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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist, Volume 5, Index

Date of first publication: 1882

Author: D. W. (Delos White) Beadle

Date first posted: Apr. 17, 2018

Date last updated: Apr. 17, 2018

Faded Page eBook #20180421

This ebook was produced by: David Edwards, David T. Jones, Cindy Beyer & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net



The Canadian Horticulturist.

 

VOLUME V, INDEX & COMPENDIUM

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

[Added for the reader's convenience—Transcriber.]

NO. 1

THE GLADIOLUS.

A FEW HINTS ON GRAPE GROWING.

THE CEDARS OF LEBANON.

GRAPE GROWING AT LINDSAY.

PRESERVING PLUMS FROM THE CURCULIO.

REPORT ON TREES, &c. RECEIVED.

THE GRAPE.

FARMERS AND SMALL FRUITS.

JELLIES AND PRESERVES.

HARDY PEACHES.

BLACK RASPBERRIES.

THE NEWER STRAWBERRIES.

MOORE’S EARLY GRAPE IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC.

THE WILDER GRAPE IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC.

PACKING GRAPES.

THE CORWIN’S COLLECTIONS.

A NEW GARDEN IMPLEMENT.

THE TOLMAN-CHAMPION-BEACONSFIELD GRAPE.

CANKER WORMS.

LACKAWANNA CAULIFLOWER.

SHEEP AND TREES.

FORCING THE LABURNUM.

SPARROW-GRASS.

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS.

SUMMER RADISHES.

NO. 2

EVERLASTING FLOWERS.

REPORT ON FRUITS.

A FEW HINTS ON GRAPE GROWING.

WINTER BLOOMING PLANTS.

HOW TO PLANT TREES.

THE CUTHBERT RASPBERRY—ITS MERITS AND DEMERITS.

EVERGREENS FOR HEDGE, &c.

FIVE RASPBERRIES COMPARED.

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS.

THE USE OF FLOWERS.

NO. 3

THE CHINESE PRIMROSE.

ROAD SIDE FENCES.

CORRESPONDENCE. ENGLISH SPARROWS.

GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER FOR THE WINTER OF 1880-81.

BLACK SPOTS ON APPLES.

BEST CODLIN MOTH TRAP.

LETTER FROM THE HON. MARSHALL P. WILDER.

REPORT ON FRUIT TREES, &c.

ALGOMA.

GRAPES—POTATOES-CHERRIES.

REPORT ON TREES, &c., RECEIVED.

CULTIVATION OF CELERY.

MULBERRIES.

WHAT OUR SUBSCRIBERS SAY OF US.

ELECTRO-HORTICULTURE.

ASPARAGUS CULTURE.

PURE NATIVE WINES.

THE CULTIVATION OF FOREST TREES.

CLIMBING PLANTS.

LETTUCE.

GAS TAR WATER FOR INSECTS.

FAMILY SUPPLIES OF FRUIT.

SEEDING ORCHARDS.

ADVENTURES OF AN ACORN.

NO. 4

THE CINERARIA.

QUESTION DRAWER.

“BUHACH” ON CABBAGES.

STRAWBERRIES—WHAT TO PLANT AND HOW TO GO ABOUT IT.

SAUNDERS’ HYBRID RASPBERRIES.

SHAFFER’S COLOSSAL RASPBERRY.

REPORT OF SEEDLING AND NEW FRUITS FOR 1881.

TREE PLANTING.

THE MAYFLOWER TOMATO.

THE ESSENTIALS FOR SUCCESS IN PEACH GROWING.

CELERY GROWING.

THE CALLA LILY.

THE TUBEROSE.

LOST RUBIES, THE MONARCH OF MARKET RASPBERRIES.

BOOK NOTICES.

SHELLING PEAS.

DOMESTIC RECIPES.

NO. 5

CHRYSANTHEMUMS.

OPINIONS OF MEMBERS.

REPORTS ON TREES RECEIVED.

FRUIT IN THE ALGOMA DISTRICT.

GLADIOLUS BULBLETS.

EVAPORATION OF FRUIT.

TREE PLANTING.

THE BEST TIME TO PRUNE FRUIT TREES.

ROTTING OF TOMATOES.

THE JEFFERSON GRAPE.

THE CRESCENT SEEDLING STRAWBERRY.

ENGLISH SPARROWS.

ORANGE CROP OF CALIFORNIA.

NATIVE FRUITS.

FARMERS THAT DISLIKE FRUIT GROWING.

THE QUINCE.

ROOT PRUNING.

THE ONION SMUT.

WASH FOR FRUIT TREES.

CARBOLIC SOAP FOR INSECTS.

PALESTINE OF TO-DAY.

BOOK NOTICES.

GRAFTING THE GRAPE.

THE BRIGHT FLOWERS.

DOMESTIC RECIPES.

NO. 6

TULIPS.

DRIED FOODS.

CORRESPONDENCE.

THE UTILITY AND BEAUTY OF TREES.

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FLOWERS AND FRUITS.

HARDY RASPBERRIES.

CELERY CULTURE AT KALAMAZOO.

CURRANTS.

A CHANCE FOR BOYS.

DO BEES INJURE GRAPES?

THE BIDWELL STRAWBERRY.

THE PANSY.

THE CARDINAL FLOWER.

THE CARNATION AND PICOTEE.

TREE PLANTING.

BOOK NOTICES.

WITHERED FLOWERS.

MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY.

JAMES VICK.

NO. 7

CHERRIES.

AMERICAN FORESTRY.

HORTICULTURAL GOSSIP XIV.

FRUITS OF MANCHURIA.

ORNAMENTAL TREES AND PLANTS.

NEW VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES.

HANGING BASKETS.

OLD AND NEW PLUMS.

STRAWBERRIES.

PINCHING MELON, CUCUMBER AND SQUASH VINES.

HOW TO SECURE HARDINESS IN OUR TREES.

NOTES ON NEW VARIETIES OF POTATOES.

FASHION VERSUS TASTE.

THE FARMER’S FRUIT GARDEN.

HARDY SHRUBS.

PERSIAN CHAMOMILE OR INSECT POWDER.

CATCHING CURCULIOS.

NEW VARIETIES OF GRAPES.

THE ONTARIO POTATOE.

TREES IN CITIES.

WHITEWASHING TREES.

THE PLANTING OF THE APPLE TREE.


NO. 8

THE BALSAM.

ENGLISH SPARROWS.

COMMUNICATIONS. THE BLACK WALNUT.

PEACHES AND OTHER FRUIT AT AYLMER.

PROTECTING GRAPES FROM BIRDS.

FRUITS IN MUSKOKA.

BLACK APHIS ON CHERRY TREES.

RICE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR POTATOES.

CAP RASPBERRIES.

GRAPES.

A NEW PRINCIPLE IN PROTECTION FROM INSECT ATTACK.

THE NEW WHITE GRAPES.

CALLA ÆTHIOPICA, OR “TRUMPET LILY.”

THE SECRET OF GOOD LUCK.

NUT-BEARING TREES.

THINNING OF FRUIT.

SALT FOR ASPARAGUS.

TO GET RID OF MELON BUGS.

ROOT PRUNING FOR TOMATOES.

THE CANKER WORM.

SALSIFY.

FERNS AS HOUSE-PLANTS.

CHINESE PÆONIES.

THE WATERMELON.

PRUNING THE GRAPE-VINE.

SPINACH.

THE TUNISIAN’S PASSION FOR FLOWERS.

THE RUSSIAN MULBERRY TREE.

SHAFFER’S COLOSSAL RASPBERRY.

THE SUCCESSFUL EXHIBITION OF CANADIAN FRUIT IN GERMANY.

FRUIT-TREE CULTURE.

CONTINUOUS DAYLIGHT AND VEGETATION.

HOUSE PLANTS.

DEACON DAY AND THE HIGHWAY COW.

NO. 9

THE SECKEL PEAR.

A MARKET FOR ONTARIO APPLES.

MOORE’S ARCTIC PLUM.

MOST PROFITABLE STRAWBERRIES FOR MARKET.

GOOSEBERRIES AND OTHER FRUITS AT CAMPBELLFORD, ONT.

REPORT FROM MUSKOKA FALLS.

SUMMER MEETING OF THE FRUIT GROWERS’ ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO.

CAULIFLOWERS.

THE LINDLEY GRAPE.

THE RELATIONS OF FORESTRY TO AGRICULTURE.

PICKLES.

PACKING APPLES.

HOW TO COOK SALSIFY.

PRESERVING GRAPES FOR WINTER.

WHAT TREES TO PLANT FOR FUEL AND TIMBER.

NARCISSUS.

MELON CULTURE.

THE CULTURE OF STRAWBERRIES.

GARDEN CULTURE.

FIELD CULTURE.

THE LILIUM AURATUM AT HOME.

BLACKBERRY CULTURE.

THE NEWER RASPBERRIES.

SOME NOTES ON A FARMER’S EDUCATION.

THE BLACK KNOT.

AMERICAN APPLES IN ENGLAND.

NO. 10

FLOWERING PEAS.

FRUIT AT THE TORONTO EXHIBITION.

CORRESPONDENCE.

STRAWBERRIES.

GRAPE LEAVES FOR PICKLES.

ASPARAGUS.

PROLONGING THE SEASON OF PEAS.

EGG-PLANTS—HOW TO KEEP THEM.

FRUIT ON THE TABLE.

MARKETING CURRANTS.

NOTES ON HYBRID TEA ROSES.

CUCUMBER PICKLES.

THE CULTIVATION OF THE SUMAC.

THE SOUHEGAN RASPBERRY.

ZINC LABELS.

PRUNING ROSES.

MANCHESTER STRAWBERRY.

AN EXPERIMENT WITH PEAR BLIGHT.

PLANTS BY MAIL.

THE RADISH AND CABBAGE FLY.

WHITE GRAPES FOR THE MILLION.

THE CHERRY TREE APHIS.

SMILAX.

THE CAROLINE RASPBERRY.

A NATIVE AMERICAN PLUM.

THE TUBEROSE.

PIONEER BEET-SUGAR COMPANY.

SAVING MOTHER.

NO. 11

ASTERS.

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST FOR 1883.

FRUIT AT THE PROVINCIAL EXHIBITION.

JOTTINGS BY THE WAY IN THE EASTERN DISTRICT.

REPORT ON PLANTS RECEIVED FROM THE FRUIT GROWERS’ ASSOCIATION.

THE GREEN CABBAGE WORM.

LETTER FROM HON. M. P. WILDER.

THE ENGLISH SPARROW.

EXPLORATIONS IN RUSSIA.

THE OTHER SIDE.

PAPER BAGS ON GRAPES AND BEES.

GRAPES FOR PROFIT.

RASPBERRIES AND BLACKBERRIES FOR PROFIT.

THE “JAMES VICK” STRAWBERRY.

THE MANCHESTER STRAWBERRY.

BLACK RASPBERRIES AND BLACKBERRIES.

HANDLING APPLES.

THINNING FRUIT.

GREEN PEAS.

SHOULD CONCENTRATED FERTILIZERS BE DRILLED IN OR SOWN BROADCAST?

AMONG THE RASPBERRIES.

TREE PLANTING.

SMALL FRUITS FOR THE FARMER’S TABLE.

LITERARY NOTES.

MORNING GLORIES.

DOMESTIC RECIPES.

NO. 12

ROSES.

THE BURNET GRAPE.

THE WORDEN GRAPE.

THE NIAGARA RASPBERRY.

THE PEONIA.

THE FRUIT SEASON OF 1882.

TWO RUSSIAN APPLES PROVE TO BE ONE.

TRANSPLANTING RASPBERRIES.

OAK-LEAVED MOUNTAIN ASH.

LAWNS.

A SURE PREVENTIVE OF CHICKEN CHOLERA.

PRIMO STRAWBERRY.

CULTURE OF THE CAULIFLOWER.

THE CLEMATIS.

THE RAREST AMERICAN WILD PLANT.

LIMA BEANS.

STONE’S HARDY BLACKBERRY.

FLOWERS FOR INVALIDS.

NOTES ON BEETS.

DO NOT WASTE BONES.

CLEMATIS COCCINEA.

THE UTILITY OF HIGHWAY TREE PLANTING.

PROFITABLE GROWING OF QUINCES.

CULTURE OF THE TUBEROSE.

PROTECTING FRUIT TREES FROM MICE.

VALUE OF FRUIT.

WASTE OF LAND IN FENCES.

CARE OF PLANTS IN WINTER.

SEEDLING POTATOES.

THE PRENTISS GRAPE.

DAMSON DYE.

MANAGEMENT OF THE CANES AND BUSHES OF THE SMALL FRUITS.

INSECTS AS TALKERS.

THE YEAR’S RAISIN CROP.

ENGLISH SPARROWS.

WEEDS.

DOMESTIC RECIPES.



  
VOL. V.]JANUARY, 1882.[No. 1.
  

THE GLADIOLUS.

The beautiful colored plate which adorns this number will enable our readers to form a very correct impression of the perfection in form and coloring which has been attained in the cultivation of a flower which, perhaps, many of them will well remember under the name of Sword Lily. If our readers have not recently noticed the progress that has been made in the production of new forms and brilliant colors, they will thank the Directors of the Association for calling their attention to it again by giving them this colored illustration, and the opportunity of seeing it flower in their own gardens, by offering them as one of the premiums which they can choose, three bulbs of this interesting flower.

Our climate is well suited to the growth and culture of the Gladiolus, much better than that of England or France, and it is as easily grown and cared for as the potato. It is only necessary to avoid soils that are wet, and therefore cold, which means ground that is badly drained, and plant in such ground as one would select in the expectation of raising a good potato crop. In enriching the bed where it is proposed to plant them, do not use fresh or partially fermented manure, as this tends to produce disease in the bulbs. The best is that which has been thoroughly decomposed and composted with old sods and ground bone. After the weather has become settled in spring and the ground in good working condition, the bed should be dug over and the manure thoroughly mingled with the soil. Then as soon as all danger of severe frosts is passed the bulbs may be planted out about ten inches apart each way, and four to five inches deep.

A nice bed of Gladiolus is a most showy and attractive feature of the after midsummer flower garden, and is particularly desirable on account of the blooms appearing at a time when flowers are less abundant. The colors are so bright and showy, and withal so varied, the form of the flowers so elegant, and these borne so conspicuously upon their tall spikes that they never fail to produce a most beautiful effect. The cut blooms are also particularly useful for large bouquets and table decoration, for if the spikes are put into water, though only the lower flowers are open, the buds above will all expand in succession as perfectly as if they had never been severed from the plant.

In the autumn, when severe frosts begin to appear, the bulbs should be taken up, the stalks cut down to about an inch from the bulb, then after allowing them to dry for a few hours they can be stored in a box in the cellar, where they will be free from frost until they are wanted for planting in the spring. Small bulblets will be found adhering to the bottoms of the large bulbs; if these are saved, put into a paper bag and kept out of the ground for one whole season, and then sown in good rich soil in the spring of the second year, they will grow, increase in size, and the following year will produce flowers like those of the parent bulb. It is also important to keep the bulbs away from mice for they are very fond of them.

Our climate is so much better suited to the cultivation of the Gladiolus than that of Europe that there is great inducement for those who are fond of experimenting to raise new varieties from seed, all of which will be more or less beautiful, and some of them possibly better than those for which our European raisers are so fond of charging us five dollars a piece. It only requires two, or at the most, three years to grow nice blooming bulbs from the seed, so that one does not have to wait very long before reaping the reward of his labours. It is something to have learned how to “labor and to wait.”

The colored illustration which has been kindly supplied at cost to our readers by Mr. James Vick, of Rochester, N.Y., represents flowers selected from his collection of named varieties on account of their fine form and contrast in color, and yet he says they are not superior to scores of others. It is not necessary that the planter confine himself to named varieties, many of the unnamed are quite as pleasing and far less expensive, and those who wish a quantity of bloom can obtain mixed sorts at little cost.

—————

A FEW HINTS ON GRAPE GROWING.

Great attention is now being given to the growing of grapes in this country. It is not very long ago that we had only two varieties of grapes in cultivation, and neither of these were suited to the climate of any large part of the Province. The Catawba would ripen its fruit only in the most favored spots, such as the Lake Erie shore or some specially warm and sheltered nook. The Isabella, in favorable seasons, ripened over a somewhat larger area, but that was but a limited territory as compared with the whole. The arrival of the Clinton extended the limits of possible grape culture, but in our climate the heat did not continue long enough or was not sufficiently intense to develop its saccharine properties so as to make it a popular table grape. But within a short time the number of varieties has been greatly multiplied, resulting in the production of several possessing great excellence, capable of enduring our climate and of ripening their fruit in almost every part of the land.

Since the advent of these varieties adapted to general cultivation, our people have not been slow to appreciate what a grand addition nice, rich, juicy, sweet grapes are to our list of fruits; nor slow to find out how much sooner they come into bearing than the most of our fruit trees; that instead of waiting five, six, eight or ten years for fruit, they are sure of gathering a nice supply the third season. Nor have they been slow to find out that the product of a few vines was not only a beautiful and toothsome addition to one’s home comforts, but a profitable source of money revenue. It was soon found that an acre of grapes would yield five tons of fruit, which, if sold at the moderate price of four cents per pound, brought to the producer the comfortable item of four hundred dollars, which left him, after making liberal allowance for labor and capital invested, a better income than any, even the most favorable, yield of grain. Hence it is that to-day the planting of grapes has reached such vast proportions, and that new kinds, which promise to be well adapted to our climate and to take in the market, are so eagerly sought after. Hence, also, it is that inquiry as to the methods of pruning, training and caring for the grape is so active, and everything throwing light upon the subject so eagerly sought.

To help those who are thus seeking information upon a matter so important and interesting these hints on grape growing are given, believing that, in as much as they embody an experience extending now over many years, they will be found helpful to those especially who are but beginners, those who are just trying their prentice hand at the mystery of grape growing, nor will they find the lesson at all hard to learn. The grape-vine is a very patient plant, yielding generously her luscious fruits under even very crude treatment. But, as in everything else, he will reap the finest fruit and the most money who gives his mind to the business, attends carefully to every detail, and never allows any item of the work to suffer through neglect. There may be “no royal road to learning,” but there is a royal road to success in grape growing, and none may travel it but those who have royal blood in their veins; those who, though they claim not descent from regal sires, are nature’s noblemen; men of earnest purpose, who, with head and heart devoted to the culture, will watchfully supply every want and guard against every foe. To such there will be truly golden harvests.

—————

THE SOIL, AND PREPARATION FOR PLANTING.

One of the first questions that arises in the mind of the intending vine planter is whether the soil at his command is suitable, and what the preparation it requires. Fortunately the vine is not very fastidious in its choice of soils. I have planted it on gravelly, sandy and clay soils, and find it to thrive vigorously, and to bear profusely on them all. One thing it requires, and if this be given it, there is hardly any soil in which it will not yield generous returns; but that one thing is essential to healthy and permanent growth. That thing is this: the soil must not be wet. If the drainage be not such that the soil is dry at all times, that the water does not stand in it at any season of the year, it must first be made dry by thorough underdraining. When this is attained, the character of the soil in other respects seems to be of little moment.

We may take it for granted that the vine will flourish on soil suitable for an apple-orchard; and may proceed to plant on such soil with every expectation of success.

Nor does the soil need such long and expensive preparation as many writers would have us to believe. Soil that has been deeply and thoroughly tilled; soil that has been tilled as it ought to be to yield a good crop of Indian corn, will be in a suitable condition for the planting of grape vines. The deep trenching and heavy manuring advised by some writers I believe to be not only unnecessary, but positively injurious. It causes an undue and unnatural growth of wood; it causes the texture of the wood to be less firm, and the vine becomes less able to resist extremes of temperature.

I conclude, therefore, that any soil that is well drained and in suitable tilth to produce a good crop of Indian corn, is suitable for the vine.

—————

PLANTING THE VINE.

After considerable experiment and much personal observation, I have been fully convinced that we ought to give more space to our vines than has been usually given. Not less than twelve feet apart each way is required for the best development and most economical and profitable culture. Parties interested in the sale of vines may urge closer planting; but experience and sound reason, based upon a knowledge of our climate and of the habits of the vine, conspire to indicate this distance as the best for us to adopt, especially if planting a vineyard. If planting but a few vines in the garden, where space is limited, they may be set as close as eight by ten feet.

Of the manner of planting, it can surely not be needful to write. Any one that has set out a tree or a cabbage plant, knows enough to set out a grape vine. It is a living plant, not a post, and should be treated accordingly. The hole should be made large enough to allow of the roots being all spread out in their natural position, and then carefully covered with finely pulverized soil. Nor is the season of much importance. At any time after the leaves fall in autumn, and before the buds burst in spring, and the soil is in condition to be worked, the vine may be planted with success. The measure of success will depend much on the care and judgment of the planter. A covering of coarse litter upon the ground over the roots, usually called by gardeners a mulch, will well repay the trouble of putting on.

Plant them in fall or spring, as may be most convenient; plant carefully, and mulch after planting.

—————

PRUNING AND TRAINING.
First Year.

When the young vines in a new plantation begin to grow, all the shoots but one—usually all but the one nearest the ground—should be rubbed off. If, however, the one from nearest the ground seems to be very feeble, or from any other cause unsuitable, then the shoot next higher on the cane should be preserved and all the others rubbed off. A small stake—a strip of lath will answer—should be thrust into the ground at each plant, and the vine carefully tied to that, as it grows during the summer. None but slovenly cultivators will allow the weeds to grow and choke the young vines; and such persons should never plant them. This will be all the care that the vines will need during the first season.

Figure No. 1.
VINE ONE YEAR TRANSPLANTED.

At the end of the first season’s growth the young vine will have the appearance shown in Figure No. 1.

—————

Second Year.

The next spring—usually in March—the vine should be cut back to two or three buds. After the shoots get fairly started two of the strongest may be selected, and all the others rubbed off. As the growing shoots lengthen, they should be tied to the stake, and treated precisely as in the preceding summer.

During the summer, preparations should be made for permanently staking and trellising the vineyard. And here we come to a point upon which there is great diversity of opinion and practice,—I mean the method of training. There is not space enough in these hints to describe the various methods that have been recommended.

I will describe the two methods most successful in our climate, and my readers can choose the one most convenient for them to adopt.

Figure No. 2.
VINE TWO YEARS TRANSPLANTED.

At the end of the second year the vine will have the appearance shewn in Fig. No. 2. Now, if the trellis system be adopted in the spring of the

—————

Third Year

these two canes should be stretched horizontally in opposite directions, and fastened in that position by being tied to the lowest wire or horizontal bar of the trellis. The vine will then have the appearance shewn in Figure No. 3.

Figure No. 3.
VINE IN THE SPRING OF THIRD YEAR WITH ARMS EXTENDED.

When the buds start into growth the shoots should be trained upwards, perpendicular to these arms at a distance of about six inches apart, and all other shoots rubbed off.

Some difficulty may be experienced in making the eyes nearest to the vine to break well and form strong canes, as the tendency is to make the strongest growth at the extremities. This may be overcome by bending the ends of the horizontal canes to the ground and fastening them there until the growth in the eyes at the base has become vigorous. This may be greatly helped by pinching back the two canes several times during the second season’s growth, which will cause the lower buds to be very strongly developed.

These upright canes will bear fruit this year, and in the autumn the vine will present the appearance shewn in Figure No. 4.

Figure No. 4.
THREE-YEAR OLD VINE IN FRUIT.

Subsequent pruning will consist merely in cutting back each of these upright canes to the first strong, plump bud above the horizontal arm, and training up a new fruit-bearing upright cane each year. Some cultivators cut back every other one of these upright canes to within one bud of the arm, and cut the others back merely at the top of the trellis. Those canes which are cut down to within one bud of the arm are not allowed to bear any fruit, but the new shoot is trained upright to the trellis to bear fruit the next year. The alternate canes which were left standing to the top of the trellis are allowed to bear fruit on the lateral branches which will grow from each bud. As many laterals are allowed to grow and bear each one bunch of grapes as the strength of the vine will admit; all the others are rubbed off, and, after the first bunch appears, the lateral is pinched off so as to leave two or three leaves only beyond the bunch of fruit. The next year the upright canes that bore fruit the previous season are cut back to one eye above the horizontal arm, and a new upright trained up to bear fruit the following year. Thus the canes are cut back alternately.

The other system of training is called the Arbor System. Stout poles are set in each row of vines midway between the vines. To these poles are fastened other and lighter poles, reaching from pole to pole, at such height from the ground as the size of the vines may require; also other light poles reaching across to the poles of the next adjoining row. Upon these horizontal poles light sticks are laid and fastened, forming a sort of lattice over the space between the first and second row, the third and fourth row, the fifth and sixth row, and so on; thus covering each alternate space. Then the vines on the first and second row are trained upon this lattice; the vines of the first row running towards the second, and those of the second towards the first row,—those of the third towards the fourth, and those of the fourth towards the third row,—until each alternate space is covered with vines, trained horizontally upon a lattice or support of light poles. The height of this lattice from the ground is increased each year with the increasing size of the vines, until it reaches about seven feet from the ground, at which point it is permanently maintained. When the vines have reached this height, no branches, leaves or shoots, are allowed to grow within five feet of the ground.

The pruning in this plan of training consists in cutting back the previous season’s growth to one or two buds, and occasionally cutting out the old wood, so that there may be a constant supply of young fruit-bearing wood, and the vine upon the top of the arbor not become too thickly matted, but always so thinned out that the air can circulate freely through the overlying foliage.

—————

SUMMER PRUNING.

The only pruning that the vine should receive during its season of growth will be the nipping off of the ends of shoots that should be stopped, in order to throw the strength of the vine into the fruit. The idea that the leaves of the vine must be cut away to allow the sun to shine upon the fruit is wholly erroneous, and in practice leads to injurious consequences. The leaves elaborate the sap, and ripen the fruit. In order to do this office effectually, the leaves need to be fully exposed to the sun and air; and that they may be so exposed, fully and freely, all superfluous wood is cut away in the spring, and thus the foliage and fruit kept in due proportion to each other, and to the space to be occupied. How much to cut away, and what to cut away, can not be taught by written instructions. Something will depend upon the vigor of growth of the variety, and can be learned only with pruning shears in hand. One principle lies at the foundation of all successful pruning,—that is, to replace the old wood with new, the fruit being borne on the wood of the current year, which grows from buds formed on the wood of last year. Only by so pruning as to keep a sufficient supply of strong, healthy, well-ripened young wood, may a crop of fruit be secured.

—————

MANURES.

The best for a young vineyard not yet come into bearing, is well-rotted barn-yard manure. With most farmers there is not much danger of applying too much at this stage of growth, yet it can be overdone. Judgment must be used in this as in all things else; and the best judgment is always the result of practical experience. Some varieties, such as the Delaware, will bear considerable manure, not only without injury, but with positive benefit; while such as the Isabella and Diana can be over-fed to their injury. When the vines begin to bear, in addition to a moderate quantity of well-rotted barn-yard manure, ground bones, lime, ashes, salt, and even iron filings, if to be had, may be applied with great benefit. In soils deficient in lime there will be need of supplying lime in larger proportion; and as the country is remote from the sea, the use of salt, sown broadcast upon the ground, will, in some measure, supply the defect.

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DISEASES OF THE VINE.

The most common disease in this country is the mildew, which attacks the leaves and fruit, and sometimes extends to the young shoots. It is a parasitic plant, and I am disposed to believe that those fungoid or parasitic plants are not only not a disease, nor even the first cause of a disease in the vine, but only a consequence of disease. It is not in the healthy vine, growing in vigor and normal condition, that these parasitic plants find the conditions favorable to their development. It is when the vine has received some shock, has become in some degree unhealthy, or been placed in some condition that is abnormal, that these plants, ever ready to fasten upon enfeebled and failing vegetation, finding conditions more or less favorable to their development, begin to show themselves, and then effect becomes cause, and the sickening vine becomes more sickly by reason of the preying parasite. There are some vines of so delicate and feeble a constitution that they are naturally inclined to be unhealthy. Upon these we may expect to find the parasitic fungi known as mildew and rot. But they are not to be expected upon vines of a robust constitution, such as the Concord, and when they are found, we may at once conclude that there is something more to pay than any accidental so-called disease. Over-bearing is one great cause of sickly and enfeebled vines. Injudicious pruning is another, and probably the most common cause, for even over-bearing is the result of injudicious pruning. But most especially is excessive summer pruning and defoliation a fruitful cause of disease, mildew, and death. An abundant supply of foliage, well exposed to the action of air and light, are essential to the health of the vine and the ripening of the fruit. When mildew begins to make its appearance, it can be frequently prevented from spreading by dusting the vine, leaves and fruit, with flour of sulphur, and scattering it upon the ground under the vines. Better still, if there be reason to apprehend mildew from the experience of previous seasons, to apply the sulphur before the mildew appears, and in this way, it may be, prevent it wholly.

The grape vine of Europe (vitis vinifera) seems to be unable to bear the extremes of heat and cold, drought and moisture, incident to our climate. In a short time it becomes so enfeebled as to fall an easy prey to the mildew, and it is found that those varieties of grape which are crosses with the European are more or less subject to this disease. Hence, in planting vines, especially in vineyard planting for commercial purposes, it is of the utmost importance to ascertain beforehand whether the vine possesses a robust constitution.

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INSECTS.

Fig. No. 5.
Rose Bug.

There are some insects which are sure to be found upon sickly vines, very rarely and sparsely upon vines that are perfectly healthy. Of these are the Aphis and Red Spider. In some sections and in some seasons, however, there are other insects which attack perfectly healthy vines; and what is the worse feature in the case, some take particular delight in feeding upon the grape flowers, and so destroy the crop outright. The worst of these is the Rose Bug (Macrodactylus subspinosa). When these make their appearance in large numbers they make fearful havoc in the vineyard, eating first the flowers and then the foliage. There is but one method of effectually getting rid of this pest, and that is the simple one of catching and killing. It is easily and rapidly done, but it needs to be made a business of, and all in whose grounds they appear should join in a work of utter extermination. The annexed cut, Figure No. 5, will enable those who are not familiar with this little mischievous beetle, to form an idea of its appearance, and so to recognize it if it should visit their vines.

Figure No. 6.
The Grape Vine Flea-beetle. (Haltica Chalybea).
a shows a leaf of the vine perforated by the larvæ, which are at work on the underside. b is the larva magnified, the line at the right indicating the natural length. c is the cocoon, and d the perfect beetle enlarged, the line at the left being intended to shew the natural size.

There are a few other insect enemies which have been found in Canada preying upon the vine, but thus far they have not appeared in sufficient quantities to do much harm.

The Grape Vine Flea-Beetle is a little greenish-blue, jumping fellow, that should be carefully looked after whenever he makes his appearance, lest the number should multiply so as to become formidable. It feeds on the grape-vine in both the larva and the beetle state. Figure No. 6, a, shews the insect in the larva state, and its manner of feeding upon the leaves. At this time there is no difficulty in gathering and destroying them, but in the beetle state they are so active as to make it difficult to catch them. If anything they are more destructive in the beetle state, eating into the bursting buds, and devouring the entire embryo branch with its clusters of fruit. Figure No. 6, d, shews the perfect beetle. Should the beetles become numerous, so that they threaten serious damage to the vines, the following method of destroying them may be adopted:

Take two pieces of common cotton sheeting, each being two yards long and half as wide; fasten sticks across the end of each piece to keep the cloth open, and then drench with kerosene. Give the sheets thus prepared to two persons, each having hold of the rods at opposite ends of the sheets. Then let the persons pass one sheet on either side of the vine, being careful to unite the cloth around the base of the vine; then let a third person give the stake to which the vine is attached a sharp blow with a heavy stick. Such a blow will, in nearly every case, jar the beetles into the sheets, where the kerosene kills them instantly.

This process, after a little experience, can be performed almost as rapidly as the persons employed can walk from one vine to another. The expense necessary is very trifling, and boys can do the work quite as well as men. Warm, bright afternoons are the proper times for this work to be done, and it should be performed faithfully every sunny day until the vines are out of danger. This mode of combating the beetle promises to be much more effectual than any other which has been hitherto suggested; for it can be used early in the season before the vines are seriously injured and before the insects have begun to multiply. In connection with the above, the remedies which have been recommended often should, if necessary, be used. These are as follows: First, all rubbish should be removed from the vineyard, and the stakes and trellises which support the vines be well cleaned of bark and splinters, so as to afford the beetles little chance for hibernating in the vineyard. Second, if the larvæ appear in great numbers, lime should be sifted over the vines.

Figure No. 7.
The Spotted Pelidnota. (Pelidnota punctata).
a represents the full grown larva, b the pupa, c the perfect beetle.

The spotted Pelidnota, shown in Figure No. 7, feeds on the leaves of the vine, and it is just as well to kill the beetles when you find them, lest they should multiply sufficiently to commit serious damage, though I am not aware that they have yet been so numerous as to become seriously troublesome.

(To be continued).

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THE CEDARS OF LEBANON.

The once famous and extensive cedar forest of Lebanon, according to a writer in the Politische Correspondenz has dwindled down to the dimensions of a mere thicket, numbering about four hundred trees. To save it from complete destruction, and preserve it at least in its present extent, Rustem Pacha, the Governor-General of the Lebanon, has issued a special ordinance, containing a series of stringent regulations calculated to check, if not quite put a stop to the vandalism and carelessness of most travelers. It is expressly forbidden to put up tents or other kinds of shelter within the district of the trees, or to light fires or cook any provisions in their vicinity. No one is allowed to break off a bough or even a twig from the trees. It is forbidden to bring any beasts of burden within the district. Should oxen, sheep, goats or other pasturage cattle be found within the prescribed limits they will be irredeemably confiscated.

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GRAPE GROWING AT LINDSAY.

BY JOHN KNOWLSON.

In February last I addressed a short note to you giving an account of my commencement of a small vineyard, consisting of sixty varieties of vines, planted in the spring of 1879, and intimated that I expected to be able to report my success with them by the end of the current year. Out of that number (averaging eight vines of each variety) thirty kinds fruited this season. I may mention that, when I made my selection of plants, my aim was to get early and hardy sorts, with the exception of four or five late-ripening varieties, which I determined to risk as an experiment. Out of the thirty kinds that fruited, twenty-five of them were quite ripe by the middle of September, indeed it was on the fifteenth that we had these twenty-five pulled and housed, and a few of these had been ripe a full week previous, viz.: The Champion (a variety which has been introduced into the Province of Quebec under another name, viz. Beaconsfield), the Hartford, Tolman, Janesville, Telegraph, Massasoit and Eumelan. Of the late kinds, the Concord, Clinton and Agawam ripened about the twenty-fifth of same month, and the Diana and Cynthiana the first week in October. Of the Cynthiana, the great red wine grape of Missouri, the bunches and berries were very small, and the berries generally throughout the vineyard were, I think, smaller than they otherwise would have been but for the long-continued drought through a great portion of the summer months. If we had had an occasional copious rain-fall during that extremely hot and dry period, I imagine the fruit would have been larger; whether that long continuation of parching weather had the effect of producing early ripening, I do not undertake to determine; possibly it had, so that, taking into consideration the exceptional character of the season, I do not pretend to decide that the present year’s production is a fair test of the results that may be expected in the future; however, I am thoroughly convinced that the ground on which my vines are planted is well adapted to their cultivation. The surface soil is a clay loam, mixed with numerous small roundish lime-stones, from twelve to fifteen inches in depth, resting upon a sub-stratum of the same sort of stones, say from an ounce to four or five pounds weight, five to six feet deep, with little or no soil mixed through them.

