anxious to get on and push for himself, he bought a farm in the state of Illinois, and lived there until his health failed him. He then sold out his property and moved to Canada and settled in Picton, Prince Edward county. After living here for some time he went to Owen Sound, in the county of Grey, where he opened a general store, and succeeded well. He occupied the position of treasurer for the county of Grey for over twenty years, and on his resignation was presented with a handsome present by the county in recognition of his services. He was local director for the Molsons bank in Owen Sound, and is a justice of the peace for the county. Though now well up in years, Mr. Le Pan is still hale and hearty, and living a retired life.

Shaw, Lieutenant-Colonel James. The late Senator Shaw was born in New Ross, county Wexford, Ireland, in the year 1798, so famous in Irish history. He was descended from two ancient and honourable families, and took pride in tracing his lineage back many generations to persons of distinction, being Scotch on his father’s side, and on his mother’s he was of French extraction, her family, the d’Ouselys, being Huguenots, who fled to Ireland, the name being corrupted to Dowsley in the course of years. In the year 1820, after completing his education in Dublin, Mr. Shaw, in the twenty-second year of his age, came to Canada with letters of introduction to Lord Dalhousie, who attached him to his household, with an officer’s pay and rations for the following six months, where he was treated with great kindness by Lord and Lady Dalhousie, and in after days often referred to this pleasant portion of his life. Subsequently the government appointed him first clerk in the Lanark military settlement of Upper Canada, under the late Colonel William Marshall, the superintendent, and this situation Mr. Shaw filled for nine years. At the commencement of the work on the Rideau Canal, through Lord Dalhousie’s influence, he was appointed overseer of the works under the late Colonel John By, from Smith’s Falls to Bytown, now the city of Ottawa. After the completion of the canal, Mr. Shaw married Ellen Forgie, daughter of Mr. Forgie, of Glasgow, and carried on at Smith’s Falls a successful and extensive mercantile business up to the time of his entering parliament. He was one of the first promoters and directors of the Brockville and Ottawa Railway. During the Canadian rebellion of 1837 and 1838 he was stationed at Brockville as major of the third Leeds Light Infantry, and in later years he was made lieutenant-colonel of the militia of Canada. In his early days he was a member of what was known as the Johnstown District Council, and when the municipal system was adopted he filled the position of reeve of the municipality, which office he held until higher duties obliged him to resign. He was also a justice of the peace, but did not often act in that capacity. Mr. Shaw was a Free Mason, having joined the order as a young man in Ireland. He was a member of the Church of England—not extreme in his views, but unswerving in his support and allegiance to his church. In 1851 he was elected to represent the united counties of Lanark and Renfrew in the Legislature of Canada in the Conservative interest, and was again returned for the South Riding of Lanark in 1854. In 1860 he was elected for the Bathurst division by a large majority to a seat in the upper house, which he held until the confederation of the several provinces, when he was called by Royal proclamation to the Senate of the Dominion of Canada, which position he filled with honour to himself and credit to his country until his death. Mr. Shaw was a gentleman of fine physique and commanding appearance, of sterling principle, unswerving integrity, and by his genial disposition and urbanity of manner, endeared himself to all with whom he became acquainted. He died suddenly at his residence in Smith’s Falls, on the 6th of February, 1878, regretted and revered by all who knew him. His funeral was attended by a large deputation from both branches of the legislature.

“In social haunts the ever welcome guest,

 So generous, noble, and of portly mien;

 ‘One of a thousand’ has been well expressed—

 No finer type of gentleman was seen.”

Saint-Pierre, Henri C., Advocate, Montreal, was born in the parish of Rigaud, county of Vaudreuil, province of Quebec, on the 13th of September, 1844, but was brought up at Isle-Bizard, in Jacques-Cartier county. He is the last child but one of a family of nine, composed of seven girls and two boys. His father, Joseph Saint-Pierre, a farmer of Isle-Bizard, died, when his son Henri was only two years old. His mother, Domithilde Denis, is still living. His first ancestor on his father’s side in Canada was Pierre Breillé-Saint-Pierre, who was usually called Pierre Saint-Pierre. He had emigrated from Normandy, and on his arrival in Canada settled at Isle-Bizard. In 1741 he was married to Françoise Thibault, by whom he had a large family. He was killed at the battle of Carillon in 1758. His eldest son, bearing the same name, was married to Marie Josephte Tayon, and from that marriage was born, on the 23rd of August, 1772, Guillaume, the father of Joseph, and the grandfather of the gentleman who is the subject of this sketch. Domithilde Denis, the mother of Mr. Saint-Pierre, belonged to a family of farmers from La Pointe Claire, which traces its origin in Canada as far back as the days of the first French settlements, the first colonist of that name, Jacques Denis, having settled at Lachine in 1689. After the death of his father, Mr. Saint-Pierre was adopted by a near relative, C. Raymond, a merchant at Isle-Bizard, who took charge of his education. At twelve years of age he entered the Montreal College, where he went through a brilliant classical course of study. He was the college mate of the unfortunate patriot, Louis Riel. From his childhood Mr. Saint-Pierre had always exhibited a strong liking for military life; but as he grew older, this liking ripened into an uncontrollable passion; so much so, that on leaving college one of the first things he did was to solicit from his mother and his adopted father the permission to enlist in the United States army. At this time the war between the North and South was raging at its highest pitch. It is almost needless to say that his request was unhesitatingly and peremptorily refused. With no small degree of disappointment and reluctance, he at last chose the study of the law, and was sent to Kingston in Ontario, in order that he might improve his knowledge of the English language. At Kingston he was articled to James Agnew, one of the leading lawyers of that city. He soon got tired of the law, however, and on the very day when he was to undergo his preliminary examination at Osgoode Hall, in Toronto, yielding to his passion for military life, he crossed over to Niagara Falls, and thence took the first train to New York. On his arrival there he enlisted in the 76th New York volunteers, which was then forming part of the first corps in the Potomac army. To his honour be it said, it was only after considerable hesitation that General Johnson, the chief recruiting officer, consented to enlist the runaway school-boy. Mr. Saint-Pierre of course entered the service as a private, but in less than two months he rose to the rank of sergeant. During General Meade’s retreat towards Centreville, in the fall of 1863, he was wounded at the crossing of the Rapahannock, and had only recently resumed duty when in the fight at Mine Run, near Fredericksburg, he was again wounded. He was picked up by a detachment of General Stewart’s rebel cavalry on the field of battle, and was brought to Gordonsville during the night, and on the following day sent to Richmond as a prisoner of war. In his regiment he had been reported as dead, and some time afterwards his name was published in the list of those who had been killed in that fight. The result of this information was that funeral services were held both in the Montreal College and in his native parish, and prayer asked for the salvation of his soul. To give a detailed and circumstantial account of the suffering which Mr. Saint-Pierre had to endure, and all the adventures he had to go through in his numerous attempts to escape from starvation and death in the southern stockades, would require a narrative which could hardly be comprised within the compass of a whole volume; but one may form some idea of it, however, when the names of the following prisons wherein he was successively detained are mentioned: Bell Island and Parmenton building at Richmond, Andersonville in Georgia, and Charleston’s race ground and Florence in South Carolina. After thirteen months of indescribable sufferings, he at last found himself free at Charleston on the day when the city was evacuated by the Southern troops in the spring of 1865. After the war was over, Mr. Saint-Pierre returned to his native country, where he was greeted as one who had risen from the dead. In March, 1866, he resumed his legal studies, and was first articled to the late Sir George Etienne Cartier, but a year afterwards he became a student in the office of the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, where he remained up to the time of his admission to the bar on the 12th of July, 1870. In 1871 Mr. Saint-Pierre entered in partnership with the Hon. Gédéon Ouimet, then attorney-general, and some time afterwards prime minister for the province of Quebec; and on that gentleman’s appointment as superintendent of education, after his having resigned his office as prime minister, Mr. Saint-Pierre found himself at the head of his law office and the sole possessor of his large clientèle. Mr. Saint-Pierre soon reached the foremost rank in his profession, and to-day the firm of Saint-Pierre, Globensky & Poirier, is one of the leading firms in the district of Montreal. But it is more particularly as a criminalist that Mr. Saint-Pierre has distinguished himself. Few lawyers have been so successful in the practice of that branch of the law; and whether it be in the often arduous task of bringing conviction to the minds of juries, or in that no less difficult one of unravelling a knotty point of law, he has few equals and no superior in his native province. He has frequently acted as Crown attorney and as substitute of the attorney-general for the province of Quebec, both in Montreal and in the adjoining districts. In politics Mr. Saint-Pierre is a Liberal. He was selected to run as the Liberal candidate in Jacques-Cartier, in 1878, for the local house, but was defeated by the former member, L. N. Lecavalier, who succeeded in securing his re-election by a small majority. Since that date Mr. Saint-Pierre has taken very little part in active politics. At the general elections for the federal house in 1887 he was selected as the Candidat National, first in the county of Laprairie, in opposition to Mr. Tassé, the Conservative nominee, and afterwards in the county of Jacques-Cartier, in opposition to Mr. Girouard, but declined in both instances. Mr. Saint-Pierre was married in 1874 to Adeline Albina Lesieur, eldest daughter of Adolphe Lesieur, merchant, of Terrebonne. She is a niece of the late Hon. Thos. Jean-Jacques Loranger, of the Hon. L. O. Loranger, a judge of the Superior Court, and of J. M. Loranger, Q.C. Mrs. Saint-Pierre is a handsome and accomplished lady and an excellent musician. She is often seen at charity concerts, contributing, by her distinguished talent as a pianist, to the enjoyment of the evening; whilst her husband, Mr. Saint-Pierre, who is the possessor of a splendid bass voice, and a cultured singer, varies the entertainment by his singing. Mr. and Mrs. Saint-Pierre were both born and brought up Roman catholics, and they have a family of five children, the eldest of whom, Master Henri, is only nine years old. In 1856 Mrs. Saint-Pierre, the elder, was married to John Wilson, a wealthy farmer of Isle-Bizard. He was a widower and the father of several boys. Two of those boys were married to two of Mrs. Saint-Pierre’s daughters. The youngest of those gentlemen was recently elected deputy-reeve of the county of Prescott, in Ontario. Mrs. Saint-Pierre has survived her second husband, who died in 1858. She has now reached the ripe old age of seventy-nine. She is yet strong and hearty, and lately was invited to the christening of an infant (a girl) who was the grand-daughter of her own grand-daughter. She was thereby given an opportunity seldom offered, even to very aged grand-mothers, that of seeing her fourth generation.

Hemming, Edward John, D.C.L., ex-M.P.P., Advocate, etc., Drummondville, province of Quebec, is the third son of the late Henry Keene Hemming, estate agent, and for many years lessee of extensive brick-fields at Gray’s, Essex on the Thames; and Sophia Wirgman, daughter of Thomas Wirgman, from Stockholm, Sweden, and aunt to Lieut.-Colonel Wirgman, late of the 10th Hussars, in their lifetime of London, England, and Lismore, Ireland (in connection with the Duke of Devonshire estates), and latterly (where they died and were buried), of Great Marlow, Bucks, having previously lived farming near Drummondville, P.Q., for a few years, when they returned to England. There is every reason to believe that his father was directly descended from John Hemming, Shakespeare’s associate and literary executor. An uncle of his father, the Rev. Samuel Hemming, D.D., was chaplain to the Royal Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, and as such intimate with all the then royal dukes, the Duke of Sussex standing godfather to two of his children. His father was also uncle to the late Hon. Judge Dunkin, member of the Privy Council of Canada, etc., etc. (his sister being the judge’s mother), and also cousin to the late Charles F. Smithers, president of the Bank of Montreal. After the lapse of about a hundred years, the two families of Hemming and Smithers have intermarried again, Walter G. A. Hemming, of Toronto, a nephew of the subject of this sketch, having lately married a daughter of Charles F. Smithers. Edward John Hemming was born on the 30th August, 1823, in London, England, that is to say Clapham, Surrey, and was educated at the Clapham Grammar School, under the Rev. Charles Pritchard, M.A., a Cambridge wrangler. Among his schoolmates who have since achieved distinction may be mentioned the Rev. Dr. Bradley, dean of Westminster Abbey; Sir George Groves, of Sydenham Palace fame; and his brother, George Wirgman Hemming, of Lincoln’s Inn, Q.C., lately of Hyde Park, now of South Kensington, London, late fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, senior wrangler of the university—one of the commissioners named by the Imperial Parliament for revising the statutes of Cambridge University;—editor of the “Equity Law Reports” under the council of the English bar, etc., who married his second cousin, a grand niece of Sir David Baird, the hero of Seringapatam and Corunna. To show the heredity of genius we may mention that one of his sons, now in the Royal Engineers, not only came out first at the final examination at the Royal Military College, Woolwich, but surpassed the one next to him by more than a thousand marks. On leaving school in 1839, Mr. Hemming went to sea as a midshipman, making his two last trips to India in the old East Indiaman, Herefordshire, commanded by Captain Richardson, a cousin. He left her at Bombay in 1843, to join the Seyd Khan, opium clipper trading to China with a Lascar crew, as second officer, under Captain Horsburgh, a nephew of the famous Captain Horsburgh of East India Directory fame. During his voyages, he visited the Cape of Good Hope, Isle of France, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Batavia, Hong Kong, Canton, Amoy, Chusan, Woosing and St. Helena, this latter before the removal of the great Bonaparte. After remaining in China a couple of years, he returned home to his father in Ireland in 1845, where he remained studying farming till 1851. During his residence at Lismore, the Smith O’Brien rebellion broke out, and he then made acquaintance with Nicholas O’Gorman, once secretary to the Catholic Emancipation League, under O’Connell, but then a loyal subject; also of Richard O’Gorman, his nephew, one of the Young Irelanders; who had to flee the country in order to escape prosecution for his action in that rebellion. Richard O’Gorman is now a judge in New York. Liebig’s work on agricultural chemistry, then lately published, having caused a great sensation, he turned his attention to the subject, and the Royal Agricultural Society of England having offered a prize open to all the world on the occasion of the International Exhibition of 1851, for the best essay on chemistry applied to agriculture, Mr. Hemming entered the competition and carried off the prize. This essay may be found in the Parliamentary library at Ottawa. While attending the International Exhibition in 1851, he met his cousin, afterwards Judge Dunkin, who prevailed upon him to enter his office in Montreal as a law student, and he commenced his legal studies in the office of Bethune & Dunkin in the fall of that year. Among his fellow students were the Judges Ramsay, and Papineau, and Julius Scriver, the M.P. for Huntingdon; and he also entered the law course of McGill College, and in 1855, took his degree of B.C.L., being first in honours; and in 1871, took his degree of D.C.L. in course. While he was a law student he was elected president of the Law Students’ Society, succeeding the late Judge Ramsay of the Court of Queen’s Bench; Judge Baby, now of the same court, being elected secretary-treasurer. Shortly after, in May, 1855, he was admitted to the bar, and immediately returned to England, where, on the 19th July, 1855, he was married to Sophia Louisa Robinson (a cousin), eldest daughter of the late Thomas Robinson, of London and Norwood, merchant, and returned to Montreal the same year, and commenced practising law in partnership with A. H. Lunn. He was employed by G. W. Wickstead, Q.C., law clerk of the Legislative Assembly of Canada, on behalf of the government, to compile a digested index of all the statute law in force from the conquest to that date, preparatory to a consolidation of the statutes, which work he accomplished to his satisfaction. In 1851, he entered the active militia force by joining the Montreal Light Infantry Battalion as second lieutenant, and served therein for seven years, until he was gazetted out on leaving limits as unattached, retaining his rank of captain. In 1858, at the suggestion of Judge Dunkin, who, at that time, was member for Drummond and Arthabaska, and who intended residing in Drummond county (and his father having just arrived from England and purchased a farm in the neighbourhood of Drummondville), he left his practice in Montreal and came to Drummondville, which was then nothing but a deserted village in the middle of the woods and out of the world, although practically the chef-lieu of the then newly constituted district of Arthabaska, the only resident lawyers living there; now, thanks to the railroad, Drummondville is a thriving village of two thousand inhabitants, with flourishing manufactures and magnificent water powers, but has lost its pre-eminence in law since the erection of a court house at the chef-lieu, and the formation of a resident bar at Arthabaskaville. Mr. Dunkin, however, being defeated afterwards by J. B. E. Dorion, l’Enfant Terrible, obtained a seat in Brome county and permanently settled in that county at Knowlton. In 1867, on the death of l’Enfant Terrible (the then member for Drummond and Arthabaska), shortly before confederation, Mr. Hemming was invited by a large number of the electors to become a candidate for the Quebec legislature under confederation, and although he was opposed by the late Judge Dorion (a brother of l’Enfant Terrible), on the Liberal side, and by N. Hébert, as a French Conservative, he had a majority over both candidates combined, and stood at the head of the poll with nearly two hundred majority, and this, notwithstanding that the constituency was five-sixths French. During that parliament he took a prominent part in inaugurating the railway fever of that time and the government policy of subsidizing the railways consequent thereon. He obtained a charter for what is now the northern branch of the South Eastern Railway, under the then name of the Richelieu, Drummond and Arthabaska River Railway, one hundred miles in length; successfully (for every one but himself) promoted the scheme and constructed the road, was elected president of the company and gave to L. A. Sénécal the first railway contract he ever had, and finally transferred the road to the South Eastern Company on certain conditions which, we regret to say, were never fully carried out. He also greatly developed the two counties by opening up colonization roads; and took an active part in revising the municipal code. During this time he was elected president of the Agricultural Society of the county of Drummond, No. 1, and held the office until the society was constituted for the whole county. In 1870, a vacancy occuring in the lucrative office of prothonotary for the district of Arthabaska, the Hon. M. Chauveau, the then premier, nominated him to the same, but a difficulty arising in connection with the Hon. G. Irvine, who was then solicitor-general in the Chauveau administration, and who represented a portion of the district, in order to oblige Hon. M. Chauveau, he finally consented to decline the nomination, and to present himself once more in 1871 for re-election against the Hon. W. Laurier, the Liberal candidate, but was defeated by a large majority, principally on the ground of nationality and railway difficulties. Shortly afterwards, Mr. Hemming was elected warden of the county of Drummond, which office he resigned, when two years afterwards, he was appointed district magistrate (the equivalent of county judge in the other provinces) for the districts of Arthabaska and St. Francis, in conjunction with G. E. Rioux, but practically the two districts were divided, Mr. Hemming taking the former, and Mr. Rioux the latter. About the same time it was commonly reported in the press and elsewhere, that he was to be the new Superior Court judge, for the district, as the representative of the Protestant element among the six new judges, but at the end the Protestant element was eliminated altogether. While holding the office of district magistrate he was named sole commissioner by the Quebec government to investigate and report on the management and working of the prothonotary’s and other offices in the Montreal court-house, including the police office. Mr. Bréhaut (a Protestant) having resigned his office of police magistrate, and received another appointment in consequence of this report, it was again positively reported that Mr. Hemming was to be appointed police magistrate in his stead, but at the very last moment Judge Desnoyers was substituted. In 1878, during Mr. Joly’s short régime, when great efforts were made to introduce the American system, “to the victors belong the spoils,” Mr. Hemming and thirteen other district magistrates had their commissions revoked, on the ground of economy, without receiving any indemnity whatever for the loss of their office, and Mr. Rioux, being a Liberal, was awarded Mr. Hemming’s district in addition to his own, thus eliminating the only Protestant on the police bench in the whole province of Quebec. Strange to say, the succeeding Conservative administration in Quebec never took any steps either to reinstate or indemnify Mr. Hemming for the loss of his office, although nearly all his French colleagues were provided for one way or the other. As he had to commence his practice anew he retired from public life for some years; but in 1881, at the urgent request of the local government, consented to run against the Hon. George Irvine in the Conservative interest in Megantic, but was again defeated, not having received the support promised him, and having entered into the contest only a week before the polling. In this year he was named census commissioner for the county of Drummond by the Dominion government; and in 1885 revising officer for the same county under the Franchise Act. Having a short time previously consented to take a part in municipal matters again, he was elected mayor of Drummondville and warden of the county for the second time. He was also elected syndic of the Bar of Arthabaska, which office he held until his recent appointment as joint prothonotary and Clerk of the Crown for that district. Mr. Hemming has for some years past been an associate member of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction for the province of Quebec, where he has been working for some time past to procure the introduction of religious teaching in the Protestant public schools, and has so far succeeded as to have the Bible placed upon the list of authorized text books. In religious matters Mr. Hemming is a member of the Church of England, and has acted for many years past as lay reader whenever his services have been required. And on one occasion in the absence of a clergyman after the church at Drummondville was destroyed by fire, conducted the services for nearly a year, and thereby kept the congregation together. He was churchwarden of St. George’s Church, Drummondville, for eighteen years, and has been elected a delegate to the Diocesan Synod of Quebec and to the Provincial Synod since 1862 without any intermission, and during these 25 years has never failed attending a single session of either of these synods. Mr. Hemming is old-fashioned enough to believe in the Bible, and consequently has no faith in Darwinism, secular education or prohibition. With regard to the latter, he says he cannot bring himself to believe that the Saviour was a criminal when he made and drank wine at the marriage feast, nor when he commanded his disciples to drink wine in his memory at the Lord’s Supper. In politics, he is and has always been a Conservative, and does not believe in the principles of the French or American revolutions, nor in the divine right of the people, and he believes that authority ought to come from above and not from below. Mr. Hemming cannot understand the theory of allowing the fools to elect the wise men, nor why a majority should have the right to utterly crush out the minority, and still less why a small minority that happens to hold the balance of power under our constitution, should have the power of controlling the overwhelming majority of the nation. Neither does he believe in Adam Smith. He has been a protectionist ever since the times of Sir Robert Peel, D’Israeli and Lord George Bentinck, and has never seen any occasion to change his opinion, notwithstanding it was considered rank heresy to say so. After a lifetime he begins to see signs that the British are beginning to discover that our social system is founded on the family, each with its own interest (the nation being merely an extension of that idea), and that until the whole world becomes one family, the theory of free trade which is based on that idea must be inapplicable. It will be seen by the foregoing that Mr. Hemming has led a pretty active life, which may be considered as decidedly professional, having been a sailor, soldier, farmer, lawyer, legislator, judge, doctor (in law) and (lay) parson. His sons are taking different branches of the professions. His eldest son being a law student, another is in the Canadian army, being a lieutenant in the Infantry School corps, and a third in the Canadian marine, being second officer on board of one of the government cruisers for the protection of the fisheries.

McCosh, John, Barrister, Orillia, Ontario, was born in Paris, Brant county, Ontario, on the 6th September, 1844. His father, Robert McCosh, M.D., was a native of Beith, Ayrshire, Scotland, who graduated at the University of Edinburgh, and came to Canada in 1834. Shortly after his arrival he located in Paris, and in a very few years gained a large medical practice in the county of Brant. He died in 1862. His mother was a Miss Irwin, of Welland. She was from the north of Ireland, and emigrated with her mother and brothers about the year 1836. Her brothers became merchants, and carried on a large business, one in Paris, and the other in Galt. John McCosh received his education in the Paris High School, and subsequently studied law in the office of Clark Gamble, Q.C., Toronto, and afterwards in the office of the present Chief Justice Cameron. He was enrolled as a solicitor in 1868, and called to the bar in 1874. Mr. McCosh then opened a law office in Paris, where he continued to practise his profession for about two years, and in 1871 removed to Orillia, where he has since resided, and has succeeded in building up a lucrative business. Apart from his professional duties, Mr. McCosh has found time to devote a good deal of his time to the public good, and in appreciation of his disinterested services, his fellow-townsmen elected him, on different occasions, to the highest office in their gift, and he accordingly filled the office of mayor in the years 1881, 1882, and in 1886. He was also, in 1886, nominated for the Ontario legislature by the Liberal-Conservatives of East Simcoe, but afterwards withdrew from the canvass, he having failed to agree with the party on the “Protestant” and “Prohibition” cries. Mr. McCosh is a rising man, and we hope to see him some day in the legislature of his country. He is married to Mary Stanton, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Stanton, postmaster of Paris.

Norman, Rev. Richard Whitmore, M.A., D.C.L., Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, was born at Southborough, Kent, England, on 24th April, 1829. His father was Richard Norman, merchant, of London, son of George Norman, a large landed proprietor of Bromley, Kent, England; and his mother, Emma Stone, was a daughter of George Stone, of Chiselhurst, Kent, head of the oldest private banking house in London, now Martin & Co., 68 Lombard street. The subject of our sketch, Rev. Dr. Norman, was educated at King’s College, London, and afterwards at Exeter College, Oxford; and was, in 1852, ordained deacon, and priest in 1853. He was curate of St. Thomas, Oxford, in 1852; fellow of Radley College, 1853; fellow and head master of St. Michael’s College, Tenbury, 1857; and warden of Radley College, 1861 to 1866. In consequence of hard work his health became impaired, and he left England in 1866, in the hope that a short sojourn in Canada would do him good. He had not been long on this side the Atlantic when his health began to improve, and family circumstances prompted him to make Canada his future home. Previous to his coming here he had but slight experience in strictly ministerial work, his principal labours in England having been connected with higher education; but since then he has heartily thrown himself into pastoral work, without having entirely abandoned education. In 1868 he was appointed assistant at St. John the Evangelist’s Church, Montreal; assistant at St. James the Apostle’s Church, 1872; rector of St. Matthias Church, 1883; and is now (1887) canon assistant of Christ Church Cathedral. Rev. Dr. Norman was, in 1878, a member of the council and vice-chancellor of the University of Bishop’s College; a member of the Protestant School Board in 1879, and chairman of the same in 1880; vice-president of the Montreal Art Association in 1882, and president in 1887; vice-president of the Montreal Philharmonic Society in 1879; member of the Protestant Committee of Public Instruction in 1883; hon. clerical secretary of the Anglican Provincial Synod in 1880; and in 1882 was elected a fellow of McGill College, Montreal. Rev. Dr. Norman belongs to the Masonic fraternity, and occupied the position of worshipful master of Apollo University lodge, Oxford, in 1861-1863, and the same office in Abingdon lodge in 1864. He was also eminent commander of encampment Cœur-de-Lion, Oxford, 1858. Rev. Dr. Norman has published several volumes of sermons, and various pamphlets, which have been well received by the public. He is still in the prime of life, and we hope has many years of usefulness still before him. He has always been a member of the Anglican communion, and is unmarried.

Rice, Charles, Registrar of the High Court of Justice, etc., Perth, Ontario, was born on the 7th of November, 1822, in the township of Drummond, in the county of Lanark, about two miles from the town of Perth, which then contained but a few log buildings used chiefly for government stores, the settlement being composed of discharged soldiers and their families located by the government at the close of the American war of 1812. His father, John Rice, was born in the county Down, Ireland, at or near Newry, and was descended from a collateral branch of the Monteagle family. Returning home from school one afternoon when about sixteen years old, he was kidnapped by the press-gang and forced on board a British man-of-war bound on a cruise for the coast of Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence. He continued on board ship doing duty as a sailor, until the American war broke out, when he left the vessel and enlisted as a private soldier in the Newfoundland Fencibles and took part in the battles of Chrysler’s Farm, Stoney Creek, Burlington Heights, and other engagements. He was promoted to the rank of sergeant, was wounded at Burlington Heights, and at the close of the war got his discharge with a pension and a grant of land. He had married Hannah Van Boeler, then the widow of John Woodlands, who had been killed in battle. She was born at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, of Dutch parents who had emigrated from the Netherlands and settled at Annapolis. They were descended from those sturdy and brave Dutchmen who had battled for their liberty for forty years against the colossal power of Spain under Phillip II. John Rice, through hard work, had effected a considerable clearance on his lot, and was prospering apace, when one summer, at the latter end of August, the barn in which all the produce of the farm had been stored, took fire and was burned down with all its contents, and he had to run in debt to the late Hon. R. Matheson for supplies to support the family for an entire year. This debt accumulated in Matheson’s books at compound interest at ten per cent., and in a few years Matheson got a deed of the farm, with a verbal understanding to re-convey when the debt should be paid off, which was never done in the lifetime of John Rice. Born and brought up in a log shanty, in what was then the backwoods, the subject of this sketch, Charles Rice, had but a poor chance of getting any education. There were no public schools, no free schools, in those days; and at intervals he was sent to a private school kept in Perth by the late Mr. Hudson, and afterwards to another kept by the late Dawson Kerr. On arriving at the age of fourteen Mr. Rice had been at school for about two years in all, and had only acquired some knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic. When about twelve years old, in the month of November, he hired out at six dollars a month to burn coal to earn money to buy himself a pair of boots for the winter. The following year, in the beginning of December, he hired as bookkeeper with Aaron Chambers, who had a lumber shanty, taking out oak timber near Peter McArthur’s, in the township of Beckwith. He started on foot and walked to Franktown, fifteen miles, and arrived there at dark only to find that he had five miles farther to go to reach the shanty, through a section of country and bush roads that he knew nothing about; but by following closely the directions given him, he succeeded in finding the place some two or three hours after dark. This was Saturday night. Chambers had hired him to keep his books, and on Sunday informed him that besides keeping the books he would have to cook for the men and chop the fire-wood. This he refused to do, and on Monday morning left the shanty and footed it home. He continued to work on the farm until about sixteen years old, when he was apprenticed to James Thompson (the present sheriff), to learn the printing business in the old Bathurst Courier office (now the Perth Courier). This was in May, 1839. About two years and a half after this, in the beginning of winter, he left the Courier office, took the stage to Brockville, thence by stage to Kingston (there were no railroads in those days), and arrived there at night penniless but not despairing. The Kingston News had just been started by S. and J. Rowlands, and he got work on this newspaper. The following summer he returned home, his father having died in the meantime, and worked for about two years longer in the Courier office. Ere he had been a year in the Courier, for the first time, he became convinced that if he was to succeed in the printing business, he must acquire a better education than he then had. A young lawyer in town, Henry Sache, who was sometimes hard up through nobody’s fault but his own, offered to sell him a Latin dictionary cheap. He closed the bargain and bought it, and at once determined to study Latin. The reader will no doubt smile when informed that he commenced his studies by committing the Latin dictionary to memory! A few evenings afterwards Mr. Sache, coming in and finding him intent at the dictionary, asked what he was doing. He replied that he had commenced to study Latin, and was learning the dictionary off by heart. His visitor smiled, and informed him that he would never learn the language that way—that he must get a Latin grammar, study that, and then commence to translate. But where was he to get a Latin grammar? Sache had sold his, and there was none for sale in Perth. The nearest place was Brockville; and so he got the stage-driver on his next trip to buy him one and bring it out, and how he exulted over the possession of that book! Every spare moment was thenceforth devoted to study, and with some assistance that he got from Ephraim Patterson, who was then studying for the church, he made pretty rapid progress. This intercourse with Patterson had induced in him a desire to study for the Church of England ministry. He talked the matter over with the late Rev. Michael Harris, and on a confirmation visit to Perth, he had an interview with Bishop Strachan on the subject. They both approved his decision, and while offering words of encouragement, pointed out the great difficulties that would have to be overcome, the subjects that would require to be studied and mastered before he could take a college degree and qualify for holy orders. Nothing daunted, the young man determined to persevere—what others had done he could do—it was only a question of time. He now reduced his course of studies to a system. He had to work ten hours a day in the printing office to support himself; so he rose at four o’clock in the morning, winter and summer, and studied Greek till six, when work commenced at type-setting. Of the breakfast hour and dinner hour he devoted forty minutes of each to the study of Euclid. From seven till ten p.m. was devoted to the study of Latin. Of course, his health occasionally broke down under this severe strain and compelled a short cessation, but only to be resumed again. Kingston was the seat of government when young Rice went there the second time and got work in the News office. Parliament opened in the fall, and Dr. Barker, of the British Whig, secured the contract for the government printing; and as he offered higher wages than the News was paying, young Rice entered the Whig office on the parliamentary work. Lord Metcalfe was governor at the time, and quarrelled with his ministers (Baldwin, Lafontaine, Rolph, etc.), on the question of responsible government. The ministry resigned, parliament was dissolved, the work in the Whig office stopped, and a lot of journeyman printers, young Rice among the rest, were thrown out of work, and he concluded to return to Perth, which at that time and at that season of the year was no easy matter. A small steamer, the last of the season, was advertised to leave Kingston for Brockville, and on this steamer he took passage and left in the afternoon, arriving in Brockville about four o’clock the next morning; the steamer’s paddle-wheels having got so coated with ice as to render progress difficult and slow. From Brockville he took the stage to Perth, a two-wheeled cart drawn by two horses, and the journey to Perth in that cart over rough and hard frozen roads, on a cold December day, was one not soon to be forgotten. Once more in Perth, he engaged with Mr. Thompson to work on the Courier half time, an arrangement which just suited him, as it gave him means enough to live on, and afforded ample time to pursue his studies. And here it may be as well to mention that while living in Kingston, a Frenchman from Paris, who was giving private lessons in French in the city, came to board in the same house. This was an opportunity not to be lost, and young Rice at once entered on the study of the French language, and worked at it diligently every evening after tea; and when he left Kingston six months after, he could read, write, and speak French with tolerable fluency. The arrangement with Mr. Thompson was only temporary, as Mr. Thompson entered upon the study of law in the office of the late W. O. Buell, and took Mr. Rice into partnership to manage and conduct the Courier business, as Mr. Thompson’s name had to be dropped from the paper on signing articles as a law student. At this time Mr. Rice entered upon his career as a journalist, his political articles, however, being revised by Mr. Thompson. The partnership continued until the first of January, 1852, when Mr. Thompson, having been appointed sheriff of the county of Lanark, sold out the Courier printing office to Mr. Rice, who continued to publish and edit the paper, having changed the name to the Perth Courier, until the first of January, 1863, when he sold out to the late G. L. Walker, brother of the present publisher and editor, Jas. M. Walker, and thenceforth ceased all connection with political journalism. In May, 1862, the Canadian parliament was in session in Quebec, and Sir John A. Macdonald’s ministry was defeated by a small majority, and the late John Sanfield Macdonald was called upon to found a new ministry, which he succeeded in doing. At this time the office of County Court clerk, deputy-clerk of the Crown, and registrar of Surrogate Court was vacant by the death of the late C. H. Sache. On the change of government, and the reform party coming into power, Mr. Rice at once applied for the office, and on the 10th of June was appointed to fill the vacancy, and which office he still holds (May, 1886). In 1864 Mr. Rice was appointed by the Hon. John Sanfield Macdonald to the commission of the peace. In 1856 he bought out the book and stationery store of Wm. Allan, but after continuing the business for two years, and finding it did not succeed to his satisfaction, wound it up and again confined his attention exclusively to the newspaper business. During his connection with the press, Mr. Rice was a strong and pronounced advocate of reform principles and responsible government, his political editorials on the questions of the day being often copied into other journals. The legislative union between Upper and Lower Canada did not work well, owing to differences in sectional interests, race and religion. Among the many schemes proposed to make the machinery of government work more smoothly, and allay sectional jealousies, was the one known as the “double majority” principle, advocated by John Sanfield Macdonald, and opposed by George Brown and the Globe. Mr. Macdonald’s scheme was that all measures purely local to Lower Canada should be dealt with by Lower Canadian members exclusively; and those purely local to Upper Canada, by Upper Canada members exclusively; while general measures affecting the whole province should be dealt with by the united parliament as a whole. Mr. Rice, in the editorial columns of the Courier, supported Mr. Macdonald’s scheme. Confederation came shortly after, and partly solved the problem. During his connection with the press, Mr. Rice took an active part in all the election contests and political movements in the county of Lanark. He gave the influence of the paper in supporting the Brockville and Ottawa Railway scheme, which has since developed into the great Canadian Pacific Railway. He was the first to advocate the construction of plank roads in the county of Lanark, resulting in the formation of a company, and making the plank road from Perth to Lanark, which has since become macadamised. He was ever foremost in advocating schemes of public enterprise and improvement. Since his retirement from journalism, Mr. Rice has contributed several articles on various subjects of a non-political nature to the public press, which have appeared in the Liberal, the National, the Week, the Globe, Canadian Monthly, and local papers. Probably those that have attracted most attention are his articles against prohibitory liquor laws, and notably, the Scott Act. Mr. Rice was brought up in the Church of England faith, was baptized by the Rev. M. Harris, and confirmed by Bishop Strachan. He was a constant attendant at that church, but his outspoken advocacy of reform principles in his newspaper exasperated some of the more hot-headed tories; and one Sunday morning, on going to church, he was confronted with a placard stuck up on the church door denouncing and libelling him on account of his political opinions. He never entered the church again, and joined the Presbyterian Free church. While pursuing his studies for the ministry he had access to the theological library of the Rev. M. Harris, and read the best standard works on church history and Christian evidences, as well as the doctrinal standards of the church. The evidence and arguments contained in these works, however, did not satisfy him—he felt that there was a weakness and a want running through them—something ignored that ought to have appeared; and he determined to see and know the other side and sift the matter to the bottom. With this view, he purchased and read the latest modern works on Christian evidences and Biblical criticism—Strauss, Renan, the Jubingen school, Dr. Davidson, Mackay, Kimberly, Greig, and many others; and the scientific works of Darwin, Spencer, Huxly, Lyell, Tyndall, Buchner, Heckel, Combe, Lubbick, Fiske, and many others, and finally, after many years of study and research, settled down into a confirmed Agnostic. The knowledge he had acquired of the Latin, Greek, and French languages was of great service to him in his reading and studies. On the 18th of April, 1848, he married Grace Murray, daughter of the late James Murray, a native of Paisley, Scotland, who had emigrated to this country and settled in the township of Lanark. Brought up in the backwoods like himself, her educational acquirements were not much, and, like himself, she was chiefly self-taught; but she naturally possessed more than an average share of strong, sound, practical common sense—invaluable qualities in a woman; and her sound, sensible advice prudently given and judiciously acted upon many times proved of great value to her husband in surmounting business difficulties. Five children were born of the marriage, two sons and three daughters. The oldest son, John Albert, grew up to be a young man of promise. At the age of eighteen he was attending the Military School at Toronto, when the Fenian raid occurred, and accompanied the volunteers to Ridgeway. On their return to Toronto he was presented by the volunteers with a silver-headed cane, with suitable inscription, as a token of their appreciation of the services he had rendered. He afterwards published and edited the Paris Transcript, in the county of Brant, for about two years, but failing health compelled him to abandon it, and shortly after his return home he died. One daughter, Jeanetta, died at the age of fourteen of heart disease. The oldest daughter, Carrie Elizabeth, married Joseph Lamont, proprietor of the Headquarters hotel in the city of Fargo, Dakota, where the youngest daughter, Ida, in November, 1883, died from accidental poisoning, on the eve of her marriage to Charles Scott, now mayor of the city of Fargo. The youngest son, James M., is working at the printing business in Chicago. So that all Mr. Rice’s posterity seem destined to be citizens of the United States. Unaided and unassisted from any person or any quarter, by indomitable perseverance and a determination to succeed, Mr. Rice worked his way up from a log shanty in the woods to his present position of local registrar of the High Court of Justice. He never wholly failed in anything he undertook to do. If he had to cross a mountain and could not climb it, he would go around. Although it is twenty-three years since he retired from journalism, Mr. Rice’s name is still retained on the books of the Canadian Press Association.

Taylor, Henry, Hardware Merchant, Perth, Ontario, one of our young and pushing business men, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 9th of June, 1845. His father was Robert Taylor, merchant, Edinburgh; and his mother, Margaret, eldest daughter of William Darling, also a merchant in Edinburgh. Mr. Taylor, jr., was educated at private schools in his native city, and received a sound mercantile education. His father died when he was about ten years of age, and on the death of his mother in the spring of 1863 he, along with his brother William (now a merchant in Toronto), arrived in Montreal. Until 1872 he held positions in several of the leading hardware houses there, when he purchased the hardware business in Perth, county of Lanark, which he is now successfully carrying on. Mr. Taylor, for six years, belonged to the Victoria Rifles, Montreal, and served with his corps at Huntingdon, Quebec province, during the Fenian troubles of 1866. In politics Mr. Taylor is a Reformer; and in religion an adherent of the Presbyterian church. He was married, in Montreal, on the 5th November, 1868, to Sarah A., eldest daughter of Rev. Samuel Massey, and has a family of seven children, five daughters and two sons.

Milligan, Rev. George Macbeth, B.A., Pastor of Old St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Toronto. This rising and popular divine was born at Wick, Caithnessshire, Scotland, on the 11th of August, 1841, and when a mere lad came to Canada, and shortly after his arrival the family made Kingston their home. His parents were William Milligan and Catharine Macbeth. George received the first rudiments of his education at Pulteney Academy, Wick, and for some time after his arrival in this country he devoted himself to mechanical pursuits, but finding his inclinations lay in another direction, resolved to educate himself for the ministry, and with this object in view he entered Queen’s College, Kingston, and from this seat of learning he graduated in 1862, taking the first place in all his classes, and highest honours as a B.A. On the 4th of February, 1868, he was ordained to the ministry, and his first charge was at English Settlement, about fourteen miles distant from London, Ontario, and in this charge he remained until July, 1869, when he was called to Detroit. Here he laboured until the fall of 1876, doing good work for the Master, and making for himself many friends in the church, which in a great degree was built up under his pastorate. In 1876 Old St. Andrew’s Church, Toronto, was without a pastor, and the members invited the young preacher to cast in his lot with them. He therefore left Detroit and came to Toronto, and in October of that year he took charge of the congregation. At this time Old St. Andrew’s Church was in a weak condition, the greater part of its members having left the old building and gone with the Rev. Mr. Macdonnell, who for several years had preached in it, to the new St. Andrew’s Church, erected on the corner of King and Simcoe streets. Therefore Mr. Milligan had a hard task before him but he resolved to do his best to keep together the members that remained in the old church edifice, which was situated on the corner of Church and Adelaide streets. At this time the membership only numbered forty-eight persons, but he went to work, and in a very short time enthused his people to such an extent—the membership and congregation having considerably increased in the meantime—that they resolved to abandon the old building and erect a more handsome one on the corner of Jarvis and Carlton streets, which was soon done, and the Rev. Mr. Milligan had the satisfaction of taking possession of the new pulpit in March, 1878. Since then everything has progressed most satisfactorily, and he can now boast of having one of the largest and most influential congregations in the city. Its present membership is 500, and last year the congregation raised, for all purposes, $15,000. But Rev. Mr. Milligan did not confine himself entirely to his duties as pastor. He found the Ministerial Association in a very languid condition, and he resolved to raise it to more vigorous action. He was elected its president during the second year of its existence, and under his presidency it began to be recognised as a power for good in the community, and to-day it exerts an influence far beyond its narrow city bounds. He has also been connected in Toronto with various other public associations, such as temperance, and that for the suppression of crime. He was for years one of the examiners in connection with the intermediate examinations; has been invited by the trustees of Queen’s College, Kingston, to become lecturer on Church history; and for a long time has occupied a position in the Senate of Knox College, and taken a prominent part as an examiner in the same institution. During the election campaign in Ontario, in 1886, he took a prominent part in the discussion then raging with regard to Roman Catholic interference in the Central prison, and in educational matters in our public schools, and helped to clear the atmosphere, to a considerable degree, of the fog some of our politicians attempted to introduce into the controversy. Rev. Mr. Milligan, though a busy man, often finds time to communicate his thoughts through the columns of the newspapers and magazines, and a short time ago the Executive committee of the Foreign Mission Board of his church induced him to write a series of letters to the Globe on the foreign mission work of the Presbyterian Church, which attracted considerable attention at the time. Several of his sermons have been published, and have been well received, and his articles on scientific and ecclesiastical subjects in the magazines always find readers. During his summer vacations he frequently visits Britain. In 1881 he made an extensive tour through Europe, first visiting Britain, and penetrating as far north as John o’ Groat’s, which, by the way, is not very far from where he was born, and then travelled through France from Dieppe to Marseilles, along the shores of the Mediterranean through Cannes to Geneva, where he remained some time, and afterwards visited Paris, Pisa, Florence, Venice and Milan. While on this trip he took copious notes of what he saw, and afterwards embodied them in a course of lectures which he delivered in Toronto, and other places in Ontario, to large and appreciative audiences. He is also familiar with the greater portion of the Dominion from Prince Edward Island to Calgary in the North-West Territory. Rev. Mr. Milligan, it is needless to say, has been from his youth up a Presbyterian, and is conservative in some of his views on theology; yet he is in deep sympathy with many of the other branches of the Christian church. On the 19th November, 1867, he was married to Harriet Eunice Rowse, of Bath, Ontario. This lady is descended from the U. E. loyalists, who settled on the Bay of Quinté, and her grandfather was one of the elders of the Rev. Mr. McDowell, the founder of Presbyterianism in Western Canada. The fruit of the union is one son and three daughters.