I planted about 800 more vines last spring, principally Concord, with a view to make a fair and cheap drinkable wine. I have had several varieties of grapes ripen in Lindsay four seasons out of five for the last eighteen years, although grown on a hard clay soil; but the vines I have been referring to above are planted about ten miles to the north of here, and are about fifty miles north from the town of Port Hope, situate on the shore of Lake Ontario, at which latter place, as also about the neighbouring Town of Cobourg, the attempt to grow out-door grapes has not been successful, although the soil seems quite well adapted to the purpose.

A few of the varieties I have planted I should have no desire to repeat—the Champion for one, as I consider it of very poor quality, and if the people of Quebec have a relish for it I for one do not envy them their enjoyment of it; the Hartford is not much better, besides it is objectionable on account of dropping its berries as soon as ripe; the Janesville is only four or five days later than the Champion, and I think of better quality than either it or the Hartford; the Massasoit I like if pulled at the proper stage of maturity; if allowed to hang too long on the vine it loses its flavor, particularly should wet weather prevail at the time.

I have made a few gallons of wine each year for the last five years from the Clinton, and find it improves very much with age, and thus makes a wine not to be despised. I would grow more of the Clinton were it not that the robins are so destructive on the crop; it is impossible to protect the fruit until it gets properly ripe; they also devour large quantities of strawberries and other small fruits, and I have never discovered that they are of much value in destroying pestiferous insects. It is not at all uncommon to find caterpillars and insects of different kinds swarming on the same tree with the robin’s nest, while hatching and rearing its brood, and not one of the insect tribe disturbed.

I may mention here that the Rev. Mr. Logan, of Fenelon Falls, which is about six miles still further north than my plantation, has been quite successful in ripening several varieties of out-door grapes, and the late Mr. Hooey, of Rosedale, a few miles still farther north, grew fine specimens for several years in succession. I visited his place in 1879, and found his soil, both surface and sub-soil, quite similar to mine.

I may refer to another fact which serves to give me confidence as to my future success, viz., that the wood of nearly all my vines was hard and thoroughly matured by the 25th of September, and a few varieties even much earlier.

I am persuaded that there are large areas of land in the Counties of Victoria and Peterborough well suited for the cultivation of the grape, and I am sanguine enough to believe that Canada ere long will be found to be a wine producing country, and I hope to see efforts made to make it such; for if we desire to do away with the common use of bad whisky and other spirituous compounds, a substitute must be provided; we must encourage by every legitimate means the production of a wholesome, exhilarating, non-inebriating beverage made from the juice of the grape; cheap, pure, light wines to be used by all classes, young and old, as it is in France, where amongst the rural population, as well as that of many of the large towns, a drunken person is a rara avis. Here let me say that although I by no means undervalue the work that has been done, and the great efforts still making by temperance advocates (notwithstanding, to my mind, some very illogical arguments often escape the lips of the most sincere pleaders of the cause), for strict temperance has long been and still is my motto, yet I am persuaded that if such wines as I have alluded to can be produced and become the common beverage, as in France and other portions of Europe, it would prove the capsheaf to all the temperance movements that have yet been inaugurated. I have but little faith in the doctrine of Prohibition of the spirituous liquor traffic, unless a refreshing and harmless substitute is provided, neither do I concur in a decision that was recently given by a debating club a few miles from here, “That the moderate use of liquor is a sin.” In my collection of vines I have four or five white varieties, one of which is the Elvira, said to make a good white wine. From its manner of fruiting this season it has not proved all I was led to expect from it; the bunches, though numerous enough, were small, and the berries so closely compacted that their size was not half developed, besides they ripened unevenly, a few of the largest on each bunch taking the lead and either cracked open or the skins were punctured by wasps, which seemed to confine their depredations to this variety, besides many ants joined them in the feast. This is my experience with the Elvira so far; they may do better as the vines get older. Any of the white kinds that I have proved so far has not come up to the standard of what I desire. In quality the Rebecca pleases me best. My Delawares, planted with the others in 1879, have not borne fruit yet, and seem slow growers, although I allotted them, as was necessary, the richest part of the soil; the six Ionas I planted in the spring of 1880 have given me as yet no proof of what they will do in the way of ripening; my Prentiss, Duchess and Lady Washington were only planted last spring, so that I am unable to speak for them, and am now patiently waiting for a few vines of the Niagara, which is generally expected to eclipse all competitors. I hope it may. All Rogers’ Hybrids I have planted give promise of good results. My first planted vines are eight feet apart in the row, and the rows nine feet apart, and my trellises are constructed with four horizontal No. 12 galvanized iron wires, placed about eighteen inches asunder and fastened with wire staples to the sides of cedar posts, which were cut eight and a-half feet long and about four inches and upwards in diameter, sharpened as a stake at the thick end, and one placed midway between each vine; a hole being first prepared with a crow-bar, and the post driven down two and a-half feet with a heavy maul, the driver standing on a raised platform; these were put down in 1879, and so far have shown no signs of heaving by frost, but, should they ever do so, a little pounding occasionally will put them right. The posts at the end of each row are braced, and small holes bored through for the wires to pass through where they are fastened to the posts, but at one end of each row only, by bringing the end of the wire half round the post and, meeting the wire on the other side, twisting them together; at the other end of the row the wires also pass through similar holes in the post, and here I use a strip one inch and a-half square, ripped out of one and a-half inch dry oak plank, thirteen feet long, each length cut into three equal parts of four feet three inches each; through this strip is bored four small holes corresponding in spaces with the four holes in the post; these strips are placed vertically on the outside of the post, first placing three small wedges, four or five inches in length, and from an inch to an inch and a-half thick at the large end, between the strip and the post at convenient distances; the end of each of the four wires is then brought through the holes in the strips and tightened with the stretcher or the claws of a good hammer, a turn taken half round the strip to meet the wire on the opposite side and twisted together. This method I have adopted to provide against contraction and expansion of the wires; possibly there are simpler and better plans for this object, but I have had no opportunity of making their acquaintance. In the fall I slacken or remove the wedges altogether. When the wires again require tightening, all that is required is to give a few taps of the wedges. I intend in future to set my posts twelve to sixteen feet apart.

I am desirous to plant eight or ten acres more, in addition to my present three acres, but find myself too far advanced in years (now bordering on four-score, for nearly sixty-five of which I have made Canada my home) to undertake such an extension. However, between now and next spring I intend looking out for a practical vine-dresser and experienced culturist, or one disposed to invest some capital, to join me in carrying out the project to the desired extent.

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PRESERVING PLUMS FROM THE CURCULIO.

BY J. W. JOHNSTON, CAMPBELLFORD.

Last spring, as usual, I had a prospect of a large crop of plums, if the curculio would only let—say half of them alone. For years back I tried every remedy I heard of, including smoking with coal tar, jarring trees on sheets, &c.; but with very indifferent results, as every one who has tried it knows that large trees can not be successfully jarred.

So last spring I resolved to put in practice a theory I have had in my mind for a long time, viz.: to coat the plums over with some substance that would not in any way injure the fruit, and yet be impervious to the attacks of the curculio. I had not long to wait. The fruit was no sooner set than the curculio began to work in a lively manner. If I meant to do anything I had to hurry up. Well, early in the morning I went out with a pail of dry air-slaked lime and threw it thoroughly through the trees, using up two pailsful on six trees about seven years planted. Every leaf, twig, and plum was thoroughly coated with lime. When the sun dried the dew off, the trees were dazzling white. This coating I repeated three times, as winds and rains took it off. The result was the trees were overloaded. The curculio would not bite the lime off to get at the plums. They could be seen running along the twigs during the day with their long noses elevated at an angle of 45 degrees, while on the other trees not so treated they were positively travelling with their noses down. The lime did not injure either the fruit or the foliage. I had about one hundred bearing trees, and only those limed escaped; on the latter not a plum was stung. That this remedy will prove successful wherever faithfully applied, I have not the slightest doubt; but if he is allowed a day or two the start, the plums will be all stung before you know where you are. Before the fruit is ripe the wind and rustling of the leaves will have taken all the lime off the fruit. As soon as the curculio egg-laying season is over, say four weeks after fruit sets, the trouble is ended.

Remedy No. 2 is another plan I had thought of for some time, but have not yet tried it, as I found the first so successful. It would consist of a balloon-shaped net of any cheap material, such as cheese-bandage cloth, costing four to six cents per yard; and as each net could be used several seasons, it would not be expensive. It would only require to be on the trees about four weeks, and would save the entire crop. One side of the net would require to be left open, with small hooks (and eyes or not) sewed down the edge to close it when the tree was enveloped, and then closely tied at the bottom to prevent any curculio effecting an entrance. The trees would require to be well jarred first to make sure of none of the enemy being left within. The cloth netting might be made very durable by soaking in oil of some kind. I hope the members of the Ontario Fruit Growers’ Association will try one or both of these remedies next spring and report success.

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REPORT ON TREES, &c. RECEIVED.

I submit the following report of the trees, &c., received from the Fruit Growers’ Association, with the results:

1872. McLaughlin Plum grew well, is a fine tree, in good bearing. This plum as a dessert plum is in every respect first-class, of the finest flavor, but too tender to send to market except in small baskets packed like strawberries.

1873. Grimes Golden Pippin—Tree dead when it came; evidently had been badly heeled in and winter killed.

1874. Downing Gooseberry and Salem Grape—Both very satisfactory. The gooseberry is perfectly free from mildew, bears well, and in my opinion is one of the best small gooseberries I have seen, being nearly double the size of the Houghton Seedling, and just as hardy and prolific. The Salem Grape is so well known much need not be said. It ripens well here, and we esteem it one of the very best out-door grapes for the table, being sweet and luscious. The vine, like most of Rogers’ Seedlings, is a very strong grower.

1875. Swayzie Pomme Grise Apple and Flemish Beauty Pear—The apple tree was very poor, being nearly gnawed through by mice when it came; with care it has lived but not borne any fruit yet. The Flemish Beauty Pear is hardy. The fruit needs no description, but with me it has a tendency to fire-blight. There is no pear has succeeded so well with me as the Buerre d’Anjou; it passed last winter—the severest we ever knew here—without injury, when almost every variety were hurt. The fruit is first-class, and ripens at a season when fruit is getting scarce in the market.

1876. Glass Seedling Plum—A hardy tree and good grower. The plum, being late, is a good market plum; preserves well.

1877. Diadem Raspberry—Strawberries—The plants received were rubbish; the raspberry a shoot broken off an old root, and two strawberries, apparently third or fourth runners. Neither grew, as might have been expected.

1878. Burnet Grape—The vine received in good order has grown well, fruited a few bunches last year, but not sufficient for a test. The grape does not appear to set its fruit well,—something like the Creveling and Eumelan. The vine being now strong, this year will probably test its quality in that respect as well as the flavor and time of ripening.

1879. Arnold’s Ontario Apple—Received in good order, has grown fairly but of course not yet fruited.

1880. Saunder’s Seedling Raspberry. No. 72—A good plant, made good shoots this year. Will not be able to form an opinion of the fruit till next summer.

1881. Dempsey Potatoe—A strong grower; the excessive drought this season, causing a failure of crops in most places, prevents me giving an opinion respecting their productiveness or quality.

Yours respectfully,

George Elliott.

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THE GRAPE.

(From the address of the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, President of the American Pomological Society, at its last session, Sept. 14, 1881.)

 

In the order of discussion I have placed the Grape first on our roll. No other fruit, unless it be the strawberry, is now attracting so much attention; and perhaps no other, if we except the apple, is of more importance as a source of revenue, or as an article of luxury for our tables, as the Grape. No other country possesses such a vast extent of territory, or possibilities for its successful culture, and in no other section of the globe is there, at the present time, such encouragement thereto. In fact, it seems as though Providence had designed many parts of our continent especially for its cultivation. The Scandinavians, as the Sagas have it, eight hundred years ago, here found the vine growing so abundantly that they gave to our coast the name of Vinland. Champlain, in his voyages on our coast about five hundred years afterwards, saw vines in abundance. The Pilgrim Fathers, at Plymouth, found grapes, “white and red, and very strong,” and should the phylloxera continue its devastation in the vineyards of the Old World, our country may become the most favored vineland of the world.

In the whole circle of our pomological progress there is no fruit which excites so much enterprise and interest, whose culture is being so rapidly extended, or which gives so great promise of success as that of the Grape; and should this same enterprise continue for fifty years to come, we can hardly estimate its value as a revenue in our country. All localities are not equally suited to its growth, but where our wild species are found, other new and improved sorts, produced by hybridization, will be found equally well adapted. With every succeeding year new and valuable varieties are coming to notice, either adapted to special locations or purposes, or for general cultivation. Nor is it too much to hope that ere the close of this century, with our present zeal and skill, we shall produce varieties that will rival the choicest kinds of the most favored climes. Even now we have those which compare favorably with our foreign varieties, and we believe the time is not distant when the aroma of our native sorts, now so much despised by some, will become, when chastened down as it has been in the Brighton, Duchess, Rochester, and Monroe, one of the excellent characteristics of our American grapes.

How potent the influences of this art! Little did Mr. Bull think what a blessing he was conferring on the world when he sowed the seed which produced the Concord grape, the mother of so many improved varieties. See the number of white varieties (not to speak of others) which have been produced mostly from this: the Martha, Lady, Pocklington, Lady Washington, Hayes, Ann Arbor, Prentiss, Duchess, and still another soon to be within our reach, which is heralded like Niagara herself as one of the wonders of the world.

The illustrations of this improvement are manifested in the numerous seedlings obtained by crosses on the Concord, some of which are of a very remarkable character, possessing great size and beauty, and whose vigor and productiveness are declared to be even greater than that of their mother. We see this improvement also in the crosses of a wild Grape with the foreign species by Rogers, as shown by the amelioration of the native aroma in the Barry, Wilder, and Lindley, the last named, like the Jefferson of Ricketts, possessing a peculiar rich flavor, which might, with propriety, be denominated, and may yet be distinguished as the Muscat of America. Nor do I doubt that we shall in time produce varieties which will compare favorably with, and perhaps be equal in size, beauty, and excellence, to the Cannon Hall, or other Muscat, now so highly praised for their peculiar aroma. The Pocklington, in size and beauty, is an approach to this. Nor is it unreasonable to suppose but we may have a Grape, if we have it not now in the Duchess, that is as well adapted to exportation as the White Malaga, and of much better quality. What has been done can be done again. Nature has in her laboratory infinite stores of the same elements which have produced our finest fruits, and we have only to knock at her portals and pronounce the SESAME, when she will open to us the secrets of her wonder-working power. These predictions may be considered as the fantasies or vagaries of imagination, or as indications of a too ardent desire for progress. No, no, neither are they the results of chance. They are founded on those immutable laws which govern all sciences, in the control of mind over matter, and the power of man to assist nature in her onward march to higher and higher states of perfection. That we shall possess such improved varieties as we have predicted we have no reason to doubt. Our country is large and varied in climate and soil. Though we of the North cannot expect to grow tropical fruits—nor may we grow a Grape of the excellence of the Black Hamburg suited to out-door cultivation—yet we can produce fruits of great importance to ourselves, and of inestimable value to other portions of our country, as we have seen in the Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, and Roxbury Russet apples, in the Diana, the Concord, the Rogers Grapes, the Bartlett pear, and other fruits which have been sent out from New England.

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FARMERS AND SMALL FRUITS.

In travelling about the country among the farmers I have often wondered why a few of them raised small fruits. Not one in five, on an average, tastes any kind of small fruit of his own growing from one year to another. Formerly a few currant bushes struggled with the grass and weeds in the fence corners and gave an abundance of small but wholesome fruit, but, with the worm as a foe, the bushes were unequal to the contest; the grass waves triumphantly over their dead remains, and the farmer is entirely without small fruit. Why this great scarcity? Certainly not because farmers do not love fine fruit. Ask any one of them into your plat, and you will be surprised to see what capacity he has for stowing a large quantity in a small space. Nor is it because he is too stingy for he will send the boys and girls, and even go himself, miles away to a few straggling wild bushes to pick a few poor berries that cost him two or three times as much as it would to grow those very much better on his own farm.

There are three reasons to which we can attribute this lack of small fruits on the farm: First comes carelessness. The farmer sees the fruit in its prime and resolves to raise plenty for his family, but before planting time comes he has partially forgotten his good purpose, and lets the proper season go by. Second, the mistaken notion that prevails as to the great labor and expense of growing what would be needed to supply his family. The last and best reason is that the farmer does not appreciate the value of the small fruits to his family, both as food and as medicine. When he looks at the early strawberry blushing and nodding amid the dew-laden leaves, and his mouth waters for a taste, he does not realize that nature is yearning within him for the acid contained in the fruit, to help relieve the system from the accumulations of winter, and prepare it to endure summer’s heat. He does not consider that each of the fruits in its season contains some principle that is just adapted to the wants of the body at that time, and that many times the free use of each would save large amounts in doctor’s bills, as well as much suffering, and many times the life of a beloved one. The average American farmer is not yet educated up to the full enjoyment of his high calling and God given privileges. He does not yet realize that he is near the fountain-head, and is entitled to partake first and of the best of everything that grows, and that when he neglects to provide himself and family with these health-giving necessaries he is culpably responsible for the bad results.

To correct these false impressions, and to cause him to provide and enjoy these, his rights as the tiller of the soil, would be conferring on himself and family a great and lasting benefit. One acre of good land, properly divided and cultivated, would furnish any ordinary farmer’s family all the fruits, fresh and canned, needed from the earliest ripening of the strawberry to its coming again. To what other use could an acre of land be put that would add so much of health, comfort and enjoyment. In planting, the farmer should not fall into the too common error of using small beds or plats here and there scattered about, but let the rows run the whole length, and so place them that the main cultivation can be done with a horse. This will save much hard work and valuable time in hoeing. Another fact he should remember: “The easiest cultivation is thorough cultivation”—no half-way business. It is much easier to keep the land entirely clean than to keep it half overrun with grass and weeds. He should remember this acre is worth two in corn or potatoes and give it good care, allowing nothing but fruit to grow. Of kinds, it should contain at least strawberries, raspberries (red and black), currants, blackberries and grapes.—Rural New Yorker.

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JELLIES AND PRESERVES.

Currant and Gooseberry Jelly.—The currants are beginning to ripen, and those housekeepers who want nice jelly must take them in time before the juice begins to grow thin, else they will have trouble to make their jelly “come.” Look them over carefully, crush and strain through a jelly-bag, then measure the juice, and for every pint allow a pint of best white sugar. Put the juice over to boil in a porcelain-lined kettle, and boil twenty minutes or more, according to quantity and thickness of the juice. It is better to boil little juice at a time if you want your jelly very nice, as the less time it is over the fire, the lighter-colored it will be. Skim off carefully all the refuse that rises to the top. Put your sugar in the oven and heat it hot, being very careful not to scorch it; then add it to the boiling juice and boil three or four minutes, or until a few drops taken out on the tin will make jelly readily, then turn into jelly-cups and set away in a dry, cool place. Gooseberries make a nice tart jelly, delicious with meat. Pick the berries clean, cover with cold water, and boil till soft; strain through a jelly-bag, then proceed the same as in making currant jelly.

Though I am fond of canned fruit (when it is properly put up and comes out from the can fresh and free from mould or must), there are some fruits which, for variety, I like “done up” in the old-fashioned ways, and as I have some receipts which I think will please, I give them for the benefit of other housekeepers who like an occasional dish of preserves, spiced fruit, jam or marmalade.

To Preserve Plums.—Look them over and pick out all that are imperfect or unsound. Make a syrup of clean, brown sugar and clarify it. When perfectly clear and boiling hot, pour it over the plums. Let them remain in the syrup two days, then drain it off, make it boiling hot, skim it and pour it over again; let it remain another day or two, then put over the fire and simmer gently till the syrup is thick and rich. Use one pound of sugar to each pound of fruit.

Peach Butter.—Pare and stone good peaches and cut them in quarters. Cook them two hours; then to each pound of fruit add half a pound of sugar, and cook two hours longer, stirring almost constantly.

Spiced Currants.—To 5 lb of fruit, add 3 lb of sugar (either white or good clean brown), 1 pt. of good cider vinegar, 2 large tablespoonfuls of ground cinnamon, 1 tablespoonful of ground cloves, and 1 tablespoonful of ground allspice. Heat all together in a porcelain-lined kettle; skim out the fruit, and boil down the juice till it will make jelly; return the currants, and let it boil up once; then pour into your fruit jar. When cold, tie or paste a thick paper over the top, and set where it is dry and cool.

Spiced Grapes.—Get ready 5 lb of fruit, 4 lb of sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls each of cinnamon and mace, and 1 pt. of the best vinegar. Boil the sugar, spices and vinegar together about one hour, or until thick. Heat the grapes and rub through a colander. Add the syrup to the fruit, and let it boil up once.

Currant Preserves.—To each lb of fruit, add one lb of good white sugar, and set it on the stove. Let it come to a boil; skim out the currants, and boil the syrup down till it will make jelly; put back the fruit, and dip into bowls. When cold, paste paper wet with white of egg over the top, and set away.

Crab-Apple Marmalade.—Boil the apples in a kettle till soft, with just enough water to cover them. Mash and strain through a colander; then to a pound of fruit take three-fourths of a pound of sugar, and boil half an hour.—Susan Busybee, in Country Gentleman.

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HARDY PEACHES.

In such portions as are favorable to the growth and bearing of the peach, we have not discovered much difference in the endurance in winter of the different varieties, the temperature rarely passing lower than 12° below zero. As the shoots of most of the sorts are never winter-killed, no material difference can be seen in the hardiness of the varieties. But in many places at the West, where the growth is more luxuriant, the ripening of the young wood not so perfect, and where the thermometer often sinks to 20° below zero, the case is different. D. B. Wier, of the Prairie Farmer, says the past winter was very useful to the fruit-grower in indicating hardy sorts for future propagation. He mentions two well-known peaches, both great favorites, known as Crawford’s Early and Oldmixon Free. The Crawford is large, handsome and popular, and sells at the highest price, but the tree and fruit buds are easily injured by severe cold. The Oldmixon, although not so large and handsome, bears in that State four bushels of fruit to one borne by the Crawford, and notwithstanding the former sells at a lower price, it gives the grower twice as much money tree for tree. The Crawford bears well in good seasons when prices generally are down, and the Oldmixons sell at much higher prices in scarce years than the Crawfords in the plentiful seasons when they bear. For this reason it is recommended in all localities where this difference occurs, as the most profitable and worthy of more extensive planting.—Country Gentleman.

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BLACK RASPBERRIES.

We expect to add to our raspberry plantation by setting out this fall twenty-five acres more of black caps, and these will be in about the following proportions: Three acres in Thornless, five acres Tyler, five acres Mammoth Cluster, twelve acres Gregg. This gives good pickings, first to last. The Davidson Thornless are so very early that we get twelve to fifteen cents per quart for bulk of crop. The Tyler is very near as early, and yields larger and a much longer crop, taking the place of the Doolittle—which sort is so much affected by the rust the country over. The Tyler is a rank grower, and has never shown rust with us; and were we to be confined to but two black raspberries for market purposes, we should choose Tyler and Gregg—though the Mammoth Cluster is needed to fill in well between the two, as the Tyler is about gone when the Gregg gets into good picking, and such pickings we never saw in the black raspberry line. The bushes are literally covered over with clusters.

Our best pickers would average ten to twelve quarts per hour of the Gregg. The bush is a rank grower and perfectly hardy with us. With black raspberries dried, quoted at twenty-seven to thirty cents per lb., we see no danger of overdoing the business for years to come.—A. M. Purdy, in Fruit Recorder.

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THE NEWER STRAWBERRIES.

Finch’s Prolific.—Originated in Southern Ohio, and thought to be a cross of Russell’s Prolific with Wilson. We have only tested it one season, but are strongly impressed with its value as a very productive and firm market berry; plant strong and healthy; fruit large, good form and color; medium quality, very firm; think it should be tested by every one growing fruit for market.

Bidwell.—A very valuable early variety; plants strong and vigorous even on light soil; very productive, fruit of large size; long and conical in shape, with an occasional coxcomb berry; color, a glossy crimson; superior quality.

Marvin.—A cross between Wilson and Jucunda. It will not thrive on light, dry soil; on heavy clay soil it is of great value; fruit of large size, dark red, very firm and solid, good quality; and what is best of all, the very latest to ripen.

Mount Vernon, or Kirkwood.—Originated in Southern New Jersey, and said to be the most profitable market berry ever grown there. The plant is one of the most vigorous on our place; very productive, fruit of medium size and quality; moderately firm; ripens very late, and valuable for market on that account.—Fruit Recorder.

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MOORE’S EARLY GRAPE IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC.

The Fruit Committee of the Montreal Horticultural Society, in the Report for 1880, say of this variety that it is fully equal in quality to the Concord, that it ripens before the Hartford Prolific, or as nearly as possible with the Champion, known there more recently as Beaconsfield, but quite surpassing it in flavor, and add, “we believe this variety will prove of great value to our Province on account of its early ripening, and because, as we are informed, the vine is vigorous and healthy. It has been fruited in Ontario, and is there much esteemed. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society, after testing this grape for several years, awarded it a prize of sixty dollars as the best new seedling grape.”

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THE WILDER GRAPE IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC.

At the recent exhibition of the Horticultural Society of L’Islet County, Province of Quebec, latitude 47° north, Mr. Auguste Dupuis exhibited this grape, grown by him in the open air, perfectly ripe and of first quality. We are fully persuaded that this grape will prove to be one of the most valuable of the Rogers varieties in our climate.

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PACKING GRAPES.

I wish to offer a few suggestions to the grape growers in reference to packing grapes for shipping to market. The manner of packing has much to do with the condition in which they arrive in market, and the condition has much to do with the price obtained.

In the first place, grapes should never be gathered when wet with dew or rain. The best method that I have tried for gathering grapes is to take a sharp pair of shears (priming shears answer well) or a sharp knife with hooked blade: take hold of the bunch with one hand and cut the stem of the grapes with the knife or shears held in the other hand, and take off all green and decayed berries, then lay in carefully in a basket, then proceed to the next; when the basket is full, carry it to the place of packing, which should be under roof; the next operation is to pack them in boxes, which should be both light and strong; twelve by eighteen inches, and four or five inches deep, is a convenient size and will hold from sixteen to twenty pounds if properly packed; to do this right it will take some experience.

I would recommend that the box be set on a table of convenient height, having the back end of the box elevated three or four inches by placing something under it, then commence at the end next to you and lay the bunches in carefully, pressing them together gently, but not hard enough to break the berries. When the bottom of the box is covered one layer deep, commence at the front again, put in a second layer, placing the larger bunches in the low places and the smaller bunches on the high places, thus keeping them as level as possible; proceed in this manner until the box is full, being careful to have the box as level as possible when done. Cutting bunches to fill up cavities is not a good practice, as large bunches sell best.

When the box is full set it aside and proceed to fill another, and so on until all are full. The boxes thus filled should be allowed to stand until the stems of the grapes are wilted and become pliable, which will take from six to twenty-four hours; then take a board and cover the box, placing one hand under the box and the other on the cover; then set the box on end holding the cover securely in its place with one hand, then shake or jostle the grapes till they settle compactly together, which is easily accomplished after the stems are wilted; this will cause a cavity at the upper end of the box, which should be carefully filled with grapes that have had stems wilted in order that they may pack closely.

Great care should be taken to avoid rubbing the bloom off the grapes, as it injures their appearance, and it is thought they will not keep so well. Care should be taken to hide the stems of the last layer and have the berries look even or level on the top. Grapes should not be allowed to stand in the sunshine after they are gathered. Grapes packed according to the above directions can be transported a long distance without injury.—E. P. Bothwell, in Fruit Recorder.

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THE CORWIN’S COLLECTIONS.

The collection of specimens and relics brought back from Arctic regions by the Arctic cruiser Corwin is described as large and interesting. Lieutenant Myrick and Doty have accumulated a rare assortment of models of weapons and boats used by the tribes inhabiting the extreme northern limits of the habitable portion of the globe. These models include boats of various shapes and character, hunting weapons, pipes, bird traps, nets and other trinkets which would prove invaluable to a collector of the curious in any portion of the world. Dr. Ross, of Washington, who accompanied the expedition, has a collection of very rare specimens from the Alaskan and Siberian coasts, as well as from Herald Island and Wrangell Land. Among these are specimens of the flora, vegetation, soil, and minerals of the newly acquired territory, New Columbia. Among the flora may be seen some of the most delicate and beautiful flowers, and while all are void of brilliant colors, the leaves and blossoms, all of delicate tints, are very beautiful and extraordinarily curious as coming from an unexplored land so close to the North Pole. The grasses are also delicate, and resemble both the common bunch and “foxtail” variety of California and the blue grass of the Eastern States. The rock from Wrangell Land is a coarse blue sandstone, a fine slate, and some pale drab sandstone, all good building material. The specimens of coal from Cape Lisburne, on the north coast of Alaska, are of a deep black color, soft and bituminous. It is easily ignited, and emits a strong sulphuric odor. From Herald Island the Corwin brings some fine specimens of granite, which is susceptible of a high polish. It is gray in color, and resembles the granite of Lake Superior and the coast of Maine. Among the curiosities in the possession of Mr. Haloran, the boatswain of the Corwin, is the tooth of a mammoth found upon the shores of Siberia. It is as large as a 20-pound cannon ball, and being petrified, is equally as heavy. The collection of curiosities brought down from the Arctic by the Corwin is, perhaps, the most interesting of any brought to San Francisco.

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A NEW GARDEN IMPLEMENT.

Mr. Oren Stoddard, of Busti, N. Y., has patented a combined hand seed planter and fertilizer distributor, which has a very perfect action and separates the fertilizer from the seed in the ground. In this device, a central box in which phosphate or other fine fertilizer is placed has combined with it outer side boxes for reception of the corn or other seed. Followers terminating in or connected with a handle above, serve, by a suitable construction of the interior of the boxes, to discharge, as they are thrust downward, the fertilizer and seed in measured quantities into the ground, the same passing out through or between elastic plates, which form the necessary openings in the soil, while the bottom of the boxes act as a stop to insure the seed being planted at a uniform depth. By this construction the seed for each hill will be divided, and the fertilizer will be deposited in the space between the parts of the hill without being in contact with the seed, so that the seed will not be injured or killed by the fertilizer. Connected with the fertilizer follower are levers, having attached covering plates which, as said follower is drawn upward, force the soil into the openings in which the seed and fertilizer have been deposited, and cover the seed.—Scientific American.

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THE TOLMAN-CHAMPION-BEACONSFIELD GRAPE.

This grape originated within two miles of where I now sit writing, some twelve or fifteen years ago, and was first named the Tolman. After having proved worthless under that name, certain Rochester parties bought plants of Wm. Day, of Syracuse, and re-named it the Champion, and by a series of misrepresentations they have succeeded in scattering it broadcast over the country. It has been especially recommended for the latitude of Canada, but I am pleased to read that one Canada gentleman, at the meeting in Boston, reported that it could not be sold at one cent per pound in the streets of Montreal.

Some of our Canada brethren—evidently encouraged by the success of our Rochester friends—have again re-named it, and this time it is the Beaconsfield. What success it will have under this last name remains to be seen, but name it as you will, it will still remain a worthless thing. There have been more lies told about this grape than about any other fruit that has been offered to the public in the last twenty years, and it is now time that these false statements should be discontinued.

It is true that a very few grape-growers have made it pay, by selling it to people who had not yet learned its worthlessness, but this was only a transient profit. A few years ago this grape sold in our market at fifteen cents per pound wholesale, but from year to year the price declined, and this season the growers of it were peddling the fruit from house to house at two and three cents per pound. Now they find themselves burdened with vines that are practically good for nothing. When will people learn that it pays best, in the long run, to grow good fruit? If I have been rather severe upon this subject it is because, in my opinion, plain talk is best in this particular case.—Nelson Ritter, in Country Gentleman.

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CANKER WORMS.

This is how I got rid of them on four hundred apple trees: I took one barrel and a half of tar, warmed it in a pail with half rain-water, and applied it at about four o’clock in the afternoon with a large paint brush. I made a ring around the body of the tree, about half-way up to the limbs, and repeated it every day for 31 days, having commenced on the 3rd of April.

The habits of these destructive worms are peculiar. The miller that lays the egg for the worm commences coming out of the ground as soon as it begins to thaw in the spring, and immediately crawls up the tree and lays its eggs in and on the buds, which hatch as soon as the tree begins to leaf, when its work begins. These millers are hardly ever seen in the day-time, and they never climb the tree except at night. From a half an hour after sundown they appear to pop out of the ground and start straight for the tree. The female has no wings and gets stuck in the tar, and that is the end of it.

I had a man who tarred the four hundred trees in about two hours; some of the trees had been only four years set out. The tar was applied to the bark. No harm resulted from it to the trees, but the worms were exterminated. This was done some six years ago. My trees had been stripped for five years of fruit and leaves, but not a canker worm has been seen since.—C. W. Palmer, in Germantown Telegraph.

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LACKAWANNA CAULIFLOWER.

This is a new, early, large heading variety, which was first offered by Mr. Tillinghast, of Pennsylvania, last spring. Although the past season has been extremely unfavorable to the growth and development of cauliflowers, which require more moisture than cabbages, the reports received thus far from this have been highly satisfactory. A gardener residing upon a tract of Long Island which annually produces thousands of barrels of cauliflowers for market, writes that this proved one of the most profitable market varieties introduced. It is somewhat later in the season than the Snowball and Erfurt varieties, but grows much larger, and is a remarkably sure header. It should be sown very early so as to mature before the summer droughts come on.

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SHEEP AND TREES.

The wash recommended by me last summer is a sure preventive of sheep barking or gnawing fruit or any other trees. Take soap, the dirtier and more offensive the better, and make a very strong suds; dissolve one-fourth pound whale-oil soap in every six gallons, and into this stir sheep-manure until it is as thick as good whitewash, with a brush or old stub of broom, and with this mixture wash the trees as high as the sheep can reach, and no sheep will come near enough to rub against them for at least two months, the time depending upon the amount of rain. We keep the mixture handy and repeat the application as often as necessary, usually not more than twice in a summer. Sheep running among fruit-trees should have plenty of good, fresh water; it is thirst that first induces them to gnaw the bark, but after they have once got a taste they eat because they like the bark. The above mixture will effectually keep them away, and besides is a very good application for the health of the trees, keeping the bark smooth and fine, and killing any insect that it comes in contact with.—J. S. Woodward, in New York Tribune.

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FORCING THE LABURNUM.

The pendant spikes of the Laburnum would come into excellent play in many forms of floral decoration. The London Gardener’s Chronicle says of an attempt to force it:

“Among forced flowering plants, the Laburnum takes a prominent position, though it is not so generally seen grown in this fashion. Geo. Buck, the gardener at Castle Ashby, finds it invaluable in early spring, and his forced plants yield him splendid wreaths of yellow flowers, which are much prized for house decoration. Late in autumn the plants are lifted from the open ground, and the roots thrust into suitable sized pots sans ceremonie; but the plants flower well when introduced into heat, notwithstanding the summary character of the potting process. After they have done flowering, they are planted out in the open ground for the summer, and in the autumn again potted and placed in warmth as stated above.”—Gardener’s Monthly.

 

Apple Marmalade:—Apple marmalade is a simple and excellent preserve, and offers a change from the ever present cider apple sauce and stewed apples, seen on so many country tables. Take seven pounds of late fall pippin and stew them in a pint of water. Put them through a sieve, add the juice and the grated rind of three lemons. Boil about one hour; ten minutes before it is done add three ounces of ginger root. This may be made of one-third quinces and two-thirds apples, when the ginger root and lemons should be left out.

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SPARROW-GRASS.

 

    Dear Brother,

 

  You’ve asked me in terms to relate

  How to grow Sparrow-grass to have it first-rate;

  You ask what I do, and how it is done,

  To insure in the quality letter A one.

  I’ll disclose to you all you desire to know,

  To be happy at dinner and win at the show.

 

  Be firm in the thought and prompt in the deed,

  Persist in destroying each insolent weed:

  Let no such intruder e’er rob of its food

  A plant that is worthy of everything good.

  Yes, root out the weeds whenever you pass,

  If you wish for a crop of the very best grass.

 

  When autumn arrives, and the growth is done brown,

  Take a terrible knife and cut it all down;

  Then fork the beds lightly; don’t injure the roots,

  Or you ought to do penance with peas in your boots;

  Make tidy and clean, remove all the litter,

  Then take a short rest and a mugful of bitter.

 

  Now, refreshed by the essence of hops and of malt,

  Bring forth your supplies of soot and of salt;

  Spread the black stuff to cover the bed like a pall,

  Then sprinkle the salt to make white over all;

  Some stercus (politely so called) from the stable,

  Lay two inches thick, or three, if you’re able.

 

  Leave all alone now to the mellowing light,

  The rain and the frost, and the dew of the night;

  But at times you must drench the bed freely with sewage,

  And for this you need only the household brewage.

  Put it on as you get it direct from the house,

  And, if needful, be secret and sly as a mouse.

 

  When winter sets in leave the whole thing alone,

  If you sewage in frost you will soon be undone;

  In times when the rain kills the flowers and midges,

  Put sewage on land that is laid up in ridges.

  When the grass has done growing it needs a long rest,

  So withholding the stimulants now is the best.

 

  Once more the bright spring, with her elegant tresses,

  Her laughter and tears, her green and gold dresses,

  Will skim o’er the land to make us all merry,

  And put on our faces the bloom of the cherry;

  Then, then, my Sparrow-grass grower, look out:

  There is work to be done, if your sinews are stout.

 

  Your loins must be girded, your head in its place,

  Your feet firmly shod, and your knife in its case;

  Spread straw or rough litter all over the bed,

  To screen off the wind, or your grass will rise dead:

  By “dead” I mean dull, dry, shriveled, and shrunk,

  Like a man who much tipples, yet never gets drunk.

 

  Once again pull the weeds, let the salt-box be found;

  Give a dusting like snow to cover the ground;

  Do all this before a green top shall appear,

  And you’ll have your grass right for the rest of the year.

  But beware of great haste in removing the sticks;

  Let them grow to four inches or even to six.

 

  Then pull—do not cut—and the crop will be fine;

  You will say to your cook, “I desire to dine”;

  Rich and tender, full-flavoured ’twill be, if cooked right—

  Fill the stomach with food and the soul with delight!

  Oh, the world must be good, that in plenty produces

  A grass so abounding in delicate juices!

 

  Once in for this pastime, bravely go on.

  Fill the basket each morn in advance of the sun;

  But on June seventeen the tables must turn—

  You must cease to take grass, though your fingers may burn.

  One more merry pull, ’tis the last you may have,

  Unless for your grass you’d be digging a grave.

 

  Be content, let it grow, make an end of your feast;

  Be wise like a man, do not waste like a beast;

  Thus, season by season, as weeks and days pass,

  You must manage the work as you wish for good grass.

  If you think the name vulgar you may, without malice,

  Just call it Asparagus officinalis.

 

  —The Gardener’s Magazine.

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BOOKS AND PERIODICALS.

Hand-Book of Practical Landscape Gardening. By T. R. Elliott. Second edition, enlarged and improved. Published by D. M. Dewey, Arcade Hall, Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A.

This is just what it claims to be, an eminently practical book, containing plans drawn to a scale, and the places where trees and shrubs are to be planted so numbered that any one can carry out the plan. We commend it to every one wishing to lay out his grounds, however small, and plant them in a manner that will be a source of pleasure to him ever after. School Trustees will also find useful hints for planting the grounds around the school-house—a matter sadly neglected, and that deserves attention. The book only costs a dollar and fifty cents.

 

Vennor’s Almanac for 1882. Published by J. M. Stoddart & Co., Philadelphia, Penn., U. S. A.

Contains Mr. Vennor’s prognostications of weather for the year, besides other matter interesting to weather students.

 

Vick’s Floral Guide, 1882.

Of the many Guides and Seed and Plant Catalogues sent out by our Seedsmen and Nurserymen, and that are doing so much to inform the people and beautify and enrich our country, none are so beautiful, none so instructive as Vick’s Floral Guide. Its paper is the choicest, its illustrations handsome, and given by the thousand, while its colored plates are gems. This work, although costing but ten cents, is handsome enough for a gift book, or a place on the parlor table. Published by James Vick, Rochester, N. Y.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.

Summer Radishes.
Painted For VICK’S Monthly.

Note.When this Number went to press we were under the impression that the Colored Plate of “EVERLASTING FLOWERS” which we ordered had been received. It turns out that it cannot be supplied, and therefore we present our readers with a very pretty plate of Summer Radishes instead. This change has caused some delay in the mailing of this number, and we hope that our Subscribers will accept of this apology. In future we expect to be able to mail the Magazine promptly on the first day of the month.

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SUMMER RADISHES.

Through the courtesy of Mr. James Vick we present our readers with a colored plate of Summer Radishes. They are among our most handsome vegetables, and when nicely grown are not only an acceptable relish, but a very pretty ornament to the table. Our readers will notice that the different varieties are numbered. The two numbered 1 and 8 are known as the red turnip radish, No. 1 having a white tip, No. 8 red throughout. When well grown the flesh is white and crisp, and the radishes about an inch and a half in diameter.

No. 2 is the French Breakfast radish, olive-shaped, light scarlet with white tip, a very pretty radish, and at the same time one of the earliest and most tender. It is usually esteemed to be the best of the radishes.

No. 3 is the White turnip, and No. 4 the Yellow turnip radish, very much the same as the red turnip variety, the difference being mainly in the color, which admits of a more pleasing variety for table ornament.

No. 5 is the Scarlet olive-shaped, a very fine sort, of excellent quality, and much esteemed. It does not differ materially from No. 2, except that it is not ornamented with the white tip.

No. 6 is known as the Long White Naples. It is a beautiful clear white, and an excellent sort, coming in after the olive-shaped varieties.

No. 7 is the favorite market radish, known as the Long Scarlet, a beautiful root, in use at the same time as the White Naples, with which it forms a pleasing contrast when nicely arranged in a glass.

Radishes should be grown in a light, warm soil, well sheltered from chilly winds, where they will grow fast, so that they may be crisp and tender.



  
VOL. V.]FEBRUARY, 1882.[No. 2.
  

EVERLASTING FLOWERS.

The beautiful colored plate which is given to our readers in this number will shew them how abundant are our floral resources, and though we may not be able to have a green-house or conservatory from which we can gather flowers during the bleak winter days, yet we need not be without our bouquet for table or mantel decoration. These brightly-colored flowers can be grown in summer, and gathered at the proper time, laid away in a drawer, where they will retain all their freshness of coloring, until wanted to enliven the rooms whence the perishing beauties of flora have vanished.

Those of our readers who are familiar with these everlasting flowers will readily recognize each flower in this charming bouquet. That beautiful Acroclinium Roseum, with pink margined petals shading to white at the base, is a tender annual that should be started in a pot or box in the house to secure quick germination of the seed. It will grow to about eighteen inches in height, and yields a large number of its pretty daisy-like flowers. These should be gathered the first day they open, or even before they are fully open, else the centre is apt to be discolored. There is also a pure white variety. The Helichrysum flowers are also conspicuous, the one brownish-red, and the other dark-red, with purplish shade. These are easily grown from seed in the open border and attain a height of about two feet. Their colors are white, yellow, and various shades of brownish-red. The flowers should be cut just before they are fully expanded. The Xeranthemum is also easily grown; it flowers abundantly in colors of purple, blue and white, growing hardly a foot in height. Just above that white Helichrysum, and a little to the left, will be seen that old-time friend, the Globe Amaranth. It is best to sow the seed of this in a pot in the house, or in a hot bed, as it does not germinate freely in the open ground. They are pure white, flesh-colored and purplish-crimson. These should be gathered in the autumn after the flowers are fully developed. Just above this are the yellow and purple Statice, which, though not everlastings, are easily dried, and retain their color when in that condition. At the top of the bouquet are the white and rose-colored Rhodanthe, with their lovely bell-shaped flowers. It is necessary to cut these before they are fully open, so that they may not lose their pretty bell-like form. Sow the seed of these also in a hot bed, if you have one; if not, in a pot or box. Next to these is Helipterum Sanfordi, a gem of beauty, with rich, yellow, star-like flowers, which will retain their beauty for many years. It grows about a foot high, is easily cultivated, and bears an abundance of flowers. The clusters should be cut just as the flower-buds are opening, tied in bunches, and hung in the shade; the flowers will expand while drying and retain their bright color. Those little flowers at the right, which look so like little button daisies, are grown extensively in France, where they are dyed all colors, or bleached white, and shipped all over the world. At the left hand, near the base, is a spray of the Hartford Fern (Lygodium Palmatum), a most elegant plant, the leaves of which will retain their form and color for years, if kept from the dust. Intermingled with these are those beautiful grasses, at the left the little Briza Minor, above it the Brizœform Bromus, at the top the Nebulous Agrostis, and near the bottom, on the right, the well-known quaking grass, Briza Maxima. Just below the yellow Helipterum is that airy, graceful, little Gypsophila, and below it a frond of the native Holly Fern.

Thus have we endeavoured to set forth the various flowers and plants of which this pretty bouquet is formed, that our friends may know how to make preparation in time and lay in a supply for another season. Then when the winter winds are howling and the garden is bleak and bare, you can bring forth your store of everlastings, grasses and ferns, and with a few evergreen sprays, deck your Christmas tables in spite of Jack Frost. To dry these nicely, the flowers should be tied in small bunches by the stems, and hung up with the heads down in the shade until dry, when they can be carefully stowed away in a drawer, or on the shelves of a dark closet, until wanted.

There is another grass that deserves to be mentioned here, which the writer has found most useful, and most beautiful too, for winter decoration. It is the striped Eulalia, which seems to be perfectly hardy, and whose graceful plumes, so like the Prince of Wales feather, lend such a charm to any attempt at winter decoration. It is a perennial, whose leaves, striped with white and bending in graceful curves, give so much beauty to the garden in summer, and its autumn plumes to the house in winter.

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REPORT ON FRUITS.

The Grimes Golden Apples, also the Pomme Grise, have done very well with me. The Flemish Beauty Pear has done very well also. The Clapp’s Favorite appears healthy, grows well, and blooms profusely, but has produced no fruit. Glass’ Plum has done well, but I am, I fear, going to lose it with black-knot. Salem Grape did very well, but the Eumelan does not stand the winter’s frosts.

R. Gowanlock.

Maple Hill, Jan. 2, 1882.

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A FEW HINTS ON GRAPE GROWING.

(Concluded from page 10.)

Figure No. 8.
The Beautiful Wood Nymph. (Eudryas grata).

The Green Grape Vine Sphinx also feeds on the leaves of the grape vine, as likewise does the beautiful Wood Nymph, shewn in Figure No. 8, and though they have not as yet become very numerous, should be treated as possible enemies.

Figure No. 9.
The Thrips. (Tettigonia vitis).
Here shewn highly magnified, the lines at the left indicating the natural size, in the one with the wings extended, in the other at rest.

The Thrips, shewn in Figure No. 9, often becomes so numerous as to destroy the leaves of the vine by preying upon their under-surface. This is particularly the case if too much wood is left on the vine when pruning, causing the foliage to become very dense and matted. This insect is more injurious to those vines whose leaves are thin and smooth, than to those whose leaves are thick and woolly. It is a very troublesome insect when it becomes abundant, and is not easily destroyed; but, fortunately, it does not follow that because they are abundant in one season, they will appear in like numbers the next.

WHERE GRAPES CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY GROWN.

In Europe it is thought that the lowest summer temperature in which the vine succeeds is 65 degrees Fahrenheit; that is, the mean temperature for the four months of June, July, August and September, must be equal to 65 degrees. Whether our native grapes are bound to the same limits of temperature, I cannot say; but we know that quite a number of varieties will grow and ripen their fruit at Ottawa, and at Peterboro’, and Barrie. Hence it may be inferred that in any part of Canada not colder during the summer than those places just named, those sorts which ripen as early as the Delaware may be planted with every expectation of enjoying ripe fruit.

The Champion, Creveling, Eumelan, Merrimack, Moore’s Early, Worden, Brighton, Massasoit, Martha and Lady, have been found to ripen as early, and some of them earlier than the Delaware, and hence may be expected to ripen their fruit wherever the Delaware will ripen.

Along the shores of Lake Huron and the Georgian Bay, the climate is so far modified by those large bodies of water, that many varieties ripening later than the Delaware succeed perfectly. There is a belt of land lying adjacent to those waters, the width of which has probably not yet been fully ascertained, where not only the varieties above mentioned will ripen, but also the Concord, and even the Iona and Isabella. At a certain distance from the water, the climate becomes less favorable, though the latitude is lower, and it will be found necessary to plant only those that ripen as early as the Delaware. But the most favored localities for grape-growing are to be found on the southern shore of Lake Ontario and the northern shore of Lake Erie to and up the Detroit River, and on some of the islands lying in Lake Erie. There the ameliorating influence of the water is felt; spring frosts do not occur so late as at places farther in the interior, nor do the autumn frosts show themselves as early. The melting ice of the upper lakes continually flowing through Lake Erie, keeps the temperature of the water at a foot below the surface at about forty degrees of Fahrenheit during the month of May, so that the atmosphere is cooler than it is in the interior, and the buds do not burst as early as they do farther inland. By the latter part of July the temperature of the water rises to that of the atmosphere, in August the water becomes warmer than the air, in September the water is three degrees warmer, and in October six degrees warmer than the surrounding air. But the water is continually giving out its heat into the atmosphere, thereby, keeping it at a higher temperature near the Lake than it is in the interior, and so preventing early autumn frosts. Elevation also has its influence upon the temperature. There is a line of altitude where the autumn frosts do not fall as early by many days—and sometimes weeks—as in the valley below. Many a farmer living in a rolling section of country, has noticed that Indian corn on the flats and in the bottoms has been severely injured by frost when that on rising ground and hill-sides has entirely escaped. This is owing to the fact that cold air is heavier than warm; it rolls down into the valleys and bottoms, while the warm air ascends the hill-sides and slopes. It is in such favored portions of the country that numerous varieties of grapes can be grown; there they not only ripen, as it is usually understood, but there they can be allowed to hang upon the vine, and develope all their saccharine properties, becoming much sweeter than the same variety becomes when the season is of shorter duration. And fortunately this embraces a large portion of Western Ontario, all that part lying between the two Lakes—Erie and Ontario—and that portion lying between a line running through Hamilton, London, Chatham and Sarnia, southward to Lake Erie.

There is another influence to be considered, and one which has a natural effect upon the growing of grapes in the highest degree of perfection, and indeed of all other fruits. I refer to the quantity of summer rain. It is true the amount of rain-fall in each year cannot be depended upon with the same certainty as the annual return of heat; yet in a series of years the average rain through the summer can be determined with considerable accuracy. The region of these great lakes, from the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence to the western extremity of Lake Superior, is favored with a smaller rain-fall than other parts of the country. Taking this entire region together, the average summer rain-fall is about ten inches of rain.

Within this belt or zone, where the average summer rain does not exceed ten inches, the cultivation of the vine has been attended with the greatest success; and we confidently predict that with favoring soil and exposure the choicest vines will be grown within this same area. Surely the land-owner who is so fortunate as to be located within these favoring limits need not delay to plant his vines. With the same care and attention that commands success in any undertaking, he may be reasonably certain of reaping a rich return for all his labor and enterprise. Within this favored region, the vine itself is more vigorous and healthy, and the fruit of superior quality; and the days will come when the grapes of this part of Ontario will be in as great repute as the apples and pears are now. And these are growing in estimation every year, for experience is teaching the world that the apples of this region will keep better, bear transportation better, and are of better flavor than those of any other part of America. A bearing apple orchard of five acres now yields a better return than all the rest of a hundred acre farm; and with the increasing supply comes a yet larger demand. So will it be with the vineyards and their fruits. Grapes in France command to-day a higher price than they do in Canada. And when the vineyards of this region shall have become perfected, the excellence of the grapes and wines understood, and the production sufficiently considerable to command attention, the prices received will be in correspondence with the excellence of the products. There need be no fear that fruit raising in Ontario will ever, or can ever, be over-done. There is a bushel of strawberries raised now for every quart that was grown ten or twelve years ago, and the price of a quart of strawberries is certainly not any less now than it was then. There are probably a hundred barrels of apples sent to market now for every barrel sold twenty years ago; yet the price has not diminished, but of the two has increased with the increased production. How many bushels of tomatoes were raised and sold a few years ago, and what was the price paid then? If the lamp of experience sheds any light upon the path of the fruit grower, that light reveals a consumption and demand more than keeping pace with the production.

CULTURE IN GARDENS.

There are some inconveniences attending the cultivation of the grape in town and village gardens, owing to the great amount of shade from adjacent buildings, and the want of free circulation of air. But these are in a great degree counterbalanced by the increased protection and heat from reflection, so that the fruit usually ripens earlier than in the open vineyard.

It is a very common mistake to plant the vine directly against the bottom of a wall or high fence, and to train it close to the wall. The proper method is to plant two or three feet from the wall, and train the vine up at that distance from it, thus giving space for the circulation of air between the vine and the wall or fence. The training and pruning should be conducted with reference to giving as much air and light as can be done. The wood should be well thinned out in spring, and the foliage exposed as fully as possible to the sun, while the fruit is kept wholly in the shade.

MANURING THE VINE.

Manures should be supplied with care, avoiding the use of coarse and unfermented materials, which usually tend to produce a rank growth of wood, and give a watery character to the fruit. Old and thoroughly-rotted barn-yard manure, ashes, ground bones, and a little salt, may be used as required. The practice of drenching the vines with soap-suds is very often injurious, always injurious unless the soil be very porous or otherwise most thoroughly drained. Those grapes which are forced into an unnatural size by excessive manuring and drenching are often very showy and pleasing to the eye, but very watery and flavorless to the palate.

GATHERING AND PUTTING UP FOR MARKET.

It is surprising that there should be so much carelessness manifested in the simple matter of getting fruit to market after it has been grown and ripened. There is no part of the business that needs to be attended to with more care and nicety than the condition in which the fruit reaches the consumer, and no part of the business yields as great a return as the attention bestowed upon this apparently little matter. Were our farmers to assort their apples into first and second quality, putting up as first quality only those apples which were of full size for the particular variety, and that were free from every blemish, and putting up as second quality those that could be fairly classed as such, rejecting altogether or selling for cider-making all else, they would frequently receive more for the first-class apples alone than they now obtain for the entire crop, besides establishing a reputation for their brand that would enable them always to command a ready sale; and what is true of apples is true of every description of fruit.

If grapes are torn roughly from the vines, tossed into two bushel baskets and hurried in a lumber waggon to the nearest market, no wonder that the bruized, dripping berries are passed by, and if sold at last, sold for almost nothing. Were the same grapes brought to market in a clean and attractive condition, they would sell without trouble at the full market price.

In order to have the grapes reach market in the best possible condition, and particularly when they must be transported to some considerable distance, they should be gathered only when they are dry, the clusters cut carefully from the vine, and laid into shallow baskets without handling more than is absolutely necessary, so as to preserve as much of the bloom upon the berries as possible. They should not be piled up, but kept spread out thinly, so that the weight of the fruit shall not break the berries beneath. After gathering they should be taken to some cool, well-aired room for two or three days, and some of the superfluous moisture allowed to evaporate. This will toughen the skins so that they will not burst so easily upon being slightly pressed. The clusters should be lifted up carefully by the stem, and all unripe or defective, bruized or broken berries cut off with sharp-pointed scissors. They may now be laid into the boxes in which they are to be transported to market. These boxes should not be large nor deep, but shallow, and made to hold only a few pounds. The best boxes for this purpose are made of a thin veneer of elm or whitewood or basswood. They are made of various forms and sizes, some are round and some are square. I prefer the square form, for the reason that they can be packed more compactly into a case, and a given weight of fruit will occupy less space. The grapes should be packed in these boxes as compactly as possible without breaking any of the berries, and so that when the lid is closed upon them they will be lightly pressed. This will prevent the fruit from shaking about in the boxes. Cases should be made so that these boxes when filled will fit snugly into them, and made as light as is compatible with the needed strength, and of a size that a man can handle one of them without effort when filled with the boxes of fruit. When these cases are filled and closed, there should be no space for the boxes of fruit to rattle about, but each box should be held firmly in its place. In this condition the grapes can be sent to any market within reach of rail or water communication, and will arrive in good condition and sell for the best price.

It is usual in filling these boxes to fasten the top on the box and open the bottom, and then pack the finest-looking and most showy clusters first, using smaller clusters if need be in filling up, but not putting in any berries of inferior quality. When the box is full the bottom is fastened securely, and when the dealer opens the box to exhibit the fruit to his customers it presents a fine, attractive appearance.

When these boxes are properly made they are very light, and are sold by weight with the fruit. In this way the purchaser has a convenient package in which to carry home his fruit, and when properly regulated will have paid the cost of the box. Frequently these boxes will be found convenient, and to secure the sale of the fruit at a better price, even when it is not necessary to transport them by railway, and the grower carries them in his own wagon to the nearest market.

It makes considerable difference to the grower whether he gets four or six cents per pound for his grapes. Up to the day of gathering the fruit he will have expended a given sum upon his vineyard, and now if he harvests and markets his crop in such a way that it sells for only four cents per pound, when he might have got six cents, he is a great loser. If he have an acre of grapes, yielding him say only three tons, or six thousand pounds, the difference between four and six cents per pound is one hundred and twenty dollars, which will pay for considerable extra labor, a great deal more than the cost of the difference between careful and slovenly harvesting.

PROFITS OF GRAPE CULTURE.

The question is often asked by those who are thinking of planting for market, will it pay? To this inquiry it may be truthfully replied that the raising of fruit for market is like every other business, the question of profit depends mainly upon the energy, attention and skill of the grower. An acre of grape vines in full bearing will yield five tons of grapes, or ten thousand pounds. If, then, the grower realizes only four cents per pound, he will have received four hundred dollars from his acre. But if a judicious selection of varieties is made, so that there shall be a continual supply of fruit from the time that the earliest ripens to the end of the season, the price will be more likely to average at least six cents per pound, in which case the acre’s crop will be six hundred dollars. A grower near Hamilton, who takes good care of his vines, realizes ten cents per pound for his entire crop. And why may not you?

CHOICE OF VARIETIES.

The following list embraces most of the varieties now in cultivation which can be successfully grown in any part of Ontario. I frankly state my own opinion of their qualities, in the hope that my experience and observation may be of service to those who desire to plant:

Adirondac.—Ripens early, usually a few days before the Hartford Prolific. In size of bunch and berry, it much resembles the Isabella. The color is black. The flesh is soft and breaking, sweet and agreeable flavor, bearing more resemblance to a Black Hamburg than any other hardy grape that I have yet seen. And yet such is its lack of vigor and endurance, that I cannot advise any one to plant it who is not willing to give it great care and attention.

Agawam.—Also known as Rogers’ Number 15. The best flavored of all his red varieties, bunches variable in size, berries large, dark red, tender and juicy, with a pleasant, somewhat musky flavor. Ripe a little after the Concord. In unfavorable seasons the vine is apt to mildew, otherwise it is hardy, vigorous and productive.

Allen’s Hybrid.—This grape is one of the best in quality, but the vine is not hardy, and very subject to mildew.

Alvey.—The berry is quite small, the vine only moderately productive, and the variety not desirable.

Anna.—I only name this variety for the purpose of cautioning Canadians from purchasing it; for it is worthless in our latitude.

Blood’s Black.—This is wholly unworthy of cultivation, and he who purchases it wastes his money.

Barry.—Rogers’ Number 43. An excellent black grape, large, sweet, and nearly free from pulp. Ripe at the same time as the Concord. Vine hardy, vigorous and productive.

Brighton.—A valuable variety; hardy, vigorous, ripens its wood early, very productive, berries large, dark crimson when fully ripe, sweet, aromatic. Ripe as early as the Delaware. Worthy of a place in every garden.

Catawba.—Will not ripen thoroughly in most of Canada, requiring a longer season than we possess. He who plants largely of this sort here will surely regret having done so, unless he plant on the Islands of Lake Erie.

Champion.—A very vigorous, exceedingly hardy and productive grape, capable of enduring great severity of climate, and succeeding everywhere. It is a pioneer variety for the coldest parts of the country, ripening early, and yielding fruit under most adverse circumstances. It has been very profitable on account of its earliness and great productiveness; yet it is not of fine quality, and will eventually give way to better grapes ripening as early. The berries are large, black and attractive, borne in medium-sized clusters. If you have not been able to grow grapes in your locality, this will surely succeed and ripen a fine crop of fruit.

Clinton.—This variety is planted chiefly for wine. The bunches and berries are small; when thoroughly ripe a very pleasant, refreshing grape. The fruit can be easily kept in any cool place free from frost, and improves in flavor. The vine is perfectly hardy and very productive.

Concord.—A most profitable market grape; large bunch and berry, black, covered with a beautiful bloom. In Missouri and Southern Ohio, it is planted extensively for wine. It is one of the most hardy and most prolific sorts we have, giving a generous return of fruit to the cultivator. It has been largely planted for market, and, notwithstanding that the price rules low, such is the yield and certainty of crop that it is one of the most profitable.

Creveling.—An early ripening variety of excellent quality; bunch and berry about the size of the Isabella. The berries frequently set very poorly, making the bunches straggling. Were it not for this defect it would be highly valued for its fine flavor and early ripening.

Cuyahoga.—Ripens too late to be valuable.

Delaware.—I do not hesitate to say that this is one of the best hardy grapes that I have yet fruited. It is hardy—very hardy—enduring our winters well. It is very productive. The flavor is sweet, delicious, refreshing. The vine, when once established, is thrifty, making a growth nearly equal to the Clinton. It will bear higher cultivation than most other sorts, and well repays the generous treatment. Yet I have seen it in a sod, wholly neglected, bearing an immense crop of beautiful fruit. Some complain that it does not succeed with them; but the fault is probably in the treatment or soil, not in the variety. This grape, while excellent for the table, is equally valuable for wine, and is largely planted for that purpose.

Diana.—This variety will yield the most satisfactory results in a very dry, warm and rather poor soil. In a rich soil it runs to wood, and in a damp or cold soil will not ripen its fruit. It ripens very late. When ripe, the fruit is very sweet, and has a flavor peculiar to itself; and when wine is made exclusively from the juice of this grape, the peculiar Diana flavor is distinctly perceptible in the wine.

Duchess.—The quality of this grape is excellent, but as it ripens a little after the Concord, it will not be suitable for the colder parts of Ontario. Besides this, the vine seems to be easily affected by adverse influences and lacking in constitutional vigor. However, it is a new sort, not yet thoroughly tested, and time will be needed fully to ascertain its value for us. It is pale greenish yellow when ripe.

Early Victor.—A very hardy, healthy variety, which gives promise of being very valuable for us, on account of its vigorous constitution, great productiveness and early ripening. The bunches are above medium size, compact; berries medium, round, black, with a heavy blue bloom; juicy, sweet, free from foxiness; ripe fully a week before the Hartford Prolific.

Early Dawn.—The quality of this grape is very good, but I have found the vine very subject to mildew, and lacking in vigor of constitution. The bunches and berries are of medium size; berries black, with a thick bloom, juicy, rich, sweet and good; ripe fully a week before the Hartford Prolific. Were the vine only healthy, and not subject to mildew, it would be a desirable variety.

Eldorado.—Thus far this vine has been healthy and vigorous. The clusters are large, berries full medium size, white, juicy and high-flavored. Ripens as early as the Hartford Prolific.

Eumelan.—This vine has not proved to be as desirable in our climate as was hoped. It has not seemed to possess sufficient hardiness of constitution to adapt itself to many localities, and the fruit is lacking in richness and flavor.

Hartford Prolific.—This was at one time the earliest grape we had. It is of poor quality at best, the berries drop from the bunch when ripe, and, although it sold well on account of its earliness, we have now so many that ripen as early, and some even earlier, that it will soon be superseded.

Herbert. Rogers’ No. 44.—A large black berry, grown in large, long bunches; sweet, rich and fine-flavored; one of the best in quality of the Rogers’ Hybrids. It ripens early, and the vine is hardy and productive.

Highland.—A new hybrid variety not yet tested in our climate. Berries large, black, and of fine quality.

Israella.—Has gone out of sight since the introduction of earlier ripening sorts. It is not a fruit of high quality. Ripe just after the Hartford Prolific.

Iona.—Did this grape ripen well in our climate it would deserve a foremost position in every garden. I esteem it one of superior quality; juicy, sweet and high-flavored; but it is too late for general cultivation in this Province. Only in the warmest sections can it be relied upon to ripen. The bunch is large, long and loose; berries red, medium size.

Ives Seedling.—Not worth growing in this climate. It is used in some sections for wine, but the berries have such a hard pulp and foxy flavor that they are not fit for table use.

Janesville.—Another variety of poor quality, but which ripens early, and enjoys a very robust constitution. The vine is very hardy, healthy and productive; the berries black and medium in size. It can be planted with Champion in the colder sections.

Jefferson.—A new variety raised by crossing the Concord and Iona. Thus far it has proved to be very healthy and vigorous, with large, thick downy leaves. It is a large, handsome and showy fruit, light red, covered with a thin lilac bloom, juicy, sweet and rich, with a sprightly aromatic flavor; much resembling the Iona, and the nearest approach to its delightful flavor of any yet introduced. It ripens with the Concord, and should be tried by every one who finds the Concord to ripen. It promises to be a most valuable market sort on account of its showy appearance, superb flavor, and maintaining its sprightliness for a long time after being gathered. (See Cut.)

Lady.—The earliest ripening white grape. The bunches are only of medium size, berries about as large as the Concord, of a light greenish-yellow when ripe, very sweet and pleasant. The vine is quite hardy, vigorous and healthy. It is well deserving of trial in our climate.

Lady Washington.—Certainly the most magnificent looking hardy grape I have yet seen, and as fine in flavor as it is beautiful in appearance. The vine appears to be perfectly healthy, the leaves are large, thick and downy, promising to endure well the extreme changes of our climate. The bunches are very large, berries medium, pale yellow, with a delicate pink tinge on the exposed side; juicy, sweet, slightly vinous, and fine quality. It ripens just after the Concord. If this grape on further trial should succeed well in our climate, it will be a most noble acquisition, and a most profitable market sort. I trust everybody will give it a trial who lives where the Concord will ripen. (See Cut on Page 36.)

Lindley. Rogers’ Number 9.—A strong growing, healthy vine, and remarkably productive. Both bunch and berry are of medium size; color red when ripe; sweet, juicy, and somewhat aromatic. An excellent variety, ripening just before the Concord.

Martha.—A very hardy, healthy and productive vine; the bunches and berries are about like those of the Concord; the color is a light greenish yellow; flavor sweet, with considerable of the muskiness of the Concord; but ripening a little earlier.

Massasoit.—The earliest ripening of all the Rogers Hybrids, and known as his Number 3. The bunches and berries are of medium size, red, good flavor, and ripe as early as the Hartford Prolific. The vine is hardy and vigorous.

Merrimack. Rogers’ Number 19.—This also ripens earlier than the Concord, the fruit is black, large, rich and sweet, and the vine is productive and vigorous. Very like the Wilder in quality and flavor, and ripening about the same time.

Moore’s Early.—A most valuable grape for our climate on account of the early ripening of both wood and fruit. It will grow as far north as any, and ripen its fruit perfectly. It is a black grape; in bunch and berry about the same size as the Concord, and fully equal, if not better, in flavor. It is ripe some time before the Hartford Prolific; and will doubtless prove to be a most profitable very early market grape. It should find a place in every garden. (See Cut on Page 37.)

Pocklington.—A very large, showy, white grape; sweet, rich, with the musky flavor of the Labrusca family. The vine is healthy, vigorous, hardy and productive. It would seem to ripen fully just after the Concord. It will doubtless prove to be a profitable market grape on account of its large size of bunch and berry and showy appearance. (See Cut on Page 38.)

JEFFERSON. Reduced One-third.

LADY WASHINGTON.

MOORE’S EARLY.

THE POCKLINGTON.

A BRANCH OF THE PRENTISS GRAPE,
From a Photograph, shewing its great productiveness.