Wilson, Rev. Robert, St. John, New Brunswick, was born on the 18th of February, 1833, in Fort George, Scotland. His father, Peter Wilson, was a sergeant in the 93rd Highlanders, and saw service during the reigns of Kings George IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria. He came to Canada with his regiment previous to the rebellion of 1837-38, and helped as a true British soldier to suppress it. At Toronto, in 1841, he got his discharge, and then went to Prince Edward Island, where he resided until his death. He was for many years a Methodist local preacher, and died on the 24th of April, 1883. Robert received his educational training at the public school, New Glasgow Road, and at the Central Academy, Charlottetown (now the Prince of Wales College). After leaving school he adopted the profession of teacher, and taught a district school for some years. During this time, and since, he has taken an active part in everything that has a tendency to elevate his fellow man—politics, temperance, and religion. He was foremost in the advocacy of the confederation of the provinces, using the platform and the press in its advocacy; of temperance, in divisions and the lodge-room, having held the position of W. P. in the Sons of Temperance, and W. C. and chaplain in the Order of Good Templars; and of religion by his pulpit ministrations and practical Christian life. Rev. Mr. Wilson is a warm advocate of Imperial federation, having been one of the first, if not the very first, in the Maritime provinces to press it upon the public attention. As a writer and lecturer on secular subjects he occupies a front position. His lectures rank high as thoughtful literary efforts, and his sermons are generally admired. In short, there is no minister of any denomination down by the sea who has more friends within and beyond his own church, or who so frequently and cheerfully responds to the calls of lecture committees. In politics, Mr. Wilson is a Liberal-Conservative, and had editorial charge of The New Brunswick Reporter, of The Albert County Advocate, and The Maple Leaf. He has also for years been a regular contributor to several newspapers. He has written and published several books, among others, “Tried but True,” 300 pages; and “Never Give Up,” 300 pages (works well spoken of by the provincial press), besides, “Judea and the Jews,” “British North America,” and “Britain among the Nations,” in pamphlet form. He has travelled extensively through Canada, New England, and as a Dominion immigration agent in Great Britain. Mr. Wilson was brought up in the faith of the Kirk of Scotland, but since 1851 he has been connected with the Methodist church. He entered the ministry in 1853, and has been chairman of the Sackville and St. John districts of the New Brunswick Conference, Secretary of the conference for five sessions, and first delegate in the General conference held in Toronto in 1886. He was strongly opposed to the basis of union by which the various Methodist bodies were made one, especially to the general superintendency, because of its tendencies to Prelacy, and its curtailment of the privileges of the Annual conference. He believed in the unification of the non-Episcopal Methodist churches, but thought it wiser to allow the Episcopal to work out their destiny in their own way, than to grant the concession demanded, which meant the complete revolutionizing of the Wesleyan economy. Rev. Mr. Wilson was married on the 7th of February, 1856, to Mary Anne Lane, daughter of William Ford, Prince Edward Island, formerly of Ring’s Ash, Devonshire, England. The fruit of this marriage is five daughters and one son. The latter, Albert Edward, is an officer in the postal service at Fredericton, New Brunswick. We may add that the Rev. Mr. Wilson was elected president of the New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island Conference in June, 1887.

Wallis, Herbert, Montreal, Mechanical Superintendent of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, was born at Derby, England, on March 10th, 1844, and comes of a family long resident in Derby, whose head was for several generations engaged in the business of stage-coaching. His father, William Wallace Wallis, abandoned the business on the advent of railways, and became one of the carriers or cartage agents of the Midland Railway, from which he retired, in favour of one of his sons, some years prior to his death. Herbert Wallis was educated at the Commercial College, near Halifax, England, and here he was specially trained in that branch of the engineering profession which he now follows. On the completion of his education he entered the service of the Midland Railway Company as a pupil of Matthew Kirtley, then locomotive superintendent, and was engaged in the drawing office and workshops of that railway at Derby till August, 1866, at which date he was appointed foreman of the locomotive and carriage departments at Bradford, Yorkshire. In March, 1871, he accepted the position offered to him by Mr. Richard Potter (the then president), of assistant mechanical superintendent of the Grand Trunk Railway Company, and sailed for Montreal on May 4th of that year; and in January, 1873, he was appointed chief mechanical superintendent. Mr. Wallis is a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of England, and one of the council of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. He is a staunch supporter of the Church of England. He married Mary Ellen, eldest daughter of the late Thomas Walklate, formerly goods manager of the Midland Railway Company, in August, 1870.

Long, Thomas, Merchant, Collingwood, county of Simcoe, Ontario, was born in the county of Limerick, Ireland, on the 7th of April, 1836, and is the son of Thomas and Margaret Long. After procuring such education as he was able at the national school of his native village, he emigrated to this country when he was fourteen years old, arriving in the year 1850, and apprenticed himself to the general mercantile business with P. O’Shea, of Mono Centre, for a term of three years, during which he acquired such further educational advantages as could be obtained from time to time by attendance at the public school and by private study. On the expiration of his engagement with Mr. O’Shea, in the spring of 1853, Mr. Long came to Nottawasaga, and worked on the Northern Railway, then under construction, for about twelve months, after which he obtained another situation in a general store, which he held up to the 1st of December, 1858, when he embarked on his own account as a general merchant and buyer of grain and produce. In 1865 he was joined by his brother, John Joseph Long, and the firm thus formed traded under the style of T. Long & Brother. In 1868 a branch store was opened at Stayner, Simcoe county, and the business was carried on in this place under the name of Long Brothers & Gartlan, and in 1870 another branch was opened at Thornbury, Grey county. This enterprising firm, of which Thomas Long is now the senior partner, soon developed a wholesale trade, and they became large direct importers, which has since necessitated frequent visits of Mr. Long and his partners to the markets of Europe. In 1871 they erected fine new premises at Collingwood, which were unfortunately destroyed by fire in September, 1881, only, however, to be replaced by more commodious premises, in which the firm now carries on its principal business. In 1874 the firm erected, in connection with their business operations at Stayner, a flour mill, which proved a successful venture. Mr. Long has always taken the lead in all local enterprises carried on with the view of developing the business of the town and port of Collingwood. He was associated as stockholder and director with the late F. W. Cumberland, W. E. Sandford, and others in the establishment of the Lake Superior Navigation Company, which built the first steamer—The Cumberland—which traded with the Lake Superior ports. He was also one of the leading promoters of the Georgian Bay Transportation Company, and has otherwise greatly helped to promote the lake trade of his adopted country. Mr. Long served seven years in the town council, and eight years as a member of the Ontario legislature, in the Conservative interest, and is at present president of the North Simcoe Conservative Association. In addition to his business connection with the firm of T. Long & Bro., he has also the honours and responsibilities of the following public offices: vice-president and managing director of the Merritton Cotton Mill Company, Merritton; director of the Bank of London in Canada; secretary-treasurer of the Great Northern Transit Company; president of the Farmers’ North-West Land and Colonization Company; and president of the Great Northern Exhibition Company. Mr. Long is a member of the Roman Catholic church. He was married on the 13th of May, 1861, to Ann Patton, daughter of the late Charles Patton, builder, of Collingwood, by whom he has had fourteen children, of whom six are now living—three sons and three daughters.

Hall, Francis Alexander, Barrister, Perth, Ontario, was born in the town of Perth, county of Lanark, Ontario, on 9th August, 1843. His father, Francis Hall, was a native of Clackmannanshire, Scotland, who came to Canada in 1831, and settled in Lanark. His mother, Mary McDonnell, was also a native of Scotland, having been born in Greenock. Francis Alexander Hall received his education at the Perth Public and Grammar schools. After leaving school he spent about a year and a-half as a clerk with a general merchant, but disliking the business he resolved to make law his profession, and with this object in view entered, in 1860, the law office of the late W. M. Shaw, of Perth. Here he prosecuted his studies, and in August, 1866, was admitted as an attorney, and in May, 1868, was called to the bar. In November, 1867, he entered into partnership with Mr. Shaw, but this gentleman having died in December 30, 1868, Mr. Hall continued the business. In October, 1875, he formed a partnership with Edward Elliott, under the name of Hall and Elliott; but this arrangement only continued until October, 1878, when Mr. Elliott retired. In April, 1885, he took J. W. Berryman into partnership, but this partner dying in November, 1885, he once more conducts the business on his own account. Mr. Hall was made a Mason in True Britains’ lodge, No. 12, A. F. and A. M., in April, 1872. He is one of the charter members of Perth lodge, No. 190, A.O.U.W., and was elected master this year (1887). Mr. Hall has taken a deep interest in educational matters, and was elected a High School trustee in 1870. He has been a member of the Board of Education of Perth since 1870, and is now chairman of that board. He has also taken an interest in municipal matters, and occupied a seat in the town council in 1873, 1874, 1875 and 1876, and was mayor of Perth in 1881 and 1882. Mr. Hall has always been a Conservative in politics; and in religion he belongs to the Episcopal denomination. He is married to Harriet Frances, daughter of Lewis Dunham, a descendant of a U. E. loyalist who settled near Maitland.

Wild, Rev. Joseph, M.A., D.D., Pastor of Bond street Congregational Church, Toronto, was born at Summit, Littleborough, Lancashire, England, on the 16th of November, 1834. He was the youngest of five children. His father, Joseph Wild, was one of the best of men—a thorough practical Christian, who was respected by all classes of the community in which he lived. It was a notable fact that no one passed from time to eternity without the prayers of Joseph Wild first being sought, and no funeral was considered complete without his being present at the ceremony. He dressed plainly, following the style of Bourne and Clowes, and other noted founders of the Primitive Methodist church. In manner he was simple, easily approached, kind, sympathetic, generous, and affectionate. His greatest concern seemed to be for children and aged people, and on all occasions he had a kind word to say to them as he passed through the streets or from his home to the chapel. As a preacher he was plain and conversational, his object seeming to be to show the best and nearest way to Heaven without the interposition of too many stiles. When he died his funeral was the largest ever seen in the village, and to this day his memory is revered. Rev. Dr. Wild’s mother was a kind and quiet woman, and lived to do her duty to God and her household, set her children a good example, and died in the favour and affection of her neighbours and kinsfolk. Coming from such a stock, we need not wonder that the doctor should now possess such a power in the pulpit and among the people. At an early age he began to earn a livelihood, and was apprenticed to the business of iron moulder and machinist. It is perhaps in consequence of the knowledge acquired in the workshop that he is now enabled to give occasionally such plain and practical illustrations, as the following will show: While he resided in Belleville, a fire having broken out, the fire engine would not work, and every one in the neighbourhood got alarmed and feared an explosion of steam—even the engineer deserted his post, and left the machine to its fate. The doctor, however, felt no alarm, and going to the engine made an examination and found that the piston rod had stuck, and at once put it to rights amidst the applause of the multitude, and for this the mayor and corporation passed him a hearty vote of thanks. Rev. Dr. Wild, although he had not all the educational advantages the young people of this country have, yet he was always considered sharp and intelligent, and when first licensed as a local preacher, was able to give the people something worth listening to. He was possessed of indomitable perseverance, and early adopted the motto, “What man has done, man can do again.” Possessed of an active brain, quick perception, a strong physical constitution, and a warm heart, England became too contracted for him, and he felt that Canada alone would be sufficient to satisfy his wishes and desires for thorough usefulness in the cause of God and humanity. Therefore, in 1855 he left fatherland, and made his home among strangers. Few men have landed in America under more unfavourable circumstances. He had no friends to meet him, and very little money in his pocket when he landed in New York. Shortly after his arrival he started on a tramp through some of the western and southern states, and having satisfied his curiosity with regard to those places, he resolved to see what Canada was like, and visit some friends who had lately arrived from the old country. With this desire he started, and soon reached the country of his successes and his triumphs. Here he became the subject of impressions convincing in their tendency, that it was his duty to thoroughly consecrate himself to the work of the ministry, and from that time he resolved to devote himself to the preaching of the gospel. He was denominationally connected with the Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada, and received from it his first station in the city of Hamilton. After having served about a year in this place, he began to feel the great importance of the “high calling”—wished to be a minister of power, “rightly dividing the word of truth,” and believed that God’s work was a grand work calling for good, holy, and educated men. Being poor, he had not the means at his disposal to enable him to carry out his aspirations, but a friend kindly aided with money. He then made all the necessary arrangements, and went to the Boston Theological Institute, where he remained several years, and completed his course of literary, classical, and theological studies, graduating from that institution. On leaving college, he made arrangements to enter the Methodist church, South, but in consequence of the breaking out of the southern rebellion he was forced to abandon the idea. He then returned to Canada, and after having preached at Goderich for a year, he sailed for Europe, determined to gather up information from the various learned institutes of the eastern continent, and thereby prepare himself for a wider sphere of usefulness. In England, after his return there, he lectured and preached on many occasions, and was a wonder to the friends who had known him before he went to America. On his return from Europe, he received a station at Orono, where he preached for two years, and from this place he moved to Belleville, the seat of Albert University, where he remained about eight years. At this time the Genesee College conferred upon him the degree of M.A., and the Ohio Wesleyan University that of D.D. While stationed at Belleville, Rev. Dr. Wild did double work, acting as pastor of the Methodist Church and professor of Oriental languages in the university. At the time he went to Belleville the university was greatly embarrassed for want of funds, but he undertook the position of treasurer, and through preaching and lecturing succeeded in raising $20,000, and put the institution on a firm footing. During the years he was engaged at this work he refused to take one cent as remuneration for his services as professor or treasurer. Belleville to this day remembers him with pride, and the poor of the place with gratitude for the many kindnesses he showed them while he went in and out among them. Too close application to his many duties, and the loss of his valuable library and manuscripts by fire, wrought heavily on his mind, and he resolved to leave Belleville and re-visit Europe. In 1872, while preparing to leave, he was appointed a delegate from the Church in Canada to the conference of the Methodist church of the United States, which was to be held in the city of Brooklyn the same year. While attending this conference the doctor was invited to preach in the Seventh avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, and having done so, the congregation decided on giving him a call, which he accepted. Having served them three years, he then accepted a call from the Union Congregational Church, remaining with them for nearly six years. During the years he occupied the Brooklyn pulpit he was honoured with overflowing congregations. In 1880 he was invited to take charge of the Congregational Church, Bond street, Toronto, and decided once more on making Canada his home. When the Rev. Dr. Wild took charge of this work the congregation was small, an immense debt was on the handsome edifice which graces the corner of Bond street and Wilton avenue, and things generally wore a very discouraging aspect, but he had no sooner put himself at the head of affairs than a new impulse was given, and to-day it is one of the most thriving churches in Toronto—having a membership of nearly eight hundred, about a thousand seat-holders, the Sunday night congregations numbering often three thousand souls, and the debt on the sacred edifice reduced to a minimum. Without doubt the Rev. Dr. Wild is the most popular preacher at this moment in the Queen City of the West, and it is wonderful how he succeeds in holding the attention of the great numbers of people who come to hear him. The grand secret, however, is that the doctor never enters his pulpit unprepared. He honours his audience by refusing to foist on them a subject at hap-hazard. His very tread indicates confidence in his preparations, and his voice and gesture indicate the force of his own convictions upon himself. Rev. Dr. Wild is a little above the medium height, is very strongly built, has an erect and dignified carriage. His face is a remarkable one, and his features easily play to the run of his thoughts. He has a large brain, and a high and prominent forehead, and with his hair worn long and his flowing whiskers, he presents the picture of a man of careful thought and great physical endurance. He loves his friends, and is most kind, free and open to all, and, it may be added, he is the friend of all and enemy of none.

Kelly, Thomas, Judge of the County Court of Prince county, Summerside, Prince Edward Island. His Honour Judge Kelly is of Irish parentage, and was born at Covehead, in Queens county, Prince Edward Island, in 1833. His parents were Thomas Kelly and Mary Grace, who emigrated from the county of Kilkenny, Ireland, about the year 1824. Judge Kelly received his education in the old Central Academy of his native place, and at St. Dunstan’s College, Charlottetown, and pursued his law studies with His Honour Judge Watters, in St. John. He was called to the New Brunswick bar in Trinity term, 1865, and to that of Prince Edward Island the same year, and immediately thereafter began the practice of his profession as barrister and notary public at Summerside, where he has since resided. While a law student, he was for two years president of the Irish Friendly Society of St. John, N.B. Before accepting a position on the bench, Judge Kelly for many years took an active interest in the politics of his native province, especially in connection with the party controversies arising out of the education, railway, and confederation questions, as they existed in Prince Edward Island. He was twice elected a representative from Prince county to the Island legislature. In 1870 he was appointed a master in Chancery, and in 1871, a Railway commissioner, to which office he was again elected in 1872, but resigned it a few weeks subsequent to the overthrow of the Pope administration. In 1873 he was offered the chairmanship of the Railway board, and in 1874 the speakership of the House of Assembly, both of which positions he declined in consequence of a misunderstanding on the school question. In 1876 he retired temporarily from public life; but in a couple of years thereafter he again entered it, and in 1879 was an unsuccessful candidate for the legislature, at the general election of that year. For several years Judge Kelly was a director of the Summerside Bank, and afterwards became solicitor for that institution. He was elected license commissioner in 1877, and the same year was chosen recorder for the town of Summerside. He is a commissioner for Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, for taking affidavits for use in those provinces, and is also commissioner dedimus to administer oaths of office to Dominion appointees. He was appointed to the bench, as successor to the late Judge Pope, on the 24th October, 1879, and revising officer under the Electoral Franchise Act on the 26th October, 1886. Judge Kelly is a Roman Catholic, and was married, first, in September, 1867, to Mary Emeline, daughter of Henry Eskildson, of New York (she died October, 1868); and, secondly, in November, 1871, to Marianne H., daughter of the late William A. Campbell, barrister, Toronto, Ontario. Judge Kelly’s family consists of four children—one boy and three girls.

Reddy, John, M.D.—This distinguished medical man, who successfully practised his profession in Montreal for over thirty years, was born on the 31st of March, 1822, at Athlone, county of Roscommon, Ireland, and died on the 23rd of January, 1884. In accordance with the custom of that day, he was apprenticed to a local surgeon in the year 1839, and remained with him until 1842. In April, 1847, he appeared before the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, and received their license in April of that year. Owing to some demands which he considered unreasonable, he would not go up for the degree in Dublin, but preferred crossing to Glasgow, at which university he received the degree of M.D. in 1848. It was now the intention of Dr. Reddy to enter upon the career of an army surgeon, and he was actually gazetted to a commission in the line. His regiment was just at this time, however, ordered to the Gold Coast for service; and the young surgeon believing that he had not been born only to fill a premature grave in that most unhealthy station, at once resigned. He then for a short time held some dispensary appointments in Ireland, and came to Canada in 1851. Through the influence of some friends in Montreal he had been appointed house surgeon of the Montreal General Hospital, and immediately entered upon the duties of that office. He remained in the hospital for three years, fulfilling the responsibilities of this position to the great satisfaction of the then medical officers, Drs. Crawford, Arnoldi, Jones, and others, and on leaving the hospital, he began private practice in the city. The year 1854 will be remembered as the last during which a severe epidemic of Asiatic cholera swept over this country. Dr. Reddy at once devoted himself with unremitting attention to the care of the many sufferers who were falling on every hand. His unvarying kindness to his patients, his cheerful, warm-hearted Irish manners, his already considerable skill and experience soon led to his finding himself surrounded by a large and daily increasing clientèle. During Dr. Reddy’s thirty years’ practice of his profession in Montreal, his perseverance and assiduity knew no rest; he was constantly and busily employed from morning till night, and very often from night till morning, until 1883, when to the regret of his many friends, it was observed that his health was beginning to fail. He went to Europe for change of air, and the much needed rest, but unfortunately no return to health was to come to him, and he died in Dublin on the 23rd of January, 1884. Dr. Reddy held many offices of the highest trust and honour in this community. In 1856 he was appointed one of the attending physicians of the Montreal General Hospital, which post he held until he retired upon the consulting board. In 1856 he received the degree of M.D. ad eundem from McGill College, and for many years served as representative fellow in medicine in the corporation of that university. He was a constant attendant at the meetings of the Medico-Chirurgical Society and was elected president, and he was a long-service officer in the volunteer militia, having been surgeon of the Montreal Garrison Artillery. His was a quiet, unostentatious, busy, blameless life. His high moral character and strict professional integrity, his broad benevolence and universal goodness of heart, with kind and obliging manners, procured for Dr. Reddy the respect and esteem of all his professional friends and confrères, his numerous patients, and the general community. His memory will long be cherished and his character and good deeds held in warm remembrance. He was married on the 1st July, 1851, to Jane Fleming, daughter of William Fleming, of Cloondra, county Longford, Ireland, and when he died he left six children, three sons and three daughters, the eldest of whom, H. L. Reddy, B.A., M.D.C.M., L.R.C.P., London; L.S.A., London; L.R.C.S., Edinburgh; professor of obstetrics in the medical faculty, Bishop’s College University, physician accoucheur to the Western Hospital, Montreal, succeeds him in his practice. His second son, William B. S. Reddy, B.C.L., is a notary public practising in Montreal.

Harris, Christopher Prince, Merchant, Moncton, New Brunswick, was born at Moncton, county of Westmoreland, New Brunswick, on the 29th of May, 1837. He is the third son of Michael Spurr Harris and Sarah Ann Troop. Mr. Harris, jr., received his education in his native town, and for the past thirty years has been a member of the firm of J. & C. Harris, general merchants. In 1877 he took an active part with his brother and partner, J. L. Harris, and others, in organizing the Moncton Gaslight and Water Company, and also in the construction of the works. He has held the position of a director and also treasurer of the company until the present time. In 1880 he took a similar part in the organization and erection of the works of the Moncton Sugar Refining Company, and has been its treasurer ever since. In 1882 he helped to promote the Moncton Cotton Manufacturing Company, and the construction of its works, and is now one of its leading directors. Although a busy mercantile man, he has found time to devote some of his leisure to Masonry, and has been connected with the order for over twenty-one years. He is a past-master and honorary member of Keith lodge; past-principal Z of Botsford Royal Arch Chapter; a member of the Union De Molay Commandery, of St. John, New Brunswick, and also of other Masonic orders. In religion Mr. Harris is an adherent of the Reformed Episcopal church; and in politics a Liberal-Conservative. He was married on the 8th of October, 1867, to Mary Landon Cowling, eldest daughter of Eben Landon Cowling, justice of the peace. Mr. Harris is a live business man, and has a bright future before him.

Beckwith, Adolphus George, Civil Engineer, Fredericton, New Brunswick, was born at Fredericton, on December 28th, 1839. His parents were the late Hon. John A. Beckwith, M.L.C., and Maria A. Beckwith. (See sketch life of Hon. Mr. Beckwith, in another part of this volume.) Mr. Beckwith was educated at the Collegiate School, Fredericton, and took a partial course at King’s College (now University of New Brunswick), where he studied civil engineering, and received his diploma from Professor Thomas Cregan. He joined the volunteers as a private on their first formation in Fredericton, in 1858, was gazetted ensign in 1st York Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Minchin, in 1861, was lieutenant in 1863, and captain in 1867. He was appointed adjutant of the 71st York Battalion in 1867, and held that position, with the rank of major, from July, 1876, until the retirement of Capt. J. W. Smith, paymaster, in 1881, when he exchanged to the position of paymaster, which he now holds. He holds first and second class certificates from the School of Instruction. Mr. Beckwith is a deputy surveyor of Crown Lands, and was draughtsman in the Crown Lands office from 1866 to 1871, when he was appointed engineer of Public Works, which position he now holds. He performed the duties of Provincial government engineer for two or three years, in addition to his other works. Is at present City engineer of Fredericton. He joined the Free Masons in 1861, in Solomon’s lodge, No. 764, E.R., was master of the lodge in 1865, and secretary of the same, and Hiram lodge, No. 6, N.B.R., for ten years, and on retiring from that office, was presented with a handsome piece of plate by the members. He is also a frater of the encampment of Knights Templar of St. John; a past grand senior deacon of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick, A. F. & A. M. Mr. Beckwith has travelled throughout Canada, the United States and Europe. He is a member of the Church of England. He was married at Brooklyn (New York), in 1865, to Mary Elizabeth, daughter of the late M. B. Marckwald, a merchant of New York. He has only one child living—Freeman Berton, who is in an office in New York.

Sutherland, Rev. Alexander, D.D., Toronto. No man is more widely known throughout this Dominion as an able preacher, a keen debater, a leader in the church courts of his own denomination, and a man of general sympathies and influence in the community, than the subject of this sketch. And his high position he owes to no favouritism of friends or fortune, but, under God, to the native abilities which his strong will and consecrated heart have guided into channels of general usefulness. Alexander Sutherland was born in the township of Guelph, Ontario, September 17th, 1833. His father was Captain Nicholas Sutherland, born in Dundee, Scotland; and his mother, Mary Henderson, a native of Port Glasgow. The family settled in the township of Guelph in 1832. Amid the hardships of pioneer life, opportunities for scholarships were few, and the now learned doctor’s early education was confined to a few terms in a backwood’s school. His good Scotch parents, however, early planted within him a love of learning, and that process of self-culture was begun which has continued through life. As a child he was able to read fluently before ever going to school. When he was nine years of age his father died; and, at thirteen years of age, he was forced to leave home and earn his own living. For seven years he was a printer, and during those years, as indeed from earliest boyhood, he read with avidity whatever came in his way. Thus were those stores of information accumulated which have helped to make their possessor a ready speaker and a formidable opponent on so many diverse subjects and occasions. When about sixteen years old he became connected with a Methodist Sunday-school, and also with temperance organizations, in which he was repeatedly presiding officer. “The child” was indeed “father of the man.” In his nineteenth year he was converted and became a member of the Methodist church. His ability soon displayed itself in connection with the class-meeting and other services of the church, and before long he was licensed as an “exhorter” and then as a “local preacher.” In the year 1855 there was urgent demand for ministers in the Methodist church, and Alexander Sutherland was persuaded to go out “under the chairman,” Rev. L. Warner. He was sent to Clinton, at that time an old-fashioned circuit, thirty miles in length by perhaps eighteen in width, including about twenty preaching services every month. Travelling such an extensive round, preaching so frequently, and at the same time pursuing the Conference course of study requisite before ordination, the young preacher found written preparation for the pulpit impossible, but gained in this hard practical school of oratory an invaluable training in extempore utterance. The next two years were spent on the Berlin circuit. In 1858, young Sutherland enjoyed one year of college training at Victoria College, Cobourg. In 1859 he was received into full connection with the Conference and ordained. In June of the same year he was married to Mary Jane, eldest daughter of Hugh Moore, of Dundas. Of this happy union four sons and three daughters have been the issue. Of the sons, two died in early boyhood. After his marriage, Dr. Sutherland’s pastoral charges were in order—Niagara, Thorold, Drummondville, Hamilton, Yorkville, Richmond street, Toronto, and St. James street, Montreal. During his residence in Toronto he took a very active and efficient part in Sunday-school and temperance work. For some time he was president of the Ontario Temperance and Prohibitory League. His temperance sermons and other efforts in behalf of this cause will not be soon forgotten by those who came under their influence. In 1869 he was elected secretary of Conference, and was re-elected the following year. In 1871 he was appointed, with the Rev. Dr. Sanderson, fraternal delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the United States, which met in Brooklyn in 1872. On this occasion, and on all similar occasions, Dr. Sutherland has done great credit to his church and to his country. In 1873 he was appointed pastor of the St. James street Church, Montreal, and at the Conference of 1874 was elected chairman of the Montreal district. But the Montreal pastorate was brief. At the first General Conference of the Methodist church of Canada, September, 1874, Dr. Sutherland was elected general secretary and clerical treasurer of the Missionary Society, as successor to the Rev. Lachlin Taylor, D.D. This is one of the highest honours in the gift of the Methodist church; the office is one of arduous toil, but affords scope for high abilities. Since that day, Dr. Sutherland has travelled from Newfoundland and the Bermudas to British Columbia, superintending the missionary work and stimulating the missionary zeal of the Methodist church; has for several years published that admirable missionary journal The Missionary Outlook, and has succeeded in increasing the annual income of the society from $118,000 to nearly $200,000. The increased labours of his office have not prevented the missionary secretary from taking an active interest in all the enterprises of the church, and his voice has rung out clear and loud on every great question that has recently agitated the Methodist community. To him more than to any other man does the church owe the success of that mighty movement which culminated in 1883 in the union of all branches of Methodism in this dominion. With tongue and pen he eloquently, earnestly and constantly pleaded for consolidation; and, when all seemed hanging in the balance, his admirable generalship and eloquence in the memorable Union debate in the Toronto Conference, Peterborough, June, 1883, constrained victory to the union side. To have played such a part at such a crisis is no mean claim to grateful and unfading memory. In 1882 Dr. Sutherland was elected president of the Toronto Conference, and again in 1884. In 1881 he was one of the Canadian representatives at the great Methodist Œcumenical Conference, London, England, and was made one of the joint secretaries of that august body. In 1886 he was appointed fraternal delegate to the British Wesleyan Conference, in place of Rev. Dr. Rice, general superintendent, deceased. Dr. Sutherland’s literary activity has been, so far, confined to newspaper and magazine articles and brief pamphlets on questions of the day. His incisive style, his permeating humour, his wide information, his keen insight, render his writing and his speaking alike powerful. A man of immense energy, he has done much to mould the thought and guide the work of his church already, and bids fair to remain one of her most influential leaders for years to come. In May, 1879, the University of Victoria College conferred upon him the well deserved degree of Doctor in Divinity.

Beckwith, Hon. John Adolphus. The late Hon. Mr. Beckwith was born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, on December 1st, 1800, and died November 23rd, 1880. His father, Nehemiah Beckwith, was a loyalist, settled in Fredericton, and built sloops in partnership with the celebrated Benedict Arnold, who, at that time, also resided in Fredericton. Nehemiah Beckwith was married at Fredericton, to Julie Louise LeBrun, a daughter of Jean Baptiste LeBrun, barrister, and proctor at law, etc., of Quebec. Miss LeBrun came to Fredericton from Quebec with the family of Sir Guy Carleton, in the capacity of companion and French governess to Miss Carleton. About 1813, Nehemiah Beckwith purchased a large tract of land in the suburbs of Montreal from Count du Chaillu (father of the great explorer and historian), but his death very soon after, before the deeds were completed, lost him the property and purchase money. This property is now a valuable part of the City of Montreal. Mrs. Beckwith (neé LeBrun) was cousin to Cardinal Richelieu, and aunt to L’Abbé Ferland, professeur d’Histoire, University Laval, Quebec. Hon. John A. Beckwith was cousin to l’Abbé Ferland. Hon. Mr. Beckwith commenced his studies in the old Fredericton Grammar School, and completed them in Montreal and Quebec, graduating as a surveyor and engineer. He was connected with the militia from early manhood, and was for some years in command of the 1st battalion York Militia. For several years he was deputy surveyor general, before responsible government, and was commissioner of the N.B. & N.S. Land Company, from 1860 till his death. He served as mayor of Fredericton in 1863 and 1864, and represented York county in the local legislature from 1866 to 1873, holding the office of provincial secretary and receiver general from 1868 to 1873, when he was appointed to a seat in the Legislative Council. Mr. Beckwith ever took an active interest in the advance of agriculture, and was always one of the committee in Provincial exhibitions. He was at one time grand master of the Orange body of New Brunswick. In religious matters he was a member of the Church of England. He was first married in 1822, to Ann Jewett; and married a second time in 1837, to Maria Ann Berton, whose father, a son of a loyalist, was the first sheriff of York county. His second wife survived him four years.

Macfarlane, Thomas, Chief Analyst, Inland Revenue Department, Ottawa, Ontario, was born on the 5th March, 1834, at Pollokshaws, parish of Eastwood, county of Renfrew, Scotland. His father, Thomas Macfarlane, was a native of Pollokshaws, and his mother, Catherine, was born in the adjoining parish of Mearns. Mr. Macfarlane, jr., was educated in Pollokshaws, at the Andersonian University, Glasgow, and at the Royal Mining School of Freiberg, in Saxony. In the latter school he studied chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy, and geology. After leaving Freiberg in 1857, he travelled through the Erzgebirge and Bohemia, and then went to Norway, as director of the Modum smelting works and Cobalt mines. During his stay in Norway he visited most of the southern part of that country, including Ringerike, Nummedal, Thelemarken and Saetersdal. In 1860 he emigrated to Canada, and took charge of the Acton, and afterwards of the Albert mine in the Eastern Townships, province of Quebec. In 1865-6 Mr. Macfarlane became field-geologist under the late Sir William Logan, and helped that illustrious gentleman on the geological survey of Canada. In the volume of geological reports published in 1866, Mr. Macfarlane supplies reports on Hastings county and the Lake Superior district. In 1868 he explored the Montreal Mining Company’s locations on Lake Superior, and was the discoverer of the celebrated Silver Islet mine. In 1871 he paid a visit to the mining districts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada; and in 1873 he revisited England, and then travelled through Germany and Norway. On his return to Canada, in 1876, he visited Nova Scotia and Cape Breton; also Ecuador and Peru, and published a description of the latter journey under the title of “To the Andes.” In 1879 he spent six months smelting in Leadville, Colorado. In 1881, visited mining districts on the Lower Colorado and in Southern Utah, travelling from Fort Yuma to Salt Lake City. In 1884 he revisited England and Germany; and here we say, Mr. Macfarlane speaks the German, French and Danish languages fluently. In 1886 he was appointed by the Dominion government chief analyst for Canada, and is now settled down at Ottawa. In 1882 he was appointed a member of the Royal Society, Canada, and elected president of the Chemical section in 1886. In 1885 he became a member of the Imperial Federation League, and in February, 1886, and January, 1887, contributed articles to its “Journal.” Mr. Macfarlane has devoted nearly all his life to science, and as a chemist, metallurgist, miner, and explorer, he stands very high. His scientific papers are numerous, and by referring to the pages of The Canadian Naturalist, will be found there on: “Primitive Formation in Norway,” “Acton Copper Mine,” “Eruptive Rocks,” “Copper Extraction,” “Production of Soda and Chlorine,” “Copper-beds of Portage, Lake Michigan,” “Geological Formations of Lake Superior,” “Silver Ore of Wood’s Location,” “Origin of Crystalline Rocks,” “Canadian Geology.” In the pages of “Transactions of the Institute of Mining Engineers,” papers on “Slag Densities,” “Classification of Original Rocks,” “Silver Islet.” And some others in the “Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada.” Mr. Macfarlane was reared a Presbyterian in the U. P. Church of Scotland, and while a young man adopted materialistic views, but has since abandoned them, and is now a member of the Anglican church. He married in September, 1858, Margaret Skelly, niece of Dr. John Litster, Pollokshaws, Scotland, and they have nine children, all living.

Currey, Lemuel Allan, M.A., Barrister-at-law, St. John, New Brunswick, was born at Gagetown, Queens county, on 11th July, 1856. He belongs to a very ancient family, and one of the founders being the Earl Currey, who lived in the time of Cromwell, and owned large estates in Leeds and vicinity, England. His son, John Currey, was born in Leeds in 1688, and came to the city of New York about the year 1700, where he married, and died young of an epidemic, leaving one son, Richard Currey, who was born 4th November, 1709. Richard married a lady of the name of Elizabeth Jones, and removed to Peekskill, on the Hudson, New York state, where he died on March 20, 1806. By this marriage there were three sons and seven daughters born. The eldest son was Joshua Currey, who married Eunice Travis at Peekskill. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, Joshua Currey sided with the British, but the rest of the family sympathised with the colonists. During these troublesome times Mr. Currey had several narrow escapes for his life. At one time he had to hide himself under the floor of his house to escape the fury of the revolutionists, and his son David was nearly killed by them by being buried in a sandpit. Joshua and his family managed to make good their escape, and, joining a band of loyalists, reached St. John, New Brunswick, in October 23, 1783, where he remained one year, and then removed to Gagetown, where he died in 1802. He left large estates in New York state, but he, however, succeeded in carrying away with him in his flight a large sum of money. He had a family of five sons and two daughters. His second son, David Currey, who was born at Peekskill, April 27, 1767, died at Gagetown, August 12, 1827. This gentleman married Dorothy Estey, by whom he had twelve children, one of whom, James Robert Currey, who was born in 1817, was the father of the subject of our sketch, and was by profession a barrister in Gagetown, and registrar of probates, and clerk of the Queens county court. His mother was Sarah Amelia, daughter of Reuben Hoben. Lemuel Allan Currey received his literary education at the Queens County Grammar School, and at the University of New Brunswick, where he graduated in 1876, with honours in the first division, taking a special prize for general proficiency. After graduating he entered as a student-at-law with his father, with whom he studied till 1880, and during said period taught the Queens County Grammar School for two and a-half years. In 1880 he entered Harvard Law School, where he remained one year, taking a special course. He then entered the office of S. Alward, D.C.L., barrister, St. John. Mr. Currey was admitted an attorney in 1882, and a barrister the following year. Since his enrolment he has practised law at St. John. In 1873-4 he attended the Military School at Fredericton, and took a certificate. He is a member of the Young Men’s Liberal-Conservative Club, of St. John, a member of St. George’s Society, and belongs to Union lodge, of Portland, A. F. and A. M. In religion he belongs to the Episcopal church, and in politics is a Conservative.

Burwash, Rev. Nathaniel, S.T.D., Professor of Biblical and Systematic Theology, and Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Victoria University, Cobourg, Ontario, was born in Argenteuil, province of Quebec, on the 25th July, 1839. His father, Adam Burwash, was a descendant of an English family from Burwash, in Sussex; and his mother, Ann Taylor, was from Argyleshire, Scotland, and was the eldest sister of the late Rev. Lachlin Taylor, D.D. His great-grandfather was a United Empire loyalist. Nathaniel received his rudimentary education in the schools of his native place, and then entered Victoria University, where he took the arts course, and graduated B.A. in 1859. He then devoted his time for two years as a Public and Grammar school teacher; and in 1860 entered the ministry of the Methodist church. From this year to 1866 he filled the position of pastor in churches in Belleville, Toronto, and Hamilton. In 1866 he left Canada for a time, and entered Yale College, New Haven, U.S., for the purpose of studying the natural sciences, and having completed his course, he returned home in 1867, and was appointed professor of natural sciences in Victoria University, Cobourg. In 1873 he was promoted to the professorship of Biblical and Systematical Theology, and was also made dean of the faculty of theology in the same institution. This important position he still occupies, and since his appointment fully one-fifth of the entire ministry of the several Western conferences of the Methodist church have been his students. Professor Burwash some years ago took an active interest in the Volunteer movement, and was one of those who risked his life at Ridgeway, in repelling the Fenian hordes who attempted to desecrate Canadian soil. He has travelled a good deal, and has visited several of the universities and educational institutions of Great Britain, France and Germany. The professor has not been an idle man, as the record of his life amply testifies, and to those who would like to peruse some of his literary productions, we recommend them to examine his works on: “Nature, Genesis and Results of Sin”; “Relation of Childhood to the Fall, the Atonement and the Church”; “Wesley’s Doctrinal Standards”; and his “Commentary on Romans.” On the 25th December, 1868, he was married to Margaret Proctor, only daughter of E. M. Proctor, registrar of Lambton, a graduate of the Ladies’ College, Hamilton.

Currie, John Zebulon, A.B., M.D., &c., Fredericton, New Brunswick, was born at Keswick, parish of Douglas, York county, New Brunswick, January 3, 1847. He is the second son of Thomas Gilbert and Patience Currie. Both parents belonged to old loyalist families. His father’s family is descended from John Currie (Currey), who came from Leeds, Yorkshire, England, and settled in New York about A.D. 1700. At the outbreak of the American revolution, Joshua, a son of Richard, refusing to join the insurgents, escaped to the British army, served as a lieutenant in that force, and at the close of the war came to St. John, New Brunswick, with the fall fleet. He brought three sons with him, of whom Richard, the eldest, having married Barbara Dykeman, became the founder of this family in New Brunswick. Dr. Currie’s mother is a daughter of the late Major Abraham Yerxa, who lived at Keswick, York county, N.B. John Yerxa, father of Abraham Yerxa, came from Holland to New York, with his parents, at the age of fourteen years. He was married to Katie Gerow, and throughout the American revolutionary war served as a volunteer in the British army. At the close of the war he came to St. John, N.B., being a member of one of the two regiments that were disbanded and given lands in New Brunswick. When he came to St. John there was but one house where the city now stands. Subsequently he settled upon lands on the Keswick stream, York county, and remained there until his death. Dr. Currie remained at Keswick until about fifteen years of age, and received his preliminary education in the schools of his native parish. When in his sixteenth year he attended the Provincial Normal School in St. John, and at the close of the term of study there, received a second class teacher’s certificate. In 1864, he became a student at the Baptist Seminary, Fredericton, New Brunswick, where he remained two years. In September, 1867, he matriculated at the University of New Brunswick, and pursued the regular course of study there. During his undergraduate course at this institution he was the successful competitor for the scholarship in English Language and Literature, besides taking honours in this and other departments. Having completed the course of study he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in June, 1870. He at once began the study of medicine, entering the medical department of Harvard University, Boston, the same year. Having completed the regular course of study in this institution he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine (M.D., Harvard) in 1873. At the same time he passed the required examination for, and was admitted a fellow of, the Massachusetts Medical Society. He then went to Scotland to complete his professional studies, and matriculated at the University of Edinburgh, and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh. At the completion of the course in the University of Edinburgh he was awarded the first medal in midwifery and diseases of women and children, with the highest standard which had at that time been attained. He also received a special license in the same department. In the College of Physicians and Surgeons he was the successful competitor for the second prize in surgery under Prof. Patrick Heron Watson. He then went to London, England, where he spent some time in visiting the different hospitals and in further professional study. In the latter part of 1874 he returned to Fredericton, N.B., began the practice of his profession, and has remained there ever since. Dr. Currie’s student life was marked by careful study and constantly advanced standing. On June 15, 1881, he was appointed assistant surgeon of the 71st York battalion of the Active Militia of Canada, and on the 25th of December, 1883, was promoted to be surgeon of the same corps, which office he still holds. Dr. Currie is secretary and registrar of the Council of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick, and has constantly held this office since the organization of the council in July, 1881. He is a member of the Provincial Board of Health of New Brunswick, and also secretary of the board; both appointments date from June 1st, 1887, when the Public Health Act went into operation. In virtue of his position as secretary of the Provincial Board of Health, he is chief health officer for the province. Dr. Currie is at present a member of the council of the Associated Alumni of the University of New Brunswick, and has been since June, 1885. He is also a coroner for York county, N.B. This appointment dates from October 17, 1882. He is a member of the New Brunswick Medical Society and of the Canada Medical Association, and at present is vice-president for New Brunswick of the Canada Medical Association. In 1886 he was appointed a delegate from this association to the meeting of the American Health Society, held in Toronto, October, 1886. He is also a member of several secret societies. He became associated with the Independent Order of Oddfellows, August 22, 1881; with the Independent Order of Foresters, October 1, 1881; and with the American Legion of Honour, September 28, 1880. He still continues his membership in, and is physician to, each of these societies. His travels were not important, and only such as were necessary in the prosecution of study or on business. His religious views have always been those held by the Baptist church, but he was not united with any religious society until 1867, when he became a member of the Fredericton Baptist Church. On the 5th of June, 1877, he was married to Helen M. Estey, second daughter of the late Harris S. Estey. The first representative of this family in New Brunswick was Zebulon Estey, who came to New Brunswick from Newburyport, Mass., about 1765. Before leaving Newburyport he was married to Mollie Brown. After coming to New Brunswick they had a large family, one member of which, Nehemiah B. Estey, was great-grandfather of Harris S. Estey. Dr. Currie has been eminently successful in every respect in the practice of his profession. He was the originator and one of the principal promoters of the movement which led to the passage of the New Brunswick Medical Act. He is devoted to his profession, giving his whole time to it, and taking a lively interest in everything which pertains to its well-being.