Prentiss.—Another new white grape of excellent quality, and promising to be valuable where the Concord will succeed. The vine so far has proved to be hardy and very productive. The bunches are of good size, very compact, berries medium size, yellowish-green when ripe, sweet, juicy and of pleasant flavor. It will bear transportation unusually well, and keep in fine condition for a long time. It ripens about with the Concord. (See Cut on Page 39.)

Rebecca.—A delicious little grape, but very difficult of cultivation, not enduring well the extreme changes of our climate. Only those who are willing to give it most careful cultivation should ever plant it in this climate. It is a light-green when ripe, sweet and excellent.

Salem. Rogers’ No. 22.—A very popular grape, on account of the large size of bunch and berry, good quality of the fruit, and the healthy, hardy and vigorous character of the vine. It is nearly a maroon color when fully ripe; sweet, juicy and somewhat aromatic; ripe a little before the Concord.

Senasqua.—A showy black grape of good quality, but ripening too late for general cultivation.

Vergennes.—A very handsome red grape not much earlier than the Concord, but ripening its wood very early, and therefore likely to be very hardy. The leaves are thick and leathery; the vine exceedingly productive, vigorous and healthy. The fruit will keep a long time, retaining its fresh, sprightly flavor. It is well worthy of a trial in our climate.

Walter.—A red grape, ripening at the same time as the Concord, of good quality, but it has not been planted sufficiently in Ontario to test its value in our climate, and it has not gained any great popularity elsewhere.

Wilder. Rogers’ No. 4.—Probably this variety is the most popular of all the Rogers Hybrids. It has been very widely distributed, and everywhere is highly prized. It is large both in bunch and berry; black, sweet and very pleasant flavor. It ripens a very little earlier than the Concord, is a better grape and more showy. It is now beginning to receive the attention which it deserves as a market grape, and is being extensively planted for that purpose. The vine is vigorous, hardy, and productive.

Worden.—A black grape resembling the Concord, but ripening some ten days earlier. The bunches are large, compact and handsome; the berries are also large and showy. The vine is apparently as healthy, hardy, vigorous and productive as the Concord. In quality it is generally regarded as better than the Concord. It is valuable on account of its earliness and hardy character.

Instead of having only two or three varieties of grapes to plant, we are now becoming truly embarrassed by the number we have from which to make our selection. Each year adds some new varieties for trial, and so the number will go on increasing from year to year. Let us hope that increasing numbers will bring increased improvements, until we shall have at last found the grape that combines all excellences, and satisfies all expectations. Then may grape-growers bring forth the silver trumpet, proclaim the year of jubilee, and, sitting beneath the perfect vine, enjoy that rest for which the heart is ever sighing.

 

Cumberland Triumph (H).—A very fine berry in all respects; of very large size, fine form, beautiful color and excellent quality, and is growing into general favor. At the Nurserymen’s Convention, held at Cleveland in June last, it was pronounced by good judges the finest appearing variety on the table.

A. M. Purdy.

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WINTER BLOOMING PLANTS.

All the Geraniums are excellent window plants, but some of them are shy winter bloomers, yet many of them are handsome enough in their foliage, even if they are destitute of flowers. The most constant bloomers of any I have grown are Jean Sisley, a large, dazzling scarlet, with a distinct white eye; Master Christine, a single pink, and Loarine, a light scarlet, but the trusses are very large and full. These three are almost constant bloomers. Give Geraniums plenty of sunshine and fresh air, a moderate amount of water, to which there should be occasionally added some liquid manure, and abundant room to grow in, and they generally behave very satisfactory.

A few of the Fuchsias, or Lady’s Eardrop, as they are sometimes called, are good winter bloomers. They are, however, strong feeders, and will starve to death on a soil in which a Geranium would grow luxuriantly, and more manure should be used with the soil in which they are potted. The following varieties have bloomed well for me all winter through: Arabella, tube and sepals pure white, corolla red; Speciosa, pale red sepals, corolla pale rose; and Lustre, waxy white tube and sepals, corolla tinted crimson and orange. I have never yet had a double variety that bloomed well in winter.

We have a magnificent class of plants in the Begonia. I will divide them into two classes, namely: the flowering and leaf varieties. Although the former all have handsome foliage, they are mostly prized for their beautiful flowers, which are produced in great profusion. They do best in a loose soil composed mostly of leaf mould and sand, and require a warm and partially shaded situation. Sandersonii and Hybrida Multiflora are the best winter bloomers. The former bears scarlet, and the latter rosy pink flowers. The leaf varieties are only grown for the beauty of the foliage, and the most prominent is the variety known as Begonia Rex.

Begonia Rex.

The leaves of this grow very large. I have one plant of Rex and one of Queen of Hanover, which have been growing in a log hanging basket for over three years, and some of the leaves have measured over 14 inches across.

The largest leaves of some others do not measure more than six inches in diameter, all of which are variegated and margined with silvery and metallic colors of different hues. They should never be planted out in our hot summer sun as bedding plants, but for window plants, or for wardian cases or ferneries, they cannot be excelled. Some think that Begonias are hard to grow, but it is an erroneous idea, as after you once understand their nature, their culture is very easy, and they all make capital window plants.

Calla Lily.

The Calla, or Lily of the Nile, is a fine house plant, and all it requires is an abundance of warm water, and plenty of sunshine, and if given the required rest in summer, will not fail to produce its large white flowers all winter through.—Primrose, in Western Horticulturist.

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HOW TO PLANT TREES.

BY N. ROBERTSON, GOVERNMENT GROUNDS, OTTAWA.

A great deal has been written and said about tree planting. Some advise one way, some another. I will give you my method, with which I have been very successful, and, as it differs somewhat from the usual mode, may be interesting to some of your readers. I go into the woods, select a place where it is thick with strong, young, healthy, rapid-growing trees. I commence by making a trench across so as I will get as many as I want. I may have to destroy some until I get a right start. I then undermine, taking out the trees as I advance; this gives me a chance not to destroy the roots. I care nothing about the top, because I cut them into what is called poles eight or ten feet long. Sometimes I draw them out by hitching a team when I can get them so far excavated that I can turn them down enough to hitch above where I intend to cut them off; by this method I often get almost the entire root. I have three particular points in this: good root, a stem without any blemish, and a rapid growing tree. This is seldom to be got where most people recommend trees to be taken from—isolated ones on the outside of the woods; they are generally scraggy and stunted, and to get their roots you would have to follow a long way to get at the fibres on their points, without which they will have a hard struggle to live. Another point recommended is to plant so that the tree will stand in the direction it was before being moved; that I never think about, but always study to have the longest and most roots on the side where the wind will be strongest, which is generally the west, on an open exposure.

For years I was much against this system of cutting trees into poles, and fought hard against one of the most successful tree planters in Canada about this pole business. I have trees planted under the system described that have many strong shoots six and eight feet long—Hard Maple, Elm, &c.—under the most unfavorable circumstances. In planting, be particular to have the hole into which you plant much larger than your roots; and be sure you draw out all your roots to their length before you put on your soil; clean away all the black, leafy soil about them, for if that is left, and gets once dry, you will not easily wet it again. Break down the edges of your holes as you progress, not to leave them as if they were confined in a flower pot; and when finished, put around them a good heavy mulch, I do not care what of—sawdust, manure, or straw. This last you can keep by throwing a few spadefuls of soil over; let it pass out over the edges of your holes at least one foot.

I have no doubt that the best time to plant is the fall, as, if left till spring, the trees are too far advanced before the frost is out of the ground; and by fall planting the soil gets settled about the roots, and they go on with the season.

Trees cut like poles have another great advantage. For the first season they require no stakes to guard against the wind shaking them, which is a necessity with a top; for depend upon it, if your tree is allowed to sway with the wind, your roots will take very little hold that season, and may die, often the second year, from this very cause.

All who try this system will find out that they will get a much prettier headed tree, and much sooner see a tree of beauty than by any other, as, when your roots have plenty of fibrous roots, and are in vigorous health, three years will give you nice trees.

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THE CUTHBERT RASPBERRY—ITS MERITS AND DEMERITS.

BY T. C. ROBINSON, OWEN SOUND.

No fruit seems to have been so well received, and so nearly to have monopolized the attention given by fruit growers to its class of late years, as the Cuthbert with our American neighbors; and now that it is putting in an appearance on this side of the line, a few words of critical description may be in order.

It is not a fruit of unqualified excellence any more than any of our choicest apples or plums or pears, though the almost unqualified praise it has met with would perhaps lead us to think so. The truth is, we needed a good raspberry that would grow anywhere, and both eat and sell well, more than any other kind of fruit except perhaps the gooseberry, that so many points of excellence combined in this raspberry fully account for its popularity without assuming for it perfection, as many seem inclined. We have had, it is true, raspberries of fine size and delicious flavor, like Clarke and Knevet’s Giant, but to a lack of hardiness has been joined a softness which unfitted them for market uses. The grand old Franconia, so good for both market and home use, would not grow large enough to bear a paying crop on light soils, and would grow so large and soft on heavy soils as to winter-kill in most parts of the country. Philadelphia, the acme of productiveness, and sufficiently hardy, was too soft and dark-colored and poor-flavored to stand the test; and so on down the list, pausing at that model of raspberry hardiness, the Turner, to note that its sweetness, hardiness and vigorous growth, and adaptability to light soils, do not quite make up for a slight lack of firmness, size, and uniformity of ripening, necessary to a first-class market variety, while its earliness leaves a great want still for a good late variety. Just here the Cuthbert steps in, and hence its welcome. Its size is all that can reasonably be asked—not monstrous, you know, as some representations make it appear, unless extra cultivation is given, when it no doubt can be grown over an inch in longest diameter; but with fair market culture, it will run ⅝ to ¾ of an inch by the quart. In shape it is much longer than the raspberries we have been used to—a cone, more pointedly conical than even Turner, which is quite long for a raspberry. It seems about as firm as Franconia, that is, as firm as a market raspberry needs to be; and its color is rich enough and bright enough, as grown with me, to satisfy the most exacting. How it will grow on poor, light land I cannot say, as I only have it on good land, or on poor, light land, so close to a richer, heavier strip that the roots have made themselves at home in the good soil on one side of the plant; and right here let me say that this question of its behavior on poor soils is one to which I do not propose to extend my experience. I have had enough of fruit growing on land not fit to grow even white beans, and think too highly of the Cuthbert to subject it to such a test. I have Franconias of three years’ growth on such land that after the discouragement of last June’s frost (clipping foliage, not blossoms), refused in such a dry season to give one quart to every twenty or thirty plants, even with the stimulus of a good mulch of manure. No doubt many fruit growers have just such land, and for their encouragement may serve the experience of American fruit growers who claim to have succeeded with Cuthbert on light soil, but that is a point on which I stand aside. But as to productiveness I have no doubt personally. I do not like to say it is as productive as Philadelphia, simply because I should like a little more experience with it before praising it so highly. With it on my place three seasons—in only one of which it had growth enough to bear a full crop—I am not going to write as if I knew all about it; but, taking into account the mutilation of the roots to remove the suckers for planting, I have no hesitation in placing it second only to Philadelphia in bearing qualities, out of a dozen red raspberries tested so far.

But what are its faults? A distinguished American horticulturist and nurseryman says that is just what he has been trying for years to find out—and can’t. Such excellence as this in the Cuthbert is more than I can see, but its demerits are certainly neither great nor numerous. Such as they are on my grounds, however, I state them, as we need to look on both sides of a question of fruit as of anything else.

And first, the canes do not seem quite stiff enough for the load of fruit. The stems shoot up with great rapidity in spring; in late summer they grow slower and mature innumerable fruit buds, and the stalk, of course, thickens up, but does not appear to acquire that toughness and rigidity of fibre we note in the Philadelphia and Turner. With the long laterals which summer pinching causes, of course the effect is to let some of the fruit get splashed in the event of a heavy rain, and if deep snows come in winter these laterals are apt to be broken off. Older experience may show a stiffening up of the cane, and different application of pinching favor a growth of laterals too high to be broken down by snows, but I simply state what I have seen so far.

Then I have not been able to quite gauge its hardiness. The first winter the yearling plants, together with foreign sorts, were badly killed—perhaps, indeed probably, because of too vigorous late growth—but frozen they were, and the fact must be faced. Last winter they came through smiling in spite of that cold dip that almost brought the thermometer down from the peg and the oldest inhabitant to his memory’s end. But Clarke and Franconia came through too, nearly as well. And this winter, January 13th, they are green to the tips, except where very late fall growth was made—but the foreign sorts are not far behind.

On the whole, I do not think in this climate it is any hardier than Franconia, Clarke, &c., on one year old plants, but rather more so when full grown; but I do not regard the moist favorable climate of Owen Sound fit to decide the question, and I look eagerly for reports of my brother fruit growers in other districts to fix its value as to hardiness for the Province, conscious too that Cuthbert did not get a fair relative trial with me, because I had it on rich soil that caused quick soft growth, while the other sorts were on poor soil that caused closer grained hardier wood.

Lastly, it has a large hollow—perhaps not wider than other sorts; but that long crimson cone fits on to a long stem, and fits pretty tightly too, though not so as to break in the picking, and when it comes off and lies with its neighbors in a quart basket, I should expect, after jolting in the express car, or standing thirty hours in a shop window, a sinking down in the basket that would cause a distinct murmur at the purchaser’s end of the line.

That’s the Cuthbert. There’s room for a better berry—a little better—and, as usual, a number of claimants for public favor are ready to step in; among which Lost Rubies stands first perhaps. But these are untried, and may turn out good or the reverse. If any man knows any raspberry that is better than Cuthbert, let him speak up! It must be good indeed! I don’t; and if any man wants raspberries without too much trouble and plants the Cuthbert, I shall expect him to get lots of large handsome berries that are very good to take—internally or to market—and to feel about as satisfied as he can well expect to be in the fruit business.

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EVERGREENS FOR HEDGE, &c.

Clinton, Jan. 20th, 1882.

Dear Sir,—1. What kind of evergreens is suitable for a low hedge in a garden or cemetery that will stand trimming and not break down with the snow?

2. What kind of evergreens are suitable for a lawn as trees for ornament?

3. What time of the year should they be pruned to make them grow close?

4. Is there any particular way of trimming them?

5. Is any book published with diagrams showing the proper way?

6. Will it hurt trees twenty years old to cut them back to make them grow close?

A Subscriber.

ANSWER.

1. The best are the dwarf Arbor Vitæs, which are of easy culture, can be trimmed in any form, and seldom get broken by the snow.

2. The Hemlock Spruce, White spruce, Norway Spruce, Austrian Pine, Scotch Pine and White Pine, are all fine lawn trees, especially in grounds of considerable size. The American Arbor Vitæ, Siberian Arbor Vitæ, Swedish Juniper, Prostrate Juniper, Savin Juniper and American Yew, are suitable for smaller grounds.

3. The best time to prune them is the last of May or first of June, when the trees are beginning to make a new growth.

4. The best method of pruning the Pine and Spruces is to rub off the terminal buds of the branches it is desired to make more dense just as they begin to push. If this is done when the trees are small, and kept up as occasion may require, it will never be necessary to use the knife, and the trees can be kept compact and symmetrical with ease. The Arbor Vitæs and Junipers can be trimmed with the shears and brought into any desired form. In all cases it is desirable to commence the pruning when the trees are small, so that but little cutting away will be needed.

5. We have never seen any such work.

6. No, if the pruning be not too severe. It will require more time to bring such a tree into a dense form than one that is young, but by patient shortening in every season, cutting off the ends of the branches, and waiting for the tree to grow more dense from year to year, the object will at length be accomplished without cutting off large branches, which would make the tree unsightly for some time.

 

The Cumberland Strawberry.—Chas. Hurd, of Michigan, says: The Cumberland Triumph is the largest and most delicately flavored berry on my grounds. It is a berry to delight the amateur, is a rank grower and an abundant bearer. A few days since I received a letter from Mr. Miller, the originator, in which he says that from 1⅞ acres this season he obtained 270 bushels. I consider it among the finest cultivated.—Fruit Recorder.

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FIVE RASPBERRIES COMPARED.

I have been myself daily picking among the following named red raspberries during the last week, comparing points, which count in estimating the value of varieties, and hand you herewith, in a tabulated form, the results. My land is a sandy loam, and that occupied by the raspberries is about uniform in quality, about right to produce forty bushels of dent corn per acre.

In this scale of points I give ten, not as perfection, but as the highest yet reached by any variety—as for instance, Thwack is the hardiest, Reliance most productive, while Turner is generally conceded a standard in respect to flavor of the berry:

CHARACTERISTICS.NAME OF BERRY.
ThwackRelianceTurnerCuthbert,Winant
or “Queen
of Market”
Hardiness.109889
Productiveness.810899
Firmness of Fruit.109878
Size of Fruit.810898
Attractiveness in Boxes (color)108979
Quality.881089
   Total.5454514852

Remarks.—Those who grow berries solely for market will pay no attention to quality, for—I regret to say—quality counts zero in the market, while attractiveness (including size and color) counts everything. Those, on the other hand, who grow berries for their own use only will look at good quality, hardiness, and productiveness, rather than for large size and brightness of color.

There are some characteristics of the above named varieties not noted in the table which should have an influence in determining upon a selection. The Turner is a few days earlier in ripening than either of the others. It is followed in two or three days by Thwack and Winant, then comes Reliance, and latest the Cuthbert. The Reliance continues in bearing a little longer than any other sort of red raspberries. The crop of Reliance is but two-thirds ripened at this date (July 18), whereas Turners gave their last picking for the season two days since.

All these varieties sprout from the roots plentifully, and the young plants coming up between the rows must be mercilessly destroyed, or the “patch” will soon “run to waste.”

Of black-cap raspberries, the Gregg still takes the lead, though the canes were sadly damaged last winter—a rare exception to its hitherto uniform hardiness.—O. B. Galusha, in Prairie Farmer.

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BOOKS AND PERIODICALS.

The Montreal Witness

Is presenting a picture to each subscriber to the weekly edition, and two to each subscriber to the daily. They are stirring pictures of military life—the one a battle scene, and the other a very suggestive after the battle roll-call.

 

E. P. Roe’s Catalogue of Small Fruits and Grape Vines for the Spring of 1882—

Gives a concise description of a large number of Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, Currants, Gooseberries and Hardy Grapes. He speaks in very high praise of the Bidwell Strawberry.

 

American Agriculturist.

The January number of this long-established monthly, which now enters upon its fortieth year, is promptly to hand, full of illustrations and information interesting to every farmer and gardener. Issued by the Orange Judd Company, 751 Broadway, New York, at $1 50 per annum.

 

Journal of the American Agricultural Association.

Is published quarterly. The last number that has reached us is the one for July and October, 1881. It is full of interesting papers, on such topics as Agricultural Instruction for the Young; the Railroad and the Farmer; Preventable Losses, &c. It is published by the Association, at 127 Water St., New York, price $2 00 per annum.

 

The American Monthly Microscopical Journal, edited and published by Romyn Hitchcock, F.R.M.S., No. 53 Maiden Lane, New York, at one dollar per annum—

Is replete with information for the microscopical student, and some of its articles full of interest to the general reader.

 

The Gardener’s Monthly.

The January number for 1882 of this valuable horticultural journal is to hand. It is replete as usual with interesting information concerning new and rare plants and fruits. Published by Chas. H. Marot, 814 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Penn.

 

American Wine and Grape Grower.

Devoted to the culture of the vine, wine-making, and kindred industries. Is published monthly, at 20 Vesey St., New York. Subscription price, $2 00 a year. The December number has a very interesting paper on the pomological resources of Texas.

 

Notes from Sunnyland, on the Manatee River, Gulf Coast of South Florida.

A very interesting little book, of some eighty pages, by Samuel C. Upham, of Braidentown, Flor., giving some stirring incidents in the early history of that region, and an account of the climate and fruit productions of that part of the State. He tells us that the first pound of coffee grown in the United States was raised at Fogartyville, Flor., in 1880, by Madame Julia Atzeroth. Also that the fruits grown there are the orange, lemon, lime, guava, pomegranate, persimmon, olive, almond, &c. The lowest temperature was 38°, and the highest 96°, during the year 1880. He claims that South Florida will one day supply the world with oranges, and that of better quality than those now brought from the Mediterranean.

The little people have no reason to complain that they are overlooked by writers or publishers now-a-days. We have before us four publications especially designed for their amusement and instruction, published by D. Lothrop & Co., Boston, Mass. They are—“Wide Awake,” an illustrated monthly magazine, for $2 50 a year, intended for the larger young people; “Babyland,” a monthly at 50 cents a year, for the very little ones; “Little Folk’s Reader,” a monthly at 75 cents a year, for primary schools and kindergartens; and “The Pansy,” which is issued weekly at 50 cents a year. These are all beautifully illustrated, and printed in the best style, and abound with interesting stories that cannot fail to please the young readers.

 

The Southern Cultivator.

We have received the January number of The Southern Cultivator and Dixie Farmer, the oldest, as it is the best, agricultural journal in the Southern States. It is now published by Jas. P. Harrison & Co., of Atlanta. Dr. W. L. Jones, for years the editor of this popular journal, retains his position; Dr. J. S. Lawton is the associate. Under this management, The Southern Cultivator will not only maintain its former high standard, but, with the assistance of ample capital and increased facilities, and contributions from the most eminent and popular writers on Agriculture in this country, will attain a higher standing than ever.

The number before us is a gem. No journal of its kind can excel it in the value of its reading matter, the beauty of its illustrations, and its adaptation to the demands of progressive Southern agriculture. The illustrated title page is the finest of the kind we have ever seen. The Southern Cultivator and Dixie Farmer should be read and studied by every farmer and planter in the South. The terms, $1 50 a year, with special rates for clubs, are remarkably low.

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THE USE OF FLOWERS.

  God might have made the earth bring forth

    Enough for great and small,

  The oak-tree and the cedar-tree,

    Without a flower at all.

 

  We might have had enough,—enough

    For every want of ours,

  For luxury, medicine, and toil,—

    And yet have had no flowers.

 

  The ore within the mountain mine

    Requireth none to grow,

  Nor does it need the Lotus flower

    To make the river flow.

 

  The clouds might give abundant rain,

    The nightly dews might fall,

  And the herb that keepeth life in man

    Might yet have drunk them all.

 

  Then wherefore, wherefore were they made

    And dyed with rainbow light,

  All fashioned with supremest grace,

    Upspringing day and night?

 

  Springing in valleys green and low,

    And on the mountains high,

  And in the silent wilderness,

    Where no man passeth by?

 

  Our outward life requires them not,

    Then wherefore had they birth?

  To minister delight to man—

    To beautify the earth.

 

  To comfort him, to whisper hope

    Whene’er his faith is dim,

  For whoso careth for the flowers

    Will much more care for Him.

 

                 Mary Howitt.

 

Paper Bags for Grapes.—George W. Campbell says that further experiments with paper bags of thin manilla on grapes during growth and ripening, show that they preserve against birds and rot. The bunches should be previously thinned out, to make the bagging easy. The grapes ripen perfectly.—Country Gentleman.

 

The Mammoth Pearl Potato.—We cut into single eyes and planted one-half bushel of Mammoth Pearl potatoes last spring, after the middle of May, and the first of October we dug from same 36 bushels of very large, smooth, white potatoes. All who saw them growing were astonished at the vines, which completely covered the ground, but when they saw the yield they opened their eyes in wonder. Such beauties had never before been seen in this or any other country. The beauty of these potatoes is this: there is not a hollow or rotten one in the lot, and they are such rank growers the bugs can’t catch them.—A. W. F., in Fruit Recorder.

 

Squashes to keep well must first be well ripened; second, they should be gathered before heavy frosts come; third, should be well dried; fourth, the shell should be well glazed over, and while it need not be thick it should be hard; fifth, they should be kept where the temperature is very even, never very cold, or very hot; sixth, in handling, great care should be taken not to bruise them—this is of the highest importance.

 

We are informed by G. H. Miller, of the ad-interim committee, that the Cumberland strawberry, in addition to its large size, handsome form and good quality, has been successfully shipped from Barnesville to Chicago (some 400 or 500 miles), arriving in fine order, and selling as high as $9.60 per bushel. As it has commonly been supposed to be too soft for long conveyance, this fact gives it additional value.—Country Gentleman.

 

Strawberries in Iowa.—A correspondent of the Prairie Farmer, in Southern Iowa, says the Sharpless, Great American, Col. Cheney, Lincoln and Longfellow have all failed with him, while the Charles Downing, Kentucky and Crescent succeed well, and the old Monroe Scarlet, raised by Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, holds its own against weeds and neglect, and has borne well every year for twenty-five years.—Country Gentleman.

 

Improvements in Fruit Dryers.—Mr. David Britton, of Jonesborough, Ill., has patented a fruit dryer, which has superior drying facilities and offers increased conveniences for inserting, changing, and removing the fruit. It consists of a drying house having a separable strip in its roof to provide for the escape of the moist air and to promote circulation of the heated air, a furnace for heating the incoming air; guiding, and distributing plates for the air to, at the sides of, and above the furnace; a series of tracks of ways on opposite sides of the interior of the drying house and arranged one above the other to support tiers of drawers which hold the fruit to be dried; and separable end frames having crossbars and hinged doors to provide for the entry and removal of the drawers with very little waste of heated air.—Scientific American.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.


painted for vick's monthly
Chinese Primrose.
Karle & Co. Rochester, N.Y.



  
VOL. V.]MARCH, 1882.[No. 3.
  

THE CHINESE PRIMROSE.

The colored plate presented to our readers with this number will enable them to become acquainted with this pretty flower, if perchance they have not already become familiar with its bright, cheery face. Of all the window plants we cultivate, none repay so profusely the care bestowed by their abundant flowering all the winter long as this, and we have often wondered that it is not more generally grown by those who are fond of winter-blooming plants. Mr. Vick states in his monthly magazine that the reason why the Chinese Primrose has not come into more general use is that it requires several months to bring it to perfection from the seed, and that care and attention are needed during this period of the plant’s life to keep them in a healthy condition; just as though any true lover of flowers was not willing to give all the attention needed to the perfect development of his favorite flowers. Has it not been rather a want of knowledge of the requirements of this particular flower, than any unwillingness to give the required care which has prevented it from becoming a general favorite. Believing this to be the true state of the case we give our readers Mr. Vick’s directions for its cultivation, assuring them that there is no better authority on this subject on this side of the Atlantic:

“Seed should be sown any time from February until the first of June, and, if sown at different times, the plants will come into bloom in succession. Soil for the seed is best prepared by taking some good leaf-mold and about twice as much fibrous loam, made pretty fine, mix them together, and add enough sharp, fine sand to make the whole light and porous. A five or six-inch pot may be used; fill in the bottom with coarse drainage, and then the soil to a height within an inch or an inch and a half of the top, and press it down. Over this sprinkle a layer of fine sand, and then water it through a fine rose; after the pot has stood awhile to drain, the seed may be sown on the surface, and have the lightest possible covering of fine sand. Place a pane of glass over the pots and stand it where it will get the light, but not the sun, and where a pretty steady temperature, ranging near 65°, will be maintained. If the atmosphere is moist, but little water will be needed until the plants appear, but if the pot should become dry, water it by standing it in a dish of water, allowing the moisture to soak upwards into the soil, thus avoiding any disturbance of the surface. In about two weeks the little plants will begin to make their appearance, and after the third leaf has appeared the plants may be pricked out into other pots, provided with soil the same as described. Cover the plants with glass, and keep in a light, shady place, as before. Water as may be required, but only enough to keep the soil gently moist, and be careful to avoid wetting the leaves. After a few weeks growing in this way, transplant the plants singly into quite small pots, using the same soil as before. Keep the plants in the same temperature as at first, and, if the season admits of it, place them in a cold-frame; give a little air every day to prevent the plants from becoming drawn. In potting, the plants should be set low in the pot, for, as they grow, they stretch up above the soil and require a little more to be placed about them. As soon as the plants begin to grow well, repot into five-inch pots, adding a third part of old cow-manure to the soil, and keep them in the cold-frame or a spent hot-bed until they show their flower-stems. The single varieties are much the best for house or window culture.”

Such are the freshness and beauty, the naturalness and air of vivacity about these flowers, that one never tires of them. To-day you look at them with pleasure, to-morrow they greet you with a look of welcome, and you linger even longer than yesterday to admire their winsome grace.

One thing more should be said of their cultivation, and it is this, do not expose them to the full blaze of our summer’s sun, but during the summer keep them on the north side of a high fence or of some building. When the flower buds have formed, be careful not to wet them when watering, as when kept too damp they may decay.

We trust our readers will be able to grow this beautiful flower abundantly, and may experience the pleasure which the writer has enjoyed from December till May in the possession of its continuously charming bouquets of bloom.

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ROAD SIDE FENCES.

The Committee to whom was referred the Report of the Committee on Fences at our last winter meeting, with instructions to furnish such facts, figures or circumstances, as led them to the conclusions arrived at in that Report, now respectfully submit:

1. That every farm of 100 acres, divided in the usual manner, will have about 1,200 rods of fence thereon.

2. That one of the best and most economical fences now coming into general use is a straight one, made of cedar rails and posts. It is usually built five rails high, the ends of the rails being inserted into augur holes in the posts, which are set firmly in the ground in line, twelve feet apart.

3. The cost of such a fence for a farm of 100 acres will be about as follows:

8,250 Rails at $52 per 1,000$42900
1,650 Posts at 18 cents each29700
Digging holes and setting Posts at 10 cents each16500
Boring holes in Posts at $1 per 100 holes8250
Cutting and turning Rails at $1 per 1008250
Setting up the Rails at 10 cents per length of 5 Rails16500
16 Gates, hung and painted at $6 each9600
   Total$1,31700

or about $1 30 per rod. Such a fence is estimated to last about 25 years. The gates about 10 years.

4. The annual charge for permanent maintenance of such a fence would therefore be:

Interest on (say) $1,300 at 6 per cent.$7800
Estimated average annual charge for repairs and for permanent maintenance at 6 per cent.7800
 Extra do., do., for gates at 10 per cent.960
Rent of land lost by fence 6 feet wide = 4.36 acres at $5 per acre2180
   Total$18740

The foregoing estimate has been made with the assistance of a thoroughly practical farmer in the Township of East Whitby; and we are of the opinion, that although the cost of such a fence must necessarily vary much in different localities, the cost of material and labor here submitted may be regarded as a fair average for the whole Province.

5. Your Committee are of the opinion that the kind of fence as usually constructed in the back country, involves a much greater annual expenditure than the one here described. A common snake fence of the same length will require about 26,000 rails, and are usually made of Basswood, Pine, Elm, Ash, &c. Supposing these to be hauled a distance of one mile, they will cost about

$30 per 1,000, or$78000
Labor in setting up at $4 per 100 rods4800
Preparing and setting 16 sets of Bars at $2 per set3200
   Total$86000

Such a fence is estimated to last about 10 years. The bars about half that time. The annual charge for such a fence would therefore be:

Interest on $860 at 6 per cent.$5160
Estimated average annual charge for repairs and for permanent maintenance at 15 per cent. or12900
Extra do., do., for Bars at 20 per cent.640
Rent of land lost by fence 12 feet wide = 8.72 acres at $5 per acre4360
   Total$23060

Showing an annual expenditure on a farm thus fenced of $43 20 for permanent maintenance greater than on the fence as first described.

6. The estimate, therefore, in the second paragraph of the previous Report of two dollars per acre per annum seems a moderate one, and your Committee are of the opinion that if farmers were not compelled to fence against their neighbours’ cattle, they could protect their crops and their own cattle by live fences, the trees forming wind-breaks, by the use of hurdles and otherwise, (which would add much to the general beauty of the country, and thereby greatly enhance the value of the land), at less than one quarter of the yearly expenditure above shown, or—in other words—that the farmer of every 100 acres of land in Ontario could realize a clear yearly profit over and above what he is now doing (if every owner of stock were compelled by law to keep them enclosed) of $150.

7. That the foregoing figures, showing the unnecessary but compulsory annual expenditure of $1 50 per acre for all cultivated land by the unwise laws at present in force in this Province, have been carefully prepared, and therefore, by applying them to communities of farms, we find that the annual loss from this cause to the large Township of London, in the County of Middlesex, having a cultivated area of nearly 70,000 acres, is over $100,000. The Township of Mariposa, in the County of Victoria, having cleared land to the extent of nearly 48,000 acres, loses $72,000 annually. The Model Farm at Guelph loses by the same means annually about $800. These figures when applied to the whole Province assume gigantic proportions, for we find from Official Reports that there are at the present time between eleven and twelve millions of acres under actual cultivation. The total loss therefore to the farmers of Ontario must be upwards of $16,000,000 per annum.

Thos. Beall, Chairman.

P. E. Bucke.

Thos. Halliday Watt.

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CORRESPONDENCE.
ENGLISH SPARROWS.

Toronto, Jan. 28, 1882.

I enclose you an article taken from an Australian paper concerning the destructiveness of the English sparrow in that Colony, and would suggest that some steps be taken immediately to suppress their increase in this country, as the destruction by birds in this city is beyond conception. Chap. 29, Statutes of Ontario, sec. 81, enacts that “persons may destroy the robin and cherry bird on their own premises during the fruit season.” Now these birds are harmless in comparison with the sparrow, and yet least harmless during the fruit season; therefore by adding the sparrow it would not meet the requirements necessary, as the sparrow is most harmful in winter and spring before the blossoms have burst. There should therefore be added, after the words cherry bird, “and may destroy the English sparrow at any time.” I think if the above suggestions were made to some member of the Ontario Parliament now sitting, who is interested in horticulture, there would be no difficulty in introducing the amendment.

Yours, &c.,

J. Newhall.

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To the Editor of The Canadian Horticulturist.

Sir,—Herewith I send you an abstract Meteorological Report for Lindsay for the winter of 1880-81, compared with abstracts from the reports issued from the Observatory at Toronto for that place.

If similar reports could be obtained from several places—say from St. Catharines, Hamilton, London, Goderich, Guelph, Owen Sound, Orillia, Peterboro’, Belleville, Kingston, and Ottawa—would it not furnish data whereby almost positive information would be furnished to intending fruit-growers as to the success or non-success of cultivating certain fruits in their neighborhood? For if given kinds of fruit are successfully grown in a locality where the climate is known, surely the same kinds of fruit may be grown in any other neighborhood having like climatic conditions; and, if experts fail to grow certain fruits successfully in a given neighborhood, novices may not expect to succeed with the same varieties under similar conditions elsewhere.

Perhaps the publication of this report may cause others to view this subject in the same way, and possibly induce others to furnish similar reports.

I hope soon to see this subject taken up by our Association, and accorded that consideration its importance deserves, and an application made to the Dominion Government to cause a report, compiled from the reports, from all important points, not only in Ontario, but throughout the Dominion, to be issued periodically from the Meteorological Office at Toronto. A knowledge of the climate of our vast Dominion, and its possibilities for Agriculture, Horticulture, Pomology, and possibly for Stock-raising, can only become general by this or some kindred means.