Elliott, Andrew, Almonte, one of the most enterprising of our woollen manufacturers, was born on the 3rd April, 1809, at Stanishwater, parish of Westerkirk, Eskdale, Scotland. His father, William Elliott, and his mother, Jane Jardine, were both natives of Dumfriesshire, Scotland. Mr. Elliott received his education at the Langholme and Corrie school, near Lockerby, which he left at the age of thirteen, and began the battle of life unaided. In 1834 he came to Canada, and two years after his arrival he began business as a grocer in Galt, Ontario. Here he did a good business, built a distillery, ran it for several years, sold it out, and joined Robert Hunt, of Preston, in the woollen business. In 1853 they changed the factory into a four-set mill, and worked it very successfully for about ten years. About 1864, while Mr. Elliott was in Great Britain buying wool, the mill was burnt down, but on his return he rebuilt it, and associated with him in his new venture (the old partnership having been dissolved) J. L. Hunt and George Stephen (now Sir George Stephen, bart.). The new firm abandoned the manufacture of cloth, and went into that of flax and linseed oil. After spending a great deal of money in importing first-class machinery from Great Britain, Ireland and the United States, and pushing the business for about four years, they found that Canada was unsuited for such an enterprise, and parted with the concern, having lost a considerable sum of money by the venture. Mr. Elliott then sold out all his property in Preston and Galt, and purchased a woollen mill in Almonte, where for the past seventeen years he has successfully prosecuted his business. Mr. Elliott was elected district (Gore district) councillor for the township of Dumfries (Upper Canada), and in 1840 he was chosen the first reeve for the village of Galt, and occupied the position for several years. The late Hon. Robert Baldwin made him a magistrate, and in this capacity he acted for about ten years; and was sent as a delegate from the village of Galt and the township of Dumfries with an address to Lord Elgin, in Montreal, shortly after the destruction of the Parliament buildings by a mob. Mr. Elliott took an active interest in railway extension, and did his share in getting the Great Western Railway Company to build a branch line from Harrisburg to Galt. In his younger days he was a strong supporter of the Baldwin administration, and even supported the late Hon. George Brown, but refused longer to follow him as a party leader when he left the government of the day and formed the “Grit” party; and he has ever since been an opponent of the Reform party. Mr. Elliott has been a Presbyterian from his youth up. In 1839 he married Mary Hanley, a native of the county of Longford, Ireland. He has been a busy man, and now enjoys the fruits of his industry.

Morson, Walter Augustus Ormsby, Barrister, etc., Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born on the 24th December, 1851, at Hamilton, Prince Edward Island. His father, Richard Willock Morson, formerly of the island of Montserrat, in the West Indies, now of Upton, Dundas, Prince Edward Island, was a son of the late Richard Willock Morson, of Montserrat, and nephew of the Hon. Walter Morson, M.D., physician to the late Princess Sophia, daughter of George III. His mother, Elizabeth Codie, daughter of the late Hon. Patrick Codie, of Cascumpec, P. E. Island, and Annabella Stewart, his wife, daughter of the late Dugald Stewart, of Hamilton, P. E. Island. Mr. Morson, jr., received his education at Hamilton, and in 1866 removed to Charlottetown, where he secured employment in the “City Hardware Store.” In this situation he remained until 1872, when he gave up mercantile pursuits, and began the study of law with the Hon. W. W. Sullivan, the present attorney-general and premier of Prince Edward Island. In February, 1877, he was admitted as an attorney of the Supreme Court, and became a member of the firm of Sullivan, Maclean & Morson. In February, 1878, he was called to the bar of the Superior Court and admitted as solicitor of the Court of Chancery. In March, 1877, he was made a notary public. Mr. Maclean having retired from the above firm in 1878, it then became Sullivan & Morson, and so continued until December, 1882, when it was dissolved. Mr. Morson then entered into partnership with the Hon. Neil Macleod, M.A., and this arrangement continued until October, 1883, when Neil Macquarrie, the stipendiary magistrate of Sommerside, was admitted a partner, when the name was changed to MacLeod, Morson & Macquarrie, with offices at Summerside Charlottetown. Mr. Morson was appointed master in Chancery in 1885. In April of the same year, on the death of the Hon. John Longworth, he was appointed clerk of the Crown and prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island, and also registrar of the Court of Chancery, all of which positions he resigned in June, 1885. On the formation of the Prince Edward Island Provisional Brigade of Garrison Artillery, Mr. Morson was appointed adjutant, with rank of lieutenant, 2nd June, 1882; and on the 8th November, 1884, he obtained a first class special course certificate from the Royal School of Artillery in Quebec. He volunteered with two batteries of the brigade for the North West Territory on the outbreak of the rebellion in 1885. Mr. Morson is a busy man, yet he finds time to devote his attention to Masonry. He has been a member of Victoria lodge, No. 383, of the Registry of Scotland, since April 1870, and has held several important offices in his lodge, and been depute master. In religion Mr. Morson is a member of the Episcopal communion, and in politics belongs to the Conservative party. He is a rising man, and has a grand future before him.

Gray, James, Manager of the Merchants Bank of Canada, Perth, Lanark county, Ontario, was born on the 3rd of September, 1820, at Black Hills, parish of Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland. Arthur Gray, the father of the subject of this sketch, was a native of Morayshire, Scotland, and joined the active militia in 1809, and in 1811 was gazetted ensign in the 2nd battalion of the 24th Regiment of the line. In November of the same year he proceeded with his regiment to the Peninsula, where he joined the army under the command of the late Duke of Wellington, and served till the end of the war, during which he was present at the following battles and sieges: In the covering division at the siege and capture of Badejoz; the battle of Salamanca (where he carried the colours); the capture of the Retiro and the siege of Burgos, where he was engaged in the storming of the outer line, on which occasion the battalion suffered so severely that it became necessary to incorporate it in a provisional battalion with the 58th Regiment; on the raising of the siege of Burgos he was the last officer to quit the trenches, having been left with a piquet to see the works blown up at all hazards, and at the imminent risk of being taken prisoner, being fortunate enough, however, to regain his regiment after executing the orders he had received; he commanded a company during the rest of the retreat into Portugal, and suffered great hardships consequent upon such retreat. He was also engaged in the battle of Vittoria, and the actions in the Pyrenees for four successive days, including the attack on the heights of Echellar, where the battalion in which he was serving received on the grounds the thanks of Lord Dalhousie for their gallant conduct. He was also at the battles of Nevelle and Orthes, the investment of Bayonne, besides a great number of affairs of outposts and skirmishes, and was not absent from his battalion for one day during the whole period of these memorable events. On the return of the battalion he was removed to the 1st Battalion of the 24th Regiment, and proceeded to join it in the East Indies in February, 1815. He served with this corps in the Nepaul war, the campaigns of 1815 and 1816, including the battle of Harriagrove; and in the Mahratta campaigns of 1817 and 1818. During the Indian campaign he fell a victim to severe liver disease, and was compelled to return to England in 1819, and on the expiration of his leave in 1820, still being disabled from active duty from this cause, he was retired on half-pay. His health having been restored, in 1839 he was appointed to the first battalion Royal regiment, with which he served at Gibraltar to August, 1841, when Lord Hill removed him to the Royal Canadian rifle regiment. In 1847 he was appointed by His Grace the Duke of Wellington captain in the Ceylon rifle regiment, and proceeded to Ceylon. An insurrection breaking out there he was placed second in command, and shortly after the commander of a corps to scour the jungle and disperse the rebels. In consequence of exposure while on this mission he was attacked with dysentery, and being carried along with his column to Kandy he there died. James Gray received an English and classical education in the St. Andrew’s school of his native shire, and came to Canada in 1844, and settled in Montreal. The same year he entered the service of the Bank of Montreal, in that city. He was over a quarter of a century in the employ of this great monetary institution, and during this time resided in Kingston, Picton, and Perth. In 1868 he resigned his position in the Bank of Montreal, and was appointed manager of the branch of the Merchants Bank in Perth, which position he still occupies with credit to himself and satisfaction to his employers. Mr. Gray is connected with the Presbyterian church; but in politics he takes little interest. He is married to Mary Robinson, a daughter of the late Dr. Moore, of Picton, who, during his lifetime, was a staunch supporter of the late lamented Hon. George Brown, and in sympathy with the political reforms advocated by that great man.

La Mothe, Guillaume Jean Baptiste, Postmaster, Montreal, was born in Montreal on September 24th, 1824. He is the son of Capt. Joseph Maurice La Mothe, who married Marie J. Laframboise, in Montreal, on the 1st February, 1813. Captain Joseph Maurice La Mothe was superintendent of the Indian Department from 1816 until his decease in 1827. He was also captain and in command of the Indian allies at the battle of Chateauguay, and was favourably reported in the orders of the day for gallant conduct. His grandfather was Captain Joseph La Mothe, who was born 26th January, 1742, and married 24th November, 1777, to Catherine Blondeau. In March, 1776, the military commandant in Montreal entrusted Captain J. La Mothe with most important despatches for General Guy Carleton, then besieged in Quebec by the American army. Accompanied by Mr. Papineau (father of the Hon. L. J. Papineau), he started from Montreal on foot, and after a long and dangerous tramp, managing to cross the American lines at night, safely delivered the despatches in proper time, which contributed to the salvation of Quebec. His great-grandfather was Pierre La Mothe, married first to Marie Anne St. Ives, and in January, 1740 (being then a widower), he married Angélique Caron, in Montreal. His father and mother were Bruno La Mothe and Jeanne Le Valois, who came originally from the diocese of Bordeaux, France. The family, whose correct name is de La Mothe (as mentioned in old family documents), was residing in Montreal as early as 1673, and in 1689 Pierre de Saint Paul de La Mothe had the command of the town and island of Montreal. The subject of our sketch received his education at St. Hyacinthe College and at Montreal College. In September, 1852, he received a commission as lieutenant in the Montreal Sedentary Cavalry, but this position he resigned in March, 1854. On the 17th of January, 1856, he was appointed lieutenant in No. 2 troop Militia Cavalry, Montreal, and on the 23rd of April, 1857, was retransferred to and promoted captain in the Sedentary Cavalry of Montreal. On the 7th of November, 1862, he was transferred to and promoted major commanding the Rifle Companies (Police) Active force in Montreal. On the 26th of November, 1861, Captain La Mothe was appointed chief of police for Montreal. This office he held until the 30th January, 1865, when he resigned. He effected the capture of the famous St. Albans raiders a few months previous. And on the 15th of July, 1874, he was appointed to the postmastership of his native city, and this important position he fills to-day. Mr. La Mothe has been actively connected with the development of gold mines in Nova Scotia; copper mines in the Eastern Townships, and iron mines in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where he discovered the magnetic iron ore deposit at Moisie. Upon report made to friends respecting the value of the ore and extent of the deposit, the Moisie Iron Company was formed. This company has manufactured malleable iron pronounced in England and France equal to the best. During the years from 1846 to 1851 inclusive, Mr. La Mothe travelled extensively through England, France, Switzerland, and Italy; and while in England he joined the expedition against Ecuador (South America), which, after putting to sea, was overtaken by a British man-of-war, and brought back to London. He also took part in the French Revolution of 1848, and at the storming of the Tuileries he was one of the first to enter the place. After this event he travelled through Switzerland on foot, then on to Italy, where he married, and then returned to Canada. For fifteen years of his life, Mr. La Mothe was actively engaged in politics on the Liberal side. In religion he is a respected member of the Roman Catholic church. He was married in Florence, Italy, in 1850, to Marguerite de Savoye, and his family consists of one son and four daughters, all living. The son, Henri, is married to Marie, youngest daughter of the late Hon. Judge Bossé, of Quebec. The eldest daughter, Marguerite, is married to Hon. J. R. Thibaudeau, senator for division of Rigaud. His second daughter is married to Henri Hamel, of the firm of J. Hamel & Frère, Quebec. The two youngest daughters, Juliette and Marie, are unmarried.

MacColl, Evan, Kingston, Ontario, was born at Kenmore, Lochfyne-side, Scotland, on the 21st of September, 1808, where he is well-known as the “Mountain Minstrel.” He early developed a taste for poetry, and in 1837 contributed to the Glasgow Gaelic Magazine. The poet gives a very striking account of his first attempt at Gaelic verse. He took into his confidence a young friend, a capital singer, taught him a song without mentioning that he was the author of it, and got him to sing it the same evening at a neighbour’s house at Kenmore. It was received with great applause. From that hour Evan MacColl felt himself a bard and became supremely happy. Some time after he published a small volume of poems in Gaelic, and another in English, which were reviewed by Dr. McLeod, Hugh Miller, the celebrated geologist, and other British critics, in the highest terms of admiration. In 1831 Mr. MacColl’s father, with the rest of his family, emigrated to Canada, but Evan remained behind, and eight years afterwards he accepted a position in the Customs at Liverpool. In 1846 he published a second volume of poems which was even more highly appreciated than the first. Of this work, Dr. Norman McLeod wrote: “Evan MacColl’s poetry is the product of a mind impressed with the beauty and grandeur of the lovely scenes in which his infancy has been nursed. We have no hesitation in saying that this work is that of a man possessed of much poetic genius. Wild, indeed, and sometimes rough are his rhymes and epithets; yet there are thoughts so new and striking—images and comparisons so beautiful and original—feelings so warm and fresh—that stamp this Highland peasant as no ordinary man.” In 1850, in consequence of ill-health, he visited Canada, and while here received an appointment to the Customs at Kingston. He never solicited any favour from the Conservatives, and the overthrow of the Mackenzie government in 1878 effectually quenched his hopes of preferment, and two years afterwards he was superannuated. No man ought to know Mr. MacColl better than his friend, Charles Sangster, a poet of considerable repute, who speaks thus of him in his article in Wilson’s work on Scottish, bards: —

“In private life he is, both by precept and example, all that could be desired. He has an intense love for all that is really good and beautiful, and a true and manly scorn for all that is false, time-serving, or hypocritical; there is no narrow-mindedness, no bigotry in his soul. In the domestic circle, all the warmth in the man’s heart—the full flow of genuine feeling and affection—is ever uppermost. He is a thoroughly earnest man, in whose daily walks and conversation as well as in his actions, Longfellow’s ‘Psalm of Life’ is acted out in verity. In his friendship he is sincere; in his dislikes equally so. He is thoroughly Scottish in his leanings. His national love burns with intensity. In poetry, he is not merely zealous, but enthusiastic, and he carries his natural force of character into all he says and does.”

All his virtues he inherited from his parents. Among Evan MacColl’s old country friends have been John Mackenzie, of “The Beauties;” the late R. Carruthers, LL.D., Hugh Miller, the brothers Sobeiskie Stewart, at Eilean-Aigais, and drank with them out of a cuach, once the property of Prince Charlie; Dugald Moore, author of “Scenes before the Flood,” and “The Bard of the North;” Alexander Rogers, the author of “Behave yourself before Folk,” Rev. Dr. Norman McLeod, Dr. Chambers, Bailey, the author of “Festus;” Leighton, author of “The Christening of the Bairn;” J. Stuart Blackie, the great Edinburgh professor; James Logan, author of “The Scottish Gael;” Fraser, of Fraser’s Magazine, and Hugh Fraser, the publisher of “Leabhar nan Cnoc.” He is a member of the Royal Canadian Literary and Scientific Society, founded by the Marquis of Lorne, and was the guest several times of his lordship and the Princess Louise at Rideau Hall, Ottawa. MacColl has been twice married. Of a family of nine sons and daughters, Evan, the poet’s eldest son, has been educated for the ministry, and is now pastor of the Congregational Church at Middleville, Ontario. His eldest daughter’s productions have merited a very high admiration, and the more youthful members of his family give promise of proving worthy of the stock from whence they sprang. John Massie, of Keene, a brother poet, not having heard from the “Bard of Lock Fyne” for over six weeks after having written him a letter, thus addressed the Limestone City: —

Say, Kingston, tell us where is Evan?

Thy bard o’ pure poetic leaven!

And is he still amang the livin’?

          Or plumed supernal,

Has taen a jink and aff to heaven,

          There sing eternal!

Or if within your bounds you find him,

A’ bruised and broken, skilfu’ bind him;

Or sick, or sair, O! carefu’ mind him,

          Thy darling chiel!

And dinna lat him look behind him

          Until he’s weel.

But if he’s gane, ah, wae’s to me!

His like we never mair shall see,—

Nae servile, whinging coof was he,

          Led by a string,

But noble, gen’rous, fearless, free,

          His sang he’d sing.

Hech, sirs! we badly could bide loss him,

For should this world vindictive toss him.

Or ony hizzie dare to boss him.

          Clean gyte he’d set her;

The deil himsel’, he daur’dna cross him,

          Faith, he ken’d better!

Let any man, o’ any station,

But wink at fraud, or wrong the nation,

E’en gowd, nor place, ’twas nae temptation

          To sic a chiel,—

He’d shortly settle their oration,

          And drub them weel.

Or let them say’t, be’t high or low,

Auld Scotia ever met the foe,

That laid her in the dust fu’ low,

          Right at them see him!

Professor George still rues the blow

          MacColl did gie him.

Is history in Fiction’s grip,

Does Falsehood let her bloodhounds slip,

Crack goes his castigating whip,

          With patriot scorn!

Macaulay laid upon his hip.

          Amidst the corn.

Does English critic meanly itch,

To cast old Ossian in the ditch,

And trail his laurels through the pitch

          Of mind benighted;

Our bardie gies his lugs a twitch

          And sees it righted.

In a’ this warld, there’s no a skellum,

Nor silly self-conceited blellum,

But Evan, lad, wad bravely tell ’em

          The honest truth;

E’en if he kend that they should fell ’im

          Withouten ruth.

Ye feathered things in mournfu’ tune,

Come join my waesome, doleful croon;

Ye dogs that bay the silver moon,

          Your sorrow show it;

And a’ ye tearfu’ starns aboon,

          Bewail our poet.

What though this grasping world, and hard,

May barely grant him just reward,

Still shall his genius blissful starred,

          Effulgent shine,

And endless ages praise the bard

          Of fair Loch Fyne.

Mr. MacColl has many admirers in Canada, in proof of which he has lately issued the third edition of his poems here, and they are having a good sale. His Gaelic Lyrics, lately issued in Edinburgh, is also attracting attention among his countrymen on this side of the Atlantic.

Lake, John Neilson, Stock Broker, Toronto, was born on the fourth concession of the township of Ernesttown, county of Addington, Ontario, on the 19th August, 1834. His great-grandfather and grandfather owned part of Staten Island, New York state, and when the war of independence broke out they took sides with the British, and with sons and sons-in-law fought for their king and country. The family removed to Upper Canada about 1782, and as U. E. loyalists received a grant of 15,000 acres of land, and settled near the village of Bath, west of Kingston. James Lake, the father of the subject of our sketch, was born near Bath in 1791, and with the exception of a short period, he resided, until his death, in the township of Ernesttown. His mother was Margaret Bell, daughter of John Bell, of Ernesttown, who, though a U. E. loyalist, did not remove to Canada until 1810. John, until his sixteenth year, attended school, when he joined his brothers in the carriage business, and at the same time he learned drafting and architecture. At twenty-one he gave up this profession and entered the ministry of the Wesleyan Methodist church as a probationer, and spent the years 1855-6 in the town of Picton; 1857 in Aylmer; 1858 in Ingersoll; 1859 in Hullsville; 1862 in Markham; 1865 in Pickering, followed as stations in succession; but in 1866, in consequence of a peculiar affection of the eye producing double vision, and preventing all study, he was compelled to relinquish the ministry for awhile. In 1869, his health being somewhat improved, he again attempted the ministerial work, and was stationed at the town of Niagara; but in less than twelve months thereafter it became evident that this mode of usefulness could not be continued, and he was reluctantly compelled to abandon the ministry. He moved to Toronto, and in 1870 opened a real estate and loan office, just at the time when the value of property was beginning to improve, and when there were only two real estate brokers in the city. In 1875 he was joined by J. P. Clark, of the town of Brampton, and soon the firm of Lake & Clark became widely known and highly trusted. In 1882 Mr. Lake retired from the firm, and four years later Mr. Clark gave up business, when the firm of Lake & Clark ceased to be longer known as dealers in real estate. During all these years Mr. Lake was very intimately associated with church work, and the Sherbourne Street Methodist Church owes not a little of its success to his labours and generous contributions. In 1881 he was induced by his numerous friends to permit himself to be put in nomination as alderman for St. Thomas ward, and having surrendered his standing as a minister, he consented, and was elected a member of the city council. One year in the council seems to have satisfied Mr. Lake, for although next year he was strongly urged by his St. Thomas ward constituency to again act as their representative, he refused to concede to this request, and retired from municipal politics. Politically Mr. Lake has always been a Reformer, but he is not a person who would support a party without a good and sufficient reason. He has been a member of the Toronto Stock Exchange, and of the Toronto Board of Trade, for many years, and is president of the American Watch Case Company; secretary of the Ontario Folding Steel Gate Company; director of the North American Life Assurance Company, and chairman of the agency committee. He is also treasurer of the Union Relief Fund, and of the Church and Parsonage Aid Fund of the Methodist church; has been treasurer from the beginning of the Sherbourne Street Methodist Church, and was organizer and superintendent of its Sunday school for the first eleven years. Mr. Lake was lately elected chairman of the committee on plans for the new Victoria College buildings to be erected in the Queen’s Park, Toronto, for the Methodist Church, at a cost of about $200,000. We may add that Mr. Lake has done a good deal to improve Toronto during the past fifteen years, having built residences worth about $200,000, in the most improved style of architecture, and his own residence,—286 Sherbourne street—is a model of completeness and convenience. In June, 1859, he was married to Emily Jane, youngest daughter of S. V. R. Douglas, of Burford, Brant county, and granddaughter of the Rev. Thomas Whitehead, a gentleman who occupied a prominent position in the Methodist church from 1790 to 1840.

De Sola, Abraham, LL.D.—The late Dr. de Sola was one of the most distinguished scholars who ever graced an American-Jewish pulpit. His reputation as an Orientalist, theologian and linguist, was not confined to his own people; the profundity and extraordinary intellectual acumen which characterized his numerous writings and researches having won for him wide renown among the savants both of this continent and of Europe. He was descended from a very ancient and celebrated Jewish family, his ancestors having, in their migration from Judea, gradually moved across Northern Africa, until, crossing the Straits of Gibraltar, we find them settled in Spain as early as the close of the sixth century. Here the de Solas became very distinguished in the higher walks of life. They assisted the Saracens, when the mighty sons of the desert overran the Iberian Peninsula, and in return were received in high favour at the court of the Caliphs. The Gothic princes also treated them with distinction; and in Navarre, where a branch of the family settled, Don Bartolomé de Sola attained to such influence as to be ennobled and created a minister of state, and at one time exercised the functions of Viceroy. Another de Sola won renown by his prowess in battle, when fighting under the Infante of Aragon, in the fourteenth century. For several centuries they continued to flourish in Spain, the family being famed for the large number of illustrious men it produced, eminent as authors, rabbis, physicians, and courtiers. In 1492, in consequence of their adherence to Judaism, they suffered the fate of all Spanish Jews, being condemned to exile by the edict of the bigoted Ferdinand and Isabella. They fled to Holland, where they soon again rose to distinction in the world of letters. One member of the family, however, lingered behind in Portugal, eluding the vigilance of his persecutors by professing to become a New Christian (as Jewish converts to Christianity were styled), while he secretly continued to follow Judaism. During several generations some of his descendants continued to reside in Lisbon, where they possessed much wealth, remaining ever true to their ancestral faith, and all resorting to the same hazardous expedient to escape the notice of the Inquisition. But the fact that they often sent their children to Holland, that they might be the better able to follow Judaism, at length aroused the suspicions of the Holy Office; and towards the close of the seventeenth century David de Sola was suddenly pounced upon and incarcerated in the cells of the Inquisition-House. He bore the most frightful tortures heroically, and, as no confession could be forced from his lips, nor aught proved against him, he was released; but his shattered frame never recovered from the terrible agonies he had suffered. Years afterwards the suspicions of the Inquisition were again aroused, and two members of the family were seized, tortured, and having been found guilty of secret adherence to Judaism, suffered death at an Auto-da-Fé. Aaron de Sola (son of the above-mentioned David) was then the head of the Lisbon branch of the family, and, alarmed at the frightful fate of his two relatives, took refuge with his wife and children on an English man-of-war, which then lay at the mouth of the Tagus, only just in time to escape the officers of the Holy Office, who were in pursuit of him. Landed safely in London, by the friendly English captain, Aaron de Sola had no sooner put foot upon free soil, than he openly proclaimed his adherence to the faith which he and his fathers had so long followed in secret. This was in 1749. He proceeded shortly after with his family to Amsterdam, where he took up his abode. His eldest son, David, was the ancestor of the Abraham de Sola who forms the subject of this sketch; while his youngest son, Benjamin, became one of the most eminent practitioners in Holland, and was Court Physician to William V., and the author of numerous medical works. Another son of Aaron de Sola settled in Curaçao, and was the progenitor of that General Juan de Sola who won such high military distinction fighting under Bolivar and Paez in the revolt of the South American Colonies from Spain. In 1690 another member of the family, Isaac de Sola, became famed in London as a preacher and author. Some volumes of his writings are still to be seen among the rare collections of European libraries. Abraham de Sola was born on the 18th September, 1825. His father, David Aaron de Sola, was a very prominent rabbi, celebrated for his theological writings, and had removed from Amsterdam to London, England, early in the present century, where the subject of this sketch was born. His mother was of the illustrious Meldola family, who had furnished leading rabbis to the Jews of Europe for twelve consecutive generations. From childhood Abraham de Sola betrayed a strong inclination for study, and having received a thorough training in those branches which form the usual curriculum of higher education, he turned his attention to theological and linguistic studies, and early laid the foundation of that deep acquaintance with oriental languages and literature which afterwards won him such renown. In 1846 he was offered the position of minister of the Congregation of Portuguese Jews of Montreal, and, having accepted this call, arrived in Canada early in 1847. Here began the great work of his life. Shortly after his advent to Montreal his eloquent sermons in the Synagogue attracted the attention of the Mercantile Library Association, and upon invitation he delivered before this body a series of lectures upon the history of the Jews of England. The interest evoked by these efforts led to his delivering a further course of lectures upon Jewish history before this association the following year, and also before the Mechanics’ Institute. In 1848 he published his “Notes on the Jews of Persia, under Mohammed Shah.” This was followed by “A History of the Jews of Persia,” and within the same year he published his “Lectures on Scripture Zoology” which was succeeded by his “Lectures on the Mosaic Cosmogony.” Shortly afterwards he gave to the world “The Cosmography of Peritsol,” a work which at once attracted great attention and brought its author prominently to the front. It received such favourable notice from leading reviews as to be republished in part by the Occident and other magazines, and translations in various languages were brought out by publishers in foreign countries. As late as 1881 we find it attracting the attention of the learned Chevalier Pesaro, of Italy, in the columns of an Italian review. His next important work “A Commentary on Samuel Hannagid’s Introduction to the Talmud,” displayed a deep and broad acquaintance with rabbinical literature, and was received with marked approbation by the literati of this continent and Europe. His literary labours had now made him a prominent figure among the learned bodies of Montreal, and in 1853 he was appointed Professor of Hebrew and Oriental literature at McGill University, Montreal, a position which he continued to fill with marked ability during the rest of his life, and for which his deep knowledge of Semitic tongues particularly adapted him. He was also a co-labourer of Sir William Dawson in the Natural History Society, as well as at McGill, and did much towards vitalizing and extending the usefulness of that body. In 1853, in conjunction with the Rev. J. J. Lyons, of New York, he published his work on “The Jewish Calendar System,” containing a very exhaustive and abstruse treatise upon the Jewish mode of calculating time by the lunar system. Some years after this he completed one of his greatest and most learned productions, “The Sanitory Institutions of the Hebrews;” a work containing a most elaborate and critical consideration of the rabbinical dietary and hygienic laws, as based upon the Jewish traditional exposition of the hygienic statutes of the Bible, viewed in the light of modern scientific discoveries. The work excited alike the applause of scientists and of rabbinical scholars, and the eminence to which its author had now attained resulted in his having the degree of LL.D. conferred upon him in 1858. Shortly after the publication of “The Sanitory Institutions of the Hebrews,” Dr. de Sola published a supplemental work to it, entitled, “Behemoth Hatemeoth;” and in 1860, when Dr. Hall founded the British American Journal, devoted to the advancement of medical and physical sciences, Dr. de Sola accepted an invitation to assist the publication, and among many others of his writings that appeared in this journal his articles “Upon the Employment of Anæsthetics in cases of Labour, in connection with Jewish Law,” is specially worthy of notice. During the succeeding decade he was particularly active with his pen, bringing out in rapid succession numerous works and treatises, besides constantly lecturing before various literary and scientific associations. Of his writings and lectures at this period the principal ones were: “Scripture Botany,” “Sinaitic Inscriptions,” “Hebrew Numismatics,” “Philological Studies in Hebrew and the Aramaic Languages,” “The Ancient Hebrews as Promoters of the Arts and Sciences,” and “The Rise and Progress of the Great Hebrew Colleges.” For several years he occupied the position of President of the Natural History Society, and in that capacity he received Prince Arthur (now Duke of Connaught) when His Royal Highness visited the society in 1870. His address upon “The Study of Natural Science,” delivered before the Prince upon this occasion, called forth a letter of approbation from Queen Victoria. In 1869 Dr. de Sola completed his valuable historical work entitled, “The Life of Shabethai Tsevi, the Jewish False Messiah.” This was followed by two other important historical works: “The History of the Jews of Poland,” published in 1870, and “The History of the Jews of France,” published one year later. Ever since his arrival in Canada Dr. de Sola had been labouring zealously in every movement that tended to the advancement of the Jewish people. His eloquence as a preacher, added to his intimate knowledge of rabbinical learning, placed him among the very foremost exponents of Jewish thought of the day, and he was recognized as one of the chief leaders of the orthodox Jews of America. Broad-minded and tolerant in all things, he was at the same time strictly orthodox in his Judaism. His deep studies in the paths of science, literature and philology all tended the more to confirm him in his abiding faith in the Book of Books; hence we find that throughout his career he was constantly engaged, both in the pulpit and press, in giving battle to those who would assail the Hebrew Scriptures. Scarcely a work ever left his hands that did not contain many a well directed shaft at the infidel teachings of certain modern sceptics. In the columns of the Jewish press he was particularly active in this respect, and for many years he was a very regular contributor to various Jewish journals, particularly to the Occident of Philadelphia (edited by the gifted Isaac Leeser), with which he was closely identified. He also frequently visited the United States, where his lectures invariably attracted large audiences and brought him into great prominence. In 1872 Dr. de Sola was invited by General Grant’s administration to open the United States Congress with prayer, and for the first time in history the extraordinary spectacle was witnessed of one who was not a subject of the United States nor of the dominant faith—one who was a British subject and a Jew—performing the opening ceremonies at the assembling of Congress at Washington. This high example of liberality upon the part of the government of the United States was generally looked upon as one of the earliest indications of the birth of a more friendly feeling between the United States and Britain, whose relations had then been but recently strained by the Alabama Claims; and Sir Edward Thornton, the British Minister at Washington, as well as Mr. Gladstone—who was then premier,—extended to Dr. de Sola the special approbation and thanks of the British Government. Having purchased the stereotype plates and copyright of Isaac Leeser’s works, Dr. de Sola published about this time a new and carefully revised edition of that author’s English translation of the Bible, according to Jewish authorities. He also brought out a new translation of the Jewish Forms of Prayer, based upon the editions of his father (D. A. de Sola) and of Leeser. These were heavy undertakings, and their completion entailed several years of severe work. In addition to his other arduous duties, Dr. de Sola had now been appointed Hebrew Lecturer at the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and also Lecturer in Spanish Literature at McGill—a literature with which he was particularly familiar. But the heavy strain of such intense application to work at length undermined his naturally strong constitution, and in 1876 his health suddenly gave way. After a year’s rest in Europe he was so far recuperated as to be enabled to partly resume his duties, and in 1878 and 1879 he was again an active contributor to the Hebrew press. Among other of his writings at this time one of the most noteworthy was, “Yehuda Alcharizi, and the Book Tachkemoni.”—In 1880 he produced his last great work, “Saadia Gaon”—a book which gives a vivid picture of the political struggles and literary labours of one who played so important a part at the court of a Prince of the Captivity. But Dr. de Sola’s health was now rapidly failing, and, while in New York, on a visit to his sister, he was prostrated by an attack of illness which finally culminated in his death on June 5th, 1882. The remains were removed to Montreal, and there interred. In his decease the literati of Canada felt that they had been bereft of one of their brightest luminaries, while the Israelites throughout the Dominion mourned the loss of one who had literally built up Judaism in Canada. As his remains were being consigned to their earthly tenement with truth indeed did the officiating rabbi exclaim, “If respect be attached to the name of Jew throughout these Canadas, to Abraham de Sola belongs the chief glory of having gained it.” For thirty-five years he had ruled his co-religionists in his adopted country with a sway that was almost absolute—for his influence extended far beyond his own immediate flock. He had bent every energy to improve and advance his people, and in his death it was felt that there had passed away one who above all others had energized and elevated the Jewish community in Canada. Dr. de Sola was married to Esther Joseph, in 1852, and had several children. His eldest son succeeded him as minister to the Portuguese Jewish congregation at Montreal. His wife’s father—Henry Joseph—was one of the earliest Jewish settlers in Canada, while her brothers stand among the most prominent and most respected citizens of Montreal and Quebec; one of them, Jesse Joseph, being president of the Montreal City Gas Company, president of the Montreal Street Railway Company, and director of the Montreal Telegraph Company; while another brother, Abraham Joseph, of Quebec, was president of the Dominion Board of Trade, first president of the Stadacona Bank, and a director of the St. Lawrence River Navigation Company and of the Gulf Ports Steamship Company. He was nominated for mayor of Quebec some years ago and generally claimed to have been elected. Another brother, J. H. Joseph, has long been director of the Montreal Elevating Company.

Carleton, John Louis, Barrister, St. John, New Brunswick, was born at St. John on 1st October, 1861. His father was William Carleton, and mother, Bridget O’Connor. Mr. Carleton received his education in the schools of the Christian Brothers in his native city, and studied law in the offices of Weldon & McLean, and Allen & Chandler, St. John. He was admitted an attorney in October, 1882, and called to the bar the following year. Mr. Carleton having made the study of criminal law a specialty, he has in consequence been engaged on all the principal criminal cases tried in the province since he began practice, besides many important civil cases. In November, 1886, he was appointed Official Referee in Equity by the Provincial government. For several years he has been an active member and held office in the Father Matthew Association, and in the Irish Literary and Benevolent Association. He is also a member of the Young Men’s Liberal Club. Mr. Carleton is a respected member of the Roman Catholic church, and was married on the 22nd of September, 1886, to Teresa G. Sharkey, of St. John. He is a rising man in his profession, and has a promising future before him.

Finnie, John Thom, M.D., L.R.C.S., Edin., Montreal, was born on the 14th September, 1847, at Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. His father, Robert Finnie, carried on business for many years in Peterhead as tailor and clothier. Dr. Finnie was educated partly in the parish school of his native town, and after coming to Canada continued his studies at the High School and McGill University, Montreal, and graduated from the latter institution as doctor of medicine early in 1869. He then went over to Britain and prosecuted the study of his profession in the hospitals of Edinburgh, London and Paris, and in October, 1869, passed the necessary examination at the Royal College of Surgeons, of Edinburgh, and received from that college the degree in surgery and midwifery. In 1870 he returned to Montreal, and since that time he has successfully practised his profession. The doctor has for many years taken an active part in various societies, national and other kinds, and has on two occasions been elected president of the Montreal Caledonia Society. He has been for several years and now is the president of the Montreal Swimming Club. His large and increasing practice has prevented him from taking any active part in either municipal or provincial politics; yet he is a man of large and liberal ideas, and we have no doubt, if time permitted him, he could be of great practical use to any party with whom he might choose to connect himself. He is an adherent of the Episcopal church. He was married on the 9th of April, 1874, to Amelia, daughter of the late Christopher Healy, and has a family of four children.

Alward, Silas, A.M., D.C.L., M.P.P., Barrister-at-Law, St. John, New Brunswick, was born at New Canaan, Queens county, N.B., on 14th April, 1841. His father, John Alward, a successful agriculturist, was the son of Benjamin Alward, a U. E. loyalist, who emigrated with his family from the state of New Jersey, at the close of the American revolution, and made his home in Queens county, New Brunswick, and there he died at the age of ninety years. The mother of Silas Alward was Mary A. Corey, whose family also settled in New Brunswick, at an early date. Silas received his education at Acadia College, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, and graduated B.A. in 1860, standing at the head of his class. The following remarks may be seen on the records of Acadia College, with regard to Mr. Alward:

“I now come to probably the most brilliant class that ever took the prescribed course at Acadia, the class of 1860. * * * There is Silas Alward, one of the most persevering, indefatigable, attentive students who ever attended college. Of strong physical frame, with great aptitude for study, a good linguist, an ambitious young man, it is not improbable that in his daily and terminal reckoning he stood in his class where the alphabet has placed him dux.”

In 1871, he received the degree of A.M., from Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. After getting through with his college course, he began the study of law in the office of the Hon. Charles N. Skinner, Q.C., now Judge of Probate in St. John; was admitted to practice in 1865, and called to the bar in 1866, since which time he has steadily applied himself to his professional duties, and is now noted for his high legal attainments, and is without doubt an ornament to the bar of New Brunswick. He has been on two occasions president of the St. John Mechanics’ Institute, and is a trustee of the St. John School Board. In 1867, Mr. Alward took a tour through Europe, and spent some time in the cities of Rome and Naples. He afterwards wrote for a St. John newspaper some very interesting articles, descriptive of the various places of note he visited on this occasion. He has since then twice visited the old world. He is well versed in general literature, and occasionally takes the platform as a lecturer. Amongst his favourite lectures we may mention: “Our Western Heritage,” “A Day in the Heart of England,” “The Permanency of British Civilization,” and “The Great Administration.” In February, 1887, Dr. Alward was elected by acclamation to the legislature of New Brunswick, for the city of St. John. In politics, Mr. Alward is a Liberal, and in religious matters, he belongs to the Baptist denomination. On October 12th, 1869, he was married to Emilie, daughter of Peter Wickwire, of Nova Scotia, and sister of Dr. Wickwire, of Halifax. Mrs. Alward died in 1879, leaving no children.

Kellond, Robert Arthur, Solicitor and Attorney for Inventors, Toronto, Ontario, was born in Montreal, Quebec province, on 6th November, 1856. His father belonged to an old Devonshire (England) family, and was the only son of the name who emigrated to Canada about 1850. His grandfather had the honour of fighting under Lord Nelson on board the Victory at the battle of Trafalgar. Robert Arthur received his education at McGill Normal School, and under private tutors in Montreal, and also in England. He was also a pupil of the late Charles Legge, C. E., and was engaged with him in the preliminary surveys and work upon the lines of railway between Montreal and Ottawa, now known as the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canada Atlantic Railway, of which Mr. Legge was chief engineer. Mr. Kellond studied law while in the office of Charles Legge & Co., and paid particular attention to the patent soliciting branch of that firm, and on the death of Mr. Legge, he and his partner, F. H. Reynolds, succeeded to the business of the firm. Mr. Kellond has now in successful operation offices in Montreal, Toronto, and Washington, D.C., United States, and has representatives in nearly all the capitals of Europe. By this means he does a large business as a solicitor and attorney for inventors, and as counsel and expert in patent and trade mark causes, his clientèle including many of the largest manufacturing firms and corporations throughout Canada. He served eleven years in the 3rd battalion Victoria Rifles, of Montreal, and retired in 1886 with the rank of captain. As a Mason he stands high in the order, being past master of Hochelaga lodge, No. 57, Q.R., Montreal; past grand orator of Sovereign Sanctuary of Canada and Newfoundland, 33°, 96°, 90°; is a member of Carnarvon Chapter Royal Arch Masons; Delta Rose Croix Chapter, and Richard Cœur-de-Lion and Odo de St. Amand perceptories of Knights Templar; and is a member of the Rosicrucian Society, and Baltimore Unity of Oddfellows. Politically Mr. Kellond is a Liberal, but since 1878 he has been a supporter of the National Policy and protection to home industries. He has declined several public offices on account of professional duties. In religious matters he is a supporter of the Episcopal church, but nevertheless is an admirer of many of the methods, and social efforts of the Methodist and other independent bodies. He has travelled through most of the southern and western states of the neighbouring Union, and also in England, having a large number of clients and professional associates in both countries. He has two brothers, the eldest of whom was an officer under Lord Wolseley when he went to Fort Garry, and is now a resident of Kentucky, U.S. The other brother is a prominent railroad official in Louisville, Kentucky state. Mr. Kellond was married in 1880 to a daughter of the late Henry Ryan Hurlburt, barrister, Prescott, Ontario.

Maunsell, Lieut.-Col. George J., Deputy-Adjutant General district No. 8, New Brunswick, Commandant of Royal School of Infantry, Infantry School corps, Fredericton, was born at Bally-William House, Rathkeale, county of Limerick, Ireland, on the 25th of August, 1836. His father was George Meanes Maunsell, J.P., of Bally-William House, Limerick county, vide “Burke’s Irish Landed Gentry.” His mother was M. Maunsell, daughter of Rev. J. Stopford, son of the Bishop of Cloyne and Ross, Cork county, and was a descendant of the Lord Courtown family, “Burke’s Peerage.” Lieut.-Col. Maunsell, was educated at home and afterwards studied for the profession of arms, and passed his final examination at Sandhurst Royal Military College in May, 1855, and was gazetted ensign in her Majesty’s fifteenth regiment on the 15th of the same month. He attended a course of instruction in military engineering (branch of senior department of the Royal Military College) at Aldershot in 1857, and was subsequently employed, temporarily, on the staff at Aldershot in connection with this course of instruction. On November 27th, 1857, he was gazetted lieutenant in his regiment, and in 1858-9 attended the course of instruction at the School of Musketry, Hythe, receiving a certificate of the first class, on January 26th, 1859; and on February 10th following was gazetted as instructor of musketry. He was promoted to a captaincy of the Fifteenth regiment on March 12th, 1861, and in 1861-2 was acting adjutant and instructor of musketry at the Eighth Depot Battalion. He sailed for Halifax en route to New Brunswick in January, 1864, and soon embraced an opportunity that offered to see active service in the field, for he was with the army of the Potomac during the whole of the spring campaign of 1865, ending with the capture of Richmond, and was at that time temporarily attached to General Grant’s staff. On Nov. 22, 1865, he was gazetted adjutant-general of militia of New Brunswick, and besides the organizing work was speedily called upon to more arduous duties, for in 1866 came the Fenian invasion, and Colonel Maunsell was engaged in the defence of the western frontier of New Brunswick. In 1868, after confederation, the Militia Act was passed and under it, on Jan. 1st, 1869, Colonel Maunsell was gazetted adjutant-general of the military district No. 8, province of New Brunswick. Between 1871 and 1880 he commanded tactical brigade corps at Fredericton, Woodstock, and Chatham, and attended course of studies at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich (certificate granted). On the 1st April, 1881, Colonel Maunsell was transferred from the command of military district No. 8 to No. 4, with headquarters at Ottawa, and commanded the brigade camps at Ottawa and Brockville, and the School of Instruction (infantry) at Ottawa. On the 21st July, 1883, the Colonel sailed for England, to be attached to her Majesty’s forces at Aldershot for instructional purposes, and while in Europe he visited various towns in Belgium, Germany and France, and also examined several of the battle fields connected with the Franco-German war, in search of information. He returned to Canada in November of the same year, and on 31st December was gazetted commandant of the School of Infantry, Infantry School corps. On the 16th May, 1884, he was re-appointed deputy adjutant general district No. 8, New Brunswick, holding at the same time command of the school and corps which he had successfully organized. In May, 1885, Colonel Maunsell formed a temporary battalion, composed of the School corps and companies (6) active militia of New Brunswick, and (2) of Prince Edward Island for immediate active service in the North-West Territory, and proceeded with this battalion en route to the North-West, but on the 18th of that month was ordered into camp at Sussex, to await further orders. On the 25th May he received the thanks of the authorities, and the different companies were sent to their local headquarters, their services not being further required. In addition to the above Colonel Maunsell served with the fifteenth regiment in several Mediterranean stations, when his regiment was sent to reinforce troops during the Crimean war; and in the years 1855-6 he travelled on foot and on horseback throughout Spain. He has been from youth up an adherent of the Episcopal church. On the 9th August, 1862, Colonel Maunsell married Miss Moony, elder daughter of the late F. E. Moony, J.P., D.L., of “The Doon,” King’s county, Ireland, and has a family of seven children, four sons and three daughters. His eldest son is captain in the 8th regiment P.L. cavalry, New Brunswick, and his eldest daughter is married to J. W. de Courcy O’Grady, of the Bank of Montreal, Ottawa.

Baxter, Robert Gordon, M.D., Moncton, New Brunswick, was born on 28th April, 1847, at Truro, Nova Scotia. His father was John Irving Baxter, born in Annan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in 1803; educated in Pictou, Nova Scotia, and for years was the Presbyterian minister at Onslow, N.S. His mother, Jessie Gordon, was a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Gordon, of Prince Edward Island, whose mother afterwards married the Rev. Dr. McGregor, Presbyterian minister of Pictou, N.S. Dr. Baxter received his early education in Truro, and pursued his medical studies in New York and Philadelphia, and in London, England. In 1868 he began the practice of his profession in Philadelphia, and in the following year removed to Tatamagouche, N.S., and in the summer of 1870 to Moncton, where he has resided since. He has held a lieutenant’s command in the third regiment Colchester County Militia since June 21st, 1865; and was the first chairman of the Board of Health of Moncton. He takes a great interest in public enterprises, especially in agriculture, and was the first to introduce into New Brunswick and bring to public notice the system of ensilage, now so popular in Great Britain, and of so much advantage to stock raisers. He has travelled over the greater part of Canada and the United States, and has visited England, Scotland and several of the continental cities. The doctor is in religion a Presbyterian. On the 29th January, 1872, he was married to Jean McAlister, of Moncton, and has two children, a son and a daughter.