Much valuable information may now be obtained from the Observatory at Toronto, and is always willingly given by the obliging officers of that institution, but it is scarcely probable that a periodic report as indicated could be issued by that already over-taxed institution.

Lindsay, Ont.

Thos. Beall.

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GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER FOR THE WINTER OF 1880-81.

Lindsay.Lat. 44° 19′ 15″ North. Lon. 5h. 15m. West. Approximate elevation above the Sea 876 feet. Compared with

 

Toronto.Lat. 43° 39′ 4″ North. Long. 5h. 17m. 33s. West. Approximate elevation above the Sea 350 feet.

Key:
A=Mean temperature
B=Highest temperature for month
C=Date of highest temperature for month
D=Lowest temperature for month
E=Date of lowest temperature for month
F=Warmest day of the month
G=Mean temperature of warmest day of the month
H=Coldest day of the month
I=Mean temperature of coldest day of the month
J=Mean maximum temperature
K=Mean minimum temperature
L=Mean daily range
M=Greatest daily range
N=Least daily range
O=Monthly range
P=Day on which the greatest amount of snow or rain fell
Q=Quantity of snow or rain on that day in inches
R=Number of days on which snow or rain fell
S=Total depth of rain and melted snow for month in inches
PlacesOctoberNovemberDecemberJanuaryFebruaryMarchApril
1880.1880.1880.1881.1881.1881.1881.
A: Toronto45.030.321.416.720.030.140.0
A: Lindsay42.3226.1016.09.515.927.943.4
B: Toronto75.457.048.537.742.942.180.6
B: Lindsay79.058.642.036.145.849.276.6
C: Toronto11551310926
C: Lindsay115513271624
D: Toronto26.33.7-8.3-4.8-15.110.813.9
D: Lindsay17.4-9.9-16.0-24.4-27.83.46.8
E: Toronto282430151112
E: Lindsay281410242126
F: Toronto35513101724
F: Lindsay11551391624
G: Toronto59.9750.5336.5233.3237.9336.5261.58
G: Lindsay53.652.8033.1532.5039.5837.2260.8
H: Toronto28222914214
H: Lindsay28232914214
I: Toronto32.4710.85-0.825.25-7.0715.9520.37
I: Lindsay26.80.30-7.75-8.48-10.459.3015.16
J: Toronto52.8635.9326.7423.8026.9935.5348.73
J: Lindsay53.7233.8121.5719.1925.0035.4849.13
K: Toronto37.1723.7815.407.8911.2824.6530.40
K: Lindsay34.0618.859.10-2.503.9520.8325.94
L: Toronto15.6912.1511.3415.9115.7110.8818.33
L: Lindsay19.3026.1012.4821.7020.6014.6623.29
M: Toronto29.122.623.927.829.219.440.9
M: Lindsay39.731.127.147.838.931.236.5
N: Toronto4.96.32.34.64.72.48.6
N: Lindsay6.44.52.75.45.32.311.3
O: Toronto49.253.356.842.558.031.366.7
O: Lindsay61.668.558.060.573.639.569.8
P: Toronto4612191926
P: Lindsay24612212427
Q: Toronto.961.01.37.63.571.720.5
Q: Lindsay1.111.11.70.70.461.10.28
R: Toronto1422201915157
R: Lindsay131791413105
S: Toronto3.542.651.112.132.443.67.09
S: Lindsay4.033.871.953.001.672.56.78

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BLACK SPOTS ON APPLES.

Prescott, Jan. 10, 1882.

I have no doubt that I wrote the article mentioned in your letter of the 9th for the Canada Farmer. The fruit of several of my apple trees had been affected with a black taint when they were about half grown; they then shrank and became worthless. I remembered a remedy I had read when a boy for caterpillars and other worms on apple trees, and I thought I would try it on my trees, as I was of opinion that the taint was occasioned by some kind of poison in the sap, and not from the attacks of moths in the fruit. Since that time my apples have been perfectly free from the taint—indeed the change took place the first season after applying the remedy. I inserted the sulphur early in the spring, before the sap began to ascend into the branches. I cannot see that the trees have been injured by the holes having been bored into them; yet I think grafting wax is preferable to wooden plugs—anything to exclude the water.

The only enemy that has baffled me is the Codlin Moth, and until last season I had almost given up in despair, for he is an insufferable nuisance; and if these moths cannot be conquered we shall lose in quantity and quality immensely.

For the tent caterpillar I tye a cotton swab to the end of a long pole, dip it in a pail of pretty strong lye, and easily wipe the tents off in the morning. Last spring I found only two tents on all my trees.

The apple tree Borer must be looked after, otherwise he will destroy the trees—ornamental as well as fruit.

My only enemy now, as I said before, is the Codlin Moth. However, I think I have a remedy for him also. Last spring, early in April, I tried the experiment on two trees—Duchess of Oldenburgh and McLean—of tying tightly around their trunks, about 18 inches from the ground, with twine, a piece of cotton cloth about three inches wide; then I daubed the cloth thoroughly with printer’s ink, so that no insect could crawl up the trunk without sticking fast in the ink. Although heretofore my Duchess had been affected as much as the other trees, every apple was sound and perfectly mature, and the largest crop I ever had. The McLean tree had a few wormy apples, which I could account for: I was taken sick and could not attend to more. And here let me say that the Duchess of Oldenburgh is the surest and most valuable early tree for the locality—the Brockville Beauty next. The Red Astrachan, although hardy, will not hold its fruit, and the apples burst as soon as ripe. The Early or Yellow Harvest is too tender for this climate. These trees have all been thoroughly tried. Fameuse, if kept clean of borers, in my opinion stands above all others as a fall dessert apple. Rhode Island Greening, Baldwin, and Esopus Spitzenburgh—all magnificent apples, and superior winter apples to all others that I know—are not reliable, being too tender. They have all been grown here, and are not now to be found.

The only enemy I notice to the Plumb is the black knot. I have lost a number of the old Blue Plumb family by it. By the use of coal and wood ashes, and washing with salt brine and sometimes lye, I have kept the black knot off my Jefferson and Egg plumbs pretty well; but I am not sure yet that I have fully succeeded. I have not yet discovered the cause of the black knot. If I knew the cause I would not rest till I found out a cure. No doubt it is a fungus, and not the effect of insects. I think it is a poison in the sap, which, perhaps from over-stimulation with manure bursts the bark, and then, unless cut out at once, increases from one tree to another until the tree is destroyed. When the black knot begins on the main trunk of the tree it is difficult to arrest its progress. I have a dozen or more very fine plumb trees—all very superior—which I intend to nurse and cultivate so as, if possible, to bring them up to the standpoint of fifty years ago.

I have tried pears of various kinds, but all have failed. A few years ago I obtained from New Hampshire six young chestnut trees. They all died the first year.

To conclude, if any member of the Fruit Growers’ Association, or any one else, can tell us why the Codlin Moth lays its egg in the apple blossom—whether it goes there to extract honey or for any other purpose—I think we could soon invent a scheme to circumvent him. Next spring I intend to try the cotton rag and printer’s ink on all my apple trees, and if successful again shall not fail to report.

Yours very truly,

S. B. Merrill.

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The above was received from Mr. John Croil, who remarks that Mr. Merrill’s plan is this:—“Early in February, with a three-quarter inch augur, bore half through the trees diagonally about two feet from the ground, fill the hole with sulphur, and cover the orifice with grafting wax or with a wooden plug.”

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BEST CODLIN MOTH TRAP.

I set two traps on the 20th of last August and caught over one thousand moths in one night. The trap is a glass lantern set in a tin pan of water an inch or more deep. The light attracts the moths and they fly around the lantern, and when they strike the water they are caught, as they are helpless when they once get in the water. In trimming the lanterns use less or more oil, according to the length of time you want them to burn. They should be set on something two feet or more from the ground.

I intend to use a number of the traps this season, commencing when trees are in blossom, for the moths are numerous and destructive.

W. C. Raymond.

Dickinson’s Landing.

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LETTER FROM THE HON. MARSHALL P. WILDER.

PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

“The present number of the Canadian Horticulturist is not only increased in pages, but its contents are of a very useful character. This may be called the Grape Number, as it illustrates in a very lucid manner a system of training that any cultivator may understand. Plan and system are the foundations of success in every well ordered effort in life. You have done well to give us so much in one issue on this important branch of pomology, creating as it will even more interest in the future than it has in the past. I am glad to see that the Wilder grape succeeds so far north as the 47th parallel. I have ever had a good opinion of it, and it was my choice out of all Mr. Rogers’ hybrids to have my name affixed to. Also am glad to see that the Champion is being properly depreciated. We must keep up the standard of quality, and when we can have a grape as good and as early as Moore’s Early, we can dispense with the Champion, as I have done. We were very glad to see your President Dempsey at Boston, and your honored former President, Rev. Burnet; also, I am gratified that you thought well of what I said in my address before the American Pomological Society on the Grape. No country has such good promise for its successful culture.

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REPORT ON FRUIT TREES, &c.

Appin, Feb. 5th, 1882.

As it seems to be the general practice to give a short history of the trees and plants received by the members of the Fruit Growers’ Association, I will do so. The pear trees are doing well, excepting the Beurre Clairgeau; Clapp’s Favorite blossomed nicely last spring, but bore no fruit; Beurre d’Anjou has fruited twice; Flemish Beauty is growing nicely. My apple trees are growing nicely; Grimes Golden has not fruited as yet. My Burnet grape vine makes but poor growth as yet; my other vines are all dead long ago. My Hales peach was dry and withered up when it came to hand, being taken up as I believe in the fall of the year before it was sent out, and never started into growth at all. My Blackberry never came to anything, nor the Raspberry either. The last Raspberry has made a good growth since planted. My Gooseberry bush never started into growth in the spring. Planting small fruits in the fall should be avoided. All nursery trees and plants should be dug up with more care than is generally bestowed on them. In taking up in the nursery, all the fibrous roots are as a general rule left in the ground and only the stock sent out. I would prefer a smaller tree or plant, provided it had a good root left to the tree. This is a serious fault with many nurserymen. My Hydrangea Paniculata grew well in the first part of the season; it put out buds for flowers, but the dry weather prevented it from flowering, and in September its leaves dried up. I do not know if it is dead or not. Mr. Lotan’s tree has done well; his Raspberry is doing nicely; his potatoes have turned out well. I have given a brief resume since my last report. My Glass seedling plum has not fruited yet; the blossoms have dropped off; this tree is a very free grower; if the fruit can compare with the growth of the tree it will be a great acquisition to the plum orchard. I am glad that the Directors allow of a choice; it is in the right direction.

The Horticulturist is getting to be a very useful pamphlet to me. I begin to look for it regularly every month with its discussions and notices of fruits, besides its being so handy a reference book, with its index to the yearly volume. It is worth more than the whole cost to have the opinion of those who are in a position to know the merits or the demerits of those new trees, fruits, &c., peddled around through the country by unscrupulous men. If there were more copies of the Horticulturist taken by the farmers around here there would not be such big shaves got from them for new fruit trees at enormous prices.

Yours truly,

John McIntyre.

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ALGOMA.

Blind River, Dec. 17, 1881.

My Wealthy Apple which came to me from the Association has done well, although it was about two weeks on the way in the mail bags before I got it, and I give thanks for the good condition it was packed in so as to stand the long mail transit. We have had a good year for wild fruits. Cranberries, blue berries, raspberries and strawberries were all very plentiful this year, which has been of great benefit to the new settler of this out of the way part of the world. We also have had good crops of all kinds of grain and roots. Corn has done well, and I tried a few rows of the Early Amber sugar cane, which was planted too late—the second of June—and grew nine feet high and looked well, but was killed with frost the middle of September; but we had plenty of tomatoes, pumpkins, and squash, which matured well. I planted a few apple trees last spring, which grew very well this summer, and I hope to report that they have stood the winter well.

Yours with respects,

W. Warnock.

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GRAPES—POTATOES-CHERRIES.

The Delaware is the best grape grown around here. Creveling has done well with me. The Burnet has not had fair play, but promises well. The Concord, if it is the Concord, has never ripened. I have about a dozen other kinds not tested: Moore’s Early, Salem, Wilder, Champion, Telegraph, Rogers’ No. 3, 9, Brighton, &c.

My taste is depraved enough to like the Hartford; one advantage it has, at least, it always ripens. We always winter cover our vines with a few inches of earth.

Gooseberries I used always to train on a single stem; many recommend five or six stems, renewed yearly; would like your advice on this. Mr. Tait says he uses sulphur to prevent mildew with success.

The Dempsey potato did well with me, from a barrel on sod, no manure, I had 70 bushels (we are using them now, excellent). Beauty of Hebron good, very early and prolific.

I let the Early Vermont take the place of the Early Rose with me. Very like it, but I think a little earlier and more productive. Peerless I find good for spring use, and a fair cropper. I have seed for a trial of the Late Rose next spring; neighbors speak well of them.

Cherries which used to be with us a sure crop till the birds claimed them, have been entirely barren the last few years. Is this general?

John Croil.

Aultsville.

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REPORT ON TREES, &c., RECEIVED.

With reference to Mr. Geo. Elliott’s report on the trees, &c., he has received from the Association (Vol. V., No. 1, p. 14), I beg to observe that I have succeeded in raising every one of the various trees received from the Association since 1874, the year that I joined.

The Salem Grape does not bear much fruit, and the bunches are small; what there are are very good to eat. Swayzie Pomme Grise (1875) is now a handsome young tree, and fruited twice, two or three each year; rather small, but good. Glass Seedling Plum (1876) arrived nearly dried up and dead, but budded out at last into many branches, though so late that they were mostly winter killed; it is, however, now a fine tree, and I trust will bear this year. Diadem Raspberry and Strawberry (1877) grew well, but neither had much flavor. Burnet Grape (1878) has grown well and fruited twice; bunches small, and most of the berries not larger than peas, a few only on each bunch full size; a little sharp, but very nice flavor. Arnold’s Ontario Apple (1879) growing well; bore three apples in 1881; small, rather sour; trust they may improve. Saunders’ Raspberry, No. 72 (1880), made fine shoots, like a black cap; fruit rather small. Brighton Grape (1881) made one small shoot.

When gathering Asparagus is it (even) possible to pull the stalks up, as recommended in the poetical effusion on page 24 (third, last stanza)? I should think it would injure the crown of the root. I always cut mine with a sharp knife, but carefully, so as not to destroy any not yet above the surface.

G. (Cobourg).

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CULTIVATION OF CELERY.

Dear Sir,—I noticed in the reports of the proceedings of the late meeting of the Fruit Growers’ Association, that one of the subjects under discussion was the best method of the cultivation of celery.

It was remarked by one of the members that the ravages of the insect was one of the difficulties to be encountered in raising it.

I have the same complaint to make. For several years I endeavored with great care to raise this delicious vegetable, but was unsuccessful in consequence of the destruction caused by an imperceptible insect, so I gave up the attempt.

The year before last I saw a remedy given in the Fruit Recorder, edited by A. M. Purdy, Esq., of Palmyra, N. Y., and was determined to make another effort, which, I am happy to say, has proved entirely successful for the past two seasons.

The remedy is to water the celery once a week with soap suds from the wash tub, and afterwards dust the plants with a little of the flour of sulphur, which will entirely destroy the enemy. This should be continued throughout the season.

Yours truly,

William M. Murray.

Niagara, Ont.

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MULBERRIES.

Will you be kind enough to give me all the information you can about the Mulberry tree, as to its hardiness (1), productiveness (2), and quality of fruit (3).

Jesse Weldon.

Oakwood.

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1. The Black or English Mulberry is not perfectly hardy in all parts of Ontario. It will do best where the peach is successfully cultivated. The new American Mulberry promises to be much more hardy. The Russian Mulberry should be hardy as far north as Sault Ste. Marie.

2. All varieties are exceedingly productive.

3. There is some difference in the flavor of the different sorts, but the three sorts named above are highly esteemed for fine quality.

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WHAT OUR SUBSCRIBERS SAY OF US.

I highly prize and esteem your periodical, and consider it well worth the money without any premium.

Wm. Hood.

Valleyfield, Pr. of Que.

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I was well satisfied with the Potatoes I got last spring. I had four heaped pails full from the pound.

Wm. S. Inkster.

Maxwell.

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Please tell your Association to still continue to agitate the prohibition of cattle being allowed to run at large.

John Bothwell, Sen.

Springville.

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I am very much pleased with the Canadian Horticulturist, it contains information very useful to a fruit grower.

William A. Wallis.

Humber.

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I am very glad to welcome the Canadian Horticulturist in its new and enlarged shape, and hope that the increased information it affords will prove a benefit to the Association, and be the means of enlarging the number of its subscribers, as it so much deserves.

G. Wilgress.

Cobourg.

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I am glad you have seen your way to the enlargement of the paper. It will help to popularize and extend the usefulness of the Association.

T. C. Wheatley.

Sarnia.

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Have received the January number of the Horticulturist, with which I am greatly pleased. It has been the means of diffusing much useful information both for the garden and orchard, and I much wish the usefulness of your periodical greatly extended. I have been much benefited myself, and am sure others also have profited by its perusal.

Geo. Strauchon.

Woodstock.

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Enclosed is my subscription for the Canadian Horticulturist. It is a little book I am well pleased with, and consider the money well laid out, for the information to be got from it is very valuable to those who take a delight in gardening, and I should be very glad to see it grow larger, even if it cost more. I look upon it as a cheap Dollar’s worth.

Allen Chapman.

Cayuga.

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I will say that I think more and more of the good work done by the Fruit Growers’ Association by every number of the Canadian Horticulturist I receive, and I look for it anxiously every month. I think it will be more interesting this year than ever, as it is so much larger than formerly; and it will help us to make our homes beautiful by what is shewn us in those colored plates. A great many of us must see to be convinced, and I believe there are a great many who have seen the plate in the January number who will appreciate the Gladiolus a deal more than they ever did before. What I have received from the Association has done well.

William Jones.

Box Grove.

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Your valuable “Report” duly to hand, also the Canadian Horticulturist. These excellent publications are brim-ful of important information for the horticulturist, fruit grower and entomologist. Our Southern people know but little of the capabilities of the Dominion of Canada. Even the Northern States are excelled by you, especially in the keeping qualities of fruits.

James Fritz.

Albermarle Co., Virginia.

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I was very much pleased with the January number for this year, and I trust the Society will meet with further success. I wish I could make more farmers believe it is to their interest to subscribe. As the Society has now taken up the subjects of growing flowers and shrubs, I think the old members might make an effort and get a few ladies to join, or better still, subscribe for an extra copy, and make some lady friend a present of it.

Chas. Jas. Fox.

Delaware.

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I am glad to add my testimony with others to the great good the Fruit Growers Association of Ontario is doing throughout the country. The enlargement of the Horticulturist is a step in the right direction, and the Directors are to be congratulated in their efforts to popularize it. Some of the articles on various subjects are of no mean order, and reflect credit on the contributors. The valuable hints given and experiences related through the Horticulturist cannot fail to be justly appreciated by those who take an interest in a department so varied and replete with the choicest of God’s precious gifts. Sometimes one is a little puzzled to arrive at a conclusion as to “what to grow,” &c. The evidence as to what is the best is often very contradictory. Still there are a great many considerations which have to be weighed, such as soil, climate, drainage, &c. A certain kind of apple which would be quite successful at Toronto might be a failure at Barrie, or a Burnet Grape Vine fruitful at Niagara might be barren at Ottawa. In view of the extended operations of the Association, it might be in order for the Legislature of Ontario to increase the grant from Government. A sum of money voted for such purposes and objects as are propagated by the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario for the benefit of the people is money well spent. I am of opinion that the time will come when such a grant will be unnecessary. When the aims and objects of the Association are better understood by the people of this Province, then the Association can easily become self-sustaining.

James Stephen.

Toronto.

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ELECTRO-HORTICULTURE.

“As regards the chemical products, carbonic acid and nitrogenous compounds, it was thought these would prove rather beneficial than otherwise in furnishing the very ingredients upon which plant-life depends, and, further, that the constant supply of pure carbonic acid resulting from the gradual combustion of the carbon electrodes might render a diminution in the supply of fresh air possible, and thus lead to economy of fuel. The plants did not, however, take kindly to those innovations in their mode of life, and it was found necessary to put a lantern of clear glass round the light for the double purpose of discharging the chemical products of the arc and of interposing an effectual screen between the arc and the plants under its influence. The effect of interposing a mere thin sheet of clear glass between the plants and the source of the electric light was most striking. On placing such a sheet of clear glass so as to intercept the rays from the electric light from a portion only of a plant, for instance a tomato plant, it was observed that in the course of a single night the line of demarcation was most distinctly shown upon the leaves. The portion of the plant under the direct influence of the naked electric light, though at a distance from it of nine to ten feet, was distinctly shrivelled, whereas that portion under cover of the clear glass continued to show a healthy appearance; and this line of demarcation was distinctly visible in individual leaves. Not only the leaves, but the young stems of the plants soon showed signs of destruction when exposed to the naked electric light, and these destructive influences were perceptible, though in a less marked degree, at a distance of twenty feet from the source of light. A question here presents itself that can hardly fail to excite the interest of the physiological botanist. The clear glass does not apparently intercept any of the luminous rays, which cannot therefore be the cause of the destructive action. Prof. Stokes has shown, however, in 1853, that the electric arc is particularly rich in highly refrangible invisible rays, and that these are largely absorbed in their passage through clear glass. It therefore appears reasonable to suppose that it is those highly refrangible rays beyond the visible spectrum that work destruction on vegetable cells, thus contrasting with the luminous rays of less refrangibility, which, on the contrary, stimulate their organic action.”—Dr. C. W. Siemens, in The Journal of the American Agricultural Association for October.

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ASPARAGUS CULTURE.

To judge from the fact that we receive more inquiries about Asparagus than almost any other vegetable, it seems that although the mysteries and secrets which were formerly considered necessary for its cultivation have long since been uncovered and proved to be detrimental rather than otherwise, there still clings to the popular mind some mysterious halo connected with the idea of Asparagus culture. And yet it necessitates less labour and expense than almost any other garden vegetable. The roots cost hardly more than the seeds for other vegetables occupying the same space, and the first expense is the only one. While Peas and Lettuce and the whole list of vegetables have to be sown every year, Asparagus yields its delicious crop year after year, without replanting, for generations.

The most frequent cause of failure with Asparagus is too close planting. Favorable soil and good roots are, of course, necessary to obtain good results, but these can amount to but little unless sufficient space is given for their development. A deep, light, sandy loam is best, but with proper preparation any garden soil can be made to produce a good crop. If so heavy and wet that water stands on the ground during winter, under-draining and deep working will be necessary before planting. On ordinary garden soil, deep plowing or spading and the working in of enough stable manure—a coating of four or five inches would not be too much, although less will do—is sufficient. If this can be done during the fall or winter previous to planting, so much the better. Where practicable, it is far better to plant the roots in long rows on one side of the garden than in short beds. A single row of one hundred and fifty or two hundred plants, set eighteen inches or two feet apart, will give an ample supply for a family of half a dozen, and, during the height of the season, some to sell or give away to neighbors who are not so fortunate as to delight in an Asparagus-bed. When more than one row has to be planted, they should never be nearer together than three feet, and unless forced into very narrow limits, a distance of four feet is to be preferred.

After the rows are marked out and the line stretched, a ditch with one side slanting and about twelve inches deep is dug with a sharp spade. Against the smooth side of the ditch the plants are placed, and the roots spread out so that the crowns are four or five inches below the level of the ground. A handful of soil is then drawn over the roots and firmly packed down; more soil is then raked in, so as to fill the ditch to within two or three inches of the surface. In a few weeks the sprouts will appear; the ground has then to be loosened with a cultivator or a hoe, and kept mellow and clean during summer. At each cultivating some soil should be drawn into the remaining ditch, so as gradually to fill it entirely.

Often it becomes desirable to plant Asparagus without sufficient preparation having been given to the soil. In such cases, a trench may be dug eighteen inches deep and twelve or fifteen inches wide. Rich stable-manure is put into the trench and trodden down so as to fill it one-half. A layer of three inches of fine surface-soil is thrown on the manure and shaped into a ridge, with its highest point in the center of the ditch; on this ridge the roots are placed at the proper distances, the rootlets evenly spread out toward the sides and covered with about one inch of soil, which has to be firmly packed down, especially over the lower ends of the roots; one-half of the remaining ditch is then filled in, and the rest not before the shoots have grown several inches above the level of the ground. The subsequent cultivation is the same as given above.

During the second year, no care is required except to keep the bed clear until the stalks cover the entire ground. The third year, and not sooner, the cutting may commence, but if there are any roots which have not made a very strong growth it is best not to cut from these, and in fact as soon as any plants show lack of vigor the cutting should be discontinued. Many Asparagus-beds are ruined by too long-continued cutting. We have found it a good rule to commence cutting as soon as the first stalks appear, and stop with the beginning of Strawberry picking.

Immediately after the cutting season, when the roots are enfeebled by the severe tax of having produced many times more than their natural requirement of stalks, is the best time for manuring; yet an application of fertilizers does not come amiss at any time.

The stems, which, after the cutting season, shoot up with great rapidity, should not be disturbed until they die off naturally, when they should be cut and burned. Salt is, by general consent, considered a special fertilizer for Asparagus. We have during several years applied salt to one part of our bed, and not to the other, without perceiving the least difference in the respective yields. At any rate, salt can do no harm, no matter how liberally applied. Stable-manure, bone-meal, superphosphates, and in fact almost any kind of fertilizer, and plenty of it, are beneficial to Asparagus.—American Garden.

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PURE NATIVE WINES.

On the occasion of the recent meeting of the Fruit Growers’ Association, held in the city of Hamilton, we were invited with several of the members to visit the wine vaults of Messrs. Barnes & Haskins. We were quite surprised to find that this enterprise had attained to such extensive dimensions, and that already there was a varied stock of old native wines produced from grapes grown in their own vineyards near to the city. It would seem that these gentlemen have been quietly perfecting these wines for some years, until now they compare favorably with the best imported, with this decided advantage that they are pure, free from adulteration of every sort, and not strengthened by the addition of spirits. We all know how difficult it has long been to get unadulterated wines, and that much of the so-called wine of commerce is only spirits colored and flavored to imitate the wine whose name it bears; and now that the phylloxera has made such wholesale destruction of the vineyards of Europe, and thereby caused such an immense decrease in the quantity of wine produced, it will be next to impossible to obtain a gallon of pure wine from those countries. Indeed, the importation of American cheap spirits by the wine producing countries of Europe, to be manufactured into counterfeit wines and sent back for consumption in America, has reached gigantic proportions.

We were assured by Mr. Haskins that the chief object of his firm is to produce wines that shall be pure and free from all adulteration, made from the juice of the grape only, and that for several years they have annually pressed many tons of grapes, all of which were of Canadian growth. Their experiments in wine making have now extended over a period of some twenty years, so that they are able from the experience thus gained to make a really good wine from our Canadian grapes. The wines which were sampled on this occasion were pronounced by those who are competent judges to bear evidence of having been carefully handled and of being well matured. Until recently, grape growing and wine making by this firm has been a labor of love; but the excellence of their products has won for them such a favorable reputation that their business has already assumed considerable commercial importance.

This industry is doubtless but in its infancy. French wine makers, driven by the ravages of the phylloxera to seek more favorable opportunities, are turning their attention towards Canada as a probable place for the establishment of vineyards and the manufacture of wine. It is highly probable that before many years Ontario will produce pure and wholesome wines in sufficient quantity to supply the markets of our dominion, for we possess both the soil and climate eminently suited to the cultivation of many varieties of the grape. A wonderful impulse has recently been given to the cultivation of this luscious and healthful fruit by the introduction of new and choice varieties, some of them of surpassing excellence. The work thus auspiciously begun will doubtless go on, and each year will add some new variety of excellence, until we have native sorts rivalling in every valuable requisite the best grapes of the Old World. If one of the results shall be to give to our people a pure, undrugged wine in place of the fabricated wines now on sale, the thanks of our people will be justly due to these pioneers in grape growing and wine making who have shown the possibility of making a pure and palatable native wine.

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THE CULTIVATION OF FOREST TREES.

There is no more profitable use to which rough ground, that cannot be profitably plowed, can be turned than to plant it to timber. But the profit depends greatly upon the kinds of timber planted. Some timber trees are of quick growth; some grow slowly; some are valuable and some worth little; some will best succeed on dry soil, and some best on wet ground, and some require certain conditions of climate. Thus, in swampy places, white cedar, tamarac, spruce and balsam fir will thrive excellently, but the last mentioned is valueless for its timber, while the others are salable at good prices for various purposes. Again, in some localities the otherwise useless white birch is in demand for manufacturing purposes, and will there pay better than any other kind. Hard maple of the bird’s eye or curly varieties will grow best on rocky ground in a cold climate, while black walnut requires a warmer climate and rich soil to thrive well. Usually the timbers required for manufacturing purposes pay the best; such as walnut, chestnut, cherry, maple, and birch, which are in demand for furniture; elm, oak, ash, hickory, basswood, and some others, are bought by wagon, carriage, and sleigh makers; cedar, chestnut and locust are valuable for fencing, and in some places an acre of swamp covered with white cedar has yielded nearly a thousand dollars for the fence posts and rails taken from it.

Cultivated timber is worth much more than that which has grown wild, as much so as a crop of cultivated potatoes is more valuable than one self-sown and neglected. The timber grows more rapidly and in better shape, and there are more trees on the same quantity of ground. Thus, one acre of cedars, planted four feet apart each way, would contain 2,722 trees. These trees, so closely planted, would grow tall and straight, and when four to six inches in diameter might be thinned to eight feet apart, and would yield about 2,000 poles, some of which would make fence posts, and the rest hop poles, the value averaging at least twenty-five cents per tree. This would produce $500 to the acre, leaving 680 trees to continue to grow until they become worth fifty cents to a dollar per tree for various purposes, such as fencing, vineyard stakes, &c. By cultivating the young trees the growth would be very much advanced, so that at five or six years the first thinning might be made, and a handsome income derived from the plantation, while, by ordinary natural growth, twenty years would probably elapse before any income would be realized, and then only a very small one. It is the same with other trees—at eight years old a plantation of chestnut timber has begun to pay a good profit, in addition to the whole cost, by the thinning of the trees for fence posts and rails. While the remaining timber is growing, the cut stumps sprout again, and by the time the former is ready to cut the latter are prepared to occupy the ground, and so an alternate growth may be procured without any planting. A grove of large chestnut trees, with about forty trees to the acre, has paid $120 yearly per acre, for many years, from the fruit alone, which usually sells at $3 a bushel, while trees so grown yield much larger crops than the wild trees; so with special kinds of timber, such as white birch, that is grown for making thread spools and toothpicks, and hickory, that is in demand for light buggy tires and bent furniture work, and other timbers required for furniture, as basswood for wooden seats for chairs and for the bent dashboards of pleasure sleighs, and birch and maple for the frames of chairs and tables. The fact is, one can scarcely go wrong if he will only plant such timber as will thrive in the soil and situation he can devote to the culture, and this point is the most important to be considered in entering into the enterprise. The first thing to be done is to prepare the ground. This should be by plowing, if possible, or in some way by breaking up the surface. If no other way can be found, this should be done by grubbing a place for the young tree or the seed. Some kinds are not easily transplanted, and grow better when the seeds are sown where the trees are to stand. Chestnuts, walnuts and hickories succeed better when the nuts are planted in this way, and it is easy to plant the nuts and loosen the surface around them with a grub-hoe or a spade, if the ground is too strong, or too rough, or too steep for plowing. In planting nut-bearing trees, it is best to secure a supply of the nuts in the Fall, and plant them at once, if convenient, otherwise, to bury the nuts in the ground in a sheltered spot, and plant them early in the Spring. Trees of other kinds are best raised in the nursery. The seeds are sown in beds, in rows eighteen to twenty-four inches apart, and when the young plants are a year old they are taken up, the tap root cut off, and are then planted in their permanent places, in such a way as that they may be cultivated as a crop of corn should be, if the ground admits of it. Evergreens—as cedars, pines, spruces and hemlocks—require special care in the planting. The seeds should be sown in beds of fine soil upon the surface, and fine mold is then sifted upon them until they are covered not more than a quarter of an inch deep. The beds are then shaded with a screen of evergreen boughs and leaves, and need to be kept moist by frequent watering in dry weather. When a year old the plants are very small, and may be pricked out from the seed-bed to the nursery, and planted a foot apart each way, and still shaded by a screen of boughs laid upon laths or light poles, elevated a foot or two above the surface. When of proper size the young trees may be removed to the permanent plantation, and the frequent removal will cause them to throw out a mass of fine fibrous roots which very much tends to secure their safe transplanting. For these trees close planting is advisable. This causes a straight, upright growth without lower limbs, and produces the most valuable kind of timber for use when it is small. For bean poles, hop poles, vineyard stakes, ladder poles, and many other such uses, straight, smooth spruce or cedar is worth much more than short, crooked branchy trees; indeed, it is difficult to say what use such trees as these are fit for, excepting firewood, and for this they are worth very little indeed.

There are some newly introduced timber trees which are considered very valuable. One of these is a species of catalpa (C. Speciosa), or the showy catalpa. This tree has a large leaf, and produces remarkably large, showy blossoms. It is hardy in the Northern States, Western Canada, Wisconsin, and Michigan. It is a rapid grower, and the timber is remarkably durable, of fine grain, and takes a handsome polish. The ailanthus is another valuable timber tree which is easily grown. This timber is very durable, and is especially valuable for railroad ties, as it holds a spike with great tenacity and bears a great strain without crushing.

The popular impression is that one who plants timber will never live to reap the benefit. This is a grand mistake. Profit, benefit and advantage are not always the personal securing of pecuniary results. One owes something to his children, to his neighbours, and to his countrymen. If there were no other advantages secured than the benefiting of these, it would be one’s positive duty to plant timber wherever he could do it with advantage or success. But a comparatively old man may plant and live to reap the profits of his enterprise. Ten or twelve years will return the full outlay made with a larger interest than could be secured as safely in any other manner of investment. Five years may begin to return the beginning of the harvest, and once begun the harvest is continuous for many years. We have seen fine saw-logs cut on the western prairies, where sixteen years before not a bush broke the view of the whole horizon; and in the Eastern States we have seen pine logs cut on ground that still shewed the traces of former corn-hills when the ground was abandoned to a natural growth of timber. Canada is too new a country yet to shew many such examples, but we have seen there trees of various kinds, fit for marketable uses, which had grown up during the occupation of the present owners of the land. So that for every reason the planting of timber should be made a business by those who have conveniences for it.—Weekly Star.