Branchaud, Moise, Q.C., Beauharnois, Quebec province, was born at Beauharnois, on the 6th March, 1827. His father, Jean Baptiste Branchaud, bourgeois, of Beauharnois, and his mother, Louise Primeau, were both descendants of two of the earliest colonists of the Seigniory of Beauharnois. His father died in 1883, at the advanced age of eighty-three, enjoying the esteem and respect of his fellow citizens. Mr. Branchaud was sent, at an early age, to the College of Sainte Thérèse de Blainville, where he made a brilliant course of classical studies. On leaving college he entered the office of the Hon. Lewis T. Drummond, to study law, and he was admitted to the bar on the 27th February, 1849. Immediately after his admission he took up his residence in Beauharnois, where he has practised his profession to this day. At that time there was only a circuit court sitting in the district of Beauharnois, with a jurisdiction of $80.00; this was increased, in 1851, to the sum of $200.00. In consequence of this limited jurisdiction, his professional advancement was but slow. However, when the “Act relative to the division of Lower Canada into districts for the administration of justice” came into force, there was a decided change. By virtue of said act, a Superior Court was established in the district of Beauharnois, with an unlimited jurisdiction in all civil and commercial cases; as well as a criminal court and a circuit court. His practice then took such an extension that, after a few years of assiduous toil, he possessed a competency which enabled him to look tranquilly to the future of his young family. His zeal and honesty in the exercise of his profession was never challenged, either by his numerous clients or his confrères. In 1858 he formed a partnership with Sir John Rose, for the administration of the legal business of the seigniory of Beauharnois, which was then very important and extensive. This partnership existed until the departure of Sir John for London, England. The following letter, written by Sir John before his departure, shows the high esteem in which the baronet held his young partner:

Montreal, 30th September, 1869.

My Dear Branchaud,—A thousand thanks for your kind note, the contents of which affect me very deeply. Every recollection associated with our intercourse is, I can assure you, of the most pleasant character, and I look with great regret at having to say good-bye to so many attached friends. I would have been deeply gratified to have seen you at the dinner, but the expression of your kind wishes will long be remembered by me. That every good thing may attend you is the earnest wish of your sincere friend—John Rose.”

This affectionate letter, coming from such an eminent man as Sir John Rose, who attained such a high position among the most eminent men in England, is preciously preserved by Mr. Branchaud, and the feelings of friendship and esteem he always held towards the baronet are still warm in his heart. During his sojourn in Beauharnois, in the summer of 1858, the Right Honourable Edward Ellice, then proprietor of the seigniory of Beauharnois, showed special marks of honour to Mr. Branchaud. He was invited to all the dinners which he gave, whether to the principal citizens of the place, or to his distinguished visitors from England. On one of these occasions he met Lord Frederick Cavendish, the victim of the Phœnix Park murder, Dublin, and Lord Grosvenor, now Duke of Westminster. They were both very young then, and were going on a hunting expedition to the western prairies. On returning home Mr. Ellice tried to induce him to accompany him, and made him very flattering promises, but the extended practice Mr. Branchaud had acquired did not permit him to accept such an agreeable invitation. He regrets having declined now, for he will never have an opportunity, if he should take a trip to Europe, of forming acquaintances which the high position of Mr. Ellice could have facilitated. He nevertheless keeps a grateful remembrance of the old gentleman, who had so much regard for him. In 1859 Mr. Branchaud married Marie Elizabeth Henrietta Mondelet, a daughter of the Hon. Judge Charles Mondelet, of the city of Montreal, one of the judges of the Superior Court for Lower Canada, and of Dame Maria Elizabeth Henrietta Carter, a daughter of the late Dr. Carter, of Three Rivers. Madame Mondelet was the niece of Captain Brock, a nephew and aide-de-camp to General Brock, and of Dr. Johnston, in his lifetime inspector general of military hospitals in the Ionian Islands; and a first cousin of the late Judge Short, of Sherbrooke. Mr. and Madame Mondelet died many years ago. The Hon. Dominique, Mondelet, a judge at Three Rivers, was the elder brother of Mr. Branchaud’s father-in-law. They were the sons of Dominique Mondelet, a member of the old Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, and also a member of the Executive Council under the administration of Lord Aylmer. In politics M. Branchaud was an advanced liberal in his youth, but his opinions have greatly changed during the last few years. Experience and age always exert a soothing influence on the ideas and sentiments of the generality of men, and Mr. Branchaud did not form an exception to the rule. He would not be so willing, to-day, to endorse the political and social principles formulated in the programme of L’ Avenir, and which were so enthusiastically adopted by the young men who founded that paper. However, Mr. Branchaud thinks one may be liberal without sharing the opinions of the nineteenth century philosophers, and without believing in the omnipotence of universal suffrage to save society—such safety being more certain in the hands of the few than in those of the greater number of its members. The democratic ideas carried to extreme limits will cause the fall of modern empires, as they have produced the fall of the older ones, and what is happening to-day in Europe is only their natural consequences. The actual opinions of Mr. Branchaud do not find favour with either party. His independence of character and his well-known frankness are obstacles which would prevent his success in politics. So for many years he has not engaged actively in them. However, he does not conceal his opinions when called upon to express them. Thus he desires the continuation of Sir John A. Macdonald’s administration because he thinks the national policy would run great dangers in the hands of Mr. Blake, and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company would find very little sympathy with him, in case of necessity. This company, being still in its infancy, may yet want the support of the government, and Mr. Branchaud thinks it would be to the interest of the country to grant such help. It is hardly to be expected that a man who has tried to arrest its progress in each phase of its existence would be kindly disposed towards it at a given moment. At all times he has repudiated the Rielite movement in Lower Canada, as tending to arouse prejudices and race hatreds, and to retard the progress of the country, and the conduct of the government in letting the law take its course, has had his entire approbation, as the only practical way of restoring peace and harmony, which would have been threatened as long as Riel would have lived. In conclusion we may state that Mr. Branchaud has been the promoter of the Beauharnois Junction Railway Company. The road is intended to run from Ste. Martine to Dundee, where it will connect with the American system. The building of this railway will place Beauharnois—undoubtedly a town of future importance, on account of the beauty of her site on the St. Lawrence, and the extent of her water powers—in the first rank among the important cities of the Dominion. Mr. Branchaud has worked for several months to organize the company, and he is confident that his efforts will soon be crowned with success. He was ever ambitious to see his native place prosperous, and in the evening of his life he is happy in the hope that the earnest wish of his heart will soon be gratified. The Hon. James Ferrie is president of the new company, and Mr. Branchaud vice-president.

Irving, James Douglas, Major, and Brigade-Major of Military District No. 12, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born at Charlottetown, on the 12th February, 1844. His father, Robert Blake Irving, was born in Annan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, and emigrated to Prince Edward Island about the year 1832. Here he engaged in the profession of teaching, and in addition took an active interest in politics on the Liberal side until the confederation of the provinces, when party lines having been broken, he became a supporter of the Liberal-Conservative party. He was of a literary turn of mind, and contributed largely to the columns of the Examiner newspaper when it was under the editorial management of the late Hon. Edward Whelan, writing strongly in support of responsible government, free schools, the settlement of the land question by the government purchasing from the proprietors and reselling to tenants, and for confederation. He married in 1843 Joanna Charlotte, a daughter of Thomas Rhodes Hazzard, a U. E. loyalist, who came to Prince Edward Island from Providence, Rhode Island, with his father and family at the conclusion of the war with the revolted colonists. Major Irving received his education in his native parish in the private school taught by his father. On the 26th of March, 1867, he was appointed a lieutenant in the Active Militia of P. E. Island, and was shortly afterwards promoted to a captaincy. After confederation he was given a commission in the Canadian Artillery Militia, and subsequently commanded the P. E. Island provisional brigade of Garrison Artillery. On the 1st of April, 1885, he was appointed brigade-major of Military District No. 12, and this position he at present holds. He was deputy-prothonotary of the Supreme Court of P. E. Island from 1st March, 1871, to 1st April, 1885; registrar of the Court of Chancery, and also that of the Vice-Admiralty Court from 28th March, 1876, to 1st April, 1885; and Clerk of the Crown for P. E. Island from 1st August, 1883, to 1st April, 1885. For many years Major Irving has been an active member of the Caledonian Society, and in general takes a deep interest in all that appertains to his native island.

Creed, Herbert Clifford, Fredericton, was born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 23rd, 1843. His father, George John Creed, of Faversham, Kent, England, was clerk in the Royal Engineer department (with rank of lieutenant), at Halifax, N.S., for thirty-five years. He was the eldest son of Richard Creed, who also was in Her Majesty’s service, as clerk of works, R. E. D., with the rank of captain. Both father and son were, at the time of their decease, retired from active service upon ample pensions. Richard Creed’s youngest daughter was the wife of the late Hon. Jonathan McCully, senator of Canada, and afterwards judge of the Supreme Court. The mother of the subject of this sketch was Susan, eldest daughter of John A. Wellner, of Halifax, N.S., a manufacturer and at one time owner of extensive property in that city and in the county of Hants. He was of a family that came out from England among the original settlers of Halifax, with Governor Cornwallis. Herbert Clifford Creed received his academic education chiefly in the High School connected with Dalhousie College, Halifax. He matriculated in the earliest class of undergraduates in Dalhousie College in 1857, studying till 1860, the college proper having in the meantime been discontinued. In 1861 he entered Acadia College, Wolfville, N.S., and took the regular four years’ course there under the presidency of the late Rev. J. M. Cramp, D.D. He graduated in 1865 with honours in classics, having also held the highest place in his class throughout the whole course. From August, 1860, to June, 1864, Mr. Creed was teacher of French at the Collegiate Academy and Ladies’ Seminary at Wolfville, N.S.; from the autumn of 1865 till the spring of 1869, he filled the position of head master of the County Academy at Sydney, C. B.; and from 1869 till June, 1872, was principal of the Seminary at Yarmouth, N.S. In 1869 the degree of A.M. was conferred upon him. In the following autumn he accepted the principalship of the English High School, Fredericton, N.B., but resigned it at the close of 1873, in order to take a position offered him in the Provincial Normal School of New Brunswick, and here he has continued, with various changes of work, down to the present time. His position now is officially designated as “Mathematical and Science Master, and Instructor in Industrial Drawing,” the term “Professor” not being applied to the instructors or teachers in this Normal school. Mr. Creed was elected a member of the Board of Governors of Acadia College in 1883; a senator of Acadia College in 1882, and secretary of the Senate in 1883; all of which offices he now holds. In 1871 he was made one of the examiners of the college, and filled the position for several years. He is secretary of the Educational Institute of New Brunswick, having been re-elected every year from its organization in 1877; vice-president of the Baptist Convention of the Maritime provinces for the current year; a director of the Baptist Annuity Association of New Brunswick and of the Maritime Baptist Publishing Co. He was at one time president of the Associated Alumni of Acadia College; president of the Fredericton Young Men’s Christian Association, and for eight years secretary of the Fredericton Auxiliary Bible Society. Mr. Creed has been connected with the following among other Temperance societies:—The Sons of Temperance since 1857, and is a P.W.P.; the Temple of Honour and Temperance from 1871 to 1875, and is a P.W.C.T. and past deputy G.W.C.T.; the Temperance Reform Club; the New Brunswick Branch of the Dominion Prohibitory Alliance. He has also been connected with the Masonic order, in which he is a past master; the Independent Order of Oddfellows as a P. G. and a P.D.D.G.M., Independent Order of Foresters, and is at present H.C.R. (presiding officer) of the High Court of New Brunswick; and is a past commander in the American Legion of Honour. Mr. Creed has written largely for the press, for the most part anonymously, on educational topics; on the temperance question; on matters of Christian doctrine and practice, etc; and has also prepared a variety of matter for school texts and other books. On November 4th, 1867, he was married to Jessie S., third daughter of John F. Marsters, of St. John, N.B., customs broker and forwarding agent, and has a family of four children, three sons and a daughter. Mr. Creed has been a member of the Baptist church since he attained his seventeenth year.

Harrison, Thomas, LL.D., President of the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, was born at Sheffield, New Brunswick, on the 24th October, 1839. He is son of Thomas Harrison, by his wife Elizabeth Coburn, and grandson of James Harrison, of the county of Antrim, Ireland, who emigrated to South Carolina in 1767. During the Revolutionary war Lieutenant James Harrison, with his elder brother, Captain Charles Harrison, fought under Sir Henry Clinton, on the British side, and in 1783 these gentlemen came among the loyalists to New Brunswick. Charles Harrison was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the militia of the county of Sunbury, by Governor Thomas Carleton, in 1784, and the two brothers settled at Sheffield, Sunbury county. James Harrison married Charity Cowperthwaite, of a Quaker family from Philadelphia, and in 1806 died, leaving five sons and four daughters. Their descendants are numerous, and are mostly settled in New Brunswick. Thomas Harrison, the subject of our sketch, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, under the tutorship of Dr. Salmon, F.R.S., whose works have for many years been the standard treatises for advanced students in some of the highest branches of modern mathematical science. He was a first honour man in mathematics, and was elected a mathematical scholar in Trinity College in 1863. He also attended law lectures, and took the degrees of B.A. and LL.B. in the University of Dublin in 1864, and afterwards the degrees of M.A. and LL.D. in the same university. In June, 1870, he was appointed professor of the English language and literature and of mental and moral philosophy in the University of New Brunswick. In 1874 he was made, by the Dominion government, superintendent of the meteorological chief station at Fredericton, and in August, 1885, president of the University of New Brunswick, and professor of Mathematics by the Provincial government. Mr. Harrison is a member of the Episcopal church. He married, in 1865, Susan Lois Taylor, daughter of the late John S. Taylor, of Sheffield, N.B., and niece of Sir Leonard Tilley, K.C.M.G., lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. The fruit of this marriage is two sons and a daughter. The eldest son, John Darley Harrison, is a member of the graduating class of 1887 in the University of New Brunswick.

Blanchet, Hon. Joseph Goderic, Collector of Customs, Quebec, is a descendant of one of the first families that came from France to Canada, and is a son of Louis Blanchet, of St. Pierre, Rivière du Sud, and Marguerite Fontaine, whose family came from Picardy, in France. Joseph G. Blanchet, the subject of our sketch, was born at St. Pierre, on the 7th June, 1829, and received his education in the arts at the Quebec Seminary and at the Ste. Anne College. He afterwards studied medicine with his uncle, Jean Baptiste Blanchet, M.D., and for many years practised his profession at Levis, during which time he stood high among his confrères of the medical fraternity. Dr. Blanchet, jr., took an active interest in the militia of his native province, and in 1863 he raised the 17th battalion of Volunteer Militia Infantry, which he commanded, holding the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He had command of the 3rd administrative battalion on the frontier during the St. Albans raid in 1865, and the active militia force on the south shore of the St. Lawrence river, in the Quebec district, during the Fenian raid of the next year, and also in 1871. Dr. Blanchet, during his residence in Levis, occupied many prominent positions. For six years he was its mayor. In 1870 he was elected president of the Cercle de Québec; in 1872 president of the Levis and Kennebec Railway; and in 1873 he was appointed a member of the Catholic section of the Council of Public Instruction for the province of Quebec. Though a busy man, Dr. Blanchet did not neglect the interests of his country. He took an active part in politics, and as early as 1857 he presented himself as a candidate for Levis in the Legislative Assembly of Canada; but, although he made a good run, in the end he was unsuccessful in securing his election. Four years later he again presented himself as a candidate in the same constituency and succeeded, and sat from 1861 until confederation in 1867, when he was returned by acclamation to the House of Commons. There he continued to sit until 1874, being meantime speaker of the House of Assembly of the province of Quebec, from the meeting of the first parliament after confederation, until the dissolution of the second parliament in 1875. The year before this latter date, in consequence of the passing of the law respecting dual representation, he resigned his seat in the House of Commons in order to continue to hold one in the provincial assembly, which he did, as representative for Levis, until the general elections in 1875, when he was defeated. In November of that year, a vacancy having occurred in the representation for Bellechasse, in consequence of the elevation of the sitting member, Mr. Fournier, who had been made a justice of the Supreme Court of the Dominion, he presented himself for election, and was secured this seat; and in September, 1878, he was once more returned for Levis. At the general election held in 1882 he was again returned by his old constituency, but only held the seat for about a year, when he resigned to accept the collectorship of the port of Quebec, and this office he still holds. When the Hon. Mr. Blanchet was speaker of the Quebec House of Assembly, he showed fine talents in that capacity, and made an admirable presiding officer, and some time before the fourth parliament had met, his name was again mentioned in connection with the speakership, he being a Conservative and his party once more in power. On the meeting of the House of Commons in February, 1879, he was unanimously elected speaker of that august body, and the choice proved a wise one, for he soon showed himself an adept in parliamentary rules and tactics, was prompt and impartial, and on his retirement from office carried with him the good will and respect of both sides of the House. In August, 1850, Hon. Mr. Blanchet was married to Emilie, daughter of G. D. Balzaretti, of Milan, Italy, and the fruit of this marriage has been six children, four of whom are dead, three having died in infancy.

Harris, Michael Spurr.—The late Michael Spurr Harris, of Moncton, New Brunswick, who was born at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, September 22nd, 1804, and married, May 11th, 1826, Sarah Ann Troop, of Granville, Annapolis county, N.S., was descended from a long line of ancestors. One of these, Arthur Harris, came from England, and was among the earliest settlers in Duxbury, Plymouth county, Massachusetts. In 1640 he moved to Bridgewater, Mass., and a few years afterwards, about 1656, he took up his residence in Boston, where he died on the 10th June, 1674, leaving a widow and five children. Samuel Harris, a direct descendant of Arthur Harris, married, in 1757, Sarah Cook, in Boston, from whence, about 1763, they emigrated to Nova Scotia, and settled in Annapolis county at a place called Mount Pleasant, near Bridgewater, and here Samuel Harris died in 1801, leaving several children, among others the father of the subject of our sketch, Christopher Prince Harris, who died in Annapolis county, near Digby, 30th January, 1853, and his widow at the same place in 1862. Sarah Cook, wife of Samuel Harris, was a grandchild of Francis Cook, who came with the first Pilgrims from Plymouth, England, to Plymouth, America, in 1620. Six years afterwards her grandfather, on her mother’s side, came out to the Plymouth settlement, and he it was who, in 1676, captured the celebrated Indian chief “Annawan.” Michael Spurr Harris received his early education in the parish schools of Nova Scotia, and passed his boyhood at his father’s home in Digby county, N.S. When quite young he went to St. John, N.B., and entered the employ of Mr. Peterson, a carriage-builder, where, after serving his apprenticeship, he began business; and in 1826 married Sarah Ann Troop, and settled in St. John, continuing his trade of carriage-making. A few years later moving to Norton, Kings county, N.B., he extended his business, and remained there until the fall of 1836, when he moved with his family to Moncton, N.B., then called the Bend of Petitcodiac. Here he became largely interested in the lumber trade and shipping, building and owning vessels and sawmills. He was one of the earliest prominent business men, and foremost in promoting the social, commercial, and industrial welfare of Moncton. Comparatively self-educated, his manner of life did not throw him in conflict with others in political questions; but he held liberal and advanced views on the leading questions of his day, and supported the policy of provincial responsible government, the union of the provinces, and the encouragement of manufactures. He was a magistrate, and held a justice’s court for many years. From about 1840 to 1862 he was very actively engaged in shipbuilding and the shipment of lumber to England, which at that time were the leading industries of the province. His business called him frequently to Great Britain, and he was known among shipping men in Liverpool as a man of strict business integrity. The town of Moncton elected him its mayor in 1859, a position which he filled with much ability. Possessed of strong natural powers, a fine physique, a kindly and courteous manner, and a strong belief in the orthodox Christian faith, he lived a useful and exemplary life, and died at his home in Moncton, January 26th, 1866, of paralysis, a malady which had for some years previous deprived him of the active use of his limbs. His remains are in the family lot at Moncton cemetery.

Bell, Andrew Wilson, Carleton Place, Ontario, was born in the town of Perth, county of Lanark, Ontario, on the 14th February, 1835. His grandfather, the Rev. William Bell, who came from Scotland in 1817, and was the first Presbyterian minister in Perth, died in 1857. His father, John Bell, carried on business in the same town as a merchant from 1828 until 1849, when he died. A. W. Bell received his education in the old district grammar school in Perth, and after leaving school began a busy and useful career. In March, 1885, he commenced business at Douglas, Renfrew county, with Charles Coulter, under the name of Bell, Coulter & Co., general merchants, and next year having admitted into the partnership Thomas Coulter, of Clayton, Lanark, they traded in the villages of Douglas and Eganville under the name of Bell & Coulter, and in Clayton as Coulter & Bell. The partnership was dissolved in the spring of 1858, each partner taking the branch he then had in charge. Mr. Bell was then a resident of Eganville, and in the spring of 1859 he sold out his stock to the Coulters, and removed to Carleton Place for a few months. In the fall of the same year he again began business in Douglas, and in 1862 entered into partnership with Donald Cameron. The new firm did a large local mercantile trade, and sent several rafts of square timber to the Quebec market in 1863-4. This partnership was dissolved in 1864. Mr. Bell, in the years 1858, 1865 and 1866, carried on saw-mills at Eganville and Douglas; and in 1864 and 1865, having joined William Halpenny, in Renfrew, under the name of A. W. Bell & Co., they carried on a general mercantile business. In 1867 Mr. Bell removed from Douglas to Newboro’, Leeds county, and where he bought out the business belonging to John Draffin. In this place he remained until April, 1872, and then took up his abode at Carleton Place. Here he prosecuted his mercantile business until 1875, and then, selling it out to a partner he had admitted in 1873, he retired into private life. In addition to his other business enterprises, Mr. Bell has dealt considerably in real estate in the counties of Lanark and Renfrew, and has bought and sold many thousand acres of farm lands, and built several shops and dwellings in Carleton Place, which he still owns. In 1856 he was appointed postmaster in Eganville, Renfrew county, which position he held until 1859, when he resigned; again, in 1862, he was appointed postmaster of Douglas, in the same county, and resigned in 1867. In March, 1862, he was made clerk of the Seventh Division Court for Lanark and Renfrew, but when these counties were separated in October, 1866, he gave up the position. In 1862 he was made a notary public, and also commissioner for taking affidavits and an issuer of marriage licenses. In 1863 the Government conferred upon him the commission of a justice of the peace. In 1873 the Board of Trade of Ottawa appointed him official assignee for the county of Lanark, and in 1875 the Government appointed him to the same office, and this office he held until the repeal of the Insolvency Act. Mr. Bell also acted in the capacity of creditors’ assignee in the counties of Lanark, Renfrew and Pontiac, and was arbitrator for the Canada Central Railway at Renfrew and at Pembroke, and purchased part of the right of way for the railway company. Mr. Bell was the originator of the Winnipeg and Hudson Bay Railway and Steamship Company,—his name being first in the charter as passed by parliament,—and he also had a hand in procuring two other North-West charters. Mr. Bell is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having joined in June, 1859. He held a commission as lieutenant, and afterwards captain, in the militia, dating from July, 1856. Though brought up as a Presbyterian, Mr. Bell now attends the Episcopal church, his wife being a member of that communion. He married, 27th July, 1857, Jane Andersen, daughter of the late James Gibb, merchant, of Glasgow, Scotland. Mrs. Bell died on 2nd June, 1886.

McIntyre, Right Rev. Peter, D.D., Bishop of Charlottetown, was born at Cable Head, in the parish of St. Peter, Lot 41, Kings county, Prince Edward Island, on the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, June 29th, 1818. His parents, Angus McIntyre and Sarah McKinnon, Scotch Highland Catholics, emigrated from Southwest Inverness-shire to Prince Edward Island, towards the close of the last century. Providence blessed their industry and integrity; and they were enabled not only to have “full and plenty” for a large family of sons and daughters, but also to extend the sacred rites of hospitality to all who came in the way. Mr. McIntyre’s house at Cable Head was one of the principal stations of the late Bishop McEachern in that part of the country—before there was a church at St. Peter’s—and his children were naturally enough brought to the notice of the pious and discerning bishop. The bishop, it is needless to say, entertained a very high regard for Angus McIntyre and his family, and his lordship insisted that the youngest son, little Peter, should be sent to college to be educated for the church. Mr. McIntyre was well aware that the proposed undertaking would be exceedingly heavy, at a time when schools were few and means were not easily obtained. But out of respect for the wishes of his bishop, he generously acted upon the suggestion, and his son Peter was accordingly among the first students at the opening of old St. Andrew’s College. After the death of the good Bishop McEachern, in 1835, young McIntyre expressed a strong desire to be sent to Canada to pursue his studies. This wish was complied with by his kind father, who placed him in the college of St. Hyacinthe, where he remained for five years, entering the Grand Seminary of Quebec in 1840. After a three years’ course at the Grand Seminary he was, on the 26th of February, 1843, ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Signay in the Cathedral of Quebec, and returned to his native diocese the same year. We have been told by an old friend of the family that when young McIntyre first went to college, his father had accumulated quite a large sum in Spanish dollars, and so was enabled to promptly make generous remittances to his son and pay the college bills on presentation. The same good friend also tells us that by the time young “Father McIntyre” returned from Quebec the Spanish dollars were pretty low, but not exhausted. May it not be that the generous manner in which his venerable father furnished him with ample funds until he was able to provide for himself, materially helped to form and develop those generous, hospitable and princely traits of character which we all admire in Bishop McIntyre. The first missionary duties of Father McIntyre were performed as assistant to Father Perry. After a short time, however, he was appointed to the charge of Tignish, Lot 7, the Brae and Cascumpec, with his principal residence at Tignish. There he lived and laboured for seventeen years; and it was there that he first gave evidence of his talent for building. The Acadian French, who form the largest proportion of the Catholic congregation at Tignish, were, at that time, neither rich in this world’s goods nor counted enterprising. Yet to them belongs the very great credit of building, under the direction of Father McIntyre, the first brick church—if we mistake not, the first public building of brick—ever erected in this province—a church which, at this day, is one of the finest on the island. Inspired by their enthusiastic priest, the poor French people made the bricks, hauled them to the site, laid the foundation, and built the church. They had little money, but much zeal; and they were led by a man of rare administrative ability. To the church at Tignish was added a handsome parochial house and a fine convent, both of brick. A church and parochial house were also about the same time built at Brae. The talents and zeal of Father McIntyre were soon recognized by a church which—whatever her faults—is not slow to see and reward true merit. On the death of Bishop Macdonald, he was appointed to preside over the Roman Catholic diocese of Charlottetown, comprising Prince Edward Island and the Magdalen Islands; and on the 15th of August, 1860, he was solemnly consecrated Bishop of Charlottetown. The ceremony was performed by the late Archbishop Connolly, of Halifax, assisted by the late Bishop McKinnon and Bishop Sweeney—the late Bishop Mullock, of St. John’s, Newfoundland, and Bishop Dalton, of Harbour Grace, being also present. Under the administration of Bishop McIntyre great attention has been given to the education of the youth of the Catholic people and to the erection of buildings in which to carry on the work of the church; and the bishop’s talent for building has found scope. The first work of consequence which he undertook was the rebuilding of St. Dunstan’s College. The Catholic population of the island at the time of Bishop McIntyre’s consecration was 35,500. There were only thirteen priests to minister to their spiritual wants. The Catholic population is now about 55,000, and there are thirty-seven priests with well organized missions. The new parishes established by Bishop McIntyre are Cardigan Bridge, Montague Bridge, Cardigan Road, Morrell, South Shore, Hope River, Lot 7, Lot 11, Brae, Palmer Road, Little Pond, Bloomfield, Alberton, Summerside, in Prince Edward Island, and Bassin in the Magdalen Islands, which form part of the diocese. Besides the splendid episcopal residence in Charlottetown, which was much required for the diocese, he has built St. Patrick’s School (one of the finest buildings in the city); St. Teresa’s Church, Cardigan Road; St. Francis’, Little Pond; St. Mary’s, Montague Bridge; St. Andrew’s, St. Peter’s; St. Lawrence’s, Morell; St. Michael’s, Corran Ban Bridge; St. Patrick’s, Fort Augustus; St. Joachim’s, Vernon River; St. Lawrence, South Shore (the first stone church built on the island); St. Anne’s, Hope River; St. Charles, Summerside; St. Mark’s, Lot 7; St. Mary’s, Brae; St. Bridget’s, Lot 11; St. Anthony’s, Bloomfield; SS. Simon and Jude, Tignish; St. Thomas’, Palmer Road; Sacred Heart, Alberton; and in the Magdalen Islands, Notre Dame de la Visitation, Amherst; Etang du Nord, St. Pierre; Bassin, St. François Xavier. This is work enough, one would say, for one prelate and an indefatigable staff of clergymen for one generation; but besides these churches, many of them splendid specimens of architecture, there have been eight conventual establishments erected and founded within the last twenty-five years in various parts of the province, which educate annually thousands of pupils. The chief part of the labour of the churches was done by the zealous people in several of the parishes. In 1877 Bishop McIntyre organized the Central Council of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union, with affiliated societies in every parish of the diocese. He has accomplished a great work in the suppression of intemperance in many parts of the island. In 1878 he founded the City Hospital, which has already done a vast amount of good, and has stimulated others to found another hospital for the sick. His lordship has visited Rome four times since his consecration, and on one occasion extended his journey to the Holy Land. He took part in the Œcumenical Council of 1870, where it was generally conceded that no more imposing figure was seen in the grand procession of churchmen, than that of the venerable and stately Bishop of Charlottetown. In person his lordship is above the medium height, his carriage is stately and his step elastic. His activity is remarkable; few young persons could endure the amount of travelling and fatigue which is constantly undergone by Bishop McIntyre, upon whom it has no ill effect whatever. His voice, which is low and sweet, is so clear that he is easily heard even at a great distance. His prepossessing appearance and courtly manner, no less than his genuine kindness of heart, have made him hosts of friends. He is highly esteemed by Protestants throughout the province, from whom his blameless life and fearless advocacy of what he deems to be right command respect. The bishop takes a great interest in education, and is invariably present, when his duties allow him, at the examinations in his Catholic schools. It is to his lordship’s unflagging energy and zeal that St. Dunstan’s College owes its present hopeful position. Besides providing for their secular instruction, the bishop has always been much interested in the spiritual welfare of the little ones of his flock; it is his delight to preach at the children’s mass on Sundays, when the large congregation of young folk listen to his clear and practical instructions with profit and pleasure. He is a clear, forcible speaker, impressive if not eloquent, with a perfect command of good Anglo-Saxon. Though a zealous prelate, he has never been known to give utterance to any intolerant expression against those differing from him in religious matters. He has been to Charlottetown, and the island generally, a public benefactor. Though drawing close to the seventies, his eye is bright, his lip is firm, and his face fresh. He has a fine constitution, rises between four and five a. m., and has a day’s work done before most Charlottetown folks are out of bed. He has many years of usefulness ahead of him, and hopes not to complete his labours until he shall have built a magnificent cathedral in the metropolis of his province. That such a great worker deserves and receives the gratitude of his own people might be expected, that he should and does command the admiration of all classes is only reasonable; and that he enjoys the esteem of his peers is witnessed by the number of bishops and archbishops who did him honour on the occasion of his silver jubilee, which was celebrated in Charlottetown, on the 12th of August, 1885, amid the congratulations and good wishes of all classes, creeds and nationalities in the community.

Fitzgerald, Rev. David, D.D., Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This reverend and highly respected divine was born at Tralee, in the county of Kerry, Ireland, on the 3rd of December, 1813. He is the eldest surviving son of William Fitzgerald, barrister-at-law of Adrivale, county of Kerry, who married Anne, sole daughter and heiress of the Rev. Robert Minnitt, of Blackfort, county of Tipperary, and rector of Tulla, county of Clare, whose ancestor, Captain John Minnitt, came to the country in the reign of Charles II. One of Mr. Fitzgerald’s ancestors was a captain in King James’ army. This gentleman lived during the reign of six English monarchs, and died at the advanced age of 116 years. Rev. Mr. Fitzgerald was educated at schools in Clonmel and Limerick, and obtained his A.B. degree and divinity testimonium at Trinity College, Dublin. In February, 1843, he married Cherry Christina, second daughter of Rowan Purdon, M.D., a physician of established reputation and extensive practice in Kerry, his native county. His brother, Richard, was a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, and his son, George, was a scholar in the same university. In June, 1845, after a creditable examination by Rev. I. T. Russel, archdeacon of Clogher, he was ordained deacon at Tuam by Lord Plunket, bishop of the diocese, and in 1846 was ordained priest by Lord Riversdale, bishop of Killaloe, on letters dimissory from the bishop of Clogher. He began his ministry as curate to Rev. Geo. Sidney Smith, D.D., ex-fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, at Cooltrain, county of Fermanagh. He then had charge of the district church, at Maguire’s Bridge, in the same county, where as secretary to the Poor Relief Committee of that place, he established a soup kitchen for its famine-stricken inhabitants, and was the means by obtaining subscriptions from absentee landlords and other benevolently disposed persons, with a ton of rice from the Quakers, of providing daily suitable cooked food for four hundred families for several months, and left on his departure over £100 in the hands of the committee to carry on the work. In June, 1847, he came out to Prince Edward Island as assistant minister to Rev. Dr. Jenkins, then rector of St. Paul’s Church. On the retirement of Dr. Jenkins and that of his successor, Rev. C. Lloyd, in 1857, he was appointed rector of the parish, which he served without intermission for thirty-eight years, when in 1885 he retired from active duty. For upwards of twenty years he was a member of the board of education, and a trustee of the Lunatic Asylum, and for some time was chaplain of the Legislative Council. He is the author of several printed sermons and pamphlets, and has delivered lectures on various subjects for several years. In 1881 he took the degrees of A.M., B.D., and D.D., at King’s College, Windsor. On several occasions since his retirement, he has occupied the pulpit in the parish church and in other churches in the province, and hopes while he has the power of utterance to speak a word for the Master and for the edification of his followers. Three of his children have been called from this world, and three remain, viz., Rowan Robert, Q.C., stipendiary magistrate and recorder of Charlottetown; Sidney David, chemist and druggist, now residing at Kansas, U.S.; and Minnitt John, for many years connected with the Union Bank of Charlottetown, now amalgamated with the Nova Scotia bank of Halifax. Mr. Fitgerald’s religious views have undergone no change. He is to-day what he was fifty years ago, an Evangelical churchman. He has been a member of the L. O. A. since 1832, when he became secretary to Calvin lodge, No. 1509, then established in Dublin. In 1848 he joined the order of the Sons of Temperance, and is a member of the National division. He has seen some service and undergone some labour, and trusts that the years already past have not been spent in vain.

Brock, Major-General Sir Isaac, K.B., was the eighth son of John Brock, and was born in the parish of St. Peter’s, Port Guernsey, on the 6th of October, 1769, the same year which gave birth to Napoleon and Wellington. He entered the army as ensign in the 8th Regiment of Infantry by purchase, on the 2nd of March, 1785. In 1790 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and at the close of the same year obtained his captaincy and exchanged into the 49th regiment. In June, 1795, he purchased his majority, and on the 25th of October, 1797, he was gazetted lieutenant-colonel. In a little more than seven years he had risen from the rank of ensign to that of lieutenant-colonel. He served with his regiment in the expedition to Holland under Sir Ralph Abercrombie in 1799. He greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Egmont-of-Zee, where he was wounded. He was second in command of the land forces in the celebrated attack on Copenhagen by Lord Nelson in April, 1801. On its return from Copenhagen the 49th was stationed at Colchester till the spring of 1802, when it was ordered to Canada, where its distinguished commander earned the fame and performed the gallant services which have so endeared his memory to the Canadian people. At Fort George, shortly after his arrival in Canada, Brock quelled an attempted mutiny with great firmness and tact. His regiment soon became one of the most reliable in the service. In 1806 Brock succeeded to the command of the troops in Canada, and took up his residence in Quebec. In 1811 Lieutenant-Governor Gore went to England on leave, and Major-General Brock was appointed administrator of the government,—and thus happened to be the civil as well as the military head of the province of Upper Canada on the outbreak of the war with the United States in 1812. He at once threw himself with great vigour, and with the full force of his soldierly instincts, into preparations for the war. Upper Canada then had a population of only some seventy thousand; the United States had a population of about ten millions. In Upper Canada many of the settlers were aliens from the States—half-hearted, if not absolutely disloyal. The timid viewed the outlook with grave misgivings. In fact, the surroundings were enough to discourage the stoutest heart. It was in these circumstances, entering upon what seemed almost a hopeless struggle, that the noble courage, the unfaltering determination, and the perfect faith in his country, of General Brock shone out with such striking brilliancy. Our Canadian poet, Charles Mair, in his drama of “Tecumseh,” has given fine expression to the spirit which animated Brock, when he puts in his mouth these words: —



“’Tis true our province faces heavy odds:

Of regulars but fifteen hundred men

To guard a frontier of a thousand miles;

Of volunteers what aidance we can draw

From seventy thousand widely scattered souls.

A meagre showing ’gainst the enemy’s,

If numbers be the test. But odds lie not

In numbers only, but in spirit too—

Witness the might of England’s little isle!

And what made England great will keep her so—

The free soul and the valour of her sons;

And what exalts her will sustain you now,

If you contain her courage and her faith.

So not the odds so much are to be feared

As private disaffection, treachery—

Those openers of the door to enemies—

And the poor crouching spirit that gives way

Ere it is forced to yield.”

Brock’s first step on the outbreak of the war was to ask the House of Assembly to suspend the Habeas Corpus Act, which they refused to do by a majority of two votes. He therefore prorogued the House and took prompt measures to resist General Hull, who, with an army of two thousand five hundred men, had invaded the province at Sandwich. The militia were called out, a few disaffected people were ordered out of the country, and at the head of a small force of regulars and Canadian volunteers, only seven hundred in all, with a force of nine hundred Indians under the celebrated chieftain, Tecumseh, Brock crossed the Detroit river and captured Detroit with General Hull’s whole force. His movements were wonderfully rapid. He left York on the 6th of August, 1812, embarked at Long Point on the 8th in small boats for Amherstburg, a distance of two hundred miles, where he arrived on the 13th at midnight. On the 14th he moved to Sandwich; on the 15th demanded Hull’s surrender; opened fire from batteries erected that day; crossed the river during the night, and before mid-day on the 16th Hull surrendered with two thousand five hundred men, thirty-three cannon, a brig-of-war, and immense military stores. This prompt and vigorous action of General Brock was the turning point of our Canadian fortunes. The success was so complete, so brilliant, that it produced an electrical effect throughout Canada. It was the first enterprise in which our militia were engaged, and it aroused the enthusiasm of the loyal, inspired the timid, fired the wavering, and over-awed the disaffected. From that moment Brock became the idol of the Canadian people, and on his return to York, which he reached after an absence of only nineteen days, he was received with heartfelt acclamations. Shortly after, Brock went to Fort George, on the Niagara frontier, where a large hostile force was being gathered to invade the province. On the morning of the 13th of October, 1812, the enemy effected a landing at Queenston Heights. Brock hurried at once to the spot with a very small force he had hurriedly gathered, and with that impetuous and indomitable energy which was his most striking characteristic, made a vigorous attack upon the enemy without waiting for the reinforcements which were hurrying up to his support. He was killed while gallantly leading a charge up the heights. Although this for the moment checked the advance, the loss so roused the feelings of his troops that in a few hours a second attack was made, and one of our most glorious victories won, the whole force of the enemy being killed, wounded, or captured. This ended the campaign in the west, and still further encouraged our people and made possible the final result of the war. No man was ever so mourned by the Upper Canadians as General Brock. A handsome monument was erected to his memory on the field where he gave up his life for Canada. This was destroyed by an act of vandalism on the 17th of April, 1840, but has been replaced by a far more imposing and stately monument which was completed in 1859, and now stands one of the most striking features of the Niagara frontier. General Brock was forty-three years old when he died. He was tall, erect, and well proportioned. In height about six feet two inches. His fine and benevolent countenance was a perfect index of his mind, and his manners were courteous, frank, and engaging, although both denoted a fixedness of purpose which could not be mistaken. As an evidence of the high opinion formed of him by the Canadians, the following extract is quoted from a letter of the late Chief Justice Robinson, who knew the general personally, and served under him at Detroit and Queenston: —

“I do most sincerely believe that no person whom I have ever seen could so instantly have infused, under such discouraging circumstances, into the minds of a whole people the spirit which, though it endured long after his fall, was really caught from him. His honesty, firmness, frankness, benevolence, his earnest warmth of feeling, combined with dignity of manner, and his soldier-like appearance and bearing, all united to give him the ascendancy which he held from the first moment to the last of his command. It seemed to be impressed upon all, and at once, that there could be no hesitation in obeying his call, and that while he lived all was safe. The affection with which the memory of General Brock has ever been regarded in this province is as strong as the feeling of admiration, and these feelings still pervade the whole population.”

Johnson, Hon. Francis Godschall, Judge of the Superior Court of the Province of Quebec, and senior Judge for the district of Montreal, with duties of Chief Justice at the court in Montreal, was born at Oakley House, in Bedfordshire, England, on the 1st of January, 1817. His father, Godschall Johnson, was an officer in the 10th Royal Hussars (then known as the Prince of Wales regiment), and his mother Lucy Bisshopp, was a daughter of Sir Cecil Bisshopp, a prominent man in his day, and a sister of Colonel Cecil Bisshopp, who lost his life in the war with the United States in 1812-14, and was buried at Niagara, Ontario, where his grave can now be seen. The Hon. Judge Johnson received his education at St. Omer, in France, and at Bruges, in Belgium, and came to Canada in 1834. He studied law in the office of the Hon. Justice Day, and was called to the bar in 1839. He began the practice of his profession in Montreal, and in 1846, before he was thirty years of age, was appointed a Queen’s counsel. While practising at the bar this learned judge was noted for his eloquence, and while acting as Crown prosecutor, his splendid talents showed to the best advantage. In 1854, he was appointed recorder of Rupert’s Land, and governor of Assiniboine (now Manitoba), and took up his residence at Fort Garry, where he resided until 1858, when he returned to Montreal. Here he resumed the practice of his profession and continued until 1865, when he received the appointment of judge of the Superior Court, in which position his fine abilities continue to be shown. Being peculiarly fitted for the task in consequence of his previous acquaintance with the country, he was, in 1870, selected by the Dominion government to go to Manitoba, to assist in the organization and establishment of a regular system of government there. He did good service to the state, and remained for about two years—special leave of absence from Quebec province having been given him—acting as recorder of Rupert’s Land, until new courts were established, and as commissioner in hearing and determining the claims made for losses caused during the Riel rebellion of 1869-70. He returned in 1872, and was appointed lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, but declined the honour, considering the position incompatible with the retention of the office of judge. During the time Judge Johnson was practising in Montreal, he held several offices, and was secretary of the commission that revised the Statutes of Lower Canada. He is a member of the Church of England; and was married in September, 1840, to Mary Gates Jones, daughter of Nathaniel Jones, of Montreal. This lady died in July, 1853, and left three children. His second marriage was in March, 1857, to Mary Mills, daughter of John Melliken Mills, of Somersetshire, England, by whom he has also a family of three children. Judge Johnson resides in Montreal.