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CLIMBING PLANTS.

There is a charm about these plants that always commends itself to the lover of the beautiful, and wherever we see a lover of flowers we are sure to see climbing plants, from those gems that greet us in the morning (morning glories), to the stately cobeas, bignonias, passion vines, or climbing roses. The number of sorts that can be grown is legion, and many good things have scarcely yet got into cultivation that are worthy of it, amongst which may be mentioned the Apios tuberosa or ground nut. This is a little gem; in July and August it is one mass of chocolate-colored, pea-shaped flowers, which is a very unusual color in flowers. Its leaflets are very pretty also. It grows upon the low bushes of the Northern woods, and often lends a beauty to a hazel bush, which is rarely very fine itself. The Apios has a tuber, or a number of them, to one plant, like a potato, but smaller. They are nutritious, and would be a good substitute for some of the things we eat. This can be grown in a window, and would be a fine ornament if the tubers were started late in summer so as to throw its flowering season late in the fall, but as a garden climber it would be fine planted amongst tall-growing summer roses, as it would do them no harm, but lend a beauty to them after they had done blooming. Most people make a mistake in trying to grow climbing plants. They put up the most unnatural things for them to twine or climb up, and they have to be tying, nailing, and otherwise fixing their climbers all the time, when, if they paid some attention to these plants in a state of nature, they would learn a lesson. A few straight sticks, if placed upright in the ground amongst twining plants, will lead them up to other things, so that they can twine and go higher. A barbed wire fence can be made pretty if morning glories, or even the echinocystis (wild cucumber), is sown along it, and a few sticks put so that the little plants can reach the wires above them. The best thing for making a fence of in a garden, to be ornamental, and for climbers or twiners to grow upon, is wire netting, with about four-inch meshes. This can be bought for about fifty cents a yard, and yard wide. It makes an elegant low fence if everlasting or sweet peas are sown along it; or it is improved by mixing in the taller kinds of nasturtiums or ipomea coccinea (scarlet morning glory). Everlasting or sweet peas do best when they are sown in the fall.

The Celastrus scandens (Rocksbery wax work), or commonly known as the bittersweet, is one of our best twiners, and to find a full-grown plant of it in its glory of fruit, in the winter, in our woods, is enough to make everybody want to grow it who sees it. Occasionally one can be seen in the woods north of Evanston, that the woodman’s axe has spared. It has grown up some trees twenty feet or so, and has spread as wide. It will be loaded with its bright red berries, which is simply a sight to gratify all lovers of the beautiful, if seen when snow is on the ground, bright, glossy leaves of the Celastrus are another recommendation for growing it as a choice out-door twiner. It grows abundantly on the Illinois Central railroad from Thirty-fifth street, south of Chicago, but is rarely seen in fruit until we reach Indiana. Our old stand-by, the Virginia creeper, or Ampelopsis, is a valuable plant to put upon walls or trellises, but it finds difficulty in getting up if it cannot find something like a piece of wire or nails to take hold of. The Rhus Toxicodendron, or poison ivy, is often found as a climber, and were it not for its poisonous nature it would be a good thing to plant against painted or brick walls, as it will cling like the English ivy. Its poison is more feared than is needful, for if it affects any part of a person’s skin it is instantly neutralized if a little soil and spittle, or a drop of water, with a little ammonia in it, is rubbed on the parts affected. (The writer has collected fifty pounds of leaves at one time, and cut them up fine for medicine, but did not suffer, though all was done with the hands bare.) Hoping the reader will excuse him, the writer wishes to say that most vegetable poisons on the skin, the sting of bees or wasps, can be instantly rendered harmless, or the pain removed, by rubbing the parts affected with any kind of soft mud.

The tender aristocratic twiners and climbers, such as cobea scandens, eccremocarpus, Madeira vine, maurandias, physianthus albens, lophospermums, and the solanum jasminoides, are very fine, but ought to be in conspicuous places, as they are choice, and ought not to be subject to the rough winds that we sometimes get here. These, not being hardy, have to be kept in-doors in winter. There is one of the ipomeas that blooms at night, and has flowers as large as a saucer, or six inches wide. They are pure white, and very fragrant; it is called Noctophyton, or Bona Nox. The seeds of this will grow if sown in a window about May first, and be ready to plant out about June 10th, which is early enough. It grows to a great height, and is very interesting when in flower at night in the summer months.

Both our native and the Chinese Wistaria are splendid twining plants, and ought to be grown more than they are. They are hardy enough, but the most climbers that the writer has seen growing about residences are cheated, and the growers have “sunk the ship for a bucket of tar.” They have not given their plants a fair chance, for most of these plants, in a state of nature, grow in good beds of vegetable mould, and we see them trying to grow near houses in the poorest of stuff, like trying to make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. The Celastrus, and many vines, will grow in the sand and gravel of the lake shore, but see the same vines growing in the rich woods and they will surprise many who are fond of climbing plants.

Our various park commissioners have an opportunity to show what can be done with twining and climbing plants, instead of going in the old ruts of putting a plant or two in vases or on trellis work. Let them devote an acre or two to these kinds of plants. The thing could be done in an ornamental manner, without much expense, if the right spirit was put in the matter. Many of the residences of gentlemen would be made more attractive if there were a greater number of twining and climbing plants about them. It is not always the wisest plan to crowd a place with the showy things. Many interesting twiners grow in the woods not a great distance from Chicago.

Our farmers could easily have lots of interesting places about their homes, especially near wood lands. A pile of old stumps can be covered with creeping, twining, or climbing plants, and though it brings nothing back to the purse, it will often give more pleasure than money can buy to their wives, little ones, and friends.

Many kinds of climbing plants have some curious things about them. One of the Passifloras opens its flowers with loud noise, hence probably its name. The menispermum, or moon seed, has a curious shell that partially covers the seed. It looks like half of a hazel nut shell with the nut in it. The ladies of the South collect them to make rustic frames for pictures. The Aristolochia has a curious pipe-like appendage to the flower, hence it is called Dutchman’s Pipe. The Loasa is covered with hairs that will sting like a bee’s sting if touched by any tender part of a person’s body.

Our climbing roses are known to everybody, but they, strictly speaking, could not be called climbing, for in their native state they have to work their way over other things, even their own old limbs. They are, more strictly speaking, reclining plants, and the writer would like to see some one who would have the courage to treat them as such. Any one who has seen Rosa setigera, or the wild Michigan rose, so-called (it grows in many parts of Illinois), that our “Prairie Queen Rose” was raised from, must have been struck with its great beauty when growing in a state of nature. The writer saw one bunch of it thirty feet through, or in diameter, the past year, with thousands of flowers upon it. If the writer prevails upon some one to try and grow the Prairie Queen as it grows wild, he will feel thankful.

In concluding this paper, it is wished that some one may take pity upon our woodbines or honeysuckles. Though not all climbers, they are worthy our attention, and deeper, better soil than we usually see them in, in gardens.—A Perambulating Gardener, in Prairie Farmer.

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LETTUCE.

Among the many vegetables which are usually found growing in any well-stocked kitchen-garden, there are none that are more highly prized than one, two, or three varieties of Lettuce. This vegetable is always in season, and always a welcome relish for those who are fond of the choicer productions of the vegetable garden. The wonder is that a vegetable so easily grown, and one that is so highly valued, is not more generally seen in the gardens of the many, instead of the few, for this seems to be the case. In large centers of population, the demand for Lettuce extends the year through, and it is one of the leading crops raised by market gardeners, in the winter under glass, and in the spring and summer as an out-of-door crop. In former years, the bulk of the winter production of Lettuce was raised in hot-beds and cold frames, for the winter and early spring supply. But now a large part of the winter supply is grown in houses, constructed and heated in the same way that the ordinary greenhouses are; and this latter plan is a great improvement on the old-style method. In these houses there are three crops of Lettuce raised between the first of December and the first of May. This plan enables large hotels and first-class restaurants to have Lettuce on their bill of fare at all times through the year. For family use, an early spring supply can easily be raised by planting in a hot-bed at any time that the bed is ready, setting out sixty plants under each sash of 3 × 6—the usual size—giving air in mild weather, and frequent waterings with tepid water. The market gardener always sows the seed for the following year’s crop in September. In November, these young plants are “pricked” out close together in an ordinary cold frame, where they are kept until planting time, in March or April.

The plants for the crop of early cabbages are set out in rows two feet apart, and a row of lettuce is set between each two rows of cabbages. The lettuce comes to maturity and is marketed before the cabbages are half grown, and, by economizing ground, a large quantity of produce is raised from a comparatively small surface. When the lettuce plants have not been kept over through the winter, then sow a small quantity of seed in a hot-bed at the time of sowing tomatoes, egg-plants, and other seeds wanted to stock the garden. Seeds sown in this way may be planted in the open ground, in the latter part of April, and, unless checked by cold, frosty weather, will grow rapidly, giving some for table use in five weeks from the time of planting. Cold-frame plants can be set in the open ground three or four weeks earlier than hot-bed plants; and to gain this advantage in time, and lengthen the season, it is a good plan to buy two or three hundred of plants from some market gardener or seed-store. These can be planted in the garden as soon as the ground is fit to work, and as a matter of course, will give lettuce for table use four or five weeks earlier than hot-bed plants. There is one fact that should be borne in mind, that is: to grow crisp and tender head-lettuce, the soil must be mellow and rich. One of the pleasant features of raising lettuce for home use is to have it come in succession, and this can only be attained by planting at different times, three or four weeks apart. The way to get early lettuce has been briefly outlined. The later crops come from sowing the seed in the open ground, in some sheltered spot, as early in the spring as it will do to work the ground. The seed-bed should be made mellow and smooth, and the seed may be sown broadcast or in shallow drills, covered very lightly by raking over the bed with a wooden rake, drawing the rake in the direction of the drills. The latter method is preferable, from the fact that, while the plants are small, the spaces between the rows may be disturbed with a hoe, and the growth of the plants hastened, as well as the weeds kept down.

There is now a long list of varieties, and, unless one has had some experience in raising lettuce, it is rather difficult to choose and not make an error in the choice. Among the very best sorts to select for family use, one that is widely and favorably known is the “Early Curled Simpson.” This lettuce is a favorite with market gardeners, and is extensively grown in the vicinity of New York for that market. When planted on rich ground it grows into a large head, that on the table will be found crisp, tender and of good quality. Another and very excellent variety is the “Hanson” lettuce, which grows to a large size, forming a solid head, crisp and of fine flavor, and very popular among the consumers. “Tennis Ball,” “Boston Market,” “Early Butter,” and other sorts, are prized on the table, when grown on ground that is in good heart. There is neither profit nor pleasure in attempting to grow lettuce on poor, thin soil. In planting in the garden, set the lettuce one foot apart each way, and then keep the ground mellow and free from weeds—American Garden.

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GAS TAR WATER FOR INSECTS.

BY D. M. DEWEY, ROCHESTER, N. Y.

In conversation to-day with a farmer friend, I got from him what I think every planter should know. As he is a reliable man, I give you his statement, believing you will confer a favor on many of your readers by publishing it:

Gas Tar Water Sure Death to Potato Bugs. Mr. S. R. Hart, of Brighton, N. Y., near Rochester, has for two years past used on his potato vines water which has been impregnated with gas tar. One gallon of gas tar in a tub, and fill the tub with water; stir it up well, and let the tar settle. Then sprinkle the vines with the water from a sprinkling pot. This has proven more effective than Paris green. He has also tried it on currant bushes, and finds it equally effective. It is inexpensive and perfectly reliable, and will prove equally sure death to insects of every kind on trees. This gas tar can be had at 75 cents a gallon, and one gallon would suffice for many acres of potatoes or a nursery for the season. I give you this information believing your readers will find it a great desideratum in these days of insect pests.

It has long been known that tar applied to trees destroys the worms; but until now there has been no method of applying it to shrubbery or vines. Gas tar possesses chemical properties not found in ordinary tar. Water, strongly impregnated with gas tar, is found to be sure death to insects, worms and bugs.

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FAMILY SUPPLIES OF FRUIT.

The Country Gentleman replies to those who wish to know how they can obtain an early supply of fruits for their families, and for what portion of the year these supplies may be obtained by means of a suitable selection, as follows:—

In the Northern States, the first ripening sorts begin early in June with strawberries. Of these there will be a difference of about a month in their season, the earliest productive sorts being the old Wilson, and the newer Crescent, Duncan, and not always productive Crystal City. These are followed by the Cumberland, Seth Boyden, Sharpless, Kentucky, &c. As far north as New York City, these different sorts should give a good supply every day for the table, from the first of June until early in July, with beds well cultivated, covering three or four square rods of ground. Half a dozen or more of cherry trees will begin to furnish ripe fruit from the middle of June till the middle of July, if they can only be allowed to remain on the trees till ripe—which, between the birds and the family, is rarely done. Early Purple Guigne and Belle d’Orleans are the earliest; then Coe’s Transparent, Black Tartarian and Rockport; and later the Dukes and Morellos. Early Richmond is generally reckoned an early sort, but if allowed to hang a month it is greatly improved.

Then come the currants and gooseberries, the raspberries, and blackberries; but before these are all ripe the early pears and apples are on hand, and, where they will succeed, those delicious early fruits, the apricots. The first peaches and plums are not much behind, and the first grapes ripen before the end of summer.

Plenty of delicious fruits run through the entire autumn. We have peaches and plums till frost; and apples, pears and grapes throughout. There are so many sorts, and of such ranging quality and character that every person may be suited. Grapes and pears may be kept through winter, and apples into June. No one who has an acre or two of land to plant need be without a plentiful supply for a single day in the year. He will need, however, to observe three requisites—first, to make a good selection of sorts for his particular locality, much of which may be learned from his successful or experienced neighbours, if he has any; secondly, to give his garden and orchard the right cultivation; and thirdly, and very important, to have a good, cool fruit room to keep his winter sorts and long keepers in. Carelessly thrown into a common cellar, apples may all rot by the first of April; in a carefully attended fruit room (without ice) we have kept such common sorts as the Baldwin fresh into July.

It will be borne in mind that while it is necessary for profitable marketing on an extensive scale, to select the most favorable localities for soil, aspect and other influences which shall give uniformly good crops, a good home-garden may be had almost anywhere, which will give satisfactory returns, with a proper selection of kinds adapted to it, and with good cultivation. It is always safest to choose dry upland, and to avoid low or mucky soil. If necessary, it must be well underdrained, and before planting, especially for small fruits, it should be made mellow by previous cultivation, in order that the young plants may be easily set and kept clean. Some enriching by manure is nearly always essential, but at least a part or the main portion may be applied afterwards by successive autumnal top-dressings. For standard fruit trees, this top-dressing is better than trying to make the ground very rich on the start, a clean and mellow surface being the great requisite for young or newly set trees.

In order to facilitate frequent cultivation after the plants and trees are set out, everything should be placed in rows so as to admit the passage of a horse in doing the work. There is nothing more essential to success with small fruits, and with large fruits, while the trees are young, than constant clean mellow cultivation. If the work is to be all done by hand labor, it will be sure to be neglected, and a hard crusted and weedy surface will result in nearly total failure. If annual manuring is given in autumn, crops of vegetables may be taken from among the larger trees.

The inquiry will naturally be suggested by occupants of new places: “How many years must I wait before I can have plenty of fruit?” Under the usual management you may have a good supply of strawberries next year from plants set out this spring, and raspberries will begin to bear next year, and more freely a year later. Currants and gooseberries will require about the same length of time, and grapes will come into moderate bearing nearly as soon. Dwarf pears will begin to furnish a fair supply the third year, if you select early bearers. Even standards of some sorts will be nearly as soon in coming into bearing—such, for instance, as the Bartlett, Washington, Summer Doyenné, &c. Much will depend on the treatment they receive.

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SEEDING ORCHARDS.

As to the treatment of Apple orchards, we know that when they are established on light gravelly or sandy soils they require periodical applications of manure, that the ground should also be kept loose by shallow plowing, and afterward to be surface-stirred with the harrow or cultivator—all of which is requisite to maintain a proper degree of fertility.

We have learned that to sow grass on the surface of the orchard planted in such soils is simply the first step toward the destruction of the trees, so far as regards their fruit-bearing capacities. Of course, we are now considering ordinary condition and management, for it is quite practical, merely considering it as a question of possibility, to so enrich the surface of even the lightest of soils as to obviate necessity of further surface culture.

On the other hand, we may imagine the case of an orchard placed in a condition of things very much the reverse of the one we have considered. In this the soil is a strong, rich loam, perhaps with a preponderance of clay in its composition, and the trees are growing vigorously, and for some years have been making a great quantity of wood and but very little fruit.

When a case of this kind occurs, we know that in order to produce fruitfulness we must, by some means, weaken the growth, and the most available means is to cover the orchards with grass. This will have a tendency to check the growth of the shoots, and as a consequence favor the production of fruit. This is in accordance with the general law that “whatever tends to weaken a plant favors the production of flowers and fruit, and whatever tends to the luxuriant growth of leaves and branches is unfavorable to the production of fruit.”

Therefore it is that the question as to whether orchards should be kept in grass or cultivated like a corn-field cannot be answered with regard to orchards in general; but when the question is applied to any particular orchard it admits of a definite answer, the condition of the trees (and soil) indicating what the answer will be.—William Saunders, before the Potomac Fruit-Growers.

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ADVENTURES OF AN ACORN.[1]

The following lines were written by a Scotch horticulturist, to illustrate how curiously seeds are sometimes scattered over the earth. The story in this case is literally true, and what makes the circumstance the more interesting to Scotch botanists, is the fact that the oak thus strangely introduced into that country is of a kind different from any hitherto growing there:

  In the far off wilds of Canadian woods,

    Where the red man lives and dies—

  Where the wild turkey hatches and rears her broods

    Unseen to the white man’s eyes—

  There fell to the shot of a gun one day,

    To the sportsman a glorious prize,

  A turkey, whose flight lay over his way,

    A bird of a royal size.

 

  This turkey was sent to old Scotia’s shore,

    As a Christmas treat to a brother,

  And never on Christmas board before,

    Had the Scotsman seen such another.

  And deep in the “crop” of the bird he found

    (Now here is the pith of the story)

  A seed of a tree whose name is a sound

    Of renown in old England’s glory.

 

  The acorn was planted in mother earth,

    And soon to new life awoke,

  And fresh from the ground there issued forth

    A sapling of royal oak.

  Now wise men all, I pray you please,

    To mark the curious ways

  By which the seeds of plants and trees

    Are scattered in our days.

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Discovery of Extensive Pine Forests.—The recent exploration party of Colonel Mercer up the Spanish River, in the province of Ontario, is said to have discovered vast pine forests, containing upward of 24,000,000,000 feet of a superior quality of pine lumber, with facilities for getting it to market equal to the best.

Keeping Apples.—G. F. Newton, in a paper read before the Ohio Horticultural Society, describes an experiment in keeping apples, by which he had Tompkins King with fresh flavor and bright color in April, and Rambo and Peck’s Pleasant in July. The secret of success was a constant low temperature. They were gathered in September, heaped on the barn floor till cold weather, carefully assorted, barreled, and kept in a cold cellar. The uniformly low temperature was preserved by opening the ventilators of the fruit-room in cold, and closing them in warmer weather.—Country Gentleman.

Shortening-in the Peach.—Those who have made an actual trial with shortening in the shoots of the peach, do not find it to require the amount of labor which the inexperienced suppose necessary. A. C. Younglove, of Vine Valley, N. Y., shortens back his orchard of 600 trees, performing the work expeditiously, and he finds it profitable, greatly improving the fruit. In answer to the frequent inquiry as to the best time for performing the work, late summer and early spring may be given. If done late in autumn the trees are made tenderer for withstanding the cold winter. If done before the leaves drop and while there is still some growth, the wood ripens well and is prepared for the cold.—Country Gentleman.

Preserving and Marketing—Over Production.—If any one will take the trouble to look into the facts about the comparative price of the different kinds of fruit grown in this country they will see how foolish is the idea that the country is in danger of being overstocked. The price of apples, peaches, pears, strawberries, grapes, etc., for forty years, dividing that time into four periods of ten years each, and statistics show that on an average the price of fruit has constantly increased. In strawberries and other small fruits this has been very marked. Production has grown rapidly in that time, but prices have constantly advanced. Occasionally we have a year of great abundance of apples, and prices are low. But farmers generally do not seem to have realized yet that the surplus in apples may be very profitably utilized in fattening both hogs and cattle. The best of meat may be made with a little corn and plenty of apple food. In older countries it is well known that this kind of feed cooked and mixed with ground grain is very healthful for all kinds of stock, and it is doubted that hogs would have the disease known as cholera if fed this kind of ration frequently. So we see that in years of abundance the surplus fruit, when the price is low, may be profitably fed to stock, and thus we may realize a good price for it. There is no danger of planting too many orchards, or of getting too much fruit.—Indiana Farmer.

    These lines, by “Patriarch Peter” penned,

    My less romantic tale amend.

                                       W. M.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]APRIL, 1882.[No. 4.
  

THE CINERARIA.

The beautiful group of flowers with which this number is adorned will give to our readers a very good representation of the form and coloring of these very showy ornaments of the greenhouse. There is nothing more gay than a fine collection of Cinerarias, whether massed together so as to display their striking contrasts of color, or distributed among other plants to give an air of cheerfulness to the whole. A well grown plant when in bloom makes a most elegant subject for dinner-table decoration, while its hawthorn-like fragrance fills the room with most agreeable perfume.

These lovely flowers can be had in bloom from early in February to the middle of April, though usually they are in the fulness of their glory during the month of March. They are easily propagated from seed, which should be sown in light sandy soil, in pots or boxes. The soil can be best prepared by using one half good loam, and the other half a mixture of leaf mould and sand in equal parts, the whole having been run through a fine sieve. Fill the pot or box with the soil, having first provided for drainage, and moisten it with water from a very fine rose. Then sow the seed upon the surface, sift over it the slightest covering of soil, and press it firmly with the bottom of a pot so that the seeds may be in close contact with the earth. Cover the pot with a pane of glass and set it in the shade, that is, where the direct rays of the sun will not fall upon it. We usually sow the seed the last of June or first of July.

As soon as the plants are well up, the pane of glass should be removed and the plants exposed fully to the light, but not to the direct rays of the sun. When the first rough leaves appear, the little plants should be carefully pricked out into thumb pots filled with soil such as has been already described. They can remain in these little pots until the roots have filled them, when they should be shifted into three-inch pots. If more convenient to use boxes than thumb pots, they may be pricked out into boxes, setting them about an inch apart, and allow them to remain until they grow so as to touch each other.

When they are shifted into the three-inch pots, the soil should be made richer than that described, by lessening the quantity of sand, using only half as much, and supplying the deficiency with well rotted sods. When these pots are filled with roots, the plants should be again shifted, and as they increase in size and fill the pots with roots, they should be shifted into larger pots until you have them in as large pots as you desire: a six-inch pot will be large enough. At each shift make the soil richer and rougher, using more manure that has been most thoroughly rotted and turfy loam. When the plants become established in the largest pots it is intended they shall occupy, they should be freely watered with manure water, applying it until the flowers begin to open, then withhold it entirely and use only soft water. These plants require an abundant supply of water during their entire season of growth, and to be kept in a cool place, where they can have plenty of air and light, but very little sun. The best place is on the north side of some building, sheltered from drying winds, but not under the shade of trees. In watering, sprinkle with a fine water-pot rose in the morning and evening, and shelter them from heavy rains.

When it becomes necessary to take them in on account of danger from frost, put them where they will have plenty of light and air, and only the morning and evening sun, keeping the temperature as low as possible, so long as it does not fall below thirty-five degrees; and never let it rise above fifty. It will now be especially necessary to be on the watch for green fly, to which they are very subject. In the greenhouse they can be fumigated with cold tobacco-smoke, which should be done frequently, so as to prevent the green fly from getting a lodgment. It is important to have the smoke cold, for hot smoke is injurious to the plants.

It is not easy to grow Cinerarias as window plants unless the window be enclosed with glass doors from the heat and dryness of the room. In such an enclosed window the temperature and moisture can be regulated to suit their requirements. But it may not be convenient to fumigate with tobacco, in which case it will be necessary to dip the plants in water in which tobacco has been steeped until the liquid is of a light brown color. This can be done by placing the hand over the earth while the plant is inverted and plunged into the liquid; do not wet the soil with the tobacco water, but let the plant drip thoroughly before placing it again in an upright position.

When they have done blooming, the plants may be thrown out on the rubbish heap, unless there be some so very beautiful that you are anxious to preserve them. In that case cut the plant back to within a few inches of the pot, place it in some cool, shady place, see that it does not suffer from lack of water, and when it has sprouted again, usually in the month of August, take it out of the pot, pull off the rooted sprouts, and pot each singly in a small pot, and treat them in the same way as if they were seedlings.

We trust that these directions for growing Cinerarias will be easily understood, and that many of the readers of the Canadian Horticulturist will have the pleasure of growing plants having heads of bloom two feet across, and the individual flowers measuring two inches and over in diameter. The magnificent display will well reward their care.

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QUESTION DRAWER.

For how many years are young fruit trees improved by being transplanted, and how often?

Also, why are nectarines so difficult to raise? We never see any here.

W. W. R.

 

The improvement of young trees by transplanting consists in causing them thereby to throw out a large number of roots within a given space, so that when they attain to the size required for orchard planting they may be so well furnished with small fibrous feeding roots that they will not feel the removal from the nursery row to the orchard. An apple tree is taken from the seed bed when it is two years old, the tap root cut off, then grafted, and planted in the nursery row. When it has grown two years in the nursery row, it would greatly increase the number of small roots near the trunk if it were again taken up, the large roots shortened, and planted once more in nursery row and allowed to remain two years longer before being planted in the orchard. There is nothing to be gained by again transplanting the tree. Evergreen trees are benefited by being transplanted a greater number of times, because their comparative slower growth gives better opportunity, and their leaves being not deciduous there is the greater necessity.

There is no greater difficulty in growing nectarines than plums, save that the tree is no more hardy than a peach tree, hence requires a mild climate.

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MULBERRIES.

Will you be kind enough to give me all the information you can about the mulberry tree, as to its hardiness (1), productiveness (2), and quality of fruit (3)?

Jesse Weldon.

Oakwood.

 

1. The Black or English Mulberry is not perfectly hardy in all parts of Ontario. It will do best where the Peach is successfully cultivated. The new American Mulberry promises to be much more hardy. The Russian Mulberry should be hardy as far north as Sault Ste. Marie.

2. All varieties are exceedingly productive.

3. There is some difference in the flavor of the different sorts; but the three sorts named above are highly esteemed for fine quality.

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SAUNDERS’ RASPBERRY.

I beg to report my success with the Saunders Raspberry, received in the spring of 1880. It threw out four or five long, spindling shoots, four or five feet long, that I laid in a circle around the plant. One or two took root from the tip. However, I let them lay, and last spring it leafed out and blossomed finely and fruit set. I protected them from birds as much as possible. Fruit large and ripe. First picking, one quart of fine berries; picked twice more, in all about two quarts. I think very highly of the berry on account of its fine size and immense crop. I am propagating all I can, and intend to plant freely, as I think it will be one of our best paying berries. Soil, high dry sand.

C. H. Biggar.

Drummondville.

—————

“BUHACH” ON CABBAGES.

A REMEDY FOR THE CABBAGE BUTTERFLY.

Last summer I recommended a friend of mine who grows cabbages on a large scale, and who has been a great loser by the cabbage worm, to try the Californian insect powder, “Buhach.” I obtained some for him from Mr. Miles, of Stockton, Cal., and, thinking a few notes of the results may be useful and interesting to your readers, I send them to you.

My friend was growing about 3,000 head of cabbages, so that their protection was an object of considerable importance to him. In the beginning of September the plants were much injured, some of them nearly destroyed. The first application of the powder was then made in the form of a mixture of ten parts of flour to one of the Buhach. This was found to be rather too weak. Its effects were evident on those worms which were touched at the moment of application, but many of those not actually so touched were not injured. The experiment was made on 800 plants, and the time required was two hours.

A second application was made on September 7th to 1,000 plants in two hours. This time a mixture of one part of Buhach to eight parts of flour was employed, and the effect was much more lasting and complete.

On September 21st a third application was made to 1,000 plants, also requiring two hours. This time a mixture of one part of Buhach to eight parts of lime was employed. This was found the most successful compound of all. The lime formed a better dust-spray than the flour, and adhered to the plants equally well. The plants all formed new heads, and an excellent crop was the result.

It was, of course, not necessary to do more than to poison the outer rows of the patch. In so large a number the inner portion is not visited by the butterfly, which rests upon the plants which it first meets.

The three applications mentioned above were consequently made upon the outer rows entirely, some of the plants receiving two and some three dustings.

My friend informs me that he considers himself a gainer by the presence of the worm this year, as its ravages threw the heading of the cabbages later in the season, and they were not fully matured until the cold weather set in. He was therefore at no trouble or expense in preserving them through the last few warm weeks of autumn.

E. W. Claypole.

Yellow Springs, Ohio.

P.S.—I sent you some time ago a few notes on my treatment of the potato beetle last summer with London purple, which appeared in your number for September. In order to make that account complete, I will add that as a consequence of preserving the tops from injury, I had the pleasure of digging from an acre of ground more than eighty bushels of good, large potatoes, worth at the time $1 25 or $1 30 a bushel. This was in spite of the intense drought, which destroyed almost all the potatoes in this district. Many of my neighbors, acting towards the beetle on the principle of “live and let live,” did not get more than ten, or in some cases five bushels of small potatoes from the same quantity of land. Not a few failed to obtain even their seed.

I may add to the experience of my friend given above, that in my own garden I find the poison dust of London purple much more effective and much easier of application to cabbages in the early stages; but, in spite of many assertions to the contrary that have appeared in print, I hold to the opinion that its use after the cabbages have begun to head would be very hazardous.

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STRAWBERRIES—WHAT TO PLANT AND HOW TO GO ABOUT IT.

BY T. C. ROBINSON, OWEN SOUND.

Winter is the time to plan, especially for the fruit garden. Many persons buy a few quarts of inferior berries, and do without a great many they would like to have, for want of planning at the right time; and the planning is put off because a knowledge of the best varieties and the easiness and cheapness of raising them is not realized.

Any man who can look back on the strawberry bed in the home garden, when he was a boy, and the pleasant memories that cluster around it, will need little urging to add this attraction to his children’s love of home, even with the memory of the trouble of hoeing and weeding in his mind. But if it can be shown that hoeing and weeding can be reduced to a tithe of what they were under the old system of cultivation, surely no man who has suitable land, and cares for his family, will be without strawberries—“the best fruit God ever made!”

And suitable soils are of great variety. Any land that will raise wheat, or potatoes, or corn—especially the last—will raise strawberries.

Planting can be laid out best while looking at the land. Let us take an imaginary trip, reader, into your garden, and if it is as bare of snow as mine is just now we may talk to the best purpose.

Your garden is from a quarter of an acre to an acre in size, I suppose, and you want enough berries for a family of four to eight persons, twice a day, for as long a season as possible, with a sufficient surplus to entertain occasional company, and to preserve or can for winter. And if you can have that without its narrowing much that precious cabbage and potato patch, or costing much for the plants, or taking too much time and trouble for hoeing, or much bother at any other time, “well, you wouldn’t mind,” etc. I see! All right—very sorry I can’t promise you the berries without any trouble at all, except planting and picking, but I’ll show you what can be done.

Any part of your garden will do that is level or not too steep, and not shaded by trees; but if it is the same to you let us take that patch in the north-west corner, because the snow drifting over the fence will protect the plants in winter. Is your house or orchard in that corner? All the better then, perhaps. By planting immediately south or east of the trees the snow will fall deeply and evenly with still more certainty. Now let us have rows at least fifty or sixty feet long, because it will take less trouble in moving and setting your line to plant by, and if at any time you bring a team on with manure, or take a notion to cultivate with a horse hoe, you have less turning and less chance of injuring the plants at the end of the row. We will set fifty plants in a row about a foot or fourteen inches apart, and the rows two feet apart, because a strawberry plant needs about two square feet of land to do well on, and at that distance a horse cultivator can work with facility, if desired.

Now as to varieties. Do you expect me to advise you to stick in 500 or 1,000 Sharpless, or Bidwell, or Golden Defiance, or other sorts that you only know of from the headings of flaming advertisements in nurserymen’s catalogues or advertisements. No! You know you wanted something reliable and not too dear; and these novelties are, many of them, untested and high-priced—except Sharpless, which is finding its level. Just take something first that you can depend upon. On your clay loam, Wilson’s Albany will do its best, and probably some of your neighbors have it in abundance, and will readily let you have it for “Thank you.” Just put out two rows of it, however, because its season, though quite early, is short, and one hundred plants will give you plenty for cooking, considering that you are likely to leave most of them for that purpose if you can get a sweeter berry to eat fresh. Put your Wilson’s on the levellest strip in the patch, if there is any difference, and the heaviest land, and if you have any spare well-rotted manure that you don’t know what else to do with give it to them; for the Wilson plant is not nearly so vigorous as some others, and in a dry season sometimes shrivels up—leaf and berry—if the land is poor and too sandy, or too stiff. “But this patch is fit to raise fair potatoes and cabbage,” you say? It’s all right then. Wilson will smile sweetly and give you a crop of fruit, or of runners—if not pinched—that will surprise you. But you would like something a little earlier than Wilson? Well, as your soil is rather heavy, you may try a row of Duncan. Not being a new sort it is pretty cheap, and it will come in nearly a week before Wilson, and give you a fine crop of large, sweet, rather soft, berries that will be about done when the main crop of Wilson’s comes on. You must not expect as large a crop from the Duncan’s; but the peculiar high flavor of the berries will leave little or no demand for Wilson’s while they last; and they are really good yielders.

Now try one row of Prouty. It is the handsomest berry I ever saw. Long, you know, something like a Kittatinny blackberry in outline, almost as uniform as if cast in a mould, with a smooth, shining surface, and a beautiful tint of scarlet, merging into pink on the shady side. Its quality is fine, and it sometimes out yields Wilson, size and season medium. But if your land is sandy, or poor, you must not think of trying it. It is such a great bearer—such a determined bearer—that on anything but rich loamy soil it runs all to fruit, and is apt to die as soon as the crop is gathered, or before.