Desjardins, Dr. Louis Edouard, Montreal, was born at Terrebonne, on the 10th of September, 1837. According to the “Dictionnaire Généalogique” of l’Abbé Tanguay, his ancestors came to the country more than two hundred years ago. He married Mademoiselle Emilie Zaïde Paré, second daughter of Hubert Paré, a partner in the large commercial firm founded by F. Souligny, one of the most important firms of Montreal at that period. Dr. Desjardins entered upon his classical studies at the College Masson, Terrebonne, and terminated them at the Seminary of Nicolet. After practising medicine in Montreal during seven or eight years, he took a first trip to Europe to study ophthalmology. On his return, a year after, he established at the Hôtel-Dieu, of Montreal, a special department for the treatment of eye diseases. In 1872, he made a second voyage to Europe to complete his ophthalmic studies. He followed the clinics of Bowman and Critchett, in London; and of Giraud-Teulon, Wecker, Sichel and Meyer, in Paris. During his sojourn in London, he was admitted a member of the International Congress of Ophthalmology. When he returned to Montreal in 1873, he founded the ophthalmic institute of the Nazareth Asylum, for the gratuitous treatment of the poor suffering from diseases of the eye, and at the same time to give clinics on those diseases to the medical students. It is the first institution of the kind founded in Montreal. He was one of the founders of the “Société Médicale,” and of the journal L’ Union Médicale, to which he was a contributor for many years. This year (1887), in concert with the Hon. Dr. Pâquet, Dr. Hingston, and Dr. Beausoleil, he founded the Gazette Médicale, of Montreal. Since 1870, he has been surgeon-oculist to the Hôtel-Dieu, and professor of ophthalmology at the School of Medicine and Surgery of Montreal. He is one of the founders and one of the supporters of the newspaper, L’Etendard. He advocated, and was chiefly instrumental in bringing about, the nomination of a Royal Commission, in 1883, to institute an inquiry into the affairs of the Catholic schools of Montreal; and before that commission he energetically took the defence of the fathers of families against the encroachments of the school commissioners of that city. In the difficulties which arose between the School of Medicine (Victoria) and Laval University, from 1876, he took an active part in the struggle the school had to sustain for the maintenance of its rights. In consequence of an erroneous interpretation of the decrees of Rome, in relation to the establishment of Laval at Montreal, the Archbishop of Quebec (now Cardinal Taschereau) and nearly all the bishops of the province of Quebec, undertook to destroy the School of Medicine, in order to give more scope to the Laval branch. The school tried, but vainly, to defend its cause with the episcopacy; and in June, 1883, Mgr. Taschereau fulminated against this institution his famous sentence of rebellion against the church. Dr. Desjardins was then delegated to Rome, to appeal from the sentence. Despite this, the bishops of Montreal, St. Hyacinthe, and Sherbrooke in their turn hurled sentences of excommunication against the professors and pupils of the school, and even against the parents who should continue to send their children to it. Once in Rome, Dr. Desjardins was enabled to lay his appeal at the feet of the Holy Father, and obtained a favourable judgment. The order “Suspende omnia,” was sent by a telegram of the Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda to the Bishop of Montreal, on the 24th of August, 1883. In the month of September following, Mgr. Smeulders was delegated by Leo XIII., as Apostolic Commissioner to Canada, with power to definitely settle the difficulties existing between Laval and the school. At the present day the School of Medicine is doing its noble work as in the past, and has more than two hundred pupils.

Dickson, William Welland, M.D., Pembroke, Ontario, was born on the 9th of January, 1841, at Pakenham, county of Renfrew. His father, Samuel Dickson, and mother, Catherine Lowe, were both natives of Ireland. When but eighteen years of age, Mr. Dickson, sen., came to Canada, and like many a young man in those days, was without money, but possessed of a great deal of faith in his own right arm. Shortly after his arrival he married and began to make for himself a home in the township of Pakenham, in Lanark county. Things succeeding, he commenced the manufacture of square timber, and after a while became a successful lumber manufacturer and exporter. He lived and died in the township in which he first settled. William received his education at the Perth Grammar School, Ontario, at Bishop’s College, Lennoxville, Quebec, and pursued his medical studies at McGill College, Montreal, where he graduated. He began the practice of his profession at Portage du Fort, in June, 1863, and in 1866 removed to Pembroke, where he has since resided, and succeeded in building up a paying business. He is also principal in the business conducted by the Dickson Drug Company in the same place. From 1870 to 1874, Dr. Dickson held the position of captain of No. 7 company, 42nd Battalion of Volunteers, and from 1873 to the present time, he has acted as coroner for the county of Renfrew. During the years 1877, ’78, ’79, he had a seat in the town council of Pembroke, and in 1880, ’81, ’82, he was mayor of the same town. From 1881 to 1886, he was one of the examiners of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. Dr. Dickson’s parents were Presbyterians, and he has followed in the same safe path. In 1869, he was married to Jessie Rattray, daughter of D. M. Rattray, of Portage du Fort, province of Quebec.

Stockton, Alfred Augustus, Barrister-at-Law, D.C.L., Ph.D., LL.D., M.P.P. for the city and county of St. John, New Brunswick, residence, St. John, was born November 2nd, 1842, at Studholm, Kings county, N.B. His father is William A. Stockton, of Sussex, Kings county, N.B., and his mother, Sarah, daughter of the late Robert Oldfield, who came to this country from Stockport, England. He is descended on the paternal side from Richard Stockton, who emigrated from Cheshire, England, some years prior to 1660, settled for a short time in Long Island, New York, and afterwards removed to Princeton, New Jersey, where he became the grantee of extensive tracts of land. His great-great-grandfather was Richard Witham Stockton, who was born at Princeton, N.J., in 1733, and was a cousin of his namesake who signed the Declaration of Independence. Richard W. Stockton served under the Crown with the rank of major during the war of the revolution. His son, Andrew Hunter Stockton (Mr. Stockton’s great-grandfather), also served under the Crown, with the rank of lieutenant, throughout the revolutionary war, and at its close they both, with other members of the family, came with the U. E. loyalists to St. John, then known as Parr Town. They were among the original grantees of that city. They subsequently removed to Sussex, Kings county, and became grantees of extensive tracts of land there. His great-grandfather, Lieutenant Andrew Hunter Stockton, was married at St. John (Parr Town) on the 4th day of April, 1784, to Hannah Lester. It was the first marriage which took place at Parr Town. Alfred A. Stockton was educated at the Academy and at the University of Mount Allison College, Sackville, N.B.; graduated B.A. there in 1864, being the valedictorian of his class, and M.A. in 1867. He also graduated LL.B. at Victoria University, Cobourg, Ontario, in 1869; Ph.D., on examination at Illinois Wesleyan University in 1883, and received the degree of D.C.L. from the University of Mount Allison in 1884; also LL.D. in course from Victoria University in 1887. He studied law with his uncle, the late C. W. Stockton, and was admitted to the bar of New Brunswick in Trinity term, 1868, and was for some years senior member of the law firm of A. A. and R. O. Stockton, of St. John, N.B. This legal firm having been dissolved, he is now practising law on his own account. As an advocate and as a speaker, Mr. Stockton stands high, and has done good service for his profession in compiling the rules of the Vice-Admiralty Court of New Brunswick, and editing in 1882, with very extensive notes, “Berton’s Reports of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick.” He is an examiner for degrees at the University of Mount Allison in political economy and constitutional history, and in law at Victoria University; is also registrar of the Court of Vice-Admiralty of New Brunswick; a director of the Provincial Building Society of New Brunswick, and legal adviser of the same; a member of the Board of Governors of the University of Mount Allison College and secretary of the Board; president of the Historical Society of New Brunswick; a member of the Council of the Barristers’ Society of the province; a director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and also its legal adviser and prosecuting counsel. He was at one time a director of the St. John Mechanics’ Institute and corresponding secretary of that corporation. In July, 1883, a vacancy having occurred in the New Brunswick Assembly, in consequence of the death of the Hon. Wm. Elder, LL.D., the provincial secretary, on the 23rd of August following, Mr. Stockton was elected to the House of Assembly to represent the city and county of St. John, to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Elder’s death. He was returned again for the same constituency at the last general election in April, 1886. He was appointed in June, 1887, by the government of New Brunswick, an advisory and honorary member of the commission to report upon the amendment of the “Law and Practice and Constitution of the Courts of that Province.” Mr. Stockton was opposed to the confederation of the provinces under the terms of the Act of Union, but favoured a union of the Maritime provinces. Having been brought up in the old school of New Brunswick Liberals, he is naturally opposed to the policy of protection so-called. He is a Liberal in Dominion politics, and in favour of manhood suffrage, and thinks the lieutenant-governors of the different provinces should be elected by the people of the province at large, and that the Senate of Canada should be elected for a specific term either by the direct vote of the constituencies or by the Provincial legislatures. He has always taken an active interest in higher education, and has written considerable for publication on different subjects. At one time was one of the editors of the Maritime Monthly, since ceased publication, and also a correspondent of La Revue Critique of Montreal, which has also stopped publication. Mr. Stockton for a number of years took an active interest in military affairs, and held a commission as captain in the militia of the province at the time of the union in 1867. He is a past master of the Masonic order, and a member of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick. He is also prominently identified with the temperance reform movement. In religious matters he is a member of the Methodist denomination, and has always belonged to that church, and at present is one of the trustees of the Centenary Methodist Church in St. John. He was married on the 5th September, 1871, to Amelia E., second daughter of the Rev. Humphrey Pickard, D.D., of Sackville, N.B., who was for over a quarter of a century president of the educational institutions at Sackville, and one of the most prominent educationists of the Maritime provinces of Canada.

Cram, John Fairbairn, Wool Merchant and Farmer, Carleton Place, Ontario, was born on October 13, 1833, in the township of Beckwith, county of Lanark, Ontario. His grandfather, Peter Cram, in the year 1820, with his wife, five of his sons and two daughters, left their native village of Comrie, in Perthshire, Scotland, and set out for Canada, to seek their fortune as farmers. After a tedious journey by sea and land, extending over two months, they reached the township of Beckwith, in Lanark, Ontario, where their eldest son John had settled two years before, and had prepared for them a primitive shanty in the woods. Here the family took up their temporary abode, and shortly afterwards, the father and several of his sons selected lands in the eleventh concession of Beckwith. The lots they selected were of good quality, and though heavily timbered, these sturdy Scotch pioneers did not feel the least dismayed, but soon succeeded in making a clearing in the forest, and establishing a comfortable home for themselves. In 1830, James, one of the sons of Peter Cram, and the father of the subject of our sketch, married Janet, daughter of John McPhail, of the township of Drummond, and settled on a lot adjoining his father’s farm, and in course of time this worthy couple were blessed with a family of six sons and three daughters, all of whom are still living, though they and their descendants are now scattered throughout Canada and the United States. The old couple passed away a few years ago, Mr. Cram at the age of eighty-seven years, and Mrs. Cram about ten years younger, both greatly respected and regretted by their numerous relatives and neighbours. John Fairbairn, who was the second eldest son of James Cram, was at the age of seven years sent to a school about three miles from home, and was able to attend pretty regular until May, 1846, when unfortunately his father’s dwelling house, with barn and all other outbuildings, were destroyed by fire, when he had to give up attending school and go to work on the farm. After this he had few opportunities presented him in the way of school learning; and at the age of seventeen left home and apprenticed himself to John Murdock, of Carleton Place, as a tanner, for three years. He honourably served his apprenticeship, and in the spring of 1853, joined in a partnership with his brother, Peter, when they built for themselves a tannery at Appleton, about three miles from Carleton Place. The brothers carried on the tanning business pretty extensively for about sixteen years, when John sold out his interest in the business to Peter, and removing to Carleton Place, erected a wool and pelt establishment for himself. In 1872, Mr. Cram was elected a member of the Board of Education of Carleton Place, and was re-elected continuously for the following twelve years. He occupied a seat in the Municipal Council of the village for eleven years, three of which he presided as reeve. At the end of this period, finding the position too onerous, he declined re-election. Mr. Cram is a total abstainer, and has been connected with the order of the Sons of Temperance, the Good Templars, and the County Temperance Alliance. In religious matters, he is an adherent of the church of his fathers—the Presbyterian church. Twenty-seven years ago he became a member of this church, and for the last eighteen years has been one of its managing committee, and six years ago was elected a deacon of the church. In politics, he is a staunch Reformer, and is president of the Reform Association of Carleton Place. Mr. Cram has been fairly successful in business, and although like many another self-made man, has had his trials and difficulties, yet he can afford to look back on his struggles and say that with the help of God and an indomitable will, I have succeeded in making enough of this world’s goods to enable me to spend the remainder of my days in comfort. In 1865, Mr. Cram was married to Margaret, only surviving daughter of William Wilson, of Appleton. This estimable lady died on the 21st of November, 1886. The fruit of the union was one daughter (deceased) and three sons.

Ross, Alexander Milton, M.D., Montreal, the eminent Canadian philanthropist, scientist and author, has had a career of striking interest. He was born on December 13th, 1832, in Belleville, Ontario. His father, William Ross, was a grandson of Captain Alexander Ross, an officer of General Wolfe’s army of invasion. Captain Ross took part in the battle on the Plains of Abraham, which resulted in the defeat of the French and the conquest of all Canada. He subsequently received a grant of lands from the Crown, and settled in Prince Edward County, Upper Canada, where he lived until his death, which occurred in 1805. Captain Alexander Ross was a grandson of Alexander Ross, laird of Balnagown, Ross-shire, Scotland, who descended in a direct line from Hugh Ross, of Rariches, second son of Hugh, the sixth and last Earl of Ross, of the old family. Dr. Ross’s grandmother, on his father’s side, was Hannah Prudence Williams, a descendant of Roger Williams (1595-1683), the famous liberal preacher, and apostle of freedom, of Rhode Island. His mother, Frederika Grant, was the youngest daughter of John Grant of the British army, who died from wounds received at Niagara, in the war of 1812-1814. His maternal grandmother was Mary Jenks, a daughter of Joseph Jenks, colonial governor of Rhode Island. Governor Jenks has left a famous record of public services. He was speaker of the House of Representatives of Rhode Island, from Oct., 1698, to 1708; deputy governor from May, 1715, to May, 1727; governor from May, 1727, to May, 1732. He was a staunch and persistent friend and advocate of political and religious liberty. In his boyhood Dr. Ross made his way to New York city, and after struggling with many adversities, became a compositor in the office of the Evening Post, then edited and owned by William Cullen Bryant, the poet. Mr. Bryant became much interested in young Ross, and ever after remained his steadfast friend. It was during this period that he became acquainted with General Garibaldi, who at that time was a resident of New York, and employed in making candles. This acquaintance soon ripened into a warm friendship, which continued unbroken down to Garibaldi’s death in 1882. It was through Dr. Ross’s efforts in 1874 that Garibaldi obtained his pension from the Italian government. In 1851 Dr. Ross began the study of medicine, under the direction of the eminent Dr. Valentine Mott, and subsequently under Dr. Trall, the celebrated hygienic physician. After four years of unremitting toil, working as compositor during the day and studying medicine at night, he received his degree of M.D. in 1855, and shortly after received the appointment of surgeon in the army of Nicaragua, then commanded by General William Walker. He subsequently became actively and earnestly engaged in the anti-slavery struggle in the United States, which culminated in the liberation from bondage of four millions of slaves. Dr. Ross was a personal friend and co-worker of Captain John Brown, the martyr. Although Dr. Ross’s sphere of labour in that great struggle for human freedom was less public than that of many other workers in the cause, it was not less important, and required the exercise of greater caution, courage and determination, and also involved greater personal risks. Senator Wade, vice-president of the United States, said, in speaking of the abolitionists:—“Never in the history of the world did the same number of men perform so great an amount of good for the human race and for their country as the once despised abolitionists, and it is my duty to add that no one of their number submitted to greater privations, perils or sacrifices, or did more in the great and noble work than Alexander Ross.” He has received the benediction of the philanthropist and poet, Whittier, in the following noble words, which find their echo in the hearts of thousands: —

          DR. A. M. ROSS.


For his steadfast strength and courage

  In a dark and evil time,

When the Golden Rule was treason,

  And to feed the hungry, crime.


For the poor slave’s hope and refuge,

  When the hound was on his track,

And saint and sinner, state and church,

  Joined hands to send him back.


Blessings upon him!—What he did

  For each sad, suffering one,

Chained, hunted, scourged and bleeding,

  Unto our Lord was done.

                        John G. Whittier,

    Secretary of the Convention in 1833,

which formed the American Anti-Slavery Society.

The sincere radical abolitionists, with whom Dr. Ross was labouring, were despised, hated and ostracised by the rich, the powerful and the so-called higher classes; but Dr. Ross always possessed the courage of his opinions, and prefers the approval of his own conscience to the smiles or favours of men. During the Southern rebellion he was employed by President Lincoln as confidential correspondent in Canada, and rendered very important services to the United States government. For this he received the special thanks of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward. When the war ended, with the downfall of the Confederacy, Dr. Ross offered his services to President Juarez, of Mexico, and received the appointment of surgeon in the Republican army. The capture of Maximilian, and the speedy overthrow of the empire, rendered Dr. Ross’s services unnecessary, and he returned to Canada and to the congenial and more peaceful pursuits of a naturalist. The object of his ambition now was to collect and classify the fauna and flora of his native country, a labour never before attempted by a Canadian. He has collected and classified five hundred and seventy species of birds that regularly or occasionally visit the Dominion of Canada; two hundred and forty species of eggs of birds that breed in Canada; two hundred and forty-seven species of mammals, reptiles, and fresh water fish; three thousand four hundred species of insects; and two thousand species of Canadian flora. The Montreal Herald of August 19, 1884, says:—“Dr. Ross has been a member of the British Association of Science for the last fourteen years, and of the French and American Associations for the past ten years. The following brief sketch will, therefore, prove doubly interesting in view of the approaching gathering of scientific men (meeting of the British Association, Sept., 1884), in this city. He has devoted special attention to the ornithology, ichthyology, botany and entomology of Canada; has personally made large and valuable collections of the fauna and flora of Canada; has enriched by his contributions the natural history museums of Paris, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Rome, Athens, Dresden, Lisbon, Teheran and Cairo, with collections of Canadian fauna and flora. He is author of “Birds of Canada” (1872), “Butterflies and Moths of Canada” (1873), “Flora of Canada” (1873), “Forest Trees of Canada” (1874), “Mammals, Reptiles, and Fresh water Fishes of Canada” (1878), “Recollections of an Abolitionist” (1867), “Ferns and Wild Flowers of Canada” (1877), “Friendly Words to Boys and Young Men” (1884), “Vaccination a Medical Delusion” (1885), and “Natural Diet of Man” (1886). He received the degrees of M.D. (1855), and M.A. (1867); and was knighted by the Emperor of Russia (1876), King of Italy (1876), King of Greece (1876), King of Portugal (1877), King of Saxony (1876), and received the Medal of Merit from the Shah of Persia (1884), the decoration of honour from the Khedive of Egypt (1884), and the decoration of the Académie Française from the government of France (1879). He was offered (and declined) the title of baron by the King of Bavaria, in recognition of his labours as a naturalist, and was appointed consul to Canada by the King of Belgium and the King of Denmark. Dr. Ross was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and the Linnean and Zoological Societies of England; the Royal Societies of Antiquaries of Denmark and Greece; the Imperial Society of Naturalists of Russia; the Imperial Botanical and Zoological Society of Austria; the Royal Academy of Science of Palermo, Italy; a member of the Entomological Societies of Russia, Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Bohemia and Wurtemburg; member of the Hygienic Societies of France, Germany and Switzerland; honorary member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, and member of the European Congress of Ornithology. For several years past Dr. Ross has laboured with his characteristic zeal and energy in behalf of moral and physical reform. He is the founder (1880) of the Canadian Society for the Diffusion of Physiological Knowledge, and enlisted the sympathy and active support of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Earl Shaftesbury, the Archbishop of Toronto, and two hundred and forty clergymen of different denominations, and three hundred Canadian school-teachers in the work of distributing his tracts on “The Evils Arising from Unphysiological Habits in Youth”; over one million copies of these tracts were distributed among the youth of Britain and Canada, calling forth thousands of letters expressing gratitude from parents and friends of the young. Dr. Ross is one of the founders of the St. Louis Hygienic College of Physicians and Surgeons, in which he is professor of hygiene, sanitation and physiology. He is always on the side of the poor and the oppressed, no matter how unpopular the cause may be. He does his duty as he sees it, regardless of consequences to himself. The philanthropic Quakeress, Lucretia Jenks, thus speaks of Dr. Ross: —

No, friend Ross! thou art not old;

A heart so true, so kind, so bold,

As in thy bosom throbs to-day,

Never! never! will decay.


Some I know, but half thy years,

Are quite deaf to all that cheers;

They are dumb when they should speak,

And blind to all the poor and weak.

There are none I know, in sooth,

Who part so slowly with their youth,

As men like thee, who take delight

In helping others to live right.


           Lucretia Jenks.

   Rhode Island, 22, 11mo., 1885.

When Dr. Ross had attained his fiftieth birthday, he was the recipient of many tokens of regard and congratulations from friends and co-workers. From the poet Whittier the following: —

Dear Friend—Thy fifty years have not been idle ones, but filled with good works; I hope another half century may be added to them.

From Wendell Phillips:—

My dear Ross—Measured by the good you have done in your fifty years, you have already lived a century.

From Harriet Beecher Stowe:—

Dear Dr. Ross—As you look back over your fifty years, what a comfort to you must be the reflection that you have saved so many from the horrors of slavery.

During the small-pox epidemic in Montreal in 1885 Dr. Ross was a prominent opponent of vaccination, declaring that it was not only useless as a preventive of small-pox, but that it propagated the disease when practised during the existence of an epidemic. In place of vaccination, he strongly advocates the strict enforcement of sanitation and isolation. He maintains that personal and municipal cleanliness is the only scientific safeguard against zymotic diseases. When the authorities attempted to enforce vaccination by fines and imprisonment, Dr. Ross organized the Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League, and successfully resisted what he considered an outrage on human rights. Dr. Ross is a radical reformer in religion, medicine, politics, sociology and dietetics, and a total abstainer from intoxicants and tobacco. He is a graduate of the allopathic, hydropathic, eclectic and botanic systems of medicine, and a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba.

Ellis, William, Superintendent of the Welland Canal, St. Catharines, Ontario, was born near London, England, on the 31st August, 1826, and came to Canada in 1853, to take charge of the construction of an eighty-two mile section of the Grand Trunk Railway. His father and mother, Thomas and Margaret Ellis, were members of two old Yorkshire families. William Ellis received his education in Cheshunt, Herts, and London, England. Before coming to Canada, he acted in England as engineer and contractor’s agent on various railway works, and in Canada on the Grand Trunk Railway; and during the last seven years he has been superintendent of the Welland canal. While a resident of Prescott in 1861, he was elected town councillor; and in 1864, he was chosen mayor. For three years in succession he was president of the Prescott Mechanics’ Institute, the Grenville County Agricultural Society, the Prescott Board of School Trustees, and the Prescott Choral Society. At present he is and has been for the past three years president of the St. Catharines Philharmonic Society. Mr. Ellis belongs to the Episcopal church, and occupies a prominent position in the denomination. He was for three years churchwarden while in Prescott, and for twenty-one years lay delegate for that parish. For St. Catharines, he has been lay delegate for six years, and is also churchwarden of St. George’s Church, and warden of St. George’s Guild. During the Fenian troubles in 1866, Mr. Ellis served as lieutenant in the Garrison Artillery in Prescott, and retired from military service on the disbandment of his company. He has travelled a good deal, and has twice visited France. He has been married twice. First, in October, 1855, to M. E. A. Jessup, of Prescott, daughter of Edward Jessup, formerly M.P., for the Johnstown district. This lady died, leaving a family of two children. The son has graduated M.D. in McGill University. He married the second time in May, 1886, to M. A. A. Bryant, daughter of Shettelworth Bryant, of Blackheath (Eng.), and cousin of Colonel Bryant, St. Leonards, England.

Call, Robert Randolph, Newcastle, New Brunswick, was born in Newcastle, Miramichi, N.B., September 12, 1837. His father, Obadiah Call, was a native of the state of Maine, having been born in the village of Dresden, August 1, 1800, and is still alive. Margaret Burke, his mother, was born in Limerick, Ireland, in 1810, and came to Miramichi with her father, who was a house-carpenter, shortly after the great fire in 1825. She died on the 10th of May, 1877. Robert, the subject of this sketch, was educated at the Grammar School of Newcastle, and soon after leaving this institution developed an aptitude for business. In 1871, in company with John C. Miller, he built the side-wheel steamer New Era, and established the first line of passenger steamers that ran on the Miramichi river. During the past twenty-five years he has been interested in the steamboat business, and occupied the position of agent for the Quebec and Gulf Ports Steamship Company, and for other lines of steamers that have called at the port of Newcastle. On November 26, 1866, he received the appointment of United States Consular Agent at Newcastle. In June, 1867, was elected chairman of the Northumberland County Almshouse Commissioners; and in January, 1874, was made a member of the board of Pilotage Commissioners for the Miramichi district of New Brunswick, under the Pilotage Act, which then came into force, and was chosen its secretary-treasurer. Mr. Call is owner of the gas works in his native town, and they are operated under his own immediate direction. On the 9th September, 1865, he was appointed a lieutenant in the 2nd battalion Northumberland County Militia; and on October 1st, 1868, at a public meeting held in the town of Newcastle for the purpose of organizing a battery, was chosen captain of the Newcastle Field Battery of Artillery, and was gazetted as such on the 18th December of the same year. On the 18th December, 1873, he was made major, and lieutenant-colonel on the 4th February, 1885. He still retains the command of this battery, which he was mainly instrumental in raising. In 1875 this corps was called into active service during the school riots in Caraquet, Gloucester county. Lieutenant-Colonel Call, with Lieutenant Mitchell second in command, and part of the battery, in all forty-six persons, with horses, sleds, two nine-pounder guns, ammunition, etc., left Newcastle on the afternoon of the 28th January for Bathurst, the shire town of Gloucester county, and had to traverse a distance of fifty-five miles through a comparatively desolate country. The weather was very unsettled, and more severe than it had been for years. The snow was fully four feet deep on the level, while in many places it was drifted so badly that the men had to shovel for hours before the teams could pass. They, however, after experiencing great fatigue, and with hard labour, succeeded in reaching their destination on the evening of the 29th, having accomplished the journey in twenty-eight hours, without resting, except while the horses were being fed on the road, the men in the meantime keeping their seats on the sleds, and eating the provisions they had brought from home with them. On their arrival in Bathurst they found that twenty-six of the leading rioters had been safely lodged in the jail there. The infantry that followed them proceeded to Caraquet. Here the battery remained for about six weeks, making the court house their barracks, until the excitement was calmed down and quiet was restored. Mr. Call became a member of Northumberland lodge, A. F. and A. Masons, in 1863, and in the years 1866 and 1867 was master of the lodge. In 1873 he was appointed representative to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey. He is also a member of the Northumberland Highland Society, and one of its vice-presidents. He has travelled a good deal, having visited England for his health in 1863, going over and returning in a sailing vessel. In 1881 he went, via Lake Superior, to Rainy River, Lake of the Woods, Winnipeg, etc., to Portage la Prairie, then the extreme end of the Canadian Pacific Railway, for the purpose of having a look at this wonderful country, and has taken an occasional trip to the United States. Mr. Call is a Presbyterian, is one of the Trustees of St. James’ Church, and has been its secretary and treasurer since 1874. He was married, May 21st, 1862, to Annie Rankin Nevin, who was born in Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Scotland, on 5th December, 1836.

Dowdall, James.—The deceased, James Dowdall, who for many years practised as a Barrister-at-Law in the town of Almonte, Ontario, was born at Perth, county of Lanark, on the 31st December, 1853, and died on the 27th October, 1885. His father, Edward Dowdall, was a son of the deceased Patrick Dowdall, a reputable and well-educated magistrate of the township of Drummond, in the county of Lanark; and his mother, Mary O’Connor, was a daughter of an equally respected and literary farmer of Drummond township,—Denis O’Connor, who was successful in life, and died February, 1887. James Dowdall received his education at the Public and High schools of Almonte, to which town his parents removed when he was four years of age. In 1872 he commenced his law course with Joseph Jamieson, M.P., Almonte, and concluded his studies in the office of Hon. Edward Blake, at Toronto, and was called to the bar in 1877. He then formed a partnership with D. G. Macdonell, and the firm in a very short time attained to a high position in the legal fraternity, and secured a large share of public support. He was president of several literary, debating, benevolent and other societies, from his seventeenth year continuously until his death in 1885. He also occupied the position of president of the local Reform Association; was founder and president of the Almonte branch of the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association; chairman of the Separate School Board; had a seat on the High School Board; and for years sat in the town council. He had a very large law practice, and for years previous and up to his demise was Crown counsel for the counties of Lanark and Renfrew. Mr. Dowdall was a public spirited man, and took an active part in everything that went to improve his native place and the surrounding district. He was a staunch Reformer, and took an intelligent interest in politics. As a speaker, he was eloquent and argumentative, and travelled through Lanark and other counties in Ontario during several local and federal election campaigns, and did good work for his party. In 1879 he married Onogh T. Nogle, daughter of the late William Nogle, and left a family of children. The Almonte Gazette thus alludes to his death:—“Mr. Dowdall was an able antagonist in court, quick to see the weak points in an opponent’s case, and no less expert in concealing his own. These qualities, as well as his careful study of the law in each case, made him a generally successful lawyer in court, while his knowledge of human nature gave him great advantage in cross-examination. Had his life been spared there is no doubt he would have risen to the highest point in his profession. His many good qualities more particularly demand our grateful recognition. Many a battler with the world can tell of a hand stretched out and aid given just at a time when a friend in need was a friend indeed. Many a struggling tradesman can tell how often he has mounted the office stairs to ask for help to meet a note or some other similar emergency, and that he did not ask in vain. Many a poor and perplexed one took up his time by recounting some act of another’s from which they were or had been suffering, and from him obtained as much attention and as carefully considered advice as though they had carried a large fee in their hands. The blank caused by the death of Mr. Dowdall will be a wide one: not all at once will it be discovered how much he is missed, but as the days and weeks glide by there will be many occasions when parties will long for the sound of a voice that is still, and it is safe to say in his case that take him for all and all it will be long before we look upon his like again. Mr. Dowdall was a Roman Catholic, and the Roman Catholic church of this town will miss his counsel and assistance greatly, but it can be said to his credit that though himself a devoted Catholic he was as broad-minded and liberal as he was zealous in religious matters. Throughout his career he always showed a warm feeling for his co-religionists, while nothing ever prevented his doing justice to those who differed from him. The Reform party, too, will greatly miss him.” The Central Canadian, of Carleton Place, also spoke of him in this kindly manner:—“As a member of the corporation of Almonte, he contributed of his judgment, knowledge, energy, and life to make everybody happy and everything prosperous. Mr. Dowdall’s prominent play in politics and his long sphere of operations as a lawyer of much discretion and accuracy brought out his innermost self in a way few other professions do, and showed what manner of man he was. Yet though thus so fiercely exposed to hostile criticism, he made iron-bound friends where-ever he went. He had a personality so attractive, a character so disarming in its tenderness and self-abnegation; he was so clear and candid that he broke down all barriers of prejudice. Moreover, among his intimates he possessed that mysterious gift of attraction which in colloquial symbolism is called magnetism. On the 28th September, Mr. Dowdall first complained and was advised by his physician to take rest, which he did, but contrary to advice he went out on Tuesday and drove up to the Reform meeting, and died on the 27th October, 1885.” Richard J. Dowdall, barrister, has succeeded to the practice of the late James Dowdall. He had just completed his law course at the time of his brother’s death, and at once commenced practice in the old offices at Almonte.

Crocket, William, A.M., Chief Superintendent of Education for New Brunswick, Fredericton, was born in Brechin, in the north of Scotland, on the 17th of May, 1832. His parents were James Crocket and Martha Procter. William received his elementary education at the High School of his native parish, and then went to King’s College, Aberdeen, where he took the university course. His professional training he received at the Established Church Normal School in Glasgow. He came to New Brunswick in 1856, and from this date to 1861, filled the position of principal of the Superior School at Campbellton, New Brunswick. In 1861, he was appointed rector of the Presbyterian Academy, at Chatham, New Brunswick, and acted as such until 1870, when he was appointed principal of the Normal School of New Brunswick, and this office he held until 1883. On the 13th November of that year, he was appointed by the government of New Brunswick, its chief superintendent of education for the province, and this office he now holds, and is greatly respected by all with whom his official position brings him in contact. Mr. Crocket has been faithful to his profession; has laboured zealously to improve the method of teaching in the Public schools of the province, and has the satisfaction of knowing that his efforts have not been barren of results. He has also taken a deep interest in the higher education of the province, and has been for over ten years one of the examiners for degrees in the University of New Brunswick, and is likewise a member of the University Senate. He belongs to the church of his fathers, the Presbyterian; and was married to Marion, daughter of William M. Caldwell, of Campbellton, New Brunswick, on the 13th of April, 1858.

Barclay, Rev. James, M.A., Pastor of St. Paul’s Presbyterian Church, Montreal, is a native of Paisley, Scotland, having been born in that town on the 19th June, 1844. His parents were James Barclay and Margaret Cochrane Brown. He received his primary education in Paisley Grammar School, and Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh, and then went to the University of Glasgow, where he graduated with high honours. He was then called to St. Michael’s Church, Dumfries. On the occasion of his ordination, the Rev. Dr. Lees, of St. Giles, Edinburgh, who was present, spoke in the most kindly manner of the young minister, and said that during Mr. Barclay’s college course the presbytery of Paisley had great cause to be proud of him; he had carried off one prize after another—in fact, his name was seen on every list of honours published by the university. Rev. Mr. Barclay’s next charge was Canobie, Dumfriesshire; then he preached for some time in Linlithgow, and was afterwards induced to seek a wider field for his talents, and was chosen colleague of the Rev. Dr. McGregor in St. Cuthbert’s Church, Edinburgh. Here he soon won for himself a name, and became one of the most popular preachers in the Scotch metropolis. St. Paul’s Church, Montreal, being without a pastor, it extended a unanimous call to Mr. Barclay, asking him to come to Canada and take charge of this church, which he consented to do, and was inducted as its minister on the 11th of October, 1883. Since then his ministry in Montreal has been eminently successful, and his influence among the young men of that city is greatly marked, so much so that they flock to his church in great numbers, and regard him in a special sense as their friend. The Rev. Mr. Barclay has great mental qualities, is an independent thinker, and never hesitates to enunciate the scientific and theological thoughts of the times we live in. His sermons are prepared with great care, and are delivered with earnestness and force. He is a good reader, an impressive platform speaker, and his prayers are solemn, reverential and spiritual, leading man up from self and earth and sin into the presence of God, the Father of all. Physically the Rev. Mr. Barclay is tall and muscular, giving one an idea of strength and power. He belongs to the Charles Kingsley school, and is a lover of outdoor pastimes and sports, a champion cricketer and golf player, and a great admirer of the “roaring game”—curling. The Edinburgh Scotsman has spoken of him as being the best all round cricketer in Scotland, and a terrifically fast bowler who has won victory after victory for the west of Scotland. He was captain of the Glasgow University cricket and football clubs for some years, and also captain of the “Gentlemen of Scotland.” We are glad that in this matter of out-door recreation, and also in some other matters, he has shown the courage of his convictions, and we do not think he has lost anything by it. There is such a thing as being too professional and too priestly, and there can be little doubt but that this has done its full share in creating the somewhat general prejudice that exists among young men against religion. This popular divine has been honoured by being called on to preach before Queen Victoria on several occasions, and he stands high in her Majesty’s estimation as an expounder of the gospel of Christ. The congregation of St. Paul’s Church is large and influential. Its ministers have always been men of commanding intellect and gentlemanly bearing, and who held their several pastorates for a considerable number of years. Their names and good deeds are kindly remembered by the citizens and the members of the church and congregation. The regular communicants of the church number about six hundred, and the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper is administered three times a year. The several organizations of the church are doing good work for humanity, and there is a large and flourishing Sunday school. The Victoria mission, at Point St. Charles, is supported and carried on by this church; and it also supports a missionary in Central India. Its annual revenue amounts to about $22,000.00, and the pastor’s salary is $7,300.00, the largest paid to any minister in the dominion.

Watson, George, Collector of Customs, Collingwood, Ontario, was born on the 2nd of December, 1828, in the parish of Strathdon, near Aberdeen, Scotland, on a farm that had been occupied by his forefathers for over two hundred years, and which one of the family still occupies. The first of the Watson family, an aunt of the subject of our sketch, came to York, Upper Canada, in 1816, at the solicitation of Bishop Strachan, who came to Canada in 1812 from the same parish. His uncle-in-law, William Arthurs (father of the late Colonel Arthurs), was one of the first city councillors of Toronto, William Lyon Mackenzie, mayor. His father, Alexander Watson, emigrated to Upper Canada in 1832, and settled on a farm in the township of Chinguacousy, about twenty miles from Toronto, and died at Collingwood on the 30th of November, 1877, at the ripe old age of eighty-four years and six months. His mother was named Annie Watt, and died at the family homestead in Scotland when only twenty-nine years and nine months old. George received his early education in the parish school of Strathdon, and coming to Canada in 1843, finished his course of studies in the Grammar School at Toronto. He went on his father’s farm and continued there until 1855, when he took the position of passenger conductor on the Northern Railway, and continued as such for nearly twelve years. In October, 1866, in consequence of ill health, he gave up railroading, and in November of the same year received the government appointment of sub-collector at the port of Collingwood. In 1873, when the port was made an independent one, he was made collector, and this position he still holds. He has now resided in Collingwood over thirty-two years, and occupied the position of government officer of customs over twenty years. In 1867 Mr. Watson was elected mayor of Collingwood, and held the office for five consecutive years, and at the end of this time he declined to serve any longer; but in 1877, however, he was again induced to accept the office, and served another term. He is a justice of the peace; and has been chairman of the board of license commissioners for West Simcoe since the passing of the Ontario License Law in 1876. He is an enthusiastic Scot, and has filled the office of president of the Collingwood St. Andrew’s Society since its organization in 1880. Mr. Watson is also surveyor and registrar of shipping for the Collingwood district. He is an adherent of the Presbyterian church, and in politics a Reformer, as were his forefathers. In June, 1865, Mr. Watson was married to Joanna, daughter of the late John Watson, of Chinguacousy, and has a family of three sons, George, aged twenty years, Lorne Mackenzie, aged four years, and Norman, aged four months. Mr. Watson is one of Nature’s noblemen, and has through life manifested a thoroughly independent spirit, and one well worthy of imitation by any young man starting out in life. He has earned for himself a competency “for the glorious privilege of being independent.”

Crisp, Rev. Robert S., Pastor of the Methodist Church, Moncton, New Brunswick, is one of two brothers (Robert S. and James Crisp), who came to the Maritime provinces during the years 1871 and 1872, for the purpose of entering the Methodist ministry. Robert S., the elder of the two brothers and subject of this sketch, was born near Norwich, England, July 1st, 1848. He is the eldest son of James and Sarah Crisp, and is descended on his mother’s side from a junior branch of the Walpole family, some members of which occupied important positions in English politics during the reigns of George I. and George II. Many interesting traditions and relics, as well as valuable estates in Norfolk, still remain in this branch of the family. After receiving a general education in the public schools and in a private school of his native place, Mr. Crisp took theological studies under the direction of the Rev. Thomas G. Keeling, M.A., well known in certain divinity circles in the old country, purposing to offer himself for the Methodist ministry in connection with the English conference. A letter from the late Rev. Dr. Geo. Scott, urging him to go to America, decided him, however, in an early purpose he had formed of some time offering himself for the work under the control of the (then) Eastern British American conference, which he accordingly did in October, 1871, and on arriving in this country was appointed assistant to the Rev. F. W. Harrison, in a large country charge on the banks of the St. John river, in New Brunswick. Among other charges held by Mr. Crisp, have been Charlottetown, P.E.I., Chatham, Portland, and Moncton, N.B. Mr. Crisp’s especial aim has been to adapt himself as far as possible to the actual needs and tastes of the people among whom he has laboured in word and doctrine. As a result of this he has been successful in his work, and the church to which he belongs has been extended and consolidated in his various charges. He is also well known as a lecturer and enthusiastic temperance worker. In the latter capacity he has sometimes aroused much opposition. He was chosen to deliver an address of welcome at the annual meeting of the Sons of Temperance in Moncton in 1886, and as a result of remarks he made regarding the appointment of a man who was transacting business in liquor, to the office of justice of the peace in a town in which the Scott Act had been adopted, he was sued for libel with damages laid at $10,000. Rev. Mr. Crisp, however, kept on steadily in his course, and soon after the local government appointed a commission to enquire into the charges preferred. Mr. Crisp is still a young man (1887), and hopes to have very many years of labour before him in various departments of Christian work.

Harris, Joseph A., Barrister-at-law, Moncton, New Brunswick, is the fifth son of Michael S. Harris, and was born at Moncton, New Brunswick, on the 23rd of August, 1847. He received his educational training at the Mount Allison Academy, New Brunswick, and in the Liverpool Collegiate Institution, England. After leaving school he followed mercantile pursuits until 1872, when he began the study of law in the office of the late Albert J. Hickman, barrister, Dorchester, New Brunswick, and continued here until September of 1873, when he entered Harvard University, Massachusetts. In this university he remained for over two years. He then returned to his native province, and entered the office of the Hon. John J. Fraser, Q.C., J.S.C., at Fredericton, New Brunswick, as a student, and continuing there until October, 1876, when he was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. In 1877 Mr. Harris became a member of the Suffolk bar in Massachusetts, and practised his profession in Boston until 1885, when he returned to Moncton, was re-sworn in a barrister, and is now in active practice in that town being counsel for several leading corporations. On the 29th of April, 1879, Mr. Harris was married at Warren, Rhode Island, U.S., to Isabel F. E. Brown, daughter of the late Hon. Charles Frederick Brown, of Rhode Island.

Hunt, Henry George, St. Catharines, Ontario, was born on the 16th of June, 1846, at Sheerness, Kent, England. He is the eldest son of Harvey Hunt, of Poole, Dorsetshire, England, and Sarah Tucker, of Horne, in the same county, daughter of W. Tucker, the Swedish and Danish consul at Poole. Henry George Hunt, the subject of this sketch, spent the first six years of his life in Sheerness, and in 1852, his father having received an appointment in her Majesty’s dockyards at Portsmouth, the family removed to that place. Here Henry received his education at the Grammar School of that town, and at the age of fourteen years he went before the Civil Service commission and passed a most creditable examination, being first out of one hundred and thirteen for a scholarship in the Royal College of Naval Architecture at Portsmouth. At the end of a three years’ course in this institution he was in 1863 promoted from the lower to the upper college. Two years later he was appointed by the Imperial government to the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s service in the East Indies, and left England on the 29th of September, 1865, in H.M.S. Octavia, fifty-one-gun frigate, commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir James Hilyar, K.C.B., for India. This ship on her way out called at Madeira, Sierra Leone, Ascension, St. Helena, and remained some weeks at each of these ports, arriving at the Cape of Good Hope in the early part of 1866, and remained there about a month, visiting Port Natal, Simonstown, and other places. He afterwards visited Zanzibar, the island of Madagascar, etc. In 1867 he sailed for Bombay, and entered upon his duties with the Peninsular and Oriental Company. During the years 1867-8-9 he visited every stores depot owned by this company in the east, among them being Suez, Aden in the Red Sea; Muscat in the Persian Gulf; Kurachee, Bombay, Goa, Pondicherry, Madras, Calcutta, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Canton in China; and Yokahama in Japan. In the summer of 1869 he was taken down with the jungle fever, having caught a severe cold when out shooting with some brother officers in Ceylon, and when it was discovered to be a very serious case, he was conveyed to the Madras Hospital, where, after a hard fight, he pulled through. He then resigned his appointment and started for home by the long sea-route round the Cape of Good Hope, having taken passage in H.M.S. Lyra. On his arrival in England he was appointed landing waiter in her Majesty’s customs, and was stationed at Portsmouth. He remained in this service until the fall of 1871, when the Hon. Mr. Gladstone’s “free breakfast-table policy” caused a great reduction in the staff of customs officers at the out-ports, and Mr. Hunt, with many other officers around the coast of Great Britain, received a few hundred pounds cash as compensation for the loss of their commissions, and left the service. In the spring of 1872 Mr. Hunt was married to Eleanor Fanny, eldest daughter of Arthur Charles Lansley, of Andover, Hants; and in the fall of the same year he sailed for America to visit a wealthy uncle who lived in Alabama. Having taken his passage via Quebec, on his westward journey, he was induced to stay over at St. Thomas, Ontario, and take a position in the Canada Southern Railway Company. Not having realized his expectations, he abandoned this service, and for the next two or three years he was engaged in various pursuits, such as bookkeeper for Rich & Mitchell, wholesale druggists, St. Thomas, and for Messrs. Kain, of the same place. In 1877 he bought out a jobbing business, and in the following year sold this out and removed to St. Catharines, to take charge in that city of the extensive piano-forte business of A. & S. Nordheimer, of Toronto. On this branch being closed, Mr. Hunt received the appointment of city ticket agent for the Great Western Railway Company in St. Catharines; and since he has extended his business of ticket-selling so that he now represents every railway and steamboat line in Canada and the United States, and the extensive tourist system of Thomas Cook & Sons, of New York and London, England. Mr. Hunt has been prominently identified with the Masonic order for many years. In 1866, while at the Cape of Good Hope, on his way to India, he was initiated in Royal Alfred lodge of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, a very aristocratic lodge, Prince Alfred, after whom it was named, with many officers of the military and civil service, being members. While in St. Thomas he was instrumental in forming a company that built one of the finest Masonic halls in Canada. He established Elgin lodge, and was its first worshipful master; was also first principal of De Warrene chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and assisted in establishing Nineveh Council of Royal and Select Masters, and was one of its Illustrious masters. Since his residence in St. Catharines he has taken an active part in city improvements, and helped in getting an electric light company established, and is now the manager and secretary-treasurer of this company. Mr. Hunt has also been for the past five years manager of the Grand Opera House; and is manager of Hendrie & Co’s. cartage agency for the collection and delivery of freight for the Grand Trunk Railway. He represents the Baltimore & Ohio Telegraph Company, the Commercial (Mackay-Bennett) Cable Company, and all the transatlantic steamboat companies, as well as the Canadian Pacific Telegraph Company, and Dominion Express Company. Mr. Hunt is a strong supporter of the Episcopal church. He has been twice married, his first wife having died a few years after his arrival in Canada, leaving two children. Six years afterwards he married the second daughter of the late Charles Norton, of St. Catharines, and by this marriage he has had two sons and two daughters.