Well, you must have some Sharpless, of course. It is so large and handsome, so late, and so good to take—put out a couple of rows and astonish the natives with berries as large as plums. But you will astonish no one but yourself unless you keep the runners off and the weeds down. Allowing it to mat up with runners and young plants will give you a miserable return of insipid, soft, pink-and-white medium berries that will not half pay for the labor of planting. Sharpless can get along without rich soil if you give it room enough; but its constitution—the reverse of Prouty—insists on plenty of sap in the leaves and stalks, and the fruit is fed afterwards. If the roots have room and the runners are checked, the immense vigor of the plant pumps the sap into the fruit, and you get fine berries and lots of them.

And lastly, we will finish the patch with one row of Glendale. It’s not as large as Sharpless, or so good in quality or color. In fact it is very dark when fit to eat, and if you taste a berry that is “not ripe but only red,” you will wish you had a Wilson instead. But the plant is of a wiry vigorous habit that can stand abuse. The blossoms seem better able to stand a frost when in bud than Sharpless, and it yields later pickings. It is well, too, to have one row in hand for preserving in case a frost in early blossoming time cuts short the Wilson’s, which are very susceptible to frost. Besides, when thoroughly ripe, many people seem to relish the peculiar flavor of Glendale.

But some man with sandy land would like to raise strawberries! Then, sir, keep your Wilson’s for fertilizing, because most of the common sorts suitable for sandy land differ from those already named in being deficient in pollen to fertilize the blossoms. Then instead of Duncan and Prouty set two rows of Crescent which will yield an immense crop from very early till after the Wilson’s, and be of better flavor than if grown on clay loam, and substitute one row of Champion (or what is either the same thing or something better, Windsor Chief,) instead of one of your rows of Sharpless. Retain the row of Glendale, and your patch is again filled up. These two kinds, Crescent and Windsor Chief, are not so sweet and rich as the kinds recommended for clay loam, but they make up for it in size of the crop, and both are very handsome. Windsor Chief is the largest, and like Glendale and Wilson, is not ripe enough for eating till quite dark in color.

Now you have seven rows containing altogether three hundred and fifty plants, that take up a space of ground fifty or sixty feet long, and say sixteen feet wide, allowing for paths at the outside, or a little less than four square rods in extent, and costing you from three to four dollars for the plants laid on the ground, if you buy all of them; or not more than $2.50 if you get the Wilsons for nothing? Is not that within your limits of space and means?

But you want to know what returns to expect. Well, my friend, that depends mostly on how you treat the plants. If you leave them to run races with grass and weeds after a hoeing or two, all except Wilson and Glendale, (or these with the addition of Crescent and Windsor Chief, on sandy land), will go to the dogs, and you will probably get some thirty to eighty quarts of little sour berries—to grumble over and declare strawberry growing doesn’t pay. If you give about three hoeings and runner cuttings each year, on good, fair garden soil, you ought to get one hundred to one hundred and fifty quarts of fine fruit, while with first-class treatment and very rich soil you need not be surprised at over three hundred.

Any man who thinks this won’t pay him on four rods of ground, has a call from fate to eat pork and potatoes, and had better be satisfied with a diet of that description!

But perhaps your means and tastes incline you to try some of the new varieties that come out every season with bounce and hurrah enough to cast in the shade the modest tested sorts we already have. Well, you will find it very interesting—indeed fascinating—to test some of them. But nibble cautiously at that sort of bait, my friend! I have been bitten over and over again in this line, by poor performances allied to grand promises—which, for a poor man, is unpleasant. Let me give you a good rule. Don’t buy an article that only one nurseryman, or even two or three without much reputation, may recommend—no matter how highly they may praise it. But if several men whose good name is worth something to them, e. g., Downing, Roe, Ellwanger and Barry in the States, and our own Dempsey, Beadle, Arnold, &c., speak in favor of a new variety, it is safe to try it. Buy a few plants, and if good, you can easily increase your stock. Of all the new varieties now before the public, Kirkwood, Jersey Queen, Gipsy, Orient, Satin Gloss, Primo, Longfellow, Warren, Shirts, Brilliant, &c., &c., how many will survive the third season from now? Without a doubt most of them will disappear, to be replaced by others of as high sounding pretensions. There are two new sorts now claiming attention that seem to be above all others in the uniform praise bestowed by men who have seen and tried them. They are Bidwell and Manchester—the former early, the latter late. Bidwell has been out longer, and its record is exceedingly good. After these Jersey Queen and Primo are of considerable promise. I expect to test Bidwell thoroughly next season, and Manchester slightly, and I have considerable hopes of both. One thing is certain, there is wide room for improvement yet in the strawberry. That some of the new sorts will fill the bill better than the old ones, all must hope who believe in the improvement of fruits, but which will be the variety to do so, is a question that needs considerable testing yet to determine.

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SAUNDERS’ HYBRID RASPBERRIES.

My Saunders hybrid is a great success. It stands the winter without protection, and is a heavy bearer of fine flavored berries, and is a strong grower. I noticed some complaint of it being difficult to propagate; mine must be different from the rest, as it threw up shoots for three or four feet around the old plant; I got eight good strong plants from it. The Burnet grape has not turned out well with me. It had only a few very straggling bunches on it, with a large proportion of the berries the size of peas. However, it made a great growth of wood last summer and may do better this year.

R. B. Whyte.

Ottawa.

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SHAFFER’S COLOSSAL RASPBERRY.

From all accounts this must be a most remarkable raspberry. It is said to have originated in the State of New York in the year 1869, and that the original plant, now over twelve years old, is yet growing with wonderful vigor, and yields extraordinary crops of fruit. Plants raised from it, without receiving any special care or high manuring, have grown to the height of ten feet, with corresponding breadth. And what is particularly surprising in a plant of such immense and rapid growth, it is claimed for it that it is a perfect iron-clad, surviving the most severe winters, unprotected, without the least injury. Its season of ripening is the same as the Gregg, yet continuing somewhat longer. Some who have grown it say they have no hesitation in claiming for it as it appears on their ground that it is the largest raspberry in the world on the average, as gathered by the bushel from the field. It is also very productive. The color is a rich, reddish purple. It belongs to the black-cap family, being propagated from the tips.

Of course it remains to be ascertained by actual trial whether this new variety will prove to be hardy under the severity of our Canadian winters, and whether, with all its wonderful size and productiveness, it will prove to be a profitable market berry.

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A Hardy Raspberry.—The severe winters of the West afford a strong test of the hardiness of raspberries. D. B. Wier, of Illinois, says he has found from experience that the old Seneca black-cap is the hardiest of all the black raspberries, and able to withstand the most intense cold. The handsome, glossy appearance of its fruit, and its excellent flavor, in addition to its hardiness, should give it more attention than it has received of late years.—Country Gentleman.

SHAFFER’S COLOSSAL RASPBERRY.

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REPORT OF SEEDLING AND NEW FRUITS FOR 1881.

In some of the departments of fruit culture this season, the supply has been most abundant and plentiful, more so, I believe, in this section than in some of the other sections of our province. As I have previously reported, for this section the small-fruit crop of this season was most encouraging and abundant. And now again, I am most happy to be able to report a magnificent crop of fine apples and luscious grapes. These crops, I believe, were quite exclusive and sectional as far as our province is concerned, being much larger and finer than in many other sections. For these expressions of benevolent favor, we should be more and more thankful than ever to the Great Fountain of good, “who supplies the need of every living thing.” Without further preliminaries then, I shall at once take notice of the staple fruits as they occur in their order of importance, commencing with

APPLES.

In these the old standard sorts as Rhode Island Greenings, Baldwins, Northern Spys, and Russets, are as popular as ever and lose nothing of their real value and importance as domestic and marketable fruits. As I have previously intimated, our crop of this fine popular, standard fruit for this season was not only abundant, but handsomely developed, and much to the pecuniary profit of our growers. The demand for our apples this year was better than ever before, and our growers sold the whole of autumn and winter fruit to dealers who came to the orchard and supplied the packing for the whole. The price paid was from 80 cents to $1.00 per barrel for autumn, and $1.00 to $1.50 for winter, and it was astonishing to see the quantities shipped at our ports. The consequence is our people are very much encouraged in their efforts at apple growing, and are already planning for the extensive planting of new and much improved orchards, as they now see in the light of a keen market where they have previously erred, and are determined to rectify these matters. We have no indigenous apples of any importance whatever, as our natural specimens are too small and repulsive in flavor and texture in the light of better sorts. We have, however, seen some new sorts lately introduced that are likely to be of great value in our future stock of winter apples, and three of the best of those are Mann Apple, Grimes Golden, and Smith’s Cider. The first is large, fine, and a good keeper, and the second and third are beautiful in color and relishable in texture and flavour; they are doubtless great acquisitions to our present enviable stock. We had early Harvest this year and in good condition Aug. 6th, and the beautiful new Russian apple Tetofsky, Aug. 8th. We are now growing a few western varieties that may ultimately be of great service to us, and valuable additions to our stock. These are Walbridge, Haas, Perry Russet, Utter’s Red and Wealthy, mostly from Minnesota, and they are making splendid progress. In a few more years therefore, we hope to have something more splendid in the apple line to report.

PEARS.

This season was unfortunately an off year in our pear orchards, if the few scattering trees generally planted in this county, can properly be so designated. For growing this fruit we have a country well adapted both in soil and climate, and yet there are lamentably few and poor specimens grown, that is, compared with our capabilities. Why this is so is something like a mystery, but must be accounted for on the principle of reckless indifference. For those produced the demand is good, and the price rules high, good samples readily bringing from $2.00 to $3.00 per bushel, according to quality. We are mostly satisfied with the old standard varieties as Bartlett, Flemish Beauty and Bon de Jersey, as we can hear of nothing better. And it may be sometime before anything better is produced. Clapp’s Favorite, so largely disseminated by our society some few years ago, is now beginning to come into fruitfulness, and thus upsetting the popular objection against pear planting, that you must wait a lifetime before they come into bearing, this fallacy is now being timely exploded. Well, the fruit of this pear is fine, large, handsome and good, but very soft at maturity. The destructive blight of the pear tree so bad in some sections, is scarcely known here, even in those orchards that have been some time planted. We think suitable soil and careful preparation and drainage, with good culture, will largely overcome this difficulty in the culture of this a fine popular fruit.

PLUMS.

As far as soil and climate are concerned, this whole region is well adapted to the culture of fine plums; but it is very rarely that such is ever seen of late years. “What is the matter?” you ask. Oh, the same old disheartening story, “The Curculio takes them all;” and really this is the fact, scarcely a sample being left to show us what they would be like. Years ago we used to find a large, handsome and relishable plum on our rich creek bottoms in the woods, but like many other good things of olden time they have fled with the Indians, and now their place knows them no more for ever. What native varieties are left are few and far between and are small and astringent. This season a large nursery firm, Parsons & Co., New York, sent to us for a large quantity of native plums, to be used solely for their seed, supposing we had any quantity here; but we had to report in answer, “No plums to be had.” The sorts we attempt mostly are Blue Orleans and another blue plum, but much smaller, and in some favored sections Lombard, but in the main plum growing is at a discount among us. I may say in passing, that Black Knot is also very commonly seen on old fruitless plum trees in our fence corners and other places.

CHERRIES.

I am very sorry to report that we are not by any means so successful in growing cherries as we are in growing some other fruits. As a matter of consequence a country that is famed for fine apples, pears and plums, cannot be equally noted for fine and beautiful cherries. The fruits in their very nature require different conditions of soil and climate. In our forests are some of the finest samples of cherry trees that eyes ever looked upon, and yet their fruit is not the beautiful, luscious, European cherry, but a small jet black fruit, strung on their stems like a cluster of red currants. We have frequently tried to plant the trees of those beautiful foreign sorts, we used to have in such plentiful abundance when we were at home, but in most cases we have sadly failed. Last winter made sad havoc among our fine trees, 15 or 20 feet high, and 6 or 8 years’ growth, that we were fondly placing our expectations upon. Now they are lifeless spectres, that we can only uproot as so many cumberers of the ground. This experience is not uncommon, and is very discouraging indeed to us of so sensitive nature. The sorts mostly attempted are Black Eagle, Black Tartarian, for this color, and for red, May Duke, and early Richmond. The late Richmond or common sour cherry, as it is called, is largely grown and easily propagated, and gives on the whole good satisfaction, as it grows readily in almost any sort of soil, and bears neglect and hardship very patiently. A good hardy, serviceable cherry is much needed for our common, every day wants.

QUINCES.

Are not to any appreciable extent grown among us, as our people do not feel the need of them, not knowing anything either of their nature or qualities. It is, however, very doubtful whether our county, in climate especially, would in any degree suit them for development.

PEACHES.

The growing of this fruit in this section is getting to be quite an important industry, and thousands of trees are annually being planted for their fruit. The reason of this is the very general satisfaction the crop has given the cultivators for the last few seasons past in its quantity and in its quality. Our soil and climate seem not unadapted to the successful production of very fine peaches. This last season, however, was an unusual exception to our generally large and fine show of peaches. The reason of this was undoubtedly the unusual severity of the preceding winter, the high winds and the severe freezing having killed the peach fruit buds, and in some localities even the wood was positively frozen to death. This may not likely occur again for sometime, but it should be a valuable lesson to our peach growers generally, to be careful to provide screens or wind breaks, to their fruit plantations, for in every case the crop is benefited by it. Our crop therefore from about 150 trees did not amount to more than 20 bushels, which sold readily for a very high price in the market. I need not say that the peach is not indigenous in our country, but we have any quantity of seedlings produced annually, some good and some good for nothing. Mr. Geo. Ott, of Arkona, has a very fine yellow-fleshed seedling, called Ott’s beauty, that is really very valuable, as it is of very fine flavor, good size, ships well, and comes true from its own seed, needing not to be budded. These, you know, are good points and our people know how to prize them, and peaches will likely be planted largely, Mr. Ott himself having the finest orchard of about 2,000 trees that I have ever seen. The sorts mostly grown here are Early York; Stump the World; Crawford’s Early, and some of the very early varieties lately introduced; but Crawford’s is the best, and the largest planted. There was quite a stir made by the tree agents about Early Canada, and some of them effected large sales at good prices for the trees, but the fruit is not coming up to the expectations raised by the itinerants. It is true, it is early, maturing with us Aug. 5th, but it is nothing better than Amsden’s June, being small and so intensely cling that it can scarcely be used. Mr. River’s Early Louise is good, very early, and very fine, an acceptable fruit. It should be largely planted as it is as hardy as our seedlings.

GRAPES.

Are a very popular fruit, and fast becoming increasingly interesting. Our country seems well adapted to their successful culture, and the probabilities are that many large vineyards will be planted all over where favorable localities can be secured. The crop last season was immense, and all found a ready market at the time of maturity. Our people however, are very slow in planting out the vines, as they are much afraid there is some secret in their management, and they could not possibly do it, but still many are experimenting in small quantities. Black sorts are most popular, as our people are somewhat careless or suspicious of red or white varieties. The sorts most grown are old, well tried kinds, as Isabella, Clinton, and Concord, which is by far the best of them all. On our creek and river bottoms there is a small, black frost grape that grows very luxuriantly over the trees, but the fruit is valueless for anything excepting for wine purposes. For a fancy grape among us the Delaware is the most popular, and the people treat it with becoming respect. It succeeds remarkably well. The new sorts that are being introduced are Pocklington, Brighton and Burnet, so named after our honoured President. Of these Brighton is likely to become a popular and general favorite, and its introduction last season by the F. G. A. will largely hasten this result, as the stock was before held as scarce and dear. Burnet, introduced by the F. G. A. two years before, is also likely to become a great acquisition, as it is a remarkably fine grower, and what fruit we have yet seen is very good indeed. Of the whites we had this season a remarkably fine crop of Marthas. This is really a very fine vineyard variety, and for our climate perhaps as good, all things considered, as we need wish. The vine is very hardy and a good grower, the bunch is large and compact, and the berry is large and of very fine flavor, that hangs well to the bunch. The fruit sold well and at good prices. Champion was ready this season August 28th, Hartford Prolific Sept. 4th, and Concords Sept. 9th, but on account of the prolonged summer droughts fruits ripened a few days earlier than usual.

OUR GRAPE CROP.

Perhaps it may not be uninteresting or out of place here to give a synopsis of our beautiful crop of grapes this season, as they appeared on our grounds. It was certainly the finest sight of the kind I had ever seen, and it was difficult to realize that such a crop of fine fruit could be produced. Many came to witness it and testified to its unusual excellence. The plantation consists of 250 vines, and their net product was 5,000 lbs., of first-class fruit, that sold for $400 in the market. The average product per vine was 20 lbs. At the same rate of planting, an acre of ground would contain 544 vines, and their united product would be 10,880 lbs., 5½ tons, or in value $870, an excellent showing doubtless for grape-growing in this country, with all its disappointments and frigidity. According to the late report issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture, at Washington, U. S., 1880, on grape growing and wine making for that country, the highest yield per acre for that county, Kent, in the State of Michigan, was 10,000 lbs., and the average for the counties of the State was 45.23 lbs. per acre. At the present time wine making is not attempted among us, the market readily absorbing the whole crop of grapes, as soon as it is matured.

SUGGESTIONS.

1st. As the American people at the present time are deeply concerned about their grape culture and wine-making as a national industry, and are earnestly collecting official statistics relating to them, would it not likewise be well for us also to be awake in this matter, and more earnestly encourage and assist grape growing amongst us?

2nd. Would it not be a most successful means of modifying the excessive use of ardent stimulants amongst us, and prove a great national blessing to so encourage a supply of home made wines, the pure juice of the grape for general and domestic purposes.

3rd. Can any good substantial reason be successfully urged why this should not be done, seeing our facilities are so favorable?

4th. I would most respectfully suggest and advise that this subject be taken up and thoroughly discussed in public assembly, at the next winter meeting of our associations.

All of which is most respectfully submitted.

B. Gott.

Arkona Nurseries, Nov. 21, 1881.

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TREE PLANTING.

A DUTY OBLIGATORY ON THE STATE!

A Paper read before the Ontario Fruit Growers’ Association, by B. Gott, Arkona, Ont.

Our theme, you say, is again tree planting, and perhaps you will feel inclined to call it hackneyed, stale, &c. But after much mature and sober consideration of the subject in its various phases, we are increasingly impressed with the validity of our position concerning it. The very nature of the work in its importance and extent at once invests it with this high pre-eminence. We hope, therefore, that while we quietly pursue the line of our argument to its close you will kindly give us your calm and candid attention, and that we and our subject may be treated at once with becoming manliness and Christian grace. The proposition though somewhat startling and deviating slightly from our accustomed notion of things is still at once simple and very plain, viz.: That it is the duty of the State to encourage tree planting wherever the need exists. The force of the statement may be made more clearly to appear from the following very proper considerations: 1st. Nothing so promotes the best interests of a country’s healthfulness, beauty and utility, like extensive and judicious tree planting, and it is the recognized duty of the State to encourage, and in every possible way, secure these much valued properties to her people. 2nd. It is the duty of the State to aid and encourage national agriculture, and our proposition is analogous and closely related to it. That the encouragement of agriculture is a duty of the State is clearly apprehended in the customs of all civilized and progressive nations; witness Old England, France, Germany, the United States of America and Canada. The leading and honored countries annually lay out millions of the public monies of the State for the support and encouragement of their national agriculture. And by this means have perfected the highest and best systems of popular agriculture known. Why is this encouragement found needful and beneficial? Because simply that it is a well known demonstrable fact that stability and permanency of the state cannot exist without it. In some countries, as ours for instance, this is absolute because it is the main source of production and the treasure house of the wealth and material greatness of the State. In many respects these remarks will forcibly apply to general tree planting and forestry. Those noted centres of power, of wealth and of civilization already mentioned, not only acknowledged the general truth of our proposition, but are generously and studiously acting upon it in the millions of acres of noble forest wealth to be inspected on their borders. Are we doing anything in this direction? But, 3rd. It is the duty of the State to protect and encourage her educational interests. This as a measure of increased efficiency and wealth is also closely allied to our position with respect to tree planting. The duty of the State to foster educational interests among her people is a position now generally accepted, and needs but little attempts at proof. The force of this practical truth is abundantly exemplified in every day transactions of all great and prosperous people, and indeed it is itself the great foundation, the “chief corner stone” of all greatness and prosperity. But again the burden of general and extended tree planting is work, at once so ponderous and so exhaustive, that individual and isolated effort is inefficient and pales away into utter insignificance before it. Also the tastes and personal opinions of men with respect to any great public matter are in themselves so varied and in some cases opposite, that but little real progress can be effected in any one direction. This may be greatly modified and much better results become apparent when the overruling wisdom of the State presides. But further the individual life of man is in itself found to be too short and too uncertain for any great public endowment requiring length of time and great concentration of active forces. All acknowledge that tree planting for the good of themselves and their posterity after them is their duty, and that it should be done, but individual effort, if it happens to be in the minority, is singularly and painfully unavailing. If men have the assurance that their work in any one direction is appreciated by those in authority over them, and that it would eventually overcome all hostilities and be a great and pleasant success in the future destinies of their country, there is little possible doubt of the astonishing results. Self-interest, too, being in the general direction would render the task less imposing and very greatly assist in the matter. But we must very briefly proceed to consider the nature of the question, and the nature of the obligation the State is laid under to encourage it. By tree planting we would of course be understood to mean the planting of living trees for ultimate results, as for timber, for fruit, or for ornamentation. All tree planting may be properly included as regards the results under the head of one or other of these three great classes or departments. The latter two classes of tree planting are easily got along with, and require but little from the State in the way of assistance and encouragement, as the prevailing and powerful motor and stimulus, self-interest, as we have before said, is in the line of this direction. It can always be appealed to, and is always capable of great results if a moderate amount of encouragement can be secured. By this means the prosperous farms and beautiful and happy homes all over this favored country are secured. The most obvious encouragement here required from the State will simply be good and efficient measures for the best possible protection of the products after they are attained. These, I suppose, we ought to consider, we assuredly have at least in Canada, as the man who dares to enter our orchards and tread or cut down our fruit or ornamental trees is most severely punished if we can catch him. And so of the man who carries off our fruit by the bagful. We, however, sometimes think according to our experience in this matter that the moral sense of wrong that is stamped upon the minds of our perambulating youth is but very feebly made, and that if we had them securely in our hold we should much relish the duty of impressing it more efficiently upon their shoulders. The fact undoubtedly remains that orchard protection in this country, as at present understood, is not considered satisfactory either for purposes of encouragement or safety. But though those classes of the subject are so easily managed it is not by any means just so with the first, for although the principle of self-interest may also, to some extent, exert an influence, here it is at a much further distance away, and consequently is neither so active or so potent in accomplishing good results. Other effectual motors must be applied. We realize as a fundamental principle in the government of nations that the vital interests of the State is in the hands of her ministers, and that these should, as in duty bound, be thoroughly alive and wide awake to those interests. We would humbly suggest, therefore, that the influence to be brought to bear on a people for the advancement of any great public improvement might be: 1st. Limited measures, bearing mildly on the subject to be advanced, may be passed in the Legislature of our country advising and offering inducements. 2nd. Statistics and reports as to the actual state of the country in this particular might be authorized to be made and sent in to the minister of the department, effected at greater or less intervals of time. Other forms of inducement and encouragement we shall further consider subsequently, but it is evident that simple means backed up might sufficiently influence to move in the proper direction. We will now in the meantime, as briefly as possible, proceed to consider some of the advantages of tree planting.

And these will appear to be: 1st. To embellish and beautify the landscape. Of the force of this statement we are all more or less keenly sensible whose homes are happily cast in the midst of the attractions. The converse of this is to be witnessed by the denizens of the trackless prairies of Central America. 2nd. To provide for the use of the inhabitants timber and fuel for mechanical and domestic uses. For these purposes alone an abundance of fine timber may be the means of saving to a country many millions in value annually. 3rd. To regulate and modify the climate of the country. That forests have an effect upon climate is abundantly attested by the best of proofs. See for a full and satisfactory statement of this whole matter “the report upon forestry” made to the department at Washington, 1877, by F. B. Hough, Commissioner. We are indebted to this admirable and exhaustive work for much of our subject. A work that should be in the hands of every studious citizen of our country. Though it is not meant that trees alone make the conditions of the climate of a country, yet it is meant that they are important recognized factors in the distribution and modification of climate. 4th. To encourage and distribute rainfalls. This phase of the subject has had given to it much scientific and mature attention of late, and it is a subject that is in every way worthy of attention, for what matters it though our country be never so fertile if our rainfall be insufficient or very poorly distributed? These and each of them should be inducements or arguments abundant to the inhabitants of any country to be studious and lavish in their efforts at tree planting in their midst. Surely none of us wish to have brought upon us by our own efforts the converse of this state of things! For a moment we will now look at the nature and the extent of the obligation to plant trees, and we can get perhaps the best view of this kind of obligation by considering it as 1st, pecuniary, 2nd, physical, and 3rd, moral. The pecuniary argument is the money view or estate argument, and of course is at once a very potent one. It may include all the direct advantage to be got from the trees in the shape of fruit, and its immediate effects, also, in the shape of beauty. This is a very extensive consideration, and yet it is lowest of all the arguments, and consequently we bring it on first, and also because it is the argument that is most readily appreciated. It is endless in its relations to our material interests, and is therefore a fit and proper subject for the highest encouragements of the State, for if it is not, then what is? The second or physical argument grows out of the first, and is somewhat depending upon it. It has reference to the pure animal or physical enjoyment growing out of the duty and following the practice of tree planting, and may be considered in its effects aside from its money value. In planting trees we are regaled, invigorated and satisfied by their fruits, we are protected, warmed and comforted by their timber, or we are instructed, pleased and delighted by their nobility, grandeur and beauty. This argument is very extensive in its import, most readily appreciated and very forcible in its character. The third or moral argument is the product of the two former ones and their consummation. It has reference to the effect on the character of a people thus enriched and ennobled by their wealth of profitable and beautiful trees. To say that tree planting has no moral side to it, nor can have, is to run contrary to our experience, and is bordering on the absurd. It has! The people who are so abundantly enriched, both pecuniarily and physically, by an abundance of fruitful and profitable trees are capable of higher developments of moral character than the people who have not these advantages. Their trees have the effect upon them of supplying their needs and of inspiring their hearts with gratitude. Not the gratitude merely of the untutored Indian who roams in nature’s boundless forests, unconscious of the true character of the benefits surrounding him, but rather the gratitude of reflection, of enlightenment and of a hightened devotion. As we have already hinted, we must now very briefly glance at the nature of the encouragements looked for in this particular. This may be best stated in the following order: 1st. Government premiums should be offered for the most extensive, best kept and best bearing orchards in different parts of the country, and to be decided by a Government appointed visiting committee. These premiums may be in cash, or they may be in diplomas, or in both, as the end and object is best furthered. And the effect would be very influential and marked on the destinies of the country. The principal influence may be ascribed to competition, which is a most powerful motor in human affairs. 2nd. A commutation of taxes or statute labor should be granted from time to time for trees planted by the roadside, to be determined according to the number and value of the trees planted, and properly cared for, by an officer appointed for the purpose. The influence of this kind of tree planting is very marked in the annals of a country, and even the traveller will tarry to bless his country for this generous and rich provision of his nature. On account of the difficulty and danger of this sort of tree planting it needs and should get special protection for its successful issue. 3rd. To encourage forest tree planting on a large scale over the country, assurance of special favors and rewards should be publicly made known. These may consist of commutation of all taxes for more or less years, according to the extent, variety and perfection of the plantation, to be determined as before by a visiting committee. Further special premiums should be offered at stated periods to the owners of most approved forest tracts, to be determined by efficient judges appointed for the purpose. The influence of this kind of tree planting on a country is so great and so lasting and widespread that we lay special stress upon it. Moreover the expenses, difficulties, hinderances and discouragements are so constant and so formidable that special inducements and helps must be supplied by the State, even at some sacrifice, in order to accomplish telling results. By these or similar means many tracts of fine, thrifty forestry would soon spring into being over the face of our beautiful Canadian landscape to replace the sites of those old primeval forests so rapidly disappearing from the scene. The objections to this kind of tree planting may be stated in brief to be: 1st. Your teaching would depreciate and ultimately destroy private enterprise. This objection misinterprets the force of our teaching altogether. We do not mean to assert that the State should do all the work and the citizens nothing. No, no! We rather mean simply that it is the duty of the State to encourage private enterprise, and in every possible way to help the citizen. 2nd. Life is too short for such extended operations, and we should never see the results of our labor and care. In part we acknowledge the force of this objection, and in a larger part we do not, for though life is short, as we all sadly feel, yet many fine results have been seen by the operators in this direction. Besides, the objection has much of its point from a well known selfish principle influencing very many to leave as little as possible to those who shall come after us for fear our children will never thank us for it. 3rd. Our farm is too small to spare land for tree planting, as we want all our soil for grain raising and grazing. This objection is positively absurd on the very face of it, as any one traversing this country over hill and dale will readily see. How many thousands of such acres of Canadian soil are now lying in a state of comparative uselessness that might advantageously be used for purposes of tree growing? I stop not to answer; we all know they are immense. 4th. Our nursery men have not turned their attention to the matter of extensive forest tree growing, and consequently trees are difficult to obtain, and beyond our limited means. The force and pungency of this objection can be readily dispelled, like the morning cloud that passeth away. Only let the want be felt, or gently hint that the demand is likely to occur, and the stock can be supplied by the million, and on the most liberal terms; and we have every confidence in the supply if there is only likely to be a good demand. 5th. Trees planted by the roadside have a tendency to impede traffic and to harbor wet, fungus, &c. This objection, though pretty well rooted over this entire country, is mainly resting on misrepresentation, and is contrary to our experience. If proper kinds of trees are properly planted by the roadside, and moderately proper attention can be given to them, they will grow up to be the beauty and adornment of our country, and a source of everlasting blessing, and consequently cannot be charged with the detriments objected to. But 6th, and lastly. Trees in blocks exhaust the soil, and by their shade exhaust neighboring fields. In answer we would ask, “Exhaust what soil?” for they cannot exhaust the neighboring fields to any perceptible extent, and they positively enrich the soil on which they are now standing by their gaseous and vegetable deposits. As for the shade complained of, this is so meagre that it is scarcely worthy of a passing consideration. With these objections and their answers, we shall now close our paper, and confidently leave the resultant consequences to the mature judgments of your mind. We only regret that it was not in our power to bring better and more thorough ability to bear on a question at once so interesting and so important. We hope yet to see the day when the measures here recommended shall be recognized by the authorities of this country.

January 18th, 1882.

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THE MAYFLOWER TOMATO.

Those who have seen the Tomato grown as a garden vegetable only, to supply the wants of the family, can hardly be aware of the important position which it now occupies among market crops. In some localities, in fact, it rates in importance before any other product of the soil. This is owing to the immense quantities used in the canning factories, amounting in some establishments to over a million of cans a year.

The principal points to be desired in a Tomato are earliness, firmness, good, uniform size and shape, bright color, pure flavor, perfect ripening, good keeping quality and productiveness. To unite all these in one variety has been the aim of originators of new seedlings.

The Mayflower Tomato.

The Mayflower is the latest competitor among these claimants. It was raised by Mr. F. H. Hosford of Vermont, and after several years’ trial, considered superior, in several respects, to any of the older kinds. It is very early, ripening but a few days later than Little Gem, and averaging in size about one-third larger than Acme. It is of a glossy, bright red color, ripens evenly and completely up to the stem, is perfectly smooth and almost globular, slightly flattened; flesh solid, with few seeds, and of a rich pure flavor. Its productiveness and shipping qualities are claimed not to be equalled by any other variety. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society, at its last exhibition, held in connection with the American Pomological meeting, awarded the first prize for the best new Tomato to the Mayflower.

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THE ESSENTIALS FOR SUCCESS IN PEACH GROWING.

A good degree of special knowledge of the business, and a taste suited for the work.

Selecting suitable land upon which to plant. Land upon which the peach has grown within 15 or 20 years is unsuitable; wet land is not good; but moderately rich corn land upon our high hills is quite suitable.

Continuous good culture, with hoed crops (if desired), for two years, after which clean culture continuously, and no crop but the peach.

A moderate dressing of unleached wood ashes, ground bone and slacked lime annually. The orchards should not be forced to make a heavy growth or a late growth in autumn; therefore, keep mellow and clean in early summer, and stir the soil as little as need be after August 1.

Guard well against the peach borer. To do this, in May supply a wash of this nature: Use 10 pounds of good lump lime and 1 pound of sulphur, slack to a proper whitewash consistency; then add 2 quarts of soft soap, or its equivalent of whale oil soap, and if convenient thin down as required with a strong decoction of tobacco. Having this, lay bare the collar and main roots of the trees, forming a sort of basin around each tree; then with an old broom wash the exposed roots, collar and trunk of each tree. This will be too offensive an application for any insect, and is also healthful. And in November mound up the earth about the tree in a small cone, with one or two quarts of wood ashes on top as a protection against mice, removing the same in May,—and thus year by year, repeat.

If possible, mulch with some coarse manure or other material at setting in of winter, not around the trunk of the tree but under the outer branches, as a safeguard against severe winters and premature spring.

Proper pruning, and this should embrace judicious shortening in.

As I have already hinted we should avoid a late growth by not cultivating after July, and also by only a moderate cultivation. The peach tree should neither be stinted nor forced into excessive growth. Avoid also heavy cropping first, by previous cutting back and thinning out of superfluous branches, and again, if necessary, by thinning out fruit. But by no means allow exhaustion of the trees. Hence, feed the young orchard moderately, and the bearing orchard fully. Excessively rich soil should not be selected for the peach, for rapid growth is quite likely to be followed by early decay.—P. M. Augur, in N. E. Homestead.

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Early Pears.—The following varieties give a successive supply at the North from late in July till the middle of September: Doyenné d’Eté, Bloodgood, Giffard, Rostiezer, Petite Marguerite, Tyson, Washington, Bartlett.—Country Gentleman.

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CELERY GROWING.

One of the most successful garden crops that I raise is celery. I raised the past season about 5,000 heads, of which I lost about 1,000, owing to the winter setting in so unexpectedly. The 4,000 heads saved will bring, when all sold, about $125. This was all raised as a second crop following peas, and it did not occupy more than one-fourth of an acre. I also sold about $25 worth of celery plants. I raise very nice plants in the following way:

I sow the seed in a cold-frame about the middle of April, and when about an inch and a half high, I transplant to beds four feet wide and sixteen in length, setting the plants two inches apart each way. As soon as the bed is finished, I have frames made of narrow strips of board and lath, the lath being their width apart. These I place over the bed about eight inches from the plants on the top of the stakes, three of which are driven on each side of the bed. By the use of these frames the plants enjoy a free circulation of air, and are just half the time in the shade (while the sun shines), and will not wilt or need watering, except at time of setting out. The frames may be left on until the plants become well-rooted. Plants treated in this way become very fine and stocky in from four to six weeks, and may then be taken up with a ball of earth as large as a man’s fist adhering to each plant.

I transplant to the trenches from the 1st of July to the 1st of August. The trenches I make very shallow, about two inches below the surface after the plants are set out, some kind of fertilizer being below the plants. I have seen the best results from well-rotted stable manure. I commence to earth up as soon as the plants begin to spread, so as to keep them growing in an upright position, taking care not to choke them with too much earth at one time. I raise the dwarf varieties, and have found the London Red the best for late keeping, also the best flavored according to my judgment. I have the trenches four feet apart, and the plants six inches apart in the trench. This, I think, is as near as is convenient for earthing up.

Before I commence to earth up I loosen the earth on each side of the trench with a hoe. I then get down on my hands and knees astride of the row, and, while holding the stalks of a plant together with one hand, I draw the earth up with the other, pressing it down firmly around the plant. The best time to do this is when the ground is a little moist, but not wet. This process is called “handling,” and by many it is called hard, disagreeable work; but there is no work in the garden that gives me more genuine satisfaction. This first handling brings the plants up nearly level with the surface, and before the second earthing up I run a cultivator between the rows. I commence to harvest the celery for winter about the first of November. My way of storing is to make large beds of it on the cellar bottom, setting the celery upright, and not too close together, and using earth enough to cover the roots well. If the cellar is dry the beds may be watered occasionally, but in a damp cellar it would not be necessary, and would be apt to induce rot.—Rural New Yorker.

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THE CALLA LILY.

This old plant is too well known to require any extended notice. If the bulbs or tubers of this lily be potted in good soil about the middle of September, and given a liberal supply of water at all times, it will quickly start into growth and give out its fine, large flowers from December to May. Manure water is very beneficial to this plant. After flowering, gradually withhold water, and when the foliage shows signs of decay, lay the pots on their sides and give no further care until time for repotting, when the tubers should be cleansed of the old soil and repotted into new. When grown in the sitting room the leaves should have an occasional sponging to prevent the accumulation of dust.

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THE TUBEROSE.

(Polianthes Tuberosa).

The original, single variety is a native of India, and has for many years been grown in large quantities in Southern France, where the flowers are used for manufacturing perfumery.

The double variety, which is now almost exclusively used for garden purposes, is very much superior to the single one in the size and appearance of the flowers. Owing to the easy manner in which they can be cultivated, they are found in almost every garden, while their rich perfume and clear white color have made them very desirable for all sorts of floral designs.

To make the flowering of Tuberoses a success, it is indispensable to procure sound bulbs, of good size. If the center of the bulb, or “flower-germ,” is not perfectly sound, it is hopeless to expect flowers; and any bulb, be it ever so large, that has flowered once, will not bloom again.

It is a common mistake among amateurs to select the largest bulbs, when buying. Frequently, the flower-germ in large bulbs has been so far advanced as to get killed or injured by the drying process which the bulbs have to undergo to keep them sound over winter. A medium-sized, well-formed bulb, with a hard, sharp-pointed neck, is the kind to be recommended, as these can, with proper treatment, be depended upon to flower successfully. There is no way of telling, in the dry bulb, the difference between the single and double variety; the buyer is depending solely on the honesty of the dealer. I think it well, however, to remark here that it is not always the fault of the dealer if what is sold as the double comes single. The double variety is only a sport of the single one, originally produced by garden cultivation; and it is not a very uncommon occurrence to see them running back again, especially if the bulbs are grown in the same ground a number of years.

Before planting the bulbs, all the little bulblets, or “sets,” which are always attached to the main bulb, should be removed, as well as the sprouts or eyes that may be showing on the sides of the bulb. By this operation all the strength and nourishment that are contained in the bulb will be preserved for the development of the flowers.

The proper time for planting, in this vicinity, is the latter part of May or beginning of June. It is of no advantage to plant Tuberoses before the soil is thoroughly warm. The bulbs should be placed at least three inches under the surface of the soil, and will do best in rich, warm, sandy ground, exposed to the full sun.

If wanted for early flowering, the bulbs may be planted about the first of March, in small pots, with clear sand or sandy soil, placed in a hot-bed, and replanted in larger pots, with rich soil, as soon as started. They must not be planted out, or left uncovered, before the end of May.

The “Pearl” Tuberose, a variety of later introduction, and in general respects similar to the old double, bears somewhat larger flowers, on considerably shorter and stronger stalks. Although the flowers of this variety do not keep as long as those of the old kind—a consideration of some importance to the professional florist—its dwarf habit makes it most valuable for greenhouse cultivation.—American Garden.

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LOST RUBIES, THE MONARCH OF MARKET RASPBERRIES.

Few varieties of fruits have called from the press and the people such attention as Lost Rubies. Its suggestive name, the uncertainty hanging over its origin, and its remarkable qualifications lead speculative minds to a wide and suggestive field for thought and controversy. We have fruited it six years, and every season it was a surprise and a wonder to us; an enigma which we sought to unravel by submitting it to leading pomologists, but their evidence all went to convince that Lost Rubies is a choice seedling of which they have no record. Coming to us, a few scattering plants with dark, purple polished, almost thornless canes, with evidences of aristocracy, mixed helplessly with a mass of bastards—wild vagabond varieties that never set one single berry, good or bad—the counterparts of those thorny barren pests growing in the wild underbrush by the acre, we had reason to believe we had a choice seedling, but having no absolutely positive evidence as to its origin, and wishing to stand fairly on the records, we stated from the first that its origin was involved in obscurity, and offered it on its merits alone. We are willing to withdraw the cognomen if proof is given that it should be withdrawn. Here is a red raspberry possessing many of the qualifications of foreign sorts, rivalling the grand old Franconia in size, quality and beauty, yet in other respects giving evidence of being a native, ranking in hardiness and vigor next to the iron-clad Turner. Ask any fruit man if he knows of a bright, firm, large and superior flavored red raspberry that will endure winters when mercury marks 10 to 20 degrees below zero. No, he will say there is no such variety. Well, Lost Rubies is just the berry that fills the bill. Plant it in a field apart from all other varieties, and it will not exhibit its remarkable productiveness, yet it will yield well there. But plant it in blocks, with a row of Cuthbert every ten or twenty-four feet, and if your soil is anything like mine you will see the largest yield of fine fruit imaginable. I have not found anything to equal it. It ripens with the Brandywine, and continues in bearing several weeks in favorable seasons; not a few scattering berries, but large pickings for market. One need not wait a year to see its fruit. If a few inches of the old cane is left on at planting it will bear fine specimens the season planted—an indication of its vitality and productiveness. Having tested almost every popular variety, the Lost Rubies takes the lead over all for a profitable market berry.—Fruit Grower.

 

T. C. Robinson, of Owen Sound, says: “No one can convince me that Lost Rubies is akin to foreign sorts; the leaf and cane are as plainly native as our Canada thistle. I want to plant more of it.”

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BOOK NOTICES.

In Press. Hough’s Elements of Forestry. Designed to afford information concerning planting and care of Forest Trees for ornament or profit, and giving suggestions upon the creation and care of woodlands, with the view of securing the greatest benefit for the longest time. Particularly adapted to the wants and conditions of the United States. By Franklin B. Hough, Ph.D., Forestry Division, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 1 vol., 12mo., illustrated.

 

This work is designed to present a concise outline of the general subject of Forestry in its various relations, and especially to afford directions for the planting and care of trees in groves, or as windbreaks, or for ornament.

Although the range and capabilities of species will be noticed, with reference to the whole country, and the special interests of other regions will be included, particular attention will be given to the subject of tree-planting in the Western States, and on the borders of the great plains, with suggestions as to the methods best adapted for securing success under the difficulties there encountered.

The work will be illustrated by engravings in the text, as the subject may require. Technical details will be avoided, and the greatest care will be taken that the definitions and terms used are concise, plain, and easily understood. No theoretical discussions will be introduced, and no statements but those founded upon approved authority.

The author has been several years, and is now, engaged under an appointment from the General Government in investigating the subject of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture, and his reports, published by order of Congress, have received the approval of the highest authorities upon Forestry in Europe. They were awarded a Diploma of Honor at the International Geographical Congress at Venice last autumn. Robert Clarke & Co., Publishers, Cincinnati, O.

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Blackberries.—The Snyder is gaining popularity on account of its great hardiness and productiveness. Ellwanger & Barry regard it the best for family use, for although only moderate in size, it ripens thoroughly throughout without the unripe core of some other sorts, and it is very pleasant in quality. The Kittatinny had become a general favorite before it was known to be so liable to the yellow rust, the fruit being better and the canes hardier than the Rochelle. Wilson has long been the great market blackberry of New Jersey, but farther north it does not endure the winter. Our plants, after bearing a few times a large and not very good berry, gradually perished during the successive winters.—Country Gentleman.

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SHELLING PEAS.

  Pink sun-bonnet hanging down;

  O’er a fair face half a frown;

  Basket tipped up on her knees—

  Maiden busy shelling peas.

 

  Looking o’er the garden wall,

  Youthful figure, straight and tall,

  Lounges with a careless grace,

  Straw hat pushed off sunny face—

 

  And a pair of lazy eyes

  Look with cool and calm surprise

  On the fingers plump and white

  Shelling peas with all their might.

 

  “Such a busy little bee

  Puts to shame poor thriftless me!”

  And a yawn, half made, half real,

  To these words gave sign and seal.

 

  Pink sun-bonnet nods assent,

  Fingers give the pods a rent,

  As though saying, “Were these YOU,

  I’d soon show you what I’d do!”

 

  “So you think I ought to be

  Quite ashamed of this ‘poor me,’

  Who bewails his lazy lot

  And to better it tries not?”

 

  Pink sun-bonnet gives a nod,

  Cracks a fresh new glistening pod,

  Which, exploding, seems to say,

  Answering for her, boldly, “Yea.”

 

  Lazy-eyes dart a quick look,

  Naught but silence will they brook;

  Bending closer they peer down

  ’Neath the bonnet’s clumsy crown—

 

  “I would toil and strive each hour.

  Working with a will and power,

  Had I aught TO WORK HARD FOR

  Some sweet bright reward in store.”

 

  Pink sun-bonnet laughs out now,

  And the face is all aglow,

  As she answers, pointing down

  To her basket with a frown—

 

  “Lots of shell and little peas;

  Words are well and sometimes please;

  But words are SHELL—it’s FRUIT we need:

  Talk is easy—prove by deed!”

 

  Quick the lazy eyes flash fire,

  And the owner bends down nigher,

  Till the color in his cheeks

  Fades and flickers as he speaks—

 

  “Ah, but ’tis within the shells

  That the perfect fruit first dwells:

  All my words I’ll prove quite true,

  If my REWARD may be you!”

 

  Pink sun-bonnet’s still and dumb;

  Busy fingers quite o’ercome;

  Drop the basket off the knees.

  And down roll the half-shelled peas.

 

  “See, you work in vain alone—

  Without HELP nought can be done;

  May I then through our lives be

  Helpmate to you loyally?”

 

  Two brown hands clasp fingers white;

  Lazy-eyes grow clear and bright;

  Pink sun-bonnet ’gainst her will,

  Looks up with cheeks pinker still,

 

  And again it gives a nod—

  Then a noise! Was it a pod?

  Something sounded. As you please.

  It all happened—Shelling Peas.

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DOMESTIC RECIPES.

Orange Syrup.—To one cup of the juice of ripe thin-skinned oranges add one and a half cups of powdered sugar, boil and skim, when cold bottle and put in a cool place. Fine for flavoring custards or pudding sauces.—Aaron’s Wife, in Prairie Farmer.

Lemon Jumbles.—Ingredients: Eggs, one; sugar, one teacup; butter, two-thirds teacup; milk, three teaspoonsful; cream tartar, one teaspoonful; soda, one-half teaspoonful; lemons, two; flour. Use the juice of both lemons and grated rind of one; mix rather stiff, roll out, and cut with cake cutter.

Baked Tomatoes.—Sprinkle a layer of bread crumbs into a yellow nappy or a baking dish, and spread over it a layer of chopped raw tomatoes, seasoned with pepper and salt, and bits of butter. Fill up the dish, having the upper layer of bread with bits of butter. Bake for three-quarters of an hour. An excellent breakfast relish.

Apple Pancakes.—Ingredients: Apples, twelve; eggs, twenty; cream, one quart; cinnamon, two drachms; nutmeg, two drachms; ginger, two drachms; crushed lump sugar, six drachms. Peel the apples, cut in round slices and fry in butter. Beat up the eggs in the cream, add the spice and sugar and pour over the apples.

French Vegetable Soup.—To a leg of lamb of moderate size take four quarts of water. Of carrots, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbage and turnips, take a tea cup each, chopped fine; salt and pepper to taste. Let the lamb be boiled in this water. Let it cool; skim off all fat that rises to the top. The next day boil again, adding the chopped vegetables. Let it boil three hours the second day.

Cranberry Roll.—One quart flour, one heaped teaspoon baking powder, sifted together; mix into a soft dough with sweet milk; roll thin and spread over it a pint of cranberries, and a cup and a half of sugar; roll it over and over into a roll, and put loosely into a pudding bag, and put in the steamer over a kettle of boiling water, and steam one hour. Serve with a rich sweet sauce.—Aaron’s Wife, in Prairie Farmer.

 

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]MAY, 1882.[No. 5.
  

CHRYSANTHEMUMS.

The colored plate which adorns the present number will make our readers acquainted with three distinct sections of this showy flower—the Japanese, Pompon, and the Chinese. Figures seven and nine indicate the Japanese variety, nine being the large white flower so prominent in the upper part of the group; one and two are yellow and rose-colored Pompons, and the remainder belong to the Chinese section.

In our climate, except in the sections where the autumnal frosts are postponed quite late by the modifying influences of large bodies of water, the Chrysanthemum needs to be brought into the conservatory or cool greenhouse in order to enjoy their bloom. Their season of flowering is late in the autumn, and on that account an almost indispensable plant, making the conservatory gay with its crimson and gold, when there is scarcely any other plant in bloom.

It is of easy culture, growing readily from cuttings, or suckers, or divisions of the roots, yet it has seemed to the writer that the best results are obtained by growing them from cuttings. These may be taken off in the spring, and as soon as they are rooted put into small pots, from which they should be shifted to larger when their growth requires it. A six inch pot is large enough for the last shift, in which they can remain until they have bloomed. They should never be allowed to flag for want of water, but be plentifully supplied all the time they are growing and blooming. Nor do they thrive as well in great heat as when kept in a cool place where they can have plenty of air.

After the young plant has got well established in the small pot and has attained a height of five or six inches, the terminal bud or top of the plant should be pinched off, so as to make the plant throw out branches, and as these branches extend they will also require to be pinched in, so that a bushy and symmetrical form may be secured. By the middle of August this pinching must be relinquished, so that the plant may form its flowering buds in season for its autumnal display.

The soil in which the plants are grown should be well enriched with old and thoroughly rotted manure; that from the cow-stable is usually preferred, and used in the proportion of one half, the other half being good loam. An addition of finely ground bone, if convenient, will not be amiss, nor would an occasional watering, say once a week, with manure water, be unacceptable to the plants. They will bear liberal treatment, and abundantly repay your care in the profusion and wealth of bloom.

It is not worth while to take the pains necessary to grow them from seed. They are comparatively inexpensive, and can be had of the florists of such colors and forms as may be preferred. Besides, new varieties are being constantly produced, which crowd out the older sorts, and one always wants the newest, even though they may not be any better than their predecessors.

One who has seen a well ordered exhibition of Chrysanthemums, when the hall is filled with well grown plants, each one a mass of bloom, so that the room is ablaze with the gorgeous display; one who has seen such a show does not wonder that the Japanese have their Chrysanthemum festival. In that mild climate and with their gardening skill, these showy flowers are produced in great perfection and in most lavish profusion, so that in their season the whole Island is bright with their beauty. It must be worth a voyage to Japan to have the pleasure of enjoying the floral display which is presented to the lover of flowers in that equable climate, where the Japanese Iris, Japanese Lilies and Japanese Chrysanthemums in acres of beauty delight the eye.

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OPINIONS OF MEMBERS.

We are very much pleased with the improved appearance and size of the Horticulturist, and the Annual Report is exceedingly interesting and very valuable.

Henry Wightman.

Marnock.

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The Horticulturist becomes more interesting every number. Since the introduction of flowers, I find it becomes more so to wife and daughters, and others interested in that line of study.

Wm. Gillett.

Marchmount.

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I am glad to see the improvement in the Horticulturist this year, and I think the Directors deserve a hearty support for their enterprise in giving the members so much for their money.

H. C. Finch.

Mecunoma, Muskoka.

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I am well satisfied with the Horticulturist; every one who cultivates fruit should have it. In it I find a great deal of useful information. The Brighton grape you sent me was received in good condition and grew.

J. B. Burk.

Brougham.

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Enclosed I send you my subscription to the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario. I consider that the best spent dollar I lay out in the year. The Canadian Horticulturist has very much improved of late. I take two American agricultural papers, but they do not seem half so practical as your paper. Your list of grapes that would suit Ontario was a timely article, and your plates showing how they should be trimmed are worth their weight in gold.

R. Lewis.

Maitland.

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I am not surprised to see so many expressing their satisfaction at the improved size and appearance of the Horticulturist, and I, in common with all (I hope) of your readers, consider so valuable a book well worth preserving for future reference, and here propose to give some practical instructions of the manner of keeping the year’s numbers in compact form. First, if the paper is folded when received, it should be placed against a warm stove pipe, or something warm, and rubbed with the hand till the crease disappears, then it will be in better shape to read and lay away. When all the numbers are received at the end of the year, strip off all the outside covers, placing the illustrations, index and title page in their proper places, and the backs all true, then take stove pipe wire, or any soft wire, make two or three staples about half-inch wide, and long enough to go through the book and clinch; make holes as near the back of the book as possible with a brad-awl to suit the width of staples, which put through and clinch with the handle of the awl, using pressure only; but, of course, cutting away any surplus wire before the clinches are closed down. Now prepare and glue a double fly sheet to each side over the staples, being careful not to put on a strip of glue more than just sufficient to cover the staples. Any strong manilla paper is preferable to white tea or printing paper. Be sure to have the fold on a straight line with the back, as this is to form the inside of the hinge to the back. Cut some card-board just the size for the covers, which glue to the fly sheet, but keeping the edge of the card-board back a quarter of an inch to form a hinge at the back, and press all firmly between two boards in the vice of work-bench. As soon as the glue will hold, cut a strip of binders’ cloth, green or buff window holland, the length of the book, and wide enough to cover the back and catch the sides a half inch or more, which glue fast to the back, bringing over the edges to catch the card-board on each side. Make this tight and smooth, press again and smooth down the back, and press the cloth in to form hinges. While standing for a few minutes select two of the cleanest outsides that had been stripped from the monthly parts, cut the edges true and glue on to the covers of the book, leaving a small strip of the cloth at the back exposed. On my last year’s I used the cover that contained the officers for 1882 for back. The month can be erased from the title page with a common ink eraser, or fine emery cloth. After it is dry cut all down true with a sharp chisel, first having the leaves firmly compressed between two boards. The edge of the chisel should be a little rough, and, of course, drawn lengthwise. If all has been done with any taste, you will be proud enough of your book to show it to your neighbour, and likely get him to become a member. In this way I bind my Catalogues, American Agriculturist, Rural New Yorker, &c., which I find more convenient than to have them lying about my room.

I have invariably found my best bunches of grapes nearest the ground. Last year I trained very low, and found that on our warm, dry soil, grapes ripen more regularly, earlier, and give finer bunches, than if trained against a wall to bake in the sun, as some of mine did last year. All this suggests low trellis and low training.

J. P. Cockburn.

Gravenhurst, Muskoka.

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REPORTS ON TREES RECEIVED.

  I’m overwhelm’d with grateful feeling,

  Until my mind is past concealing;

  This saying surely you believe,

  “To give is better than receive.”

  That book itself, with such a store

  Of information, is worth more

  Than all we give besides the rest—

  Trees, plants and horticulturist.

  And then the trees have done so well,

  Their value I can hardly tell,

  Except the golden grimes by name

  Was dead and dry before it came.

  Then grapes and rasps and seedling glass

  My expectation did surpass.

  If every person did but know

  The gain and pleasure they forego,

  They would come all with such a rush

  Your institution they would crush,

  For it would be in vain to try

  So many thousands to supply;

  Then just keep quiet, or I fear

  You may endanger your career.

                  William Brown.

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With respect to my eight years’ experience as amateur fruit grower in the Town and City of St. Thomas, East, Pears for general culture for profit I strongly endorse the (1) Flemish Beauty, (2) Bartlett, (3) Clapp’s Favorite, it has blighted some with me. Duchesse as dwarf succeeds well. The Sheldon is a fine flavored pear. The Vicar blighted badly, I had to cut it down. The Clapp’s Favorite I received some years since is now a fine tree, has borne sparingly three years. The flavor is exquisite when picked early and ripened in the house. Great care must be taken not to allow them to ripen on the tree, as they rot from the core and lose all flavor. Grapes—I have met with the best success here with Concord and Agawam. I have also fruited the Barry, Merrimac and Salem. The above Rogers Grapes were badly killed on the trellis through the severe frosts of last winter. I also lost many Plums from the same cause. I cannot write well of the Eumelan. I think it a poor, insipid grape. The Burnet is with me a very slow grower, has not fruited yet. The best point I see in it yet is a very pretty leaf. The Downing Gooseberry throve well with me until cut off by frost last winter. I do not think it is to be compared with the Houghton for cultivation, though the Downing berry is larger, I think it lacks the flavor of the Houghton. Lee’s Prolific Currants I do not find, after two years’ growth, to exceed, if equal, Black Naples. In Crab Apples the Hyslop and Soulard are by far the finest fruiters and growers. The Senasqua Grape of last year did not start. The Ontario Apple has done well in growth, but not fruited yet. In shrubs I can especially recommend Hydrangea Grandiflora for hardiness, length of blooming season and beautiful appearance. I am pleased to write that I received Eight First and Second Prizes at the Southern Counties Fair, 1880, for fruit grown by myself (not collected). My stock of knowledge was gained, to a large extent, from yearly reports and monthly papers of Horticulturist. I find the Dominion Strawberry a useful variety, the crop coming in when the Wilson is failing. I believe the Sharpless a good acquisition to our list of good croppers. Excuse lengthiness, from yours truly,

Henry N. Reading,

Machinist.

St. Thomas.

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A TIMELY HINT.

A very creditable appearance our little journal makes now. And it is a token for good to see more of our members giving us the benefit of their experience.

“In the multitude of counsellors there is safety.”

Some keen observers of cause and effect may be, as wee Scotch bodies say, a wee bit blate (don’t think the Editor himself understands that), or they may not be blessed with the pen of the ready writer; but let me assure them our Editor is, even if he does not understand the Scotch dialect. Let us have the results of your experiments, your failures and successes; he’ll bring them all out in shape becoming his sheet.

John Croil.

Aultsville.

KIND WORDS.

It is gratifying to observe how very much the Horticulturist has improved. The Association is deserving of high credit. No florist or horticulturist should be without it, for it contains a very large amount of valuable information.

Thomas Briggs.

Kingston.

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I received the Annual Report for 1881, and am very much pleased with it, and think its outside appearance is much improved.

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FRUIT IN THE ALGOMA DISTRICT.

My home is here, on St. Joseph’s Island, in the District of Algoma. We expect to have a fine country here for fruit growing. I planted some small fruits last fall, such as grapes, berries, &c; my neighbors have also planted more or less. We settlers have only been here three or four years, so not much fruit has come into bearing yet; but we have as good land for fruit-raising as there is in Canada—rolling land, mellow soil, slightly mixed with limestone gravel, easily cultivated when rid of stumps. Of course we have a great variety of soil, some good and some inferior. It is my humble opinion that time will bring us to the front as a fruit-raising section.

Yours truly,

Stephen Cadham.

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GLADIOLUS BULBLETS.

Dear Sir,—In your January number, in treating upon Gladiolus culture, you state that the small bulbs which are found adhering to the large bulb should be kept out of the ground one whole season. Please give the reason for this in your next.

W.

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An old Latin maxim, learned in boyhood, seems to be the best answer to our friend’s inquiry: Experantia docet—Experience teaches. It has been found by trial to be a fact, that these bulblets do grow much better when kept out of the ground and allowed to dry for one whole season; but why this should be, what reason is to be assigned for this fact, is probably not known. It is very natural to ask the reason why, and the inquisitiveness that prompts the question, and will not be satisfied until it is answered, has led to the discovery of most important natural laws, which have been as keys to unlock vast treasures of knowledge. Will “W.” please undertake the solution of his own question; it may open up the way to results of great practical value.

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EVAPORATION OF FRUIT.

BY J. M. M’AINSH, NISSOURI, ONT.

The question of evaporating fruit, especially apples, is now pressing itself very forcibly upon the attention of fruit growers. In by-gone years, while good fruit was scarce, even summer and fall apples could be readily sold at remunerative prices. But now, while good winter apples find a ready sale to ship to distant markets, summer and fall apples are a drug. In this locality it is not uncommon for parties to sell good summer and fall apples at twenty cents a bag, and peddle them from house to house at that. The old process of drying them on strings is a very slow and imperfect one, but by the improved process of evaporation a really good article can be made either for home use or for sale.

As we well know that the Editor of the Horticulturist keeps himself informed on all points relating to the fruit growers’ interest, I hope he will give some information about how to get a fruit drying apparatus. Could any good tinsmith make one, or are they manufactured anywhere in Canada? Information on these queries would probably be acceptable to others as well as myself.

REPLY.

An evaporator was exhibited at the Toronto Industrial Exhibition in September last, which is said to have received the First Prize and Diploma, and is known as the Pacific Fire-Proof Fruit and Vegetable Evaporator. Mr. William Schram, of Waterford, Norfolk County, Ontario, has one of these, we are told, and that he says that after testing it and comparing its capacity with other evaporators, and taking into consideration the saving of fuel and insurance, he considers it the cheapest, safest and most satisfactory in the market. He dried eighty bushels of apples in ten hours, producing four hundred and eighty pounds of dried fruit. We believe that Mr. Abraham Ryckman, of Mill Grove, in Wentworth County, Ontario, also has one.

There is also a smaller evaporator, known as the Household Fruit and Vegetable Evaporator, which is designed for household purposes, for evaporating and preserving fruits, vegetables, &c. This is perhaps what our correspondent wants. It is claimed for it that it can be used on any cook-stove. Messrs. J. A. and H. Bartholomew, Vanessa, Norfolk County, Ontario, are the manufacturers. We do not know of any other evaporator that is made in Canada.

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TREE PLANTING.

BY MR. WALLBRIDGE, BELLEVILLE.

Almost every one does, or ought to, set out some trees every year. The fall of the year is generally recommended as the best time; it may be, however, well done in the spring. As this communication is intended for bee-keepers, it is well to consider what kind of trees to plant.

Basswood is certainly king, coming into blossom generally just as White Clover goes out, it fills an important place in the bee-keeper’s profits. If the Bee-keeper fails to do well when the Basswood is in bloom he may count upon a poor return for that year. The Linden and Lime are other names in England for another variety of the same tree. Its honey-producing quality is its great recommendation to the bee-keeper—but to others it has advantages. For beauty, there is no tree that has so large and deep-colored a leaf, and when it attains its growth it is valuable for timber. It is used for door-panelling and in many parts of carriages and sleighs, and its timber always commands a good price. It is thus useful during its growth, and at its maturity brings a nice sum of money for the purposes indicated. Compare it with the Maple tree, so generally planted—what is that worth, either during its growth or at maturity, except for firewood. The Basswood has a luxuriant Southern foliage, and for beauty at least is equal to the Maple. Another tree of great value to the bee-keeper is the Honey Locust. This tree comes in bloom quite early, and is valuable on this account. The bees visit it almost in swarms, and the honey and pollen then brought in gets up the excitement in the hive, and breeding goes on at a rapid pace. Now this is the very thing bee-keepers want. They want strong stocks, ready to gather honey when White Clover comes in, and I know of no tree or plant which does so much to strengthen the stock early as this Locust tree. Have your stock strong early; this is the secret of bee-keeping. Almost any stock will become strong in the White Clover season; but then the clover honey is used up in breeding, and you don’t get it as surplus. If you have no Locust trees in your neighborhood, you should feed your bees, or abrade combs filled with honey already in the hive, changing combs to the centre of the brood nest, thus spreading the brood nest and giving the queen an opportunity of laying, which she will be sure to do if you give her a fair chance.

Mr. W. C. Wells, of Phillipston, the largest bee-keeper in this part of the country, attributes the good success of city bee-keepers to the Locust trees, as, by the good start from them, we get early brood, and are thus ready with strong stocks for the Clover and Basswood bloom. Besides the timber of the Locust tree is very valuable; it is exceedingly heavy, a cubic foot of it weighs about 100 pounds. It is valuable for waggon hubs, cogs for mill wheels, and other things requiring great strength; if used for gate posts it is exceedingly durable. Messrs. George Leslie & Son, of Leslieville, Ont., furnish, amongst other valuable trees, the Locust tree, of different varieties. They are all valuable, both for honey and timber. It certainly is the wiser to plant a tree which, on attaining maturity, is valuable as timber, than to plant one which, in the end, is not even valuable as a fence post, and only valuable as firewood.

I am indebted to the Canadian Horticulturist for valuable suggestions on tree planting. The article appears in the February number, and is by Mr. N. Robertson, Government Grounds, Ottawa. It is too long to copy into this communication, but a few points may not be amiss. “Take the trees up so as to destroy as few of the roots as possible; cut the tops into what is called poles, eight or ten feet long, have a good root, a stem without blemish, and thus a rapid growing tree. Do not take a scraggy, stunted tree; and do not mind having the tree to stand as it did before removed, but place the side having most roots on the side where the wind will be strongest. Let the hole in which you plant be much larger than the roots, and draw the roots out to their full length. Before you put in the soil, do not let the roots get dry, but give them a heavy mulch of sawdust, manure or straw. This can be kept in place by a few spadesfull of earth, and pass the mulch a foot on the hole where the roots are.”

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THE BEST TIME TO PRUNE FRUIT TREES.

BY J. M. M’AINSH, NISSOURI, ONT.

The correct principles which underlie the pruning of fruit trees are probably as imperfectly understood as any other point in fruit-growing. Most people prune in the spring, some through the winter, others in the summer. Now, after carefully observing the effects of pruning done at different seasons, I have come to the conclusion that the best time to prune is in early summer, after the first rush of sap is past, and before the trees have made much growth of new wood.

When trees are pruned in winter, a considerable time must elapse before the wounds made begin to heal over. During this time the combined action of the frost and sun are injurious to the newly-cut and exposed wood and bark, and it will take a longer time to heal over than if the wound was made at the time when the tree was beginning to make new growth.

When trees are pruned in early spring, the sap is then in a thin watery state; it oozes out of the cut, causing premature decay and permanent injury to the tree.

When trees are pruned in early summer, after the rush of thin watery sap is past and the tree has fairly commenced to make a new growth, the wounds will commence at once to heal over. The exposed wood will remain sound for a longer period than if cut in early spring.

Another very important point in early summer pruning is, it does not check the growth of the tree, as when it is done later in the season.

Some advocate pruning in July and August, but I would only prune then in cases where the tree was making too much wood growth, which I wanted to check and throw the tree into a bearing state.

Another very important point in pruning, and yet one which is very much neglected, is to cover the cuts with some substance to protect them from the influence of the weather. Common grafting wax, or a mixture of clay and cow manure, is beneficial; but perhaps the best thing, when it can be got pure and good, is gum shellac dissolved in alcohol to the consistence of paint. A protection of this kind is always beneficial to newly-pruned trees; it neutralizes to a great extent the injurious effects arising from pruning trees at an improper season.

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Wash for Fruit Trees.—Keep the trunks and larger limbs of all fruit trees clean and healthy by a wash composed of one part sulphur fine as a powder, two parts soft soap, one part salt, all reduced by water to the consistency of whitewash, and to every bucket or three gallons, add a half pint of coal oil. The latter is considered to be an effectual remedy against the borer, curculio, and a preventive for all insects. Apply with a whitewash brush or mop of rags or sheepskins.

PRUNING.

ITS NATURE AND ITS EFFECT.

The practice of pruning is defined by Webster to be, “To lop or cut off the superfluous branches of trees, to make them bear better fruit or grow higher or to give them a more handsome and regular appearance.” The implements used in this work may be of several kinds, to suit the convenience of the operator, as knife or axe or saw or chisel, but all with a view to the same ultimate results. “This,” as Shakespeare said of horticulture generally, “is an art that does mend nature.” In practice it requires skill and much observation, but the results are usually marked and very positive, sometimes so much as to change the entire future life of the plants. By means of this we have the power not only to mould and form the plant and direct it how it shall grow to serve our purposes, but to regulate the amount and quality of the fruit. By the judicious exercise of this art the tree is made to be our servant, to please and to bless us. Pruning is mainly of two kinds, viz., root pruning and branch pruning, with respect to parts; or winter and summer pruning, with respect to time. It is, however, quite evident that the great burden of pruning, both as to root and branch, must be done in a time quite free from frost. To prune in the winter for wood, and in the summer for fruit, is an old saying that has gained currency, and generally there is much practical truth in it. According to the division of our subject we have first,

ROOT PRUNING.

This mode of pruning consists theoretically in contracting or circumscribing the area of root growth in the soil. The philosophy of the operation is, that whatever threatens to endanger the life of the plant will promote fruitfulness. Practically, this is done in two ways, but the resulting effects of both ways are the same. First, by digging to a certain depth around the tree and at a certain diameter, having the tree for the centre. The practical effect of this is to cut off the fine fibrous or feeding roots and deprive the tree of a very large part of its accustomed nourishment, and this threatens to endanger its life and the result will be fruitfulness. Second, by taking the tree up and removing it to another place the result will be the same. The only material difficulty with these operations is that they must, in many cases, be repeated; yet in many cases, the habit of fruitfulness being commenced, it may in all probability continue. These kinds of pruning, however, are seldom resorted to except in extreme cases, and then only for once or twice. But we are to notice, secondly,

BRANCH PRUNING.

This is by far the most common method of pruning. Theoretically, it consists in lopping off many of the buds and some of the branches, in order to throw greater force of vegetable life into those that are left, and the implements used are those that have already been mentioned. The operation rests upon the philosophy that each tree is furnished with a certain amount of life force to be distributed over its entire surface, and the less the surface the greater the manifestation, and vice versa. I think, however, the true philosophy undoubtedly is that the extended leaf surface of the tree during the previous year, has enabled it to store up within itself a very large amount of life force, or food if you please, and that by contracting the demands by means of pruning, the exhibitions