Cooke, Thomas Vincent, Moncton, New Brunswick, General Storekeeper of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, August 6th, 1848. He is a son of Dr. William Edward Cooke and Euphemia Turnbull. Dr. Cooke was a son of Thomas Cooke, of Garryhill, county of Carlow, Ireland, and Mary Mallow. Miss Mallow was a daughter of John Mallow, mayor of Dublin, in the stirring days of ’98. Mr. Cooke, sen., came to Halifax when a boy, and studied medicine under the late Dr. Head of that city, and graduated at Jefferson College, Philadelphia. He married Miss Turnbull, a daughter of William Turnbull, ex-M.P. for the county of Richmond, Cape Breton, and shortly afterwards moved to Pictou and practised his profession in that town until his death in 1879. He was a man of the most kindly and genial disposition, and was widely known and universally beloved throughout the county of Pictou. His son, Thomas Vincent Cooke, the subject of this sketch, was educated at Pictou Academy and the Normal School, Truro, and studied medicine for a time under the late Dr. Samuel Muir, of Truro, but having a dislike for the medical profession, entered the service of the Nova Scotia Railway Company as clerk in the freight department at Richmond, Halifax, in January, 1865. On the opening of the line to Pictou in 1867, he was appointed agent at Pictou Landing. Was appointed agent at Truro in 1870, and reappointed at Pictou Landing in 1872. On the reorganization of the service in 1879, he was appointed assistant auditor of the Intercolonial Railway Company, and removed to Moncton, where he was appointed general storekeeper in October, 1880. Mr. Cooke has always taken a deep interest in Masonic matters. He joined the order in Truro in 1871, and is a past master of Cobuquid lodge, No. 37, Truro, and past high priest of Keith Chapter, Truro, and of St. John’s Chapter, Pictou, Royal Arch Masons. Holds past rank as past grand king of the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia, and is representative of the Grand Chapter of Nevada in that body. Is eminent preceptor of Malta Preceptory of Knights Templar, Truro, under the Great Priory of Canada. He was married in 1867 to Annie Curry, daughter of Captain John Curry, of Pictou, N.S., and has one son and three daughters. He is a member of the Church of England.

Rottot, Jean Philippe, M.D., Montreal, was born at L’Assomption, county of L’Assomption, July 3rd, 1825. His grandfather, Pierre Rottot, who had been gazetted captain of the Canadian Voltigeurs in 1812, was killed at the battle of St. Régis, on the 20th October of the same year. After his death, his son, Pierre Rottot, the doctor’s father, was appointed lieutenant to the “Chasseurs Canadiens,” commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel de Courci, and was present at the different engagements which took place between the English and American troops during the war of 1812, among others at the expedition to the Salmon river, and at the battles of Plattsburg and Chrysler’s Farm. Dr. Rottot received his education at the College of Montreal. He studied medicine at the School of Medicine and Surgery of Montreal, and was admitted to practice on the 16th November, 1847. After practising a few years in the country, he took up his residence in Montreal. In 1856 he was elected, without opposition, a member of the City council of Montreal. At the expiration of his term of office he declined re-nomination, in order to devote himself wholly to his profession. About 1860 he was appointed physician to the Hôtel-Dieu, and professor of the School of Medicine and Surgery of Montreal, where he occupied successively the chairs of botany, toxicology, medical jurisprudence, and internal pathology. In 1872 he became editor-in-chief of L’Union Médicale du Canada, which was just being founded. He was president of the St. Jean Baptiste Society of Montreal in 1877 and 1878. About the same time he was elected president of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the province of Quebec. In 1878 he resigned his chair at the School of Medicine and Surgery, and was appointed professor of internal pathology and dean of the faculty of medicine of Laval University at Montreal. Dr. Rottot was one of the founders of the Notre Dame Hospital. During his medical career he has been the physician of the greater number of the charitable institutions of Montreal, and is at present physician to the reverend gentlemen of the Seminary of Saint Sulpice, and the reverend ladies of the General Hospital. Dr. Rottot was twice married; the first time to S. O’Leary, daughter of Dr. O’Leary, and the second time to the widow of N. Migneault, in his lifetime registrar of Chambly county. Mrs. Migneault is a sister of P. B. Benoit, ex-member of the House of Commons. By his first wife he had three children, the eldest of whom belongs to the order of the Reverend Jesuit Fathers, and is professor of philosophy in St. Mary’s College, Montreal.

Wanless, John, M.D., Montreal.—This famed homœopathic physician is a Scotchman by birth, having been born at Perth road, Dundee, near St. Peter’s parish church, where the celebrated Rev. R. M. McCheyne was pastor, on May 26th, 1813. He is the second son of the late James Wanless, a man who was in his day very much respected by his fellow townspeople, and who for many years carried on business as a manufacturer of green cloth in Dundee. His mother, Agnes Sim, is still alive (August, 1887) at the age of ninety-six years, in full possession of her mental faculties, and can see to read without spectacles. Dr. Wanless much resembles this wonderful woman in many respects. Dr. Wanless’s father intended that his two sons should succeed him in his own business, but after his death, which took place when the doctor was only ten years old, the executors of the estate, when he had reached his thirteenth year, apprenticed him to Dr. James Johnston, one of themselves, a leading physician in Dundee. This gentleman having died shortly afterwards, James Hay, merchant and ship-owner, another of the executors, and one of the governors of the Dundee Royal Infirmary, discovering the boy’s aptitude for medical study, was induced to secure for him the position of dresser and clinical clerk in the above hospital, which for three years he filled to the entire satisfaction of the governors and medical men of the institution. While he was here he was a great favourite with the celebrated lithotomist, Dr. John Creighton, of Dundee, and this gentleman often asked young Wanless to assist him in his private operations, as well as in the hospital, and on the eve of his leaving to prosecute his studies in Edinburgh, he bore high testimony to his ability and diligence as a student, and as to his practical knowledge of his profession. It may be as well to mention here that young Wanless, like all other boys on the Scotch sea-board, was very fond of paddling in the water, and on several occasions narrowly escaped drowning. When about ten years of age he and some other boys were amusing themselves on some logs that had got adrift from the ship Horton, of Dundee, just arrived from America, and had floated up the river into a small bay, which at its mouth had a sort of pier with arches on it. While astride a piece of this timber it capsized, and our young hero was soon at the bottom of the river. On coming to the surface, he found himself immediatetly below a raft, and considering that his time had not yet come to be drowned, he struck out boldly from under, and gasping for breath, he was hauled on the raft by his terrified comrades. On getting ashore he dried his clothes and made for home; but his father nevertheless discovered that he had had a ducking, and gave him a sound thrashing and confined him in doors for some time for his boyish escapade. The doctor now thinks that if his father—who was a very loving man—had not been imbued with the idea that “he that spareth the rod hateth the child,” he would have done better had he given him some dry clothes, or sent him for a time to a warm bed. In 1831 John Wanless left Dundee and went to Edinburgh, as a student in the Royal College of Surgeons, under the then celebrated professors McIntosh, Liston, Lizars, Ferguson, and others, fellows of the college, all of whom are now gone to their final rest. During the college session of 1831, his friend, Mr. Hay, offered him the position of surgeon on board the whaling ship Thomas, which office he cheerfully accepted, although he was then only seventeen years of age. This good ship sailed from Dundee in March, 1832, and returned with a full cargo in time to permit the young surgeon to attend the opening of the college session of 1832-3. Subsequently during college vacation he went three times to Davis Straits in the same ship, and thereby greatly invigorated his previously rather slender physical frame. While on one of his whaling voyages he one day was out in a boat shooting loons, which are very numerous in Davis Straits, and a good many can be killed by one discharge from a gun. In the act of gathering the killed he espied a wounded bird at a short distance, and in his endeavour to reach it he leaned too far over the gunwale, lost his balance, and went head first into the Arctic sea. His shipmates were alarmed, and waited in dread suspense for some time, but at length he came up, holding on to the loon by one of its legs. The mate afterwards remarked “that the doctor should always be taken with the shooting parties, for he could dive for the wounded fellows.” It may be here mentioned that the doctor was a good swimmer, and as a youth practised swimming in the Tay at Dundee, and was in the habit, sometimes, of carrying younger boys on his back out into the stream, and then throwing them off; but before doing this, however, he always gave them instructions how to swim on their “own hook.” He has been known to swim for three miles on a stretch, resting occasionally on his back. At Pond’s Bay he one time fell out of a boat, while steering with a long oar, amongst a lot of whales. There were about fifty ships’ boats and their crews in a crack in the land ice, which extended about twenty miles from the shore, and in some places the rent was about one hundred yards wide. In this opening the whales were so numerous that the harpooners only selected the largest fish for capture. During the excitement, and when passing another boat, the blade of one of their side oars unshipped the doctor’s steering oar while he was pushing it from him, and, losing his balance, he fell into the water. He however did not feel the least alarmed, but at once struck out for the ice, and, drying his clothes as well as he could, walked to his ship, which was anchored about two miles away, in the field ice, and soon found himself on deck, not much the worse for his ducking. In the spring of 1835, having passed his examination before the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, he returned to Dundee and married Margaret McDonald, the only daughter of Duncan McDonald, a well-known manufacturer of that town, and Margaret Rose, his wife. To Miss McDonald he had been betrothed for several years. He then became house surgeon in the Dundee Royal Infirmary, and having filled this position for about two years, gave it up, and entered into private practice, his office being in the same house in which he was born and married. In 1843 Dr. Wanless, accompanied by his wife, mother, brother, and sisters, with their husbands, emigrated to Canada, and ultimately settled in London, Ontario. While in this city the doctor built up a good practice, and as coroner for the city of London and county of Middlesex he was highly spoken of by the press for the luminous and logical way in which he presented evidence to his jurors. In 1849 he received his license from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lower Canada. One day, in 1859, as he was walking along a street in London to visit a patient, he observed Dr. Bull, a homœopathist, give some pellets to a man who had fallen out of a two-story window. Having a prejudice against homœopathy, he accosted Dr. Bull in these words, “Don’t you think shame of yourself in giving that useless trash to a man in that condition?” Dr. Bull rose up, in a defensive attitude, and said, “I have always taken you for a sensible man, and instead of acting as you have done in your persecutions of us, why don’t you try to test our remedies according to the law of cure? I will give you some of our books to read, and also some of our medicines for that purpose.” Dr. Wanless accepted the offer, and took the books and medicines, thinking that he would be able to expose what he then thought was a humbug. After studying the principle of homœopathy for some time he gave the medicines to some of his patients, strictly according to the principles of homœopathy, beginning with some cases which had resisted the allopathic treatment under his own care, and that of some of the ablest men in the country, keeping a strict account of the symptoms and disease, and the symptoms and pathogenesy of what the medicine would produce on the healthy body, and after carefully testing this method of practice for nearly two years, he found that, instead of persecuting the homœopathists, he would have to become a homœopathist himself. After thorough conviction of its benefits to his patients, like Paul with the Christians, and in order to carry out the practice of homœopathy with more efficiency, he ceased from practice in London, and devoted himself to renewed study at the age of fifty years, and obtained the degree of Bachelor of Medicine from the University of Toronto in 1861, and the degree of Doctor in Medicine from the same University in the following year, 1862. He then, in order to have a wider field to labour in, went to Montreal (but before leaving having been complimented by the press of London upon his previous professional attainments), where he now resides, enjoying a good practice. In politics, as in medicine, Dr. Wanless has sought to conserve the good, and set aside the effete and worthless. Both in London and Montreal, by his spirited and able contributions to the press, he has done much to popularize homœopathy, and establish its prime tenets. He was instrumental in procuring an act of the Provincial parliament of Quebec, in favour of homœopathic education, and with power to grant licenses to those who had studied according to the curriculum specified by the act, and who had passed a satisfactory examination before the appointed board of examiners, as he always upheld that homœopaths, as well as allopaths, should be able to show that they possessed a thorough medical education and training. Dr. Wanless is nominal dean of the Faculty of the College of Homœopathic Physicians and Surgeons of Montreal, and professor of the practice of physic and one of the examiners of the college. He attained the license of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 1835; College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lower Canada in 1849; M.B. of the University of Toronto, 1861; M.D. of the University of Toronto in 1862, and is a member of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario and Quebec. He has a son, Dr. John R. Wanless, who now practises in Dunedin, New Zealand. This gentleman is a graduate M.D.,C.M. of McGill University, Montreal, and, like his father, has adopted the homœopathic principle from conviction. In religion, as in politics and medicine, the doctor is thoroughly liberal, and belongs to the Congregational body of worshippers. He is broad in his views, giving liberty of opinion to all, and exhibits no desire to scold and burn those who differ from him, except to show them their error by fair reasoning.

Boswell, George Morss Jukes, Q.C., Judge of the County Court of the United Counties of Northumberland and Durham, Cobourg, Ontario, was born at Gosport, England, in June, 1804. His father, John Boswell, of London, England, solicitor, was the youngest son of James Boswell, an officer in the Royal Navy, whose four elder brothers were also officers in the same service, and a descendant of the Boswells of Balmuto, Scotland, the elder branch of the family of the celebrated biographer. Judge Boswell, the subject of our sketch, was educated at the Grammar School, Buntingford, Herts, England, came to Canada in 1822, and was one of the earliest settlers in Cobourg. He was called to the bar in Michaelmas term, 1827, and is the premier Queen’s counsel in Canada, being the first created by commission in August, 1841. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the Upper Canada Assembly in 1836, but was returned at the first election after the union of Upper and Lower Canada, and sat from 1841 to 1844, in the then Parliament of Canada. While in parliament he took a prominent part in constitutional debate, was a staunch advocate of responsible government, and although a Conservative in principle, worked with the Reform party until constitutional government was conceded. During the discussion on this question, he forced Mr. Draper, then attorney-general, to admit the principle, “That if the government cannot command the majority of the house, so that its measures may be carried on harmoniously, if they do not find by the whole proceedings of the house that they have the confidence of a majority of its members, then that a dissolution of the house shall follow, or that the government resign.” This then settled this important question of responsible government, though dragged out of Attorney-General Draper against his will (see Cobourg Star, June 11th, 1841). Before accepting a judgeship, Mr. Boswell was one of the leading lawyers in Canada, and as such was specially retained to defend Hunter, Morrison, Montgomery, and others, who were tried for high treason in connection with the rebellion in 1837. The two former were acquitted. In 1845, he was appointed Judge of the County Court of the United Counties of Northumberland and Durham, and accepted superannuation in 1882. In 1837, he served under Colonel Ham as brigade major with the volunteers in suppressing the rebellion, and was on the frontier at Chippawa, at the time the rebels under McKenzie took possession of Navy Island. Judge Boswell was married first in 1829, to Susannah, daughter of James Radcliffe, by whom he had a numerous family; and last to Mary, daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Wrench, rector of St. Michael’s Church, Cornhill, London.

Ogilvie, Hon. Alexander Walker, Montreal, Lieutenant-Colonel, member of the Senate of Canada for Alma division, was born at St. Michael, near the city of Montreal, on the 7th of May, 1829. The Ogilvie family is descended from a younger brother of Gilchrist, Earl of Angus, a valiant soldier who in the thirteenth century was rewarded with the land of Ogilvie, in Banffshire, Scotland, and assumed the name of the estate. The family is celebrated in history for having long preserved the Crown and sceptre of Scotland from the hands of Oliver Cromwell. The parents of Senator Ogilvie came from Stirlingshire, Scotland, to Canada in 1800, and Mr. Ogilvie, sr., served his adopted country as a volunteer cavalry officer during the war of 1812-14 against the Americans; and took up arms against the so-called patriots during the Canadian rebellion of 1837-8. To this couple were born a large family of sons and daughters, and all have made their mark in the country. In 1854 Alexander and his brothers, John and William, founded the firm of A. W. Ogilvie & Co., as millers and dealers in grain, and built extensive mills on the banks of the canal at Montreal, now known as the Glenora mills. Since that time the business has grown to such dimensions that the firm’s mills and business operations are carried on at Montreal, Goderich, Seaforth, Winnipeg and other parts of the North-West, and they are now the most extensive millers in the Dominion. In 1874 Alexander retired from the business. In 1867 he first entered political life, and at the general election of that year he was chosen by acclamation to represent Montreal West in the Quebec legislature, when on the dissolution of the house in 1871 he declined re-nomination. He, however, was induced again to enter the political field in 1875, and was elected for his old seat. This he occupied until the legislature was dissolved in 1878, when he retired from local politics. On December 24, 1881, he was called to the Senate to represent the Alma division in that body. Senator Ogilvie has been an alderman for the city of Montreal, president of the Workingmen’s, Widows and Orphans’ Benefit Society, and of the St. Andrew’s Society, and a lieutenant-colonel of the Montreal Cavalry (now on the retired list). He is president of the St. Michael Road Company, chairman of the Montreal Turnpike Trust, and of the Montreal Board of Directors of the London (England) Guarantee Company, a director of the Sun Life Insurance Company, the Edwardsburg Starch Company, the Montreal Loan and Mortgage Company, and the Montreal Investment Company. He is also a justice of the peace. Senator Ogilvie is a Conservative in politics, and in religion is a Presbyterian. He is married to a daughter of the late William Leney, of Montreal, and has a family of four children, one son and three daughters.

Campbell, Rev. Robert, M.A., D.D., Pastor of St. Gabriel Presbyterian Church, Montreal, was born on a farm near the town of Perth, Lanark county, Ontario, on the 21st June, 1835. Peter Campbell, father of the subject of this sketch, was born at Rein-a-Chullaig, Loch Tayside, Breadalbane, Perthshire, Scotland, and belonged to the Lochnell branch of the Campbell clan. One of his ancestors having taken part in the Jacobite rising in 1715, and thus having incurred the displeasure of Argyll, who was at the head of the Hanoverian forces, did not return to his native district, but placed himself under the protection of his other great kinsman, Breadalbane, who was neutral in that contest, and who assigned him the property called Rein-a-Chullaig. Peter Campbell was a man of high character and intelligence. He had for a time been a teacher in Scotland, and this gave him much influence with his Highland countrymen who accompanied him to Canada in 1817, and settled in the Bathurst district. He brought some money with him to Canada, and owned the first yoke of oxen in the settlement; although during the first season he had to carry a bag of flour on his back through the woods from Brockville, a distance of about fifty miles, having no road to follow but guided only by the blazes on the trees. He was chosen an elder of the first Presbyterian church, which was under the ministry of Rev. William Bell, shortly after his arrival in the country. But as he was born and bred in the Church of Scotland, he united with that branch of the Presbyterian communion as soon as it was established in Perth under the ministry of the late Rev. T. C. Wilson, of Dunkeld, Scotland, and was installed an elder in it too, which office he retained till his death in 1848. Margaret Campbell, Rev. Dr. Campbell’s mother, was of the Gleno and Inverliver branch of the clan Campbell. She was born in Glenlyon, Scotland, her mother being a MacDiarmid, one of the oldest families in Scotland. Mrs. Campbell ably seconded her husband in all his aims and efforts; and one of the results of their joint influence and instruction was that three of their sons became ministers of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland, and a fourth studied for the ministry of the Baptist church, but his health broke down before he was able to complete his course of preparation. Robert was the seventh son, and eleventh child of the family, his youngest brother being Rev. Alexander Campbell, B.A., of Prince Albert, North-West Territory. He was educated at the common school, near his birth place; but as it happened that the school was taught by a succession of able masters, one of them being an admirable scholar in both classics and mathematics, he enjoyed considerable advantages, and he, with his youngest brother, made very rapid progress in study. He himself became a common school teacher at the age of sixteen; and the desire he had to perfect himself in the subjects which he had to teach was the best master he was ever under, and he learned more always while teaching than while avowedly only a student under the direction of others. In 1853 he entered as a student at Queen’s University, taking the only open scholarship for the year. This scholarship he retained by competition every year all through his course. In 1855 he obtained the first medal ever offered in Queen’s College for a special examination in English history and ancient geography. In 1856 he graduated B.A., and in 1858 M.A., in the same university. He taught the public school near Appleton in 1852, and the next year the school at Leckie’s Corners, near Almonte. In 1856 he was appointed headmaster of the Queen’s College Preparatory School, where he had under his care, at a time when High schools were few and inefficient throughout the country, students from all parts of Canada, and even from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, who had it in view to matriculate in Queen’s University. A great many of the youth of Kingston also took advantage of the educational facilities afforded by the school. This position he held till 1st October, 1860, when he quitted it with a view to entering the ministry of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland. In the autumn of 1860, after having received license as a preacher in Canada, he went abroad with a view to seeing a little of the world, and becoming familiar with men and things in the older civilized communities, and he remained thirteen months in Great Britain and the Continent, taking advantage of access to the museums, art galleries, and learned societies of Edinburgh particularly, where he spent most of the winter, as well as giving occasional attendance at lectures in the university. He returned to Canada late in the autumn of 1861, and accepted a call in April, 1862, to St. Andrew’s Church, Galt, Ontario, having declined overtures from Melbourne, Beckwith, and one or two other charges. He remained in Galt till 1st December, 1866, when called to his present sphere of labour as minister of the oldest Presbyterian church in the inland provinces. The centennial celebration of the founding of the congregation that built this church was held on the 9th of March, 1886, and was an occasion of great interest to the entire community. The University of Queen’s College conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him at the convocation in April, 1887. Rev. Dr. Campbell is chairman of the Board of Management of the Widows’ and Orphans’ Fund of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland; a member of the Executive Committee of the Temporalities Board of the same church; a trustee of Queen’s University, and a member of the Senate of the Presbyterian College, Montreal. He held the office of lecturer in Ecclesiastical History for two sessions in Queen’s University, Kingston, and was a vice-president of the Natural History Society of Montreal. He has maintained steadfastly his early religious convictions. But while orthodox himself, he has always exercised toleration towards those that could not see exactly as he did. Rev. Dr. Campbell won the prize for the best essay on Presbyterian Union offered by a committee of gentlemen in Quebec and Montreal in the year 1866, which was afterwards published, and greatly helped to leaven public opinion on that question. He is now engaged on a history of the St. Gabriel St. Church, Montreal, which will shortly be published, and cannot fail to prove of great interest to every Presbyterian in Canada. Rev. Dr. Campbell was married on the 29th of December, 1863, to Margaret, eldest child and only daughter of Rev. George Macdonnell, minister of St. Andrew’s Church, Fergus, a faithful, useful, and highly respected minister of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland. Rev. D. J. Macdonnell, B.D., of Toronto, and G. M. Macdonnell, Q.C., of Kingston, are her brothers. Her mother was Elizabeth Milnes, of the same stock as Moncton Milnes, Lord Houghton.

Inches, Peter Robertson, M.D., M.R.C.S., England, St. John, New Brunswick, was born on the 19th of February, 1835, at St. John, New Brunswick. He is a son of James Inches, of Dunkeld, and Janet Small, of Dirnanean, Perthshire, Scotland, who emigrated to America in 1832, and settled in St. John. Dr. Inches received his early education in the Grammar School of his native city, and studied medicine in New York city, at the University College, and from this institution he graduated in 1866. He then went to Great Britain and further prosecuted his studies at the University of Edinburgh, and at King’s College, London. In 1868 he was elected a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and then returned to St. John, New Brunswick, and commenced the practice of his profession, and here he has ever since resided. Dr. Inches was brought up in the faith as taught by the Presbyterian church, and has continued his connection with that body of Christians. In 1876 he was married to Mary Dorothea, daughter of Dr. C. K. Fiske, from Massachusetts, who for many years practised his profession in St. John. The doctor has had five children born to him, four of whom survive.

Leach, The Ven. Archdeacon.—The late William Turnbull Leach, D.C.L., LL.D., Archdeacon of Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, was born in Berwick-on-Tweed, Scotland, on the 1st of March, 1805, and died at Montreal, on the 13th of October, 1886. He was of English descent, his grandfather having removed to Berwick from the previous home of the family in Lincolnshire, England. Archdeacon Leach was educated in Edinburgh, and took the degree of M.A. in the university of that city in 1827. In 1831, he was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian church, but shortly afterwards came to Canada, and was appointed to the charge of St. Andrew’s Church, Toronto, and was also chaplain to the 93rd Highlanders, stationed in that city, about the time of the rebellion in 1837-8. He subsequently entered the Church of England, to which he was ordained by Bishop Mountain in 1841, and was appointed to the incumbency of St. George’s Church, Montreal, which position he retained for nearly twenty years. He took the warmest interest in educational matters, was one of the founders of Queen’s College, Kingston, and was for many years an honoured member of the Council of Public Institution for Lower Canada, afterwards the province of Quebec. He was one of the little band who brought McGill University to its present position. His connection with McGill dates from 1845, and he may be said to have been the last survivor of the original staff. From the earliest years of the college, he was one of the professors of the Faculty of Arts, and as the work of the university extended, he relinquished his ministerial duties to devote himself exclusively to college work. During his active connection with the college, he held the Molson chair of English language and literature, was professor of logic and of mental and moral philosophy, dean of the Faculty of Arts, and vice-principal of the University. He was created D.C.L. of McGill in 1849, and LL.D. of McGill in 1857, and in 1867, the University of Lennoxville conferred upon him the degree of D.C.L. The Venerable Archdeacon Leach married three times. Shortly after his arrival in Canada, he returned for a short visit to Scotland, where he married Miss Skirving, daughter of Mr. Skirving, of Haddington, and granddaughter of Adam Skirving, author of “Johnnie Cope,” and other songs very popular at the time in Scotland. Of this marriage there were four children, two of whom are living, viz.: David S. Leach, of Montreal, and Mrs. Howell, of London, England. He afterwards married Miss Easton, daughter of the Rev. Robert Easton, a lady well known and much beloved, who previous to her marriage had conducted one of the principal establishments in Canada for the education of young ladies. His widow (daughter of the late Francis Gwilt), with her young unmarried daughter, reside in Montreal.

St. George, Percival Walter, Civil Engineer, Montreal, was born at Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, on the 22nd October, 1849. He is a son of Lieutenant-Colonel James D. N. St. George, who was a lieutenant-colonel in her Majesty’s Ordnance Staff Corps, and had charge for many years of the clothing establishment of the British army in London, England. Walter was sent to France by his parents to be educated, and spent seven years of his boyhood days in that country, and then finished his educational course in Edinburgh University, where he took honours in mathematics. He came to Canada in 1866, and began the practice of his profession. From 1866 to 1868, two years, he was the pupil of Alexander McNab, chief engineer for the province of Nova Scotia; from 1868 to 1872, four years, he acted as assistant engineer on construction and survey of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada; in 1872-73 he was engineer on survey of the North Shore Railway of Canada; in 1873-74, engineer maintenance of way on the Intercolonial Railway, in charge of one hundred and eight miles; in 1874-75 engineer on survey of the Northern Colonization Railway, from Ottawa to the Mattawan; in 1875-76 he was assistant engineer of Montreal; and from 1876 to 1883, eight years, deputy city surveyor of the same city; from July to December, in 1883, he was engineer in charge of three hundred miles of line on the Norfolk and Western Railway in Virginia; and in December of 1883 he was appointed city surveyor of Montreal, and this position he has occupied ever since. He was also one of the members of the Royal Flood Commission of Montreal, appointed in 1886. Mr. St. George has been an associate member of the Institute of Civil Engineers of England since 1877; and is now a member of the Council of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. He is a master Mason, and a member of the Royal Arch Chapter. He has travelled a good deal, and his profession has made him familiar with the greater part of Canada. He is a member of the Church of England. On the 11th July, 1872, he was married to Flora Stewart, daughter of the Rev. Canon Geo. Townshend, rector of Amherst, Nova Scotia, and Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of the Hon. Alexander Stewart, C.B., master of the Rolls, and judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court, and has issue five children.

Palmer, Caleb Read, Justice of the Peace, Moncton, was born at Dorchester, Westmoreland county, New Brunswick, on the 13th February, 1834. His father, John Palmer, grandson of Gideon Palmer, a U. E. loyalist, who came to New Brunswick from Staten Island, New York, is a veteran of 1812, and is now (1887) in his ninety-ninth year, and regularly draws his pension for services during the war. His mother, Elizabeth Cole, was a daughter of Ebenezer Cole. Caleb received his education at the Wesleyan Academy, in Sackville, N.B., taking a course in the higher mathematics and languages, and then for some time adopted teaching as his profession. From 1859 to 1870 he taught the Superior School in Sussex, Kings county, and from January, 1870, to September, 1882, he acted in the capacity of station master at Dorchester for the Intercolonial Railway Company. In July, 1883, he became manager of the Moncton Publishing Company, and this position he occupied until February, 1885, since which time he has confined himself to the duties of justice of the peace, and secretary to the Board of School Trustees of the town of Moncton. Mr. Palmer is interested in shipping, and is also a stockholder in the Moncton Cotton Factory. He is a member of the Royal Arcanum, and in politics is a Liberal. Although brought up in the Episcopal church, he found it more congenial to his taste to attend the Methodist church, and is now a member of that denomination. He was married on the 21st of December, 1865, to Agnes Murray, daughter of John Murray, of Studholm, Kings county, N.B.

Ferguson, Hon. Donald, M.P.P., Provincial Secretary and Commissioner of Crown Lands of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, was born at East River, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, on the 7th of March, 1839. His father, John Ferguson, and mother, Isabella Stewart, were descendants of thrifty Scotch farmers, who emigrated from Blair Athol, in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1807, and settled near Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Donald was reared on the farm and received the rudiments of education in the Public school of his native parish, and subsequently pursued his studies in English and mathematics by private tuition. He became interested in politics when quite a young man, and was a strong advocate of the confederation of the provinces. He was a contributor to the press, and in 1867, wrote a series of letters over the signature of “A Farmer,” which attracted considerable attention, and was replied to by the Hon. David Laird, one of the leading politicians of the island, and subsequently lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories. At a later date, he engaged, over his own signature, in a discussion with the Hon. George Beer, on the union question, and became at once known as one of the champions on the island for a Canadian nationality. He was also a strong supporter of the interests of the tenantry, an advocate of railway construction, and was the mover of the resolutions in favour of the railway which were adopted at the mass meeting of the electors of Queens county, held at Charlottetown, in the winter of 1871. In 1872, Mr. Ferguson was appointed a justice of the peace, and he held the position of collector of inland revenue for Charlottetown for a short time in 1873. In 1873, the great question of confederation, for which Mr. Ferguson had for years contended, having been settled, he offered himself as a candidate for the Legislative Council of Prince Edward Island, for the second district of Queens county, where the Hon. Edward Palmer had been returned in 1872, to the Council, as an anti-railway and an anti-confederate, by a majority of nearly eight hundred votes—and he succeeded, after a spirited canvass and good fight against great odds in reducing the anti-railway majority to two hundred and fifty votes. A vacancy occurring next year in the same constituency, Mr. Ferguson was again brought out by his friends, and this time succeeded in reducing the anti-railway majority to seventy. In 1876, the question of denominational education came prominently before the electors, and Mr. Ferguson and other leading politicians pronounced in favour of a system of payment by results, by which the state would recognize and pay for secular education in schools in towns, in which religious education might also be imparted at the expense of parents. Religious bitterness was introduced, the Protestants became alarmed, the people decided largely according to their creeds, and the “payment by results” candidates were defeated in all except Roman Catholic constituencies. Believing that almost any settlement of this vexed question was better than a prolonged political-religious agitation, he accepted the situation. In 1874, Mr. Ferguson was appointed secretary of the Board of Railway Appraisers, which office he held until 1876. In 1878, he was invited by the leading electors of the Cardigan district, in Kings county, to offer himself for parliamentary honours; he consented and was returned by acclamation. In March, 1879, on the meeting of the legislature, the government, under the leadership of the Hon. L. H. Davis, was defeated, and the Hon. W. W. Sullivan, who had been entrusted with the formation of a new administration, offered Mr. Ferguson a seat in his cabinet, with the portfolio of public works, which office he accepted. A dissolution of the house having immediately followed, Mr. Ferguson was returned by acclamation. In 1880, he resigned his position as head of the Public Works department, and became provincial secretary and commissioner of Crown Lands, and this position he occupies to-day. In 1882, Mr. Ferguson was elected to represent Fort Augustus, and again in 1886, he had the same honour conferred upon him. Hon. Mr. Ferguson is a member of the Board of Commissioners for the management of the Government Poor-House; a commissioner for the management of the Government Stock Farm, and a trustee for the Hospital for the Insane, at Falconwood. He was a delegate to Ottawa, on the Wharf and Pier question in 1883, in conjunction with the Hon. Messrs. Sullivan and Prowse, and also a delegate to England, with Hon. Mr. Sullivan, on the question of the communication between the island and the mainland. Mr. Ferguson is an enthusiastic agriculturist, and has a farm in a high state of cultivation, four miles from Charlottetown. Besides having published several useful official reports, Mr. Ferguson gave to his fellow-citizens in 1884, an excellent paper on “Agricultural Education,” and another in 1885, on “Love of Country.” He has been a lifelong total abstainer, and became connected with the Good Templars in 1863, and held the office of grand secretary for two years, 1863-5, and that of grand worthy chief templar the following two years, 1865-7. He is a Conservative in politics, and in religion a member of the Baptist denomination. In 1873, he was married to Elizabeth Jane, daughter of John Scott, Charlottetown, and has a family consisting of three sons and two daughters.

Ross, James Duncan, M.D., Moncton, New Brunswick, was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, in October, 1839, and is a son of the Rev. James Ross, D.D., principal of Dalhousie College, and grandson of the late Rev. Duncan Ross, one of the first Presbyterian ministers who came to Nova Scotia from Scotland. His mother was Isabella Matheson, a daughter of William Matheson, who through industry and perseverance accumulated a fortune at farming, lumbering, and trading, sufficient to enable him to leave the handsome sum of $35,000 to the institutions of the church in the province, and $35,000 to the British and Foreign Bible Society. James Duncan Ross received his elementary training in the public schools in his native town, and then took the arts course in the West River Seminary. He then spent three years in the office of the late Dr. Muir, of Truro, N.S., and afterwards studied medicine and surgery in Philadelphia and Harvard, graduating from Harvard University in 1861, when he moved to Londonderry, in Nova Scotia, and began the practice of his profession, and continued here until 1865; then he went over to Britain and took a course of medicine and surgery in the University and in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Edinburgh, and while in that city he was for a time a student in the office of Sir J. Y. Simpson. He then went to London, and became for a time a dresser in St. Bartholomew’s Hospital; and afterwards, returning to Nova Scotia, he resumed his practice. Dr. Ross occupied the position for some time of assistant surgeon to the 2nd battalion of the Colchester Militia, and also surgeon of the Caledonian (Highland) Society of Nova Scotia. He has been since 1863 a coroner for the county of Westmoreland. He took a deep interest in the establishment of the Medical School in Halifax, and was demonstrator of anatomy in it for the first two years of its existence. The doctor has now practised medicine and surgery continuously for twenty-five years, the first eleven years of his medical career having been spent in Nova Scotia, and the remaining fourteen in Moncton, N.B. His work has been continuous and laborious, and very varied, and he stands high in the profession, especially for surgery. In him the poor always find a kind and sympathizing friend, who dispenses medicine to them gratuitously as well as his best skill. In religion the doctor holds all the doctrines of the second reformation, and believes the Presbyterian form of church government scriptural. He has experienced no change in his views since his youth, except a deeper conviction of the duty which nations owe to Christ, and a more scriptural constitution for nations. He married, in 1870, Ruth, daughter of the late R. N. B. McLellan, merchant, of Londonderry, N.S. The McLellan family are north of Ireland Scotch, and have been closely connected with the political and mercantile interests of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick for many years. Issue, one son, who died in infancy.

McLeod, Rev. Joseph, D.D., Fredericton, was born in St. John, New Brunswick, June 27, 1844. His father, the Rev. Ezekiel McLeod,—born in Sussex, New Brunswick, Sept. 17, 1815, died in Fredericton, New Brunswick, March 17th, 1867,—was the leading minister in the Free Baptist denomination of Canada, and the founder and, till his death, the editor of The Religious Intelligencer. He was an earnest and influential advocate of the confederation of the British American provinces; a strong advocate of prohibition; and widely known and highly regarded both for intellectual qualities and godly character. His mother was Amelia Emery, born in Boston, Massachusetts, and survived her husband till June, 1887. Joseph McLeod was educated in the public schools, and in the Baptist Institution in Fredericton, New Brunswick, and in July, 1868, was ordained to the ministry. In the same month he was called to the pastorate of the Free Baptist Church in Fredericton, which he has held ever since. In 1875 the Rev. Mr. McLeod was chosen chaplain to the New Brunswick legislature, and still holds the office. He is a very active worker in the temperance army, and has held the office of grand worthy chief of the British Templars; president of the National lodge of the United Temperance Association of Canada, and is now, and has for several years been president of the New Brunswick Prohibitory Alliance. He is an ardent advocate of the prohibition of the liquor traffic, and has for years been a leader in this cause in New Brunswick, and has had much to do with introducing the Canada Temperance Act into New Brunswick. In addition to his strong advocacy of temperance measures, he has been an earnest advocate of the establishment of the free, unsectarian school system in his native province. In the Free Baptist denomination he also stands high as a leader in all progressive movements. He is an advocate of the union of the Baptist denominations in Canada, and by voice and pen has done much to promote the union feeling. He is a member and vice-chairman of the joint committee of the Baptist and Free Baptist bodies which now (1887) have the question of union under consideration, and are authorized to arrange a basis of union. He was secretary and a director of the Free Baptist Education Society for many years, till, in 1883, the Baptist and Free Baptist Education Societies were united by act of the legislature; since then he has been a director of the united Education Society. He has also been corresponding secretary of the Free Baptist Foreign Mission Society of New Brunswick for fifteen years; was for three years president of the American Foreign Mission Society, which includes representatives of all the free communion Baptist bodies in the United States and Canada, and is now a member of the managing board of the society. Has been moderator of the New Brunswick Free Baptist Conference twice within ten years. Since 1867 Dr. McLeod has owned and edited the Religious Intelligencer. In May, 1886, Acadia College conferred the well-earned degree of D.D. on Mr. McLeod. He is active in all matters pertaining to the welfare of the public, and is frequently called upon to do pulpit and platform service outside his own charge. He has not found time for a European tour, but has made two trips to the western states; spent the winter of 1882-3 in Florida for the benefit of his health; and in the summer of 1886 made the trip across the continent via the Canada Pacific Railway, spending several weeks in British Columbia, the North-West, and in Manitoba. Dr. McLeod’s parents were Free Baptists, and in this faith he was brought up. He at a very early age became a communicant in that church, and is now one of the most respected of its clergy. In December, 1868, he was married to Jane Fulton Squires, and is blessed with a family of five children.

Chesley, John Alexander, Manufacturer, Portland, New Brunswick, was born in Portland, N.B., in May, 1839. He is the eldest son of William Ambrose and Mary Ann Chesley, of U. E. loyalist descent. He received his educational training in the Public school in Portland, and at the Grammar School in Albert county, N.B. Mr. Chesley began his business career in Portland, N.B., in 1862, as a manufacturer of ships’ iron knees, and conducted the business on his own account until 1869, when he took his brother, W. A. Chesley, into partnership, and thus formed the firm of “J. A. & W. A. Chesley,” of which he is the head and senior partner. Since then the firm has had a very successful career, and is very well and favourably known throughout the Maritime provinces for its locomotive frames, piston and connecting rods, truck, engine and car axles, shafting, ships’ iron knees, etc., and all kinds of heavy forgings. The firm has also a large interest in shipping. In 1876 Mr. Chesley was elected alderman for No. 1 Ward in Portland city, and occupied a seat in the city council continuously until April, 1885,—a period of nine years,—when he was elected mayor of the city. He also sat as one of the representatives of the city of Portland in the municipal council of the city and county of St. John from 1880 to 1886, a period of five years. In 1881 he was appointed a commissioner for taking the census in the county of St. John; and was a liquor license commissioner for St. John county in 1883 under the Dominion Liquor License Act. At the general elections of 1882 and 1886 Mr. Chesley was an unsuccessful candidate for the representation of the city and county of St. John in the legislature of New Brunswick, but received such support that we think he will be justified in running again for parliamentary honours when the occasion offers. In 1872 he was made a Mason, and now holds the rank of past master in the Blue lodge, and also that of past principal in the Royal Arch chapter. He is a member of the Encampment of St. John Knights Templars, and a member of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite of Masonry; also a member of the Royal Order of Scotland. He is an active politician, and is a member of the Young Men’s Liberal Conservative Club of the city and county of St. John, and at the present time is the vice-president of the Club for the city of Portland. Mr. Chesley was a supporter of confederation, and worked hard to carry the measure, and has ever since taken an interest in all public questions—Dominion, provincial, and municipal—brought before the people of the city and county of St. John. He also took an active interest in, and laboured very hard in the election held to decide the free school system in New Brunswick, and had the satisfaction of seeing his party win in the contest, and secure for his province a school law that every lover of his country should be proud of. He is a Liberal-Conservative in politics, and a strong supporter of the national policy. He was married, first in December, 1860, to Mary Frances, eldest daughter of Albert Small, of Portland, Maine; and some time after her death he was again married in September, 1872, to Annie, eldest daughter of James S. May, of St. John, N.B.

MacCallum, Duncan Campbell, M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng., Fellow of the Obstetrical Society, London, Foundation Fellow of the British Gynecological Society, and Professor Emeritus, McGill University, Montreal, was born in the province of Quebec, on the 12th November, 1825. By descent Dr. MacCallum is a pure Celt, being the son of John MacCallum and Mary Campbell. His maternal grandfather, Malcolm Campbell, of Killin, during his lifetime widely known and highly esteemed through the Perthshire Highlands, was a near kinsman and relative, through the Lochiel Camerons, of the Earl of Breadalbane. Dr. MacCallum received his medical education at McGill University, at which institution he graduated as M.D. in the year 1850. Immediately on receiving his degree, he proceeded to Great Britain, and continued his studies in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. After examination he was admitted a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, February, 1851. Returning to Canada, he entered on the practice of his profession in the city of Montreal, and was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the medical faculty of McGill University, September, 1854. From that time to the present he has been connected with the university, occupying various positions in the faculty of medicine. In August, 1856, he was preferred to the chair of clinical surgery. In November, 1860, he was transferred to the chair of clinical medicine and medical jurisprudence, and in April, 1868, received the appointment of professor of midwifery and the diseases of women and children, which position he held until his resignation in 1883, on which occasion the governors of the university appointed him professor emeritus, retaining his precedence in the university. For a period of twenty-nine years he has been actively engaged in the teaching of his profession. Elected visiting physician to the Montreal General Hospital in February, 1856, he discharged the duties of that position until the year 1877, when he resigned, and was placed by the vote of the governors of that institution on the consulting staff. From 1868 till 1883 he had charge of the university lying-in hospital, to which he is now attached as consulting physician, and for a period of fourteen years he was physician to the Hervey Institute for children, to which charity also he is now consulting physician. He has always taken a warm interest in the literature of his profession, and articles from his pen have appeared in the British American Medical and Surgical Journal, the Canada Medical Journal, and the “Transactions of the Obstetrical Society of London, Eng.” In the year 1854 he, in conjunction with Dr. Wm. Wright, established and edited the Medical Chronicle which had an existence of six years. He was vice-president for Canada of the section of Obstetrics in the ninth International Medical Congress, which was held at Washington during the week commencing September 5th, 1887. Dr. MacCallum married in October, 1867, Mary Josephine Guy, second daughter of the late Hon. Hippolyte Guy, judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada. The Guy family, of ancient and noble origin, supposed to be a branch of the Guy de Montfort family, has been distinguished for the valuable services, military and civil, which its members have rendered to the province of Quebec, both under the old and new régimes. Pierre Guy, the first of the name to settle in Canada, joined the French army under M. de Vaudreuil, in which he rose rapidly to the rank of captain. He took an active part in the engagements which were then so frequent between the French in Quebec and the English in Massachusetts and New York. He died at the early age of forty-eight. His son Pierre, who was sent to France and received a thorough and careful education, also joined the French army and distinguished himself under General Montcalm at the battle of Carillon, and in the following year at Montmorency. The battle of the Plains of Abraham having annihilated the power of France in Canada, young Guy with others left for France after the capitulation of the country, where he remained till 1764. Returning to Canada, he accepted the situation, entered into business at Montreal, and became a loyal subject of Great Britain. Shortly after, when General Montgomery invaded Canada, he took up arms for the defence of the country, and this so exasperated the Americans that they sacked his stores after the capitulation of Montreal. In 1776 he received from the Crown the appointment of judge, which at that time was considered a signal mark of favour; and in 1802 he was promoted to the rank of colonel of militia. A man of great attainments and scholarly parts, he was an ardent promoter of all educational projects. He was one of the most active in the foundation of the College St. Raphae, under the control of the gentlemen of the Seminary of the Sulpician order, and which still exists and flourishes under the name of the “College of Montreal.” He died in 1812 and left several sons and daughters. Louis, who by the death of his brother became the eldest of the family, was an intimate friend and adviser of Sir James Kempt, and subsequently of Lord Aylmer. He was made a councillor by King William in February, 1831. He died in 1840. Of his family, Judge Hippolyte Guy was the second son. The eldest son, named Louis, received a commission as lieutenant in the British army through the influence of the Duke of Wellington, in consideration of the bravery he had displayed at the battle of Chateauguay, where he gallantly led the advanced guard of the Voltigeurs. Several years before entering the British army he served as a member of the body guard of Charles X. of France, into which no one was admitted who was not of proved noble origin. Judge Guy married the adopted daughter of Chief Justice Vallières, and had four children, a son who died in youth, and three daughters. The eldest of the latter is married to Chief Justice Austin, of Nassau, Bahamas, and the youngest to Gustave Fabre, brother to Archbishop Fabre, Montreal. Dr. MacCallum’s family consists of five children,—four daughters and one son.

Williams, Thomas, Accountant and Treasurer of the Intercolonial Railway, Moncton, New Brunswick, was born at Handsworth, near Birmingham, England, on the 3rd of June, 1846. He is the youngest son of Joseph and Hannah Williams. His father’s ancestors can be traced back several centuries as farmers and occupiers of land in the adjoining parish of Perry Barr. His mother’s ancestors, the Coulburns of Tipton, in South Staffordshire, have been connected with the development of the iron industries there for several generations past. Thomas Williams was educated at the parish schools, and subsequently at the Bridge Trust School—a grammar school founded from the proceeds of a legacy for repairs of bridges in the parish, for which after the organisation of the Highway Board, its existence for its original purposes was not necessary, and the accumulated funds were devoted to the erection and endowment of a superior school. In 1868, he entered the service of the London and North-Western Railway of England as freight clerk, and was subsequently appointed freight agent at Sutton Coldfield, near Birmingham, and station master at Marton, near Rugby. He resigned in June, 1870, to come to Canada, and in December, 1870, entered the service of the New Brunswick and Canada Railway, at St. Andrews, New Brunswick, as clerk to the general manager. Mr. Williams left the service of that railway in August, 1873, to enter upon duties of clerk in accountant’s office of the Intercolonial (Government) Railway, at Moncton, New Brunswick, and was subsequently appointed chief clerk in mechanical department of the same railway. In November, 1875, he was sent to Charlottetown, to organise the system of accounts of the Prince Edward Island Railway, and was appointed accountant and auditor of that railway. And on the 1st of July, 1882, he was appointed chief accountant and treasurer of the Intercolonial Railway at Moncton, which position he at present holds. Mr. Williams was a member of the Church of England until December, 1873, but in consequence of Ritualistic practices having been introduced into the church he was in the habit of attending, he left it, and was among the first to join the then newly organized Reformed Episcopal Church, St. Paul’s, in Moncton. He has held the office of vestryman and warden in this church, almost continuously since. On the 12th of January, 1875, he married Analena, daughter of the late John Rourke, merchant, St. John, New Brunswick, and has a family of seven children.

Pickard, Rev. Humphrey, D.D., Methodist Minister, Sackville, New Brunswick, was born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, June 10th, 1813. His parents, Thomas Pickard, was the son of Deacon Humphrey Pickard, and was born at Sheffield in 1783, and Mary Pickard, daughter of David Burpee. Mrs. Pickard was also born at Sheffield in 1783. Both Deacon Pickard and Squire Burpee, came, while yet mere youths, from Massachusetts, New England, with a party of the earliest English settlers on the Saint John river, about the year 1762. The subject of this sketch, after receiving a fair English education in Fredericton, was sent to the Wesleyan Academy, North Wilbenham, Massachusetts, United States, in 1829, where he commenced a classical course of study, and having prepared for matriculation, he entered the Freshman class in the University at Middletown, Conn., in 1831. He, having completed the Freshman course of study, retired from the university in 1832, and spent the following three years in mercantile pursuits. In 1835, he entered the Methodist ministry, as an assistant to the Rev. A. Des Brisay, in the Sheffield circuit. In 1836, he was received on trial as a Wesleyan missionary, by the British Methodist Conference, and laboured for a year as such on the Miramichi mission and Fredericton circuit. In 1837, he resumed his course of university study at Middletown; in 1839, he graduated, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and re-entered the work of the Methodist ministry, being stationed at Richibucto, until 1841, when he was appointed to St. John. In 1842, he was ordained and received into full connection with the English Conference as a Methodist minister, and appointed editor of the British North American Methodist Magazine, which was published at St. John. In November of the same year, he was elected principal of the Mount Allison Academy, and removed with his family to Sackville at the close of the year. The academy was opened on the 19th of January, 1843, with a very few students, but under his skilful management, it rapidly rose into importance in public estimation, and attracting students from all parts of the Maritime provinces, soon took position in the very front rank of the educational institutions of Eastern British America. The catalogue for the term from January to June, 1855, contains 250 names of students in actual attendance, viz.: of 134 in the male branch, and 116 in the female. In 1862, the Mount Allison College was organized at Sackville, by the authority of an Act of the Legislature of New Brunswick, and Mr. Pickard was appointed its president, and he continued to act as president of the college and principal of the academy until 1869. At the annual meeting of the Board of Governors of the united institutions, held May 26, 1869, the following resolution was unanimously adopted: “That the board, having received intimation from Rev. Dr. Pickard, that in consequence of the action of the conference in assigning to him another portion of connexional service, his resignation of the office of president of the institution is deemed necessary, though reluctantly accepting that resignation, would express in strongest terms its regret at the removal of Dr. Pickard from the field of usefulness for which he has special qualifications, and at which for upwards of a quarter of a century, he has with fidelity and honour served the church and his generation. The board is also assured that the great work of education in connection with the Wesleyan Conference of Eastern British America is greatly indebted to the retiring president of the institution, and that its success is largely to be attributed to the indomitable application and perseverance—the high business ability, and the earnest Christian aim by which Dr. Pickard has been animated during the whole period of his service in the government of the institution.” The Provincial Wesleyan, in a notice of the Mount Allison Academy, June 15, 1870, says: “The college established in 1862, under a charter from the Legislature of New Brunswick, mainly through the exertions of the Rev. Dr. Pickard, is the latest of the foundations at Sackville. * * * The first president of the college was the Rev. H. Pickard, D.D., president also of the Wesleyan Conference. Dr. Pickard’s name is so intimately associated with the Sackville institutions as almost to rival that of its benevolent founder. To them he gave the flower of his life. And although retired from the responsible office of president, and engaged in another sphere of usefulness, the doctor is still one of its ablest friends and supporters. His address at the recent celebration was received with the warmest demonstrations.” Dr. Pickard, having been elected to the office of editor of The Wesleyan and book steward, became resident in Halifax, from 1869 to 1873, but in this latter year he returned with his family to Sackville. From 1873 to 1875, he acted as agent for the college, and was largely instrumental in securing the first endowment fund; and in 1876 he was superintendent of the Sackville district. In 1877, he became a supernumerary, and has since so remained resident at Sackville, except during the years 1879-80, when, at the call of the General Conference of the Methodist Church of Canada, he acted as book steward at Halifax. He was elected secretary of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America in 1857, 1858, 1859 and 1860, and co-delegate of the same conference in 1861, and president in 1862 and 1870. He was appointed representative of the conference of Eastern British America to the Canada Conference, which met in the city of Kingston, June, 1860; and again to the conference which met in the city of Hamilton, June, 1867. He was appointed representative of his conference to the British Conference, first, in 1857, secondly in 1862, and thirdly in 1873. He was a member of the joint committee on the Federal union of the Wesleyan Methodist church in British America, which met in Montreal, October, 1872; and of the joint committee which met in Toronto in 1882, and formulated the basis of union by which the four separate Methodist bodies in Canada united to form the one Methodist church. Rev. Mr. Pickard was a member of the first and second general conferences of the Methodist Church of Canada, and served in both as chairman of the committee on discipline. He was also a member of the second general conference of the Methodist church, which met in Toronto, in September, 1886, and was appointed a member of the court of appeal and of the book committee for the quadrennium, 1886-1890. Mr. Pickard received the degree of Master of Arts in 1842, from the University at Middletown, and had the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity conferred on him by his alma mater in 1857. At the late session of the annual conference of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island of the Methodist church, the following address, beautifully engrossed and elegantly framed, was presented to Dr. Pickard: —

To the Reverend H. Pickard, D.D.:

Dear Brother,—The members of the New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island Conference, assembled in annual session, desire to express to you their hearty congratulations upon the completion of Fifty Years in the honourable work of your ministry. We also express our gratitude to God, that he has so long spared you to see the growth, prosperity, and influence of the church to whose interests you have given such rich qualities of learning, wisdom, and piety.

We rejoice that through all these years your moral and ministerial character has been preserved without a stain. We are profoundly conscious of the far-reaching influence of your life in our Academic and College work. The ministry of this and other churches, as well as the business and professional life of our provinces, have been enriched by the ripe scholarship and godly zeal of those who owe much to you for their culture and their ability in their callings. We are not unmindful that other departments of our church work have been benefited by your consecrated zeal and wisdom. As early life directs and tinges the thoughts of advanced age, we fail not to discern in you the earnestness of purpose, the singleness of aim that mark the years of the early itinerant. Your company has almost gone before, and while with the few venerable men whom we lovingly call Fathers, you wait the summons of the Master, you say —


“In peace and cheerful hope I wait,

    On life’s last verge quite free from fears,

And watch the opening of the gate,

    Which leads to the eternal years.”


We desire that your day, as it draws to its close, may be brightened by the glory of the sunset, full of the golden promise of the eternity of light.

Signed by order of the Conference,

C. H. Paisley,         Robert Wilson,

Secretary.                President.

Marysville, N.B., June, 1887.

Mr. Pickard was twice married, first at Boston, on October 2nd, 1841, to the daughter of Ebenezer and Hannah M. Thompson, by whom he had two children—Edward Dwight and Charles F. Allison, who died in early childhood and infancy. Mrs. Pickard died at Sackville, the 11th of March, 1844. She was a lady of superior ability, and much literary talent, her memoirs and selections from her writings were published at Boston, by the Rev. Edward Otheman, A.M., in a duodecimo volume of upwards of 300 pages, in 1845, which is now out of print. He was married again on the 5th of September, 1846, to Mary Rowe Carr, who was born at Portland, Maine, United States, the daughter of John and Avis Preble Carr. This second wife bore him two daughters, the first, Mary Emarancy, is the wife of Andrew M. Bell, hardware merchant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and the mother of two boys, Winthrop P. and Ralph P. The second, Amelia Elizabeth, is the wife of A. A. Stockton, D.C.L., M.P.P., of St. John, New Brunswick, and mother of six living children, three daughters and three sons. The second Mrs. Pickard died on the 24th of January, 1887, in the 77th year of her age.

Kennedy, George, M.A., LL.D., Barrister, Toronto, was born on 1st March, 1838, at Bytown, now the city of Ottawa, Ontario. His father, Donald Kennedy, was born near Blairathol, in Scotland, and came with his father to Canada in 1818, the family settling in the township of Beckwith. About the time of the building of the Rideau canal the father of the subject of this sketch removed to Bytown, engaged in business as a contractor and builder, was employed for some time as surveyor for the district of Dalhousie, now the county of Carleton, and for many years carried on, in partnership with John Blyth, an extensive cabinet-making business. An ancestor of his took part in the battle of Culloden, on the side of Bonny Prince Charlie, by some called the “Pretender,” and the dirk he used on the occasion is still in the possession of the family. Dr. Kennedy’s mother, Janet Buckham, was born in 1807, in Dunblane, Scotland, and came, with her father, to this country in 1828. This family settled in the township of Torbolton, and Mr. Buckham went into farming on a large scale at the head of Sand Bay, where he planted one of the finest orchards in that part of the country. The Buckhams were descended from an old Border family that have resided in Jedburgh from the time of Queen Mary, of Scotland. Mrs. Kennedy died in 1856; but Mr. Kennedy is still alive, and resides about three miles from Ottawa city, on a picturesque spot overlooking the Rideau river. George received his education at the Carleton county Grammar School (now the Ottawa Collegiate Institute), and at University College, Toronto, where he matriculated in 1853, taking the first-class scholarship in classics, and in his subsequent course held first-class honors also in mathematics, metaphysics and ethics, natural sciences, modern languages, logic, rhetoric and history. In 1857 he graduated B.A. with gold medal in metaphysics and ethics; took M.A. in 1860; LL.B. in 1864, and LL.D., in 1877. In 1859 Dr. Kennedy occupied the position of master of the Grammar School of Prescott; and during the years 1860-1 he was second master in the Ottawa Grammar School, and had charge of the branch Meteorological Observatory at Ottawa. In 1862 he began the study of the law in the offices of Crooks, Kingsmill and Cattanach, Toronto, and was admitted as an attorney and solicitor, and was called to the bar of Ontario in Hilary term, 1865. He then began the practice of his profession in Ottawa, and for six years carried on his business in his native place. In February, 1872, he received the appointment of law clerk to the Crown Lands Department of Ontario, and moved to Toronto, where he has ever since resided. During the years 1878-9-80 the doctor was examiner in law at the University of Toronto. He was one of the founders of the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society, formed by the amalgamation of the Mechanics’ Institute and Natural History Society, and was secretary for some years, and as a recognition of his labours in connection therewith was made a life member. He was also one of the original members of the University College Literary and Scientific Society, and is a member of the Canadian Institute, of which he was for three years a vice-president, and is now editor of “The Proceedings.” For some time he has been secretary to the Toronto St. Andrew’s Society, and as such prepared a history of the Society as a memorial for its jubilee year, 1886. Dr. Kennedy is an omnivorous reader, and as a consequence has a large and well-selected library—indeed he considers a library the most important part of any home—and few men are better posted in book-lore than he. He, too, has seen a good deal of Canada and the United States, and is familiar with the principal places in North America, ranging from the Southern states, the Western states, the Maritime provinces, the Muskoka district, and the regions beyond Ottawa. As might be expected, Dr. Kennedy was brought up a Presbyterian, but when quite young he began to entertain doubts as to the correctness of the Calvinistic faith of his church. For several years he was greatly troubled about this matter, and finding he could no longer stifle his convictions, he broke away from the church, and became almost an Agnostic. After a while, however, he joined the Unitarian church, and no one has now a firmer faith than he in the Divine Fatherhood, and the infinite possibilities of human progress. On the 6th June, 1883, he married Sarah, daughter of the late Henry Jackson, a well-known jeweller, and once resident of Toronto.

Turnbull, William Wallace, Merchant, of the firm of Turnbull & Co., Flour Dealers, Commission Merchants, and Importers of West India Goods, St. John, New Brunswick, was born on the 23rd of May, 1828, at Bear River, Annapolis county, Nova Scotia. His father was William Baxter Turnbull, and his mother, Relief Ann Tucker. His father’s grandparents emigrated from Edinburgh, Scotland, in the last century, and settled at a small place now known as Bay View, about three miles distant from the town of Digby, N.S., and here the father of the subject of our sketch was born. His mother’s grandparents were U. E. loyalists, and came to Nova Scotia from the United States shortly after, or during, the revolutionary war between Great Britain and that country. Mr. Turnbull, sen., was characterized by his keen sense of humour, his cheerfulness, and his affectionate nature, his sympathy for the weak and suffering, his strong religious convictions, and by his fealty to whatever he believed to be just and right. He died at the comparatively early age of forty-five years, and was buried at Bear River, greatly respected and beloved by all who knew him. William’s education was confined to the English branches, and was obtained at the Grammar School at Bear River, and also by attendance, for a short time, at the Grammar School at Albion Vale, a place about one mile distant from Annapolis, N.S. The school at Albion Vale was taught by the late Andrew Henderson, and it was at the time a somewhat celebrated place of instruction. Mr. Turnbull, sen., died, in July, 1845, leaving a widow and nine children (two sons and seven daughters), William being the younger of the two brothers. On the winding up of his estate, and the payment of all just debts, what remained for the family did not much exceed $1,000. For some time previous to this event William’s health was in such a precarious condition that it created a good deal of anxiety to the family, and it may be readily supposed he could do little towards the support of his mother and sisters, and to add to their troubles one of the younger sisters, eight years old, died. In the following spring (1846) all of the family except the brother removed to St. John, and shortly after their arrival in that city William obtained a situation as clerk with W. D. W. Hubbard, auctioneer. In this office he remained for about eighteen months, when he became book-keeper for G. & J. Salter, a firm then largely engaged in the West India trade, and as shipbuilders and shipowners. On the 1st May, 1851, he left their employ and struck out for himself as a wholesale flour, provision, and grocery merchant, adding thereto a few years afterwards shipowning and sailing, and in this business he is engaged at this time. When he started business he had a capital of about $200.00, very small indeed, but he had himself earned this money, and therefore knew its value. Owing, perhaps, to his youth and inexperience, for many years his progress was very slow, he having made a good number of bad debts and unwise ventures, yet notwithstanding these drawbacks he managed to meet all his liabilities as they matured, and now the reflection that throughout his business career he has been able to meet every honourable obligation, affords him the greatest satisfaction. Since his removal from Bear River he has always lived in St. John. The changes or experiences that he has had are perhaps such as are common to men engaged in business for so long a period as thirty-six years, particularly during a time when railroads, steamships and telegraphs have wrought such great changes in the methods of business, and to which we may add the change resulting from the confederation of the provinces into the Dominion of Canada. When Mr. Turnbull was about twenty-four years of age he became a member of the order of Sons of Temperance, but after a few years he withdrew, not because he had ceased to believe in the soundness of total abstinence principles, but because he became so immersed in business that his mind seemed to be wholly absorbed by it, and he felt, owing perhaps to the limitation of his capacity, unable to keep up his interest in the organization. He has always been, and still is, a total abstainer, but is not at present associated with any society having for its object the dissemination of temperance principles. During his connection with the Sons of Temperance he held a number of offices in the division, and afterwards became its presiding officer; and still later a member of the Grand Division of the province of New Brunswick. In May, 1884, Mr. Turnbull was elected president of the St. John Protestant Orphan Asylum, and also a director of the Bank of New Brunswick, which positions he still holds. He, with about a dozen other persons, built a railway from Gibson (opposite Fredericton) to Edmundston, a distance of about one hundred and sixty miles, with branches in addition to Woodstock, N.B., and Fort Fairfield, Maine, and he continued to be connected with this enterprise until the road was sold in 1880 to a number of capitalists in Montreal. He is a member of the Board of Trade of the city of St. John. In 1883 he took a trip to the Old World, and spent some time abroad, visiting Britain, Germany, and Switzerland. Mr. Turnbull’s father was a Presbyterian of the old school, and of course the son was brought up in the same faith; but he now attends the Episcopal church with his family. He, however, is not a member of this or any other church, not that he objects to churches, but simply that his mind is unsettled as to what is really the orthodox doctrine of faith and practice. One thing is certain, however, Mr. Turnbull finds great pleasure in relieving the wants of the deserving poor, and in doing all the good he can to his fellow-men. He does not consider himself in any sense a politician, yet nevertheless he holds decided opinions on most of the political questions that now agitate the country. He is strongly opposed to what is known as the national policy, for he believes it wrings large sums in taxes from the pockets of the people, without its being able to give them in return any compensating advantages. He is also strongly opposed to the expenditure of large sums of money on public works of an unremunerative character, and on public works which exist, as he is satisfied many in Canada do, only by reason of sentiment or false pride. While he recognizes that free trade, in its entirety, owing to the enormous debt of the Dominion, is not now practicable, he holds that it is thoroughly sound in principle, and being so would work the greatest good to the greatest number of our people, he would therefore favour its adoption to as large an extent as might seem to be practicable. He believes in the fullest individual liberty and freedom, consistent with a just regard for the rights of others, and is in favour of all measures having for their object the elevation of the masses. He is, in its true sense, a Liberal, but with enough conservatism in his composition to cause him to oppose any change in the laws of our country that he did not feel firmly convinced would be for the better. Mr. Turnbull was married at Maugerville, Sunbury county, on June 6, 1854, to Julia Caroline, daughter of the late Calvin L. Hatheway, of that place. Mr. Hatheway was of loyalist stock, his father having taken a somewhat prominent part in the revolutionary war between Great Britain and the United States. Mr. Turnbull’s wife’s mother was a daughter of Lieutenant James Harrison, who was also a loyalist, and who came to this province from the United States. He has a family consisting of five children living, namely, three daughters and two sons.

Sprague, Thomas Farmer, M.D., Woodstock, New Brunswick, was born on the 30th of August, 1856, at Brigus, island of Newfoundland. He is a son of the Rev. S. W. Sprague and Jean Manson Sprague. Thomas was educated at Mount Allison Academy, Sackville, New Brunswick, and at the Provincial Normal School. After leaving school he adopted the profession of teaching, which he successfully followed for some years, and then, in 1877, moved to the city of New York, and began the study of medicine. He entered the medical department of New York University, and successfully graduated in the spring of 1880 from this institution. Dr. Sprague then removed to Welsford, in New Brunswick, in April of the same year, and began the practice of his profession. He remained in that place for two years, and in June, 1882, went to Hartland, New Brunswick, where he stayed until June, 1883, and then took up his abode in Woodstock, county of Carleton, New Brunswick, where he has been successfully practising ever since. The doctor was brought up in the faith as taught by the Wesleyan Methodists—his father being a clergyman of that church—and he has seen no reason to change his religious belief since growing up into manhood. He married on the 17th of June, 1884, Loella Nourse, of Boston, Mass.

Gaynor, John Joseph, M.D., St. John, New Brunswick, was born of Irish parents, at Chatham, New Brunswick, on the 19th of March, 1854. They were educated Irish Catholics, his father being a native of the county Meath, and his mother of the county Clare, Ireland. They might well be classed as Irish-Americans, as they were both brought by their respective parents to this country while yet infants. Dr. Gaynor’s father, Thomas Gaynor, was educated at the Grammar School, Chatham; and his mother, Catharine Buckley, at a seminary for young ladies, conducted by a Mrs. Merry at Newcastle, New Brunswick. This privilege, so exceptional for Irish Catholics in those early days, was doubtless the reason which determined the doctor’s parents to bestow in turn a liberal education on their own offspring. On his father’s side Dr. Gaynor comes of the best blood of historic Meath, being a descendant of the same family that in the last century produced General Hand, of revolutionary fame as adjutant-general to Washington during the war of American Independence, and that in the present century gave birth to such eminent churchmen as the late Father Hand, founder of All Hallows College, Dublin, and the present patriotic Bishop of Meath, the illustrious Dr. Nulty. According to family tradition also, one of Dr. Gaynor’s ancestors fought under King James at the ill-fated battle of the Boyne, and was killed while defending the “Bridge of Slane.” His name, the same tradition says, was Thomas Gaynor. While on his father’s side Dr. Gaynor is thus descended from a liberty-loving race, on his mother’s side he is connected with that aristocratic class known in Ireland as “Castle Catholics.” His mother, who was born at Ferhill Castle, Blackwater, county Clare, was also closely allied by ties of blood to the famous fighting “Goughs of Clare,” whose name is historical through General Gough, of India fame. Dr. Gaynor is the eldest member of a family of twelve, eight of whom are still living. One of his brothers, the Rev. William C. Gaynor, is Roman Catholic pastor of Richmond, in Carleton county, New Brunswick. Father Gaynor is a writer of great power on theological questions, and is the author of “Papal Infallibility,” published in 1885, and of a Commentary in Latin on the Summa Theologica, of Thomas Aquinas, now in press in Paris. Another brother, P. A. Gaynor, is a member of a large lumbering house in Pennsylvania, and is now in the Redwood district of California, where he has established a branch firm. Dr. Gaynor was educated partly at St. Michael’s College, Chatham, and partly at St. Joseph’s College, Memramcook. In the former institution he studied mathematics and the exact sciences under the most distinguished teacher of his day in New Brunswick, Thomas Caulfield, M.A., of Trinity College, Dublin. His subsequent studies in logic and metaphysics were pursued at St. Joseph’s College, Memramcook. In this institution he taught the higher mathematics. It was here also that in 1877 he began the study of medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. H. E. Boissy, resident physician to St. Joseph’s, and leading medical practitioner among the Acadians of New Brunswick. From St. Joseph’s Dr. Gaynor went in 1878 to Buffalo, New York. There he attended the lectures in the medical department of Buffalo University. He followed also the different courses of the newly established College of Physicians and Surgeons in the same city. Graduating in 1881, after a four years’ course, he carried off the honours of his class, and was immediately offered the chair of chemistry and toxicology in his alma mater. This honourable position he declined at the insistance of his friends in New Brunswick, and immediately returned to his native province. Shortly after his return he read by invitation a paper on “Chloroform as an Anæsthetic,” before the Medical Society of New Brunswick. Establishing himself at DeBec, Carleton county, he soon acquired a lucrative practice. It was here that for the first time in the history of medicine in New Brunswick nitro-glycerine was employed, by Dr. Gaynor, for remedial purposes. Finding that his sphere of labour was too circumscribed, and desirous of entering into a larger field, Dr. Gaynor removed, in 1884, to St. John city, where he has since resided. On February 20, 1884, he was united in the bonds of holy wedlock to Nora Costigan, of St. John, a relative of the Hon. John Costigan, Minister of Inland Revenue. By her he has three children—Walter and Frederick, born February 16, 1885, and James, born August 28, 1886. During his vacations, while yet a medical student, Dr. Gaynor travelled extensively through the Northern, Western, and Middle states, spending some time in the Oil regions of Pennsylvania, and at the watering places on the Atlantic coast. In politics he is a Liberal-Conservative, with no love, however, for toryism as it exists in the mother country. The descendant of a family that fought and bled for human liberty, he is naturally a liberal in sentiment and aspiration. It is his belief, however, that so far as principles are concerned, there is no essential difference between the Conservative party led by Sir John Macdonald and the Liberal party led by Edward Blake. It is tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee; and in the end the people always rule. Such being his opinion of the two great political parties into which the Canadian people are divided, Dr. Gaynor has pronounced views as to the position which his Irish Catholic co-religionists should take in dominion politics. They should, he believes, adopt Parnell’s famous motto, Support the party which does the most for you. They would thus as a body be bound to neither political party, and would gravitate from one to the other consistently with the fair or unfair, just or unjust, treatment they might receive from either party. Outside his native province Dr. Gaynor is best known as a writer on materia medica. He has made a specialty of the study of new drugs; and his articles in the “Investigator”—a medical monthly of Buffalo—on this and kindred subjects, have attracted unusual attention from the medical profession in America. He also wrote and published in the same journal a series of articles in explanation and defence of the Catholic doctrine on craniotomy. In those articles he triumphantly refuted all the objections brought forward by his adversaries, and abundantly proved, in defence of the Catholic position, that the rational soul animates the human fœtus from the very first moment of conception, and that consequently it is as great a violation of divine law to destroy the living embryo as it would be to murder the new-born child. Dr. Gaynor’s views of medical practice are wide and comprehensive. His motto as regards remedial agents is:

“Seek the best where’er ’tis found,

 On Christian earth or pagan ground.”

Yet he is not an eclectic in the narrow sense of the word, which is now practically synonymous with homœopath. A thorough knowledge of anatomy, a complete acquaintance with the physiological effect of every drug or remedy, a no less complete acquaintance with pathology, and a virility of character sufficient to elevate the mind above the crude ideas of past generations, whether sanctioned by usage or made sacred by great names, must in future, he contends, be characteristics of the successful medical practitioner. A determined opponent of everything irrational or unintelligent in medicine, Dr. Gaynor has ever raised his voice against that hit-or-miss method, facetiously yet correctly styled “shot-gun practice,” which combines, for example, in one prescription three, four, or six different remedies, with the hope that if one misses some of the others will touch the target. He is, by consequence, a strong believer in the single remedy in every prescription. Dr. Gaynor is also a specialist in gynecology, his practice in St. John being almost limited to this department of his profession. He resides at number 2 Germain street.

de Martigny, Adelard Le Moyne, Notary and Cashier of La Banque Jacques Cartier, Montreal, was born at Varennes, on the 25th of December, 1826. He is the son of Jacques Le Moyne de Martigny, seigneur of de Martigny, St. Michel and La Trinité, and of Dame Suzanne Eléonore Perrault, daughter of the late François Perrault, prothonotary of the Superior Court at Quebec. Mr. de Martigny is descended from that distinguished family of Le Moyne, who arrived in this country in 1611, of whom were the de Longueuil, de Ste. Hélene, d’Iberville, de Bienville, de Chateauguay, de Sévigny, and de Maricourt; one of his ancestors, J. B. Le Moyne de Martigny, was at the capture of Fort Bourbon by d’Iberville, and was left there as commander of that fort. Having terminated his classical studies at the Montreal College, under the gentlemen of the Seminary of St. Sulpice, he studied law under J. N. A. Archambault, notary, at Varennes, and was admitted to practice in January, 1848. In August, 1856, he was appointed registrar of the county of Beauharnois; and in 1871 manager of the branch of the Merchants Bank of Canada, established in the town of Beauharnois. He, however, resigned these different positions to accept the one as manager of Le Crédit Foncier du Bas Canada in 1875; and finally he was offered the position of cashier of La Banque Jacques Cartier in Montreal in 1877, which he accepted and still occupies. He is one of the executors of the estate of the late Hon. Charles Wilson. Mr. de Martigny is one of the owners of a large asbestos estate in Coleraine, Megantic county, and one of the proprietors of a pulp and paper mill in Sorel, and was president of the Joliette Railroad Company at the time of the sale of that road to the government. In 1855 he married Aglaé Globensky, daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Globensky, one of the officers under Colonel de Salaberry, at the battle of Chateauguay. He has four sons by this marriage, one of them, the oldest, Louis Le Moyne de Martigny, is manager of the Jacques Cartier Bank at Salaberry de Valleyfield. He was married again to his first cousin, Marie Malvina Le Moyne de Martigny, daughter of Hugues Le Moyne de Martigny, seigneur of de Ramezay and Bourgchemin.

Rogers, Henry Cassady, Postmaster, Peterboro’, Ontario, was born at Grafton, Northumberland county, Ontario, on the 16th of July, 1839. He is the second son of the late Lieut.-Col. James G. Rogers and his first wife, Maria Burnham. His father died at his residence in Grafton on the 27th of November, 1874, in his seventieth year, greatly regretted by all who knew him. He (J. G. Rogers) came to Grafton with his parents from the village of Brighton, his birthplace, when he was only five years of age, and his life was spent amidst a people many of whom were the contemporaries of his youth. He was an upright magistrate and a sincere Christian. His grandfather, David McGregor Rogers, was a U. E. loyalist, who came to this country from New England with the first loyalists after the termination of the revolutionary war in 1776. He settled first on the Bay of Quinté, afterwards moving to Presqu’Isle, and finally to the township of Haldimand (now the village of Grafton), where he opened the first post-office between Kingston and York (now Toronto), and where three generations of the family have been born. The homestead is now occupied by his brother, Lieut.-Col. R. Z. Rogers, commanding the 40th battalion. He (D. McG. Rogers) was for twenty-four years a member of the Upper Canada legislature; and died on the 13th July, 1824, in the fifty-third year of his age. In his political opinions he was a warm admirer of the British constitution, and during the time he sat in the legislature no member guarded the rights and interests of the people more zealously than he did. His great-granduncle was the famous Col. Rogers of “Roger’s Rangers,” who was a man of note during the last century,—best known as Major Rogers. He first became famous as a scout in the Indian troubles. His exploits furnished Fenimore Cooper with the ground-work of his tales of the “Leather-stocking,” and “Horrors of the Backwoods.” He was commissioned to raise and organize a regiment of scouts during the French war. This corps rendered valuable service at the taking of Canada from the French, and on its surrender Rogers was entrusted by the commander-in-chief with the arduous duty of proceeding west from Montreal, and taking possession in the name of the king of Great Britain, of the country including forts Frontenac (Kingston), Niagara, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Mackinaw, etc., as far as the Mississippi in the west and Lake Superior north. He had therefore the honour of commanding the first British expedition that passed through the great chain of lakes, interesting accounts of which may be found in his “Journal,” published in London, England, in 1765; “Heely’s Wolfe in Canada,” “Parkman’s Conspiracy of Pontiac,” chap. vi.; and many others. The Rangers were re-organized on the breaking out of the rebellion in 1765, by a brother of the first commanding officer Colonel James Rogers who was the great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, commanded at St. John’s, Quebec (the key of Canada as it was then called), and were called the “Queen’s Rangers,” but many of the leading spirits joined the rebels, among others Putnam and Stark, who were lieutenants in the Rangers, and who became celebrated generals in the American army. Great inducements were offered the Rogers to join Washington, but they remained staunch to the Crown, for which they not only lost their homes and possessions (some 30,000 acres of land in New England), but had their good name calumniated, being called traitors and spies by the partisan press of the revolutionists. The mother of H. C. Rogers was third daughter of the late Hon. Zaccheus Burnham, of Cobourg, who came to Cobourg with his four brothers from New Hampshire at the end of the last century, and who carved out homes and affluence from the forest, and left a large circle of descendants who are filling many positions of trust and honour throughout the Dominion. Henry Cassady Rogers, the subject of our sketch, received his primary education in the public school at Grafton; then when twelve years of age he was sent to the Model School at Toronto, and finally to the Grammar School at Kingston where he graduated. He then apprenticed himself to his uncle, the late Lieut.-Colonel R. D. Rogers, of Ashburnham, who learned him how to conduct a commercial business, and with this uncle he remained from 1855 to 1860. He then went into business in Peterboro’ with his brother-in-law, Harry Strickland, son of Colonel Strickland, of Lakefield, and for ten years they carried on a successful mercantile lumbering and mining business under the name of Strickland & Rogers. In 1871 Mr. Rogers retired from the firm and was made postmaster of Peterboro’, which office he now fills with satisfaction to the public. Mr. Rogers has inherited from his illustrious ancestors a love of military life, and when only sixteen years of age, on the Rifle company being formed at Peterboro’ in 1855, he joined that corps; and in 1866, on the promotion of Captain Poole, he was given command of the company, and acted as its captain during the various Fenian raids of that period. In 1867, when the 57th battalion was formed, he and his companions became No. 1 company of the battalion. In this connection, we may here say, that his brother, Lieut.-Colonel Robert Z. Rogers, commands the 40th (Northumberland) battalion; and his cousin, Lieut.-Colonel James Z. Rogers, the 57th battalion Peterboro’ Rangers. In 1872 he raised and commanded the Peterboro’ Cavalry troop, which now forms C troop of the 3rd Prince of Wales Canadian Dragoons. Mr. Rogers is an active member of the Masonic brotherhood, and belongs to Corinthian lodge, No. 101, Peterboro’. He crossed the Atlantic in 1862, and made himself familiar with many cities of the old world. In politics he is a Liberal-Conservative; and in religious matters he is an adherent of the Episcopal church. In 1863 he was married at Smith’s Falls, to Maria, eldest daughter of Dr. W. H. Burritt, a scion of an old U. E. loyalist family of the Rideau, who settled at Burritt’s Rapids many years ago.

Wilson, J. C., M.P. for Argenteuil, Manufacturer, Montreal, was born on the 19th of July, 1841, near Rasharkin, county of Antrim, Ireland, and came to Montreal with his parents in September, 1842, and near this city the family settled. His father, Samuel Wilson, belonged to a numerous family of farmers and artisans in Antrim county; and his mother, Elizabeth Crocket, was descended from similar stock. Her forefathers were of a roving disposition, and their descendants are scattered all over the British colonies. Both Mr. Wilson’s parents were religious people, and held a prominent position in the church. His mother died at an early age from the excessive hardships she had to endure in the vicinity of Montreal, as a pioneer settler. His father, as a youth, received no training as an artisan, yet having a natural talent for using tools, he adopted the trade of carpenter, and in a very few years thereafter became an expert mechanic. He designed and made the first railway snow-plough used in Canada, and from his model the plough now used is still made. He entered the employ of the Grand Trunk Railway Company, and up to the time of his death was engaged by that company in building their cars. He was a very industrious man, and in the evenings, after leaving his usual work, frequently spent hours in his own workshop in his house at his lathe and bench, making furniture for himself and his neighbours. James, the subject of this sketch, was educated by an old-fashioned schoolmaster in the rudiments of learning, and had to work for a living at a very early age. He was apprenticed to mechanical engineering in 1853, and until 1856 he worked at his trade, when, having met with an accident that injured his right arm, he had to give up the trade of a mechanical engineer. Mr. Wilson now shows with pride some fine machinist’s tools he made when he was an apprentice. On recovering from his injuries, a kind friend observing the talents and perseverance of the lad, sent him to the Model School, and from there to the McGill Normal School in Montreal, and in July, 1859, he graduated as a teacher. In 1859 he removed to Beauharnois, and taught the dissentient school in that town until 1862, when he moved west to Belleville, where he clerked until December of that year, when he moved to Toronto, and accepted the position of clerk in the office of a wholesale news company. In 1863 he went to New York, and from November of that year until January, 1867, he had the management of the publishing house of T. W. Strong, of that city, and through his perseverance and industry gained the highest rung of the ladder of fortune in Mr. Strong’s establishment. While Mr. Wilson resided in New York he was a great favourite among the Canadians visiting there, and helped many of them when they were in need. A deep-seated love for Canada, and a special inducement brought him again back to Montreal in January, 1867, and he at once assumed the position of cashier and bookkeeper in the office of Angus, Logan & Co., paper manufacturers (now the Canada Paper Co.) He remained with this firm until September, 1870, when he went into business on his own account. He began the manufacture of paper bags by machinery, and was the first in Canada to supply the grocers all over the Dominion with this very useful article. This proving, by energy and ability, a prosperous business, in 1880 he built a large paper mill at Lachute, province of Quebec, and in 1885 had to double its power so as to be able to make six tons of paper per day. In 1880 Mr. Wilson was elected an alderman for the city of Montreal, and was again returned by acclamation in 1883. For six years he represented St. Lawrence ward in the city council, and for four years was chairman of the light committee. He was president of the Fish and Game Protection Club of the province of Quebec for two years; president of the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society for two years; and has occupied the principal chairs in several other societies in Montreal. Mr. Wilson is a life governor and vice-president of the Montreal Dispensary; a governor of the Protestant Insane Asylums of the province of Quebec; one of the board of Protestant School Commissioners of Montreal; principal and head of the firm of J. C. Wilson & Co., paper and paper-bag makers, Montreal; and at the general elections held February 22, 1887, he was elected to represent the county of Argenteuil, province of Quebec, in the House of Commons at Ottawa. Mr. Wilson is an ardent fisherman, fond of lakes and brooks, and never hesitates to drive thirty or forty miles over a rough road to enjoy a few hours’ trout-fishing, and thoroughly enjoys camp life. In business he is active, pushing, hard-working, and far-seeing in his plans, and never puts off until to-morrow what can be done to-day. With his employees he is a favourite, and is looked upon by them as most generous and kind. Mr. Wilson has adopted as his motto, “It pays to think.” In politics he is a Liberal-Conservative, and in religion an adherent of the Presbyterian form of worship. On the 6th of November, 1865, he married Jeanie, third daughter of the late William Kilgour, of Beauharnois, province of Quebec, and has a family of five children—three sons and two daughters.

Wedderburn, Hon. William, Q.C., Hampton, Judge of the County Courts of Kings and Albert counties, New Brunswick, was born at St. John, October 12, 1834. He is a son of the late Alexander Wedderburn, of Aberdeen, Scotland. Imperial emigration agent at St. John, New Brunswick, and Jane Heaviside, of London, England. His father was the author of several pamphlets and letters on important public affairs. Judge Wedderburn was educated at the St. John Grammar School, and entered as a student for the profession of the law in the office of the Hon. John H. Gray, (now judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia); was called to the bar in 1858, and created a Queen’s counsel in 1873. Until he entered political life he enjoyed a very large and leading law practice. For several years he was intimately connected with the press as a contributor and editor, and in both capacities, as well as on the platform, took a very prominent and pronounced stand in favour of the confederation of the provinces. At the general elections of 1870 he first presented himself for parliamentary honours, and was returned for the city of St. John to the New Brunswick legislature. In 1874 he was re-elected by a very large vote; and again in 1878 he was honoured by re-election. While in parliament he took a very prominent part in the discussions before the house, and was the author and promoter of a series of resolutions in favour of “better terms” for New Brunswick, and was afterwards delegated on several occasions to go to Ottawa on this subject. The result of the agitation was a very large increase to the income of the province, secured with other advantages when the delegates pressed the matter finally and with effect upon the settlement of the export duty question during the discussion of the Washington treaty. Mr. Wedderburn was also the author and mover of the famous resolutions—known and published throughout the election as the “Wedderburn resolutions”—on which the School bill contest in 1874 was conducted, re-affirming the principle of the School law, and protesting against any interference by the parliament of Canada on the subject. Very many laws were added to the Statute Book upon his motion. On February 18, 1876, he was elected speaker of the House of Assembly by acclamation, and while holding this office he was requested to report a code of laws for the government of the house during business and in committee. The rules at this time were very few and incomplete, and quite behind the age. At the following session he reported to the house. Taking the practice of the Imperial and Canadian Houses of Commons, and the rules of parliament, and of the different legislatures of the provinces,—the report provided a full and complete course of procedure. After full discussion during that and the following session the whole of the rules were adopted with very little, if any, material amendment. The committee reported a grant of five hundred dollars to the speaker for his work—which had, of course, been prepared without charge. Mr. Wedderburn ranked high as a parliamentary authority, and is thought not to have been excelled in the chair. At the close of the term of the Assembly, the leader of the opposition, in a very complimentary speech, moved the thanks of the House to Mr. Speaker for his ability, etc., in the government of the house. The premier (now Judge King) seconded the motion, and highly eulogized the Speaker, and concluded by saying that “if he (Mr. Wedderburn) had not been so good a Speaker, he (Mr. King) would have been a better parliamentarian.” Immediately after this, Hon. Mr. Wedderburn was appointed to the office of provincial secretary, and this office he held until he accepted the position of judge of the County Courts of Kings and Albert. He twice refused a seat in the government of 1870, and the appointment of commissioner to consolidate the provincial statutes. He has been prominently identified with the temperance movement, and has filled various important positions in this army of moral reform, among others that of grand worthy patriarch of the Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance of New Brunswick. He was president of the Mechanics’ Institute of St. John for three years consecutively, 1869-72, as well as holding other offices in the institute. He was first president of the Provincial Board of Agriculture, created by a law passed by the government of which he was a member, and the address delivered by him at the inauguration of the board was greatly complimented, and published or largely quoted in English and French throughout Canada and in the United states. And it was largely through his means that the stock farm was undertaken by the government. Hon. Mr. Wedderburn has been speaker, orator, and lecturer on many important public and private occasions, commanding the close attention of his auditors at all times by his eloquent, powerful and ornate deliverances. Among his efforts in this direction may be mentioned his address at the memorial services held in the city of St. John for President Lincoln; his oration as provincial secretary at the memorial services of President Garfield; at the laying the corner stone of the Masonic Temple in St. John; at the ceremonial in celebration of the Centennial of the introduction of Freemasonry into New Brunswick; his great lecture on “Colin Campbell,” in the Mechanics’ Institute, on behalf of the volunteers during the Fenian troubles; and his brilliant oration, delivered by request of the city corporation of St. John, upon the Centennial celebration of the landing of the loyalists in New Brunswick. Many others might be mentioned. Judge Wedderburn has always been prominently identified with the fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. He was initiated in St. John’s lodge, of St. John, June 19, 1857, and was senior warden in 1860, and worshipful master in 1862 and 1863. The capitular degrees were received in the New Brunswick Royal Arch Chapter. He was the first of, and the most prominent among, those who advocated the erection of an independent Grand Lodge in and for New Brunswick; promoting the movement by his voice and pen, particularly by the latter in the columns of the Masonic Mirror, the organ of the order, and of which he was the editor. At the formation of the Grand Lodge, October, 1867, he was unanimously elected deputy grand master, in which position he continued up to 1870, when he was elected grand master, and occupied the latter office for two years. Although the removal of his residence to his villa at Hampton, Kings county, and the prosecution of his judicial functions have drawn him away from active participation in the work of the craft, nevertheless he continues to retain his membership in the lodge, and to preserve a warm interest in the prosperity of the brotherhood. The editor of the Parliamentary Practice thus refers to him when he was provincial secretary:—“Upon the floor of the House he was a leading spirit; eloquent and argumentative, a keen debater, and a master of sarcasm.” Judge Wedderburn is married to Jeannie, daughter of the late C. C. Vaughan, of St. John, New Brunswick.

Steeves, James Thomas, M.D., Superintendent of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, St. John, New Brunswick, was born at Hillsborough, Albert county, N.B., on the 25th of January, 1828. He is a brother of the late Hon. W. H. Steeves, senator, and one of the delegates or founders of Canadian confederation; and is of German ancestry. His great-grandfather was born in Osnaburgh, Germany, whence he removed to Philadelphia, and his grandfather, the Rev. Henry Steeves, removed thence to Albert county, N.B., about the beginning of the present century. Dr. Steeves is a Baptist in religion, as all his fathers were; in fact “his fathers” were the pioneers in disseminating Baptist doctrines over a large portion of the province. His literary education was obtained at the Grammar School at Hillsborough, at Sackville Academy, and finally at the Baptist Seminary, Fredericton, under the late Dr. Spurden. After the completion of his literary course, he entered upon the study of medicine at the Pennsylvania Medical College,—attracted by the famous surgeon, Valentine Mott,—the following year he matriculated at the University of New York, and graduated in the class of 1853. From the medical faculty of the university he received a certificate of honour for proficiency and for having pursued a more extended course of instruction than that required by the college curriculum. In June, 1854, the doctor established himself in Portland, St. John, N.B., and entered upon the practice of his profession. After the lapse of a few weeks Asiatic cholera made its appearance there in all its terribleness, spreading dismay and death on every hand. During the prevalence of this fearful scourge, extending over a period upwards of four months, Dr. Steeves, by his unswerving fidelity to his professional duties under every circumstance, and his good measure of success, fairly placed himself among the leading physicians of New Brunswick. In 1864 he removed to the city of St. John and erected the fine block of four brick and stone buildings situated on the corner of Wellington Row and Union street, which escaped the great fire of 1877, and still stand as a monument to his success and enterprise, and where he resided until 1875. On the opening of the General Public Hospital in 1864, the doctor was appointed upon the staff of visiting surgeons, and was the last of the original staff retiring. When the late Dr. J. Waddell was about retiring from the superintendency of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Dr. Steeves was recommended by his professional brethren almost as a body, as a suitable successor for the position. Under the management of Dr. Waddell the asylum for the insane had attained a high position for successful work; and since under the present administration it has not lost a whit, but has kept fully abreast with the various modern improvements incident to asylum treatment everywhere. Dr. Steeves is a strong advocate for segregation, pavilion accommodation, and employment for the insane. By means of his advocacy with pen and voice, he has induced the government of New Brunswick to purchase a large farm, and to erect thereon a group of pavilions for the care and employment of a suitable number and class of the most healthy, indigent and pauper insane. The establishment is in full working condition, and is regarded as a complete success, in that it is far better than the old hospital system for this class of patients, giving them more freedom and out-door work, and that it is far more economical both in buildings and maintenance. Dr. Steeves was elected a member of the first medical council of New Brunswick on the introduction of the English Medical Registration Act in 1860. He has occupied the position of vice-president of the Canada Medical Association; he is an honorary member of the American Medical Association; he was elected unanimously first president of the New Brunswick Medical Society under the New Brunswick Medical Act of 1880; and is past president of the New Brunswick Medical Council. The Dr. was married to M. A. McMann, daughter of the late Captain L. McMann, of the city of St. John, in May, 1856; by whom he had born nine children. The eldest son, Frank H. Steeves, M.D., a very promising young man, graduated in medicine at Bellevue Hospital College, N.Y., and soon after went to St. Thomas Hospital College, London, England, in 1880, to further pursue medical studies. There he contracted acute phthisis, to which disease he succumbed in March, 1882. The second son, J. A. E. Steeves, A.M., M.D., is the assistant physician in the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, St. John, at the present time.

Van Wyck, Rev. James, Pastor of the Euclid Avenue Methodist Church, Toronto, was born in Stamford village, in the county of Welland, Ontario, on the 16th of May, 1846. He is descended on his father’s side from an old Dutch family, who many centuries ago were seigniors of Wyck in Holland, but through political intrigue lost their feudal rights. The first Van Wyck in America emigrated from Holland in 1660, and he and his son Theodoras took the oath of allegiance to the British government in 1681. Since then the family has multiplied considerably, and is now scattered throughout the United States, many of them filling important positions, both in church and state. Rev. Mr. Van Wyck’s grandfather was the only one of this name who came to Canada, to make for himself a home, and he settled in the Niagara peninsula, where Daniel Van Wyck, the father of the subject of our sketch, was born, on the 7th of October, 1812, his mother being Nancy Kilman. Daniel Van Wyck was a farmer, a man of good judgment and sterling integrity, and was invariably sought after in cases of arbitration. During the Mackenzie rebellion, he stood by the “old flag.” He took a deep interest in education—filling the position of school trustee for many years, and was an ardent supporter of free schools. In politics he was a Conservative. James Van Wyck, like a great many boys in their days, had to help his father on the farm or in the workshop, and got very little time to attend the public school after he was ten years of age, except a few months in winter, and not even that after he was fifteen years of age. Misfortune had befallen his father, and the son worked hard to help him to regain his former position. When he had reached his nineteenth year, having despaired of getting what his mind craved after, an education, he apprenticed himself to an elder brother in the town of Welland, to learn the carpenter trade, and having served the usual time, he left Welland and went to Lockport, New York state, where he remained for about eighteen months. During these years he had been improving his mind, and had united himself with the Methodist Episcopal church. On his return to Canada in 1869, he entered the ministry of that church, and after preaching four years, and pursuing the required course of study, he was ordained to the work of the ministry in 1873, by the late Bishop Richardson. In the fall of that year he entered Albert College, Belleville, where he remained for four years, and graduated in arts in June, 1878. He was also valedictorian of the year, besides receiving the silver medal. He was then invited to a church in Strathroy, where he remained for nearly five years by special request (it being a privilege at that time to those who were preferred). Next he went to Hamilton, where he remained for three years, and in 1886 he was invited to take charge of the church in Euclid avenue, in Toronto, the pastorate he now fills, with honour to the Master and satisfaction to his people. Rev. Mr. Van Wyck has always taken an active part in temperance work, and from 1879 to 1882 occupied the office of president of the branch of the Dominion Alliance, for the suppression of the liquor traffic in the county of Middlesex. He is a member of the Independent Order of Oddfellows, and he has also been connected with the Sons of Temperance, and the Good Templars for a number of years. He is one of the board of management of Alma College, St. Thomas, and also one of its board of examiners. He occupied a seat on the board of examiners of the Albert College, Belleville, from 1878 up to the time of the union of the Methodist churches a few years ago. He has also been associated with the board of examiners in the Annual Conference of the Methodist church since 1878. Rev. Mr. Van Wyck has been repeatedly appointed a delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist church, and when the question of union was discussed, he supported the union with all his ability. He has been very happy in his church relations, and in all his charges has enjoyed great prosperity. In his earlier years, Mr. Van Wyck was somewhat prejudiced in favour of the denomination in which he was brought up, and thought John Wesley infallible, but Ephraim has now somewhat modified his views. Although he is a firm Arminian, and believes in the genuineness, authority and inspired character of the divine revelation contained in the Bible, yet he sometimes wishes that the creeds of the Evangelical church had more specified articles of faith in them, and that they were more liberally interpreted. He was married on the 24th of August, 1866, to Maria Fares, who was educated in Toronto and Belleville, and is a daughter of Isaac Fares, of Humberstone, Welland county, Ontario.

Bronson, Erskine Henry, M.P.P., for the city of Ottawa, was born on the 12th of September, 1844, at Bolton, Warren county, New York state. He is a son of Henry Franklin Bronson, and Edith E. Pierce, of Bolton, and a member of the firm of Bronsons & Weston, lumber manufacturers, Ottawa city. Mr. Bronson, senr., came to Canada in 1849, when Erskine was a mere child, and visiting the Ottawa valley became greatly impressed with the idea that the Chaudière Falls was a splendid place to begin lumbering operations. The timber supply in the neighbourhood seemed inexhaustible, and the water power magnificent. After a short stay, however, he returned to his home in the state of New York, and thought little more of the matter until 1852, when he persuaded J. J. Harris, an extensive lumberman, with whom he was associated, to go with him to Ottawa. Arrived at their destination, the river experts tried to persuade them that the Ottawa river was not suitable for the safe driving of saw logs. But Mr. Bronson thought differently, and persuaded Mr. Harris to purchase certain water lots at the Chaudière Falls, which he accordingly did, from the Crown, and here, under the personal superintendence of Mr. Bronson, were erected mills, portions of which still exist and form part of the splendid works since erected by Bronsons & Weston. Shortly after the erection of the first mill, Mr. Bronson removed his family to Canada, in the fall of 1853, and made his permanent home at Ottawa. Erskine was brought up here, and received his education in the best schools in the place, and at Sandy Hill, New York state. After finishing his education, he took a position in the business; and in 1864, on the retirement of Mr. Harris, he was admitted a partner into the new firm, which was then established, and which consisted of Henry Franklin Bronson, who with Mr. Harris originated the business, Erskine H. Bronson and Abijah Weston, of Painted Post, New York, and which has since traded under the name of Bronsons & Weston. This firm owns two mills at Ottawa, running ten gates, with a capacity of producing 60,000,000 feet of lumber during the season. They have also close business relations with John W. Dunham, of Albany, New York, and Herman K. Weaver, of Burlington, Vt., and have also a yard in Albany, for the sale of lumber in the rough. Though in the building up of this great concern, the Liberal member for Ottawa has played no inconsiderable part, he has also done something to prove himself a good and useful citizen. He has been a member of the School Board for the last fourteen years, during the past four years of which he has been chairman of the committee on school management. He was first elected to the city council by acclamation in 1871, and served continuously until the close of 1877. During the last year he was in the council he prepared the act consolidating the city debt, and secured its passage in the Ontario Legislature in the session of 1878. This act relieved the city by the extension of the time of the payment of its bonds of a large annual levy for a sinking fund, and fixed the maximum of taxation at one and a half per cent., instead of two per cent. as before, under the general municipal law. Mr. Bronson in politics is a Reformer, and in religious matters an adherent of the Presbyterian church. He is one of our rising men, and we feel that Ottawa in electing him as one of its representatives in the Ontario Legislature, has done something that shall redound to its credit. Mr. Bronson was married in 1874, to Miss Webster, the only daughter of Professor Webster, a Southern gentleman, at one time a resident of the capital, by whom he has two children.

McPherson, R. B., Thorold, Ontario, was born in 1817, in Kingussie, Inverness-shire, Scotland. His father was a merchant; and having a family of twelve children, he considered it would be to their interest if he emigrated to Canada. He therefore left his native country in 1822, and located himself in Glengarry, about twenty miles east by north of Cornwall. Here R. B. McPherson was brought up, and received the very scant education given in the back township schools in those days, the principal being the reading of the Bible and the committing to memory the Shorter Catechism and the Paraphrases. At the age of thirteen he left home, and found employment in a country store, the proprietor of which was in the habit of purchasing timber for the Quebec market. Here Mr. McPherson remained for some time, and frequently had to act in the capacity of raftsman, and help bring his employer’s timber down to Quebec. He often ran the risk of losing his life in the St. Lawrence river rapids before the rafts were safely anchored in the timber coves at Quebec. During the rebellion of 1837-8, Mr. McPherson took sides with the loyalists, and had command at one time of a guard at the river Beaudette bridge near Coteau Rapids, Province of Quebec, whose duty it was to intercept rebels coming or going over it, more especially the late Sir George E. Cartier, for whose head a large sum of money had been offered, and who it was thought would endeavour to escape across the St. Lawrence at this point. In 1840 Mr. McPherson left Lower Canada and came to Toronto, where he remained a short time, and then crossed over to Rochester. From this place he travelled through the Genesee country to Buffalo and the Falls of Niagara, and when at the latter point, he saw Mr. McLeod, of Caroline steamer notoriety, a prisoner, surrounded by a strong guard at the hotel. He again returned to Canada, and found employment near the town of Simcoe. In this place he remained for a short time, and then left for New York, intending to sail from that port to Buenos Ayres, South America, and try his fortune there. On his arrival at New York, he learned that Buenos Ayres was blockaded by a French squadron, and being advised to abandon his southern trip, he remained in New York until his means were exhausted, and then, in the month of January, he left with the idea of tramping his way to New Orleans by way of the Mississippi. On his route he passed through Philadelphia and Baltimore. At Baltimore he took the turnpike road to Pittsburg, but after a while got so tired and footsore with travelling in the snow that he turned off the main road, and took the road right across the state of Pennsylvania through the coal mines, making his way towards Lake Erie. When he reached the Alleghany river he followed its course for a long distance, and then struck off to Jamestown, just then starting into existence, and then on to Buffalo. From this point he walked across Lake Erie on the ice to Port Colborne and then on to St. Catharines. Here he found employment as bookkeeper, paymaster, etc., in the office of Thompson, Haggert & Burford, contractors engaged in building the Welland canal. Frank Smith (now senator) was at this date employed by this former firm and was in charge of a store that shipped goods to the labourers’ employers on the works. After the completion of this famous Welland canal contract Mr. McPherson went to Toronto, and meeting a Mr. Logan, a then prominent merchant in that city, who controlled about a dozen stores in various country parts north and east of Toronto, he entered into an engagement with him to take charge of a store at Oshawa; and while here Mr. Logan’s storekeeper in the village of Markham was murdered (the murderer being afterwards executed in Toronto), and Mr. McPherson was transferred to that village leaving the employ of Mr. Logan, he went to the village of Bradford and took charge of a store for Mr. Cameron, son of the late Colin Cameron, of Hogshollow, Yonge street. In the spring of 1849 Mr. McPherson again got restless and left Bradford with the intention of going to California, but on his way, at Buffalo, he met the late Mr. Brown, who had a large contract in the Welland canal, and abandoning his California trip, he arranged with that gentleman to become his general manager, and once more returned to Canada. Mr. Brown was a large contractor, and shortly after Mr. McPherson joined him, he secured a contract amounting to about two million dollars on the new canal; but before he had half completed the work, he met with an accident which caused his death. Dying without a will, Mr. Brown’s affairs were put into Chancery, and Mr. McPherson was appointed administrator of the estate. He went to work and completed Mr. Brown’s contracts. When the estate was wound up, it was found that Mr. McPherson had faithfully done his duty, and that the sum of six hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars had been realized for Mr. Brown’s heirs. In 1869 Mr. McPherson built a grist flouring mill, and another in 1878, to supply flour, etc., to the men building the canal, both ventures turning out fairly. From 1856 to 1862 he was a member of the town council, and for two years a member of the county council, and when acting as county councillor he had the pleasure of taking part in the reception given the Prince of Wales at Chippawa. Mr. McPherson was a Liberal in politics ever since he knew the meaning of the term, and always took a lively interest in political matters. In 1881, on the death of his wife, he took a tour through the Southern States, and in his rambles visited Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky, returning through some of the Northern States; and came to the wise conclusion that Ontario suited him best, and in this province he spent the remainder of his days. Although Mr. McPherson’s parents were, in the old country, Baptists, and in Canada attended the Presbyterian church, and were very strict observers of Sunday and all the doctrines held by that church, yet as a young man he began to wonder why God was so particular about Sunday. Being of an inquiring turn of mind and not afraid to think for himself, he began reading philosophical works, and works on the religions of antiquity, and comparing them with the writings of the Jews, he gradually relinquished the Christian dogmas, and became an Agnostic. Mr. McPherson was married in 1855, to Miss Secord, whose parents reside near St. David’s, a few miles from Queenston. Her grandmother gained considerable renown during the war of 1812, having walked from Queenston in the night through the enemy’s lines to give important information to the British general stationed about twenty miles west of that place. While on a visit to Buffalo, Mr. McPherson was suddenly taken ill, and died on the 1st December, 1886, in that city, aged sixty-nine years, leaving behind him an honourable record for integrity and usefulness.

Cameron, Sir Matthew, Chief Justice of Ontario, who died at Toronto, Ontario, on the 25th June, 1887, was a son of John McAlpine Cameron, a descendant of the Camerons of Fassifern, Scotland, who emigrated from Inverness-shire to Upper Canada in 1819, settling at Dundas, where he engaged in business, and subsequently discharged the duties of deputy postmaster under Thomas Allan Stayner, then the Imperial Postmaster-General for Canada, at Hamilton. He also acted as deputy clerk of the Crown for Gore district. Later, however, he was a student at law with Sir Allan McNab, with whom he remained until he was appointed to the first permanent clerkship of committees in the parliament of Upper Canada, from which office he went to the Canada Company’s office in Toronto, where he held an important position for many years. Coming to this part of the country, as he did, when it was yet undeveloped and sparsely settled, and engaging in active life, Mr. Cameron became well and widely known. He died in Toronto in November, 1866, aged seventy-nine years. His mother was Nancy Foy, a native of Northumberland, England. The deceased chief justice received his primary education at a school in Hamilton, under a Mr. Randall, and afterwards at the District School in Toronto, which he attended for a short time. In 1838 he entered Upper Canada College, where he studied until 1840, when, in consequence of an accident while out shooting, he had to retire. Two years later he entered the office of Campbell & Boulton, of Toronto, as a student-at-law, where he remained until Hilary term, 1849, when he was called to the bar of the province of Ontario. He engaged in Toronto in the practice of his profession, first with Mr. Boulton, his former master. This firm continued until the law partnership of Cayley & Cameron was formed, the senior member being the Hon. William Cayley, an English barrister, and at one time inspector-general of the province, afterwards registrar of the Surrogate Court. In 1859 Dr. McMichael entered the firm, which then became Cayley, Cameron & McMichael. Later Mr. Cayley retired, and E. Fitzgerald became a partner in the business, and his name was added to the name and style of the firm, remaining so for several years. Alfred Hoskin subsequently became a partner, and on the retirement of Mr. Fitzgerald, the firm became Cameron, McMichael & Hoskin, and remained so until the senior member’s elevation to the bench in November, 1878. He was elected a Queen’s counsel in 1863, and elected a bencher in November, 1878. He first came into public notice as a counsel in the famous case of Anderson, the fugitive slave, the refusal to surrender whom, on the part of the British government, nearly caused war between that country and the United States. Mr. Cameron represented Anderson in this case, and made a defence which for burning eloquence and closely reasoned logic has scarcely ever been equalled at the bar in this country. It was over the magnificence of this effort that he got the title which he retained for some time of the silver-tongued orator of the Ontario bar. Partly as a result of this case he obtained a very large practice, and travelled from assize to assize, putting in an immense amount of work, though nearly all the time enduring great personal agony, as the result of an accident suffered some years before. This accident occurred while he and another gentleman were shooting in the marsh near this city. One of the guns went off prematurely, shooting Mr. Cameron in the thigh. The wound took a bad turn, and the injured leg had to be amputated. The stump never healed properly, and during the remainder of his life he was almost continually in pain from this accident. The physical suffering never prevented him from doing such a day’s work that few men in the country would have performed in the same time. In his early days, when he was a practising barrister, he would work through one assize court, and then travel all night across country roads thirty or forty miles, take up the business at another court and after going through it travel to the next court, and so on. At the assizes, as a judge, he would go to the bench early in the morning, would sit there all afternoon, and would not adjourn till four or five in the morning if necessary to get through with a case. He has worn out three juries in a day. His legal acquirements and great talents caused him to be looked up to with profound respect by the bar, the members of which also entertained much personal affection for him. His summing up of a case was a masterpiece of lucidity and force. The first public office held by the late Sir Matthew Cameron was on a commission with Colonel Coffin, appointed in 1852, to inquire into the causes of accidents which had been of frequent occurrence on the Great Western Railway. In 1859 he went into the City Council of Toronto, representing St. James ward, and thenceforward he figured prominently in public life. In 1861, and again a few years later, at the solicitation of many citizens, he contested the mayoralty unsuccessfully. In 1861 he entered the arena of national politics, and sat for North Ontario in the Canadian Assembly from the general election of that year until the general election in 1863, when he was defeated. But in July, 1864, he was re-elected for the same seat, which he continued to hold until confederation, when he was again unsuccessful. At the general Provincial elections in 1867 he was returned to the Ontario legislature for East Toronto, and re-elected in 1871 and 1875. He was a member of the Executive Council in Ontario in the Sandfield Macdonald administration from July 20, 1867, until the resignation of the ministry, December 19, 1871, and, with the exception of the last five months of this period, when he was commissioner of Crown Lands, he held the offices of Provincial Secretary and Registrar. He was also leader, and a very able one, too, of the opposition, from the general elections in December, 1871, until appointed to the judgeship in the Queen’s Bench, in November, 1878, which position he held until he rose to the chief justiceship of the Common Pleas in 1884. He aided in forming the Liberal-Conservative Association of Toronto, became its first president, and held that office until his elevation to the bench. He was also vice-president of the Liberal-Conservative convention which was assembled in Toronto in 1874. He was a member of the Caledonian and St. Andrew’s societies. He was created a Knight Bachelor on April 5th last, at the same time Chief Justice Stuart, of Quebec, received a similar honour. As a lawyer Sir Matthew had few equals either among his predecessors or his contemporaries; and as a citizen he was generous almost to excess. As a minister of the Crown, and as leader of the opposition, he was a prodigious worker, an able tactician, and a most formidable, though always courteous, enemy. As a judge he had the confidence and respect of the bar to the utmost extent, while his immense knowledge of law and the clearness of his decisions made him a most valuable public servant. Chief Justice Cameron belonged to the Episcopal denomination, and for about thirty years was a member of Trinity Church, Toronto. In politics he was a Liberal-Conservative. On December 1st, 1851, he was married in Toronto to Charlotte Ross, daughter of William Wedd, who immediately prior to his death resided in Hamilton, Ontario. Mrs. Cameron died January 14th, 1868. She was a sister of William Wedd, first classical master at Upper Canada College, and also of the late Mrs. Dr. McMichael, Mrs. Dr. Strathy, Toronto, and Mrs. Scadding, of Orillia. Sir Matthew left three sons and three daughters. His sons are, Dr. Irving H. Cameron, Ross McAlpine Cameron, and Douglas W. Cameron. His daughters are Mrs. Darling, the widow of the late son of the Rev. W. S. Darling, Mrs. A. Wright, and a young unmarried daughter.

Talbot, Hon. Thomas, was born at Malahide, on the 17th July, 1771. His father was Richard Talbot, of Malahide, and his mother, Margaret, Baroness Talbot. The Talbots of Malahide trace their descent from the same stock as the Talbots who have been earls of Shrewsbury, in the peerage of Great Britain, since the middle of the fifteenth century. The subject of our sketch spent some years at the Public Free School of Manchester, and received a commission in the army in the year 1782, when he was only eleven years of age. In 1787, when only sixteen, we find him installed as aide-de-camp to his relative, the Marquis of Buckingham, who was then lord lieutenant of Ireland. His brother aide was the Arthur Wellesley, who afterwards became the illustrious Duke of Wellington. The two boys were necessarily thrown much together, and each of them formed a warm attachment for the other. Their future paths in life lay far apart, but they never ceased to correspond, and to recall the happy time they had spent together. In 1790 he joined the 24th regiment, which was then stationed at Quebec, in the capacity of lieutenant. Upon the arrival of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe at Quebec, at the end of May, 1792, Lieutenant Talbot, who had nearly completed his twenty-first year, became attached to the governor’s suite in the capacity of private secretary. Governor Simcoe, writing in 1803, says, “he not only conducted many details and important duties incidental to the original establishment of a colony, in matters of internal regulation, to my entire satisfaction, but was employed in the most confidential measures necessary to preserve the country in peace, without violating, on the one hand, the relations of amity with the United States, and on the other, alienating the affections of the Indian nations, at that period in open war with them. In this very critical situation, I principally made use of Mr. Talbot for the most confidential intercourse with the several Indian tribes, and occasionally with his Majesty’s minister at Philadelphia, and these duties, without any salary or emolument, he executed to my perfect satisfaction.” It seems to have been during his tenure of office as secretary that the idea of embracing a pioneer’s life in Canada first took possession of young Talbot’s mind. On the 4th of February, 1793, an expedition which was destined to have an important bearing upon the future life of Lieutenant Talbot, as well as upon the future history of the province, set out from Newark, now Niagara village, to explore the pathless wilds of Upper Canada. It consisted of Governor Simcoe himself and several of his officers, and the subject of our present sketch. The expedition occupied five weeks, and extended as far as Detroit. The route was through Mohawk village, on the Grand River, where the party were entertained by Joseph Brant; then westward to where Woodstock now stands; and so on by a somewhat devious course to Detroit. On the return journey the party camped on the present site of London, which Governor Simcoe then pronounced to be an admirable position for the future capital of the province. One important result of this long and toilsome journey was the construction of Dundas Street, or as it is frequently called, “the governor’s road.” Lieutenant Talbot was delighted with the wild and primitive aspect of the country through which they passed, and expressed a strong desire to explore the land farther to the south, bordering on lake Erie. His desire was gratified in the course of the following autumn, when Governor Simcoe indulged himself, and several members of his suite, with another western excursion. During this journey the party encamped on the present site of Port Talbot, which the young lieutenant declared to be the loveliest situation for a dwelling he had ever seen. “Here,” said he, “will I roost, and will soon make the forest tremble under the wings of the flock I will invite, by my warblings, around me.” Whether he was serious in this declaration at the time may be doubted; but, as will presently be seen, he ultimately kept his word. In 1793 young Talbot received his majority. In 1796 he became lieutenant-colonel of the fifth regiment of foot. He returned to Europe and joined his regiment, which was dispatched on active service to the continent. He himself was busily employed during this period, and was for some time in command of two battalions. Upon the conclusion of the peace of Amiens, on the 27th March, 1802, he sold his commission, retired from the service, and prepared to carry out the intention expressed by him to Governor Simcoe nine years before, of pitching his tent in the wilds of Canada. Why he adopted this course it is impossible to do more than conjecture. He never married, but remained a bachelor to the end of his days. The work of settlement cannot be said to have commenced in earnest until 1809. It was no light thing in those days for a man with a family dependent upon him to bury himself in the remote wilderness of Western Canada. There was no flouring mill, for instance, within sixty miles of his abode, which was known as Castle Malahide. During the American invasion of 1812-13-14, Colonel Talbot commanded the militia of the district, and was present at the battles of Lundy’s Lane and Fort Erie. Marauding parties sometimes found their way to Castle Malahide during this troubled period, and what few people there were in the settlement suffered a good deal of annoyance. Within a day or two after the battle of the Thames, where the brave Tecumseh met his doom, a party of these marauders, consisting of Indians and scouts from the American army, presented themselves at Fort Talbot, and summoned the garrison to surrender. The place was not fortified, and the garrison consisted merely of a few farmers, who had enrolled themselves in the militia under the temporary command of a Captain Patterson. A successful defence was out of the question, and Colonel Talbot, who would probably have been deemed an important capture, quietly walked out of the back door as the invaders entered at the front. Some of the Indians saw the colonel, who was dressed in homely, everyday garb, walking off through the woods, and were about to fire on him, when they were restrained by Captain Patterson, who begged them not to hurt the poor old fellow, who, he said, was the person who tended the sheep. The marauders rifled the place, and carried off everything they could lay hands on, including some valuable horses and cattle. Colonel Talbot’s gold, consisting of about two quart pots full, and some valuable plate, concealed under the front wing of the house, escaped notice. The invaders set fire to the grist-mill that the colonel had built in the township of Dunwick, which was totally consumed, and this was a serious loss to the settlement generally. Mrs. Jameson, who travelled in Upper Canada in 1837-38, has left us the following description of her visit to Port Talbot. Speaking of the colonel, she says, “this remarkable man is now about sixty-five, perhaps more, but he does not look so much. In spite of his rustic dress, his good-humoured, jovial, weather-beaten face, and the primitive simplicity, not to say rudeness, of his dwelling, he has in his features, air, deportment, that something which stamps him gentleman. And that something, which thirty-four years of solitude has not effaced, he derives, I suppose, from blood and birth, things of more consequence, when philosophically and philanthropically considered, than we are apt to allow. I had always heard and read of him as the ‘eccentric’ Colonel Talbot. Of his eccentricity I heard much more than of his benevolence, his invincible courage, his enthusiasm, his perseverance; but, perhaps, according to the worldly nomenclature, these qualities come under the general head of ‘eccentricity’ when devotion to a favourite object cannot possibly be referred to self-interest. Of the life he led for the first sixteen years, and the difficulties and obstacles he encountered, he drew, in his discourse with me, a strong, I might say a terrible, picture; and observe that it was not a life of wild, wandering freedom—the life of an Indian hunter, which is said to be so fascinating that ‘no man who has ever followed it for any length of time, ever voluntarily returns to civilized society!’ Colonel Talbot’s life has been one of persevering, heroic self-devotion to the completion of a magnificent plan, laid down in the first instance, and followed up with unflinching tenacity of purpose. For sixteen years he saw scarce a human being, except the few boors and blacks employed in clearing and logging his land; he himself assumed the blanket coat and axe, slept upon the bare earth, cooked three meals a day for twenty woodsmen, cleaned his own boots, washed his own linen, milked his own cows, churned the butter, and made and baked the bread. In this latter branch of household economy he became very expert, and still piques himself on it. To all these heterogenous functions of sowing and reaping, felling and planting, frying, boiling, washing and wringing, brewing and baking, he added another, even more extraordinary—for many years he solemnized all the marriages in his district. Besides natural obstacles, he met with others far more trying to his temper and patience. ‘He had continual quarrels,’ says Dr. Dunlop, ‘with the successive governors, who were jealous of the independent power he exercised in his own territory, and every means were used to annoy him here, and misrepresent his proceedings at home; but he stood firm, and by an occasional visit to the colonial office in England, he opened the eyes of ministers to the proceedings of both parties, and for a while averted the danger. At length, some five years ago, finding the enemy was getting too strong for him, he repaired once more to England, and returned in triumph with an order from the colonial office, that nobody was in any way to interfere with his proceedings; and he has now the pleasure of contemplating some hundreds of miles of the best roads in the province, closely settled on each side by the most prosperous families within its bounds, who owe all they possess to his judgment, enthusiasm, and perseverance, and who are grateful to him in proportion to the benefits he has bestowed upon them, though in many instances sorely against their will at the time.’ The original grant must have been much extended; for the territory now under Colonel Talbot’s management, and bearing the general name of the Talbot country, contains, according to the list I have in his own hand-writing, twenty-eight townships, and about 650,000 acres of land, of which 98,700 are cleared and cultivated. The inhabitants, including the population of the towns, amounted to about 50,000. ‘You see,’ said he, gaily, ‘I may boast, like the Irishman in the farce, of having peopled a whole country with my own hands.’ He has built his tower, like the eagle his eyry, on a bold cliff overhanging the lake. It is a long wooden building, chiefly of rough logs, with a covered porch running along the south side. Here I found suspended, among sundry implements of husbandry, one of those ferocious animals of the feline kind, called here the cat-a-mountain, and by some the American tiger, or panther, which it more resembles. This one, which had been killed in its attack on the fold or poultry-yard, was at least four feet in length, and glared at me from the rafters above ghastly and horrible. The farm consists of six hundred acres. He has sixteen acres of orchard-ground, and has a garden of more than two acres, very neatly laid out and enclosed, and in which he evidently took exceeding pride and pleasure. He described the appearance of the spot when he first came here as contrasted with its present appearance. I told him of the surmises of the people relative to his early life and his motives for emigrating, at which he laughed. ‘Charlevoix,’ said he, ‘was, I believe, the true cause of my coming to this place. You know he calls this the “Paradise of the Hurons.” Now I was resolved to get to paradise by hook or by crook, and so I came here.’ He added more seriously, ‘I have accomplished what I resolved to do—it is done; but I would not, if any one was to offer me the universe, go through again the horrors I have undergone in forming this settlement. But do not imagine I repent it; I like my retirement.’” He lived long enough to see the prosperity of his settlement fully assured. For many years prior to his death it appears to have been his cherished desire to bequeath his large estate to one of the male descendants of the Talbot family, and with this view he invited one of his sister’s sons, Julius Airey, to come over from England and reside with him at Port Talbot, which he did, but rusticating without companions or equals in either birth or education did not suit him, so he returned to England. Some years later a younger brother of Julius’, Colonel Airey, military secretary at the Horse Guards, came out with his family to reside at Port Talbot. The uncle and nephew could not get on together, so the uncle determined to leave Canada, and to end his days in the old world. He transferred the Port Talbot estate, valued at £10,000, together with 13,000 acres of land in the adjoining township of Aldborough, to Colonel Airey. Acting on his determination to leave Canada, he started, in his eightieth year, for Europe. He was accompanied on the voyage by George McBeth. Colonel Talbot remained in London somewhat more than a year, but finding London life somewhat distasteful to him, he once more bade adieu to society, and repaired to Canada, where he died on the 6th, and was buried on the 9th of February, 1853, leaving his estate, valued at £50,000, to George McBeth, and an annuity of £20 to Jeffrey Hunter’s widow. He was interred in the churchyard at Tyrconnel. A plate on the oaken coffin bore the simple inscription:



Died 6th February, 1853.

We take leave of our worthy hero, in the words of an English song-writer: —

“God speed the stalwart pioneer!

  Give strength to thy strong right hand!

And aid thee in thy brave intent

  To clear and till the land.

’Tis men like thee that make us proud

  Of the stubborn Saxon race:

And while old England bears such fruit

  We’ll pluck up heart of grace.”

Barrett, M., B.A., M.D.—The late Dr. Barrett, who died on the 26th February, 1887, at Toronto, was the son of an English barrister, and was born in London, England, on 16th May, 1816. He was educated at Caen, Normandy, France. Coming to Canada in 1833 he engaged in the fishery business in the Georgian Bay, where he owned a fishing station and a vessel. In the spring of 1837 he accepted a position in a school at Newmarket. On the breaking out of the rebellion he joined the Queen’s Rangers, in which he filled the post of quartermaster of the regiment. Shortly after this he was married to Ellen McCallum, a sister of C. McCallum, of London. When the Queen’s Rangers disbanded he went to the Southern States, where he remained for three years. Returning to Toronto he was offered and accepted the position of second English master in the Upper Canada College, and was afterwards promoted to the position of first English master in the same institution. While pursuing his important duties in connection with the college, Dr. Barrett took a double course in the University of Toronto, and succeeding in obtaining the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Doctor of Medicine. He was after this added to the professoriate of Rolph’s Medical School, which was subsequently merged into the Toronto School of Medicine. After being connected with the college for over thirty years, he was pensioned by the government. Up to the time of his death he was a lecturer in the Toronto School of Medicine, the Veterinary College, and the Women’s Medical School. His name is prominently connected with the latter school as one of the principal promoters of its institution and most ardent and active workers for its success. Dr. Barrett was a man of exceptional intellectual attainments and occupied an eminent and enviable position in his profession. He was highly esteemed by the members of the medical profession, and loved and respected by many friends.

Nettleton, John, Mayor of Collingwood, Simcoe county, Ontario, was born at Lofthouse, Yorkshire, England, on the 12th of November, 1832, his father, William Nettleton, and grandfather before him, carrying on the business of merchant tailors in that village. After learning the business with his father, Mr. Nettleton, jr., worked at the trade in the following places, viz.: Leeds, London, Manchester and Liverpool, and at the latter place he was married to Elizabeth Boardman Womersley, on the 9th May, 1853, in St. Peter’s Church. On the 4th of April, 1857, he and his wife and one child emigrated to Canada, arriving in Toronto on the 23rd of the same month. After staying there and at Markham village for a short time, he finally settled down in Collingwood, then a town only in its infancy. In 1859 he commenced business for himself, and has lived there continuously ever since. In 1867 he was elected by acclamation as town councillor for the Centre ward, and for sixteen years he has held the position of either councillor or deputy reeve. He was elected to the mayoralty in 1886, and re-elected in 1887. He has been connected with and has taken an active part in almost everything that has been advanced for the improvement of the town since the time he took up his abode in it. In February, 1862, he was initiated into Free Masonry, in Manitou lodge, No. 90, G.R.C., and after having passed through all the subordinate offices, he was elected Master in 1867, which position he held for two years. After being out for a short time, he subsequently was re-elected, and held the office for three years more. In 1870 he was appointed by the Grand Lodge of Canada a grand steward; in 1873 he was elected grand registrar, and in 1879 district deputy grand master for the Georgian district, which position he held for two years. He was also the means of instituting Caledonia lodge, No. 249, Angus, and Granite lodge, No. 352, Parry Sound. In both instances he was elected their first master, and now holds the position of honorary member in each lodge. He was also presented by these lodges with a full set of Grand Lodge regalia, in recognition of his services. In Royal Arch masonry he has taken the same interest as in the Blue lodge, having been elected first principal Z in Manitou chapter, No. 27, which office he has held for several years. He is also past eminent commander of Hurontario Encampment of Knights Templars, and was elected honorary member of Mount Calvary Preceptory, No. 12, G.R.C., Barrie. He has also taken an active part in other benevolent societies as well as Masonic, and was mainly instrumental in organizing the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the Select Knights, and also the Sons of England Benevolent Society, in all of which he was their first master. Mr. Nettleton has also taken an active part in every political movement that has taken place in the county during his residence in Collingwood, and has always worked for and voted with the Liberal-Conservative party. He is a member of the Church of England and has held the position of church warden in All Saints’ Church. His family consists of eight children, six boys and two girls, the former all being grown up and established in business.

Fowler, Rev. Robert.—Rev. Mr. Fowler was born in Chester, England, in 1823, and died in London, Ontario, on the 4th March, 1887. He first acquired the training of an apothecary and then studied medicine, graduating with the degree of M.R.C.S. Subsequently he became a Methodist minister, and began to preach in 1853, filling many posts in the Toronto Conference. Afterwards he was appointed to the Ingersoll circuit in the London Conference, thence going to Clinton, Listowel, and lastly to London West. Three years before his death he was superannuated on account of ill-health, and took up his residence in London. Rev. Dr. Fowler was a man of ability and originality, with a strong sense of duty which he faithfully laboured to fulfil, and was highly respected by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance.

McEachran, Professor Duncan McNab, F.R.C.V.S., Principal of Montreal Veterinary College, chief inspector of stock, &c., was born at Campbeltown, Argyleshire, Scotland, on the 27th of October, 1841. He is the oldest son of the late David McEachran, who for many years was a member of the town council, and for five years preceding his death was senior bailie of Campbeltown. The family is one of the oldest in Kintyre, descended from McEachran of Killellan and Penygowan. The Ionic cross of Campbeltown, one of the oldest in Scotland, bears the names of Edward and Malcolm McEachran, and the family tombstones, which are found within the ruins of the old church of St. Kiarian, date back as far as the fourteenth century. David McEachran is also buried here. Duncan received his earlier education in the schools of his native place, and at the age of seventeen entered in his professional studies at Edinburgh, under the late Professor Dick. In the autumn of 1862, he came to Canada, and took up his abode in Woodstock, Ontario, where he practised his profession for nearly three years with marked success, at the same time being engaged during part of the winter in giving lectures at Toronto, and by this means rendered valuable service in the establishment of the Veterinary College in that city. During his residence in Woodstock, he contributed in various ways to the advancement of his profession, by lectures at farmers’ meetings, by contributions to the agricultural press, and by the publication of a manual of veterinary science. The work on the “Canadian Horse and his Diseases,” under the joint editorship of himself and his friend, Professor Andrew Smith, of the Toronto Veterinary College, soon ran through two editions, and although a third edition is now called for, Professor McEachran will not consent to its issue, as he fondly hopes to find time in the near future, to publish a larger work on the same subject. In 1866, he left Ontario and settled in Montreal, but before he left for that city, the Board of Agriculture for Upper Canada passed a very complimentary resolution, expressing regret at his departure, and he was entertained by a large number of his friends at a public dinner at Woodstock. On his arrival in Montreal, thanks to his good reputation which had preceded him, and the influence of his numerous friends, his success was speedily assured. Through the influence of the late Major Campbell, president of the Board of Agriculture, aided by principal (now Sir) J. W. Dawson, and the late G. W. Campbell, dean of the medical faculty of McGill University, an arrangement was made for Professor McEachran to deliver a course of lectures on veterinary science, in connection with the medical school, which was the commencement of the now widely-known Montreal Veterinary College. In 1875, the present commodious college buildings were erected on Union Avenue, at the expense of the founder and principal, the government guaranteeing $1,800 per annum toward its expenses for ten years, with the privilege of sending to it thirteen French and seven English students annually free. This college is now considered the first of its kind in America, and justly ranks high, even when compared with many of the schools in Europe, owing to the appreciation of its head for thorough education. While the veterinary schools at Toronto and New York admitted students without matriculation, and graduated them in two sessions, here a matriculation is required, and the course extends over three sessions of six months each. This plan was adopted by the Montreal College before the English schools; even the Royal Veterinary College of England was led by the Montreal school in this very important matter. Professor McEachran has associated with him in teaching the learned Principal and Professors of McGill University, whose classes his students attend for collateral studies. Year by year since the establishment of this college, its progress has been most marked in the number and educational standing of the pupils, and students have been attracted to it from all parts of the United States and Canada. A veterinary medical association has been established in connection with the college, for the reading of papers and the discussion of professional and kindred subjects, and a well-furnished library, containing most of the old works, and all the new ones, embraced in veterinary literature, has been added to the college, mainly through the efforts of its energetic principal. Professor McEachran, during the past few years, has contributed many valuable articles to professional journals and the agricultural press as well as by public lectures, on his favourite theme. In 1875, he earnestly pressed upon the attention of the Dominion government, the necessity for the establishment of a quarantine system, to prevent the importation of certain cattle diseases from Europe, where they were then prevailing to a deplorable extent. Acting on his advice, the government created, in April, 1876, a quarantine station at Point Levis, Quebec, and made the professor chief inspector for the Dominion, and this position he still continues to occupy. In January, 1879, he was sent by the Dominion government to the United States, to investigate the lung-plague—pleuro-pneumonia—and visited New York, Long Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the district of Columbia; and on his return he reported the prevalence of this serious disease in all the states he had visited. The result was that shortly afterwards an embargo was placed on the importation of cattle from the United States to Canada and Great Britain, requiring that they should be slaughtered at the port of debarkation, within fourteen days after landing. This action of the British government entailed a heavy loss on cattle exported from the United States, but Canada, owing to her freedom from the diseases, and the perfect condition of her quarantine system, became a gainer in proportion to a large amount. Professor McEachran’s name will ever be associated with the early history of the export cattle trade of Canada, as one, who at the proper moment gave sound advice to the government, which, being promptly acted upon, helped in these early days to assist a trade that has since grown to vast proportions. The efficiency of the quarantine for cattle under his management has been thoroughly tested on two occasions, viz., 1885, when the contagious disease, “foot and mouth,” or vessicular epizootic, was twice brought into the quarantine from Great Britain, so thorough was the quarantine that not only did it not extend beyond, but it did not even affect any other cattle, of which there were several hundreds within the enclosure. The prompt and effective manner in which pleuro-pneumonia was dealt with in 1886, when that fell destroyer was imported in a herd of Galloways, proved beyond doubt the efficiency of the quarantine, and the ability of the inspectors to deal with contagious diseases. If Canada to-day is free from contagious disease, it is due in a great measure to his energy and knowledge of disease. In acknowledgment of his professional attainments he was elected one of the original Fellows of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, on that body being raised to the rank of a university in 1875, being the only one in Canada on whom that honour was conferred. He has been intimately connected with the cattle ranching business in the district of Alberta, Senator Cochrane and he being the pioneers in that business on a large scale in Canada. Together they visited Alberta in 1881, going via the Missouri river to Fort Benton, thence driving across the plains to where Calgary is now built. On his return he published a series of interesting letters, being a narrative of his trip, and description of the country. He was vice-president of the Cochrane Ranche Co. till 1883, when he became general manager of the Walrond Cattle Ranche Co., of which Sir John Walrond, Bart., is president, and which is now the largest and one of the most successful ranches in Canada. Professor McEachran was married on the 9th of June, 1868, to Esther, youngest daughter of the late Timothy Plaskett, Esq., St. Croix, West Indian Islands, to whom two children were born, viz., Evelyn Victoria, born 24th May, 1869, who died May, 1874, and Jeanie Blackney, born 19th September, 1871. In politics, Professor McEachran is a Conservative, but in consequence of his devotion to professional work he has never taken a very active part in politics. He served in the militia force for ten years as Veterinary Surgeon to the Montreal Field Battery of Artillery. He became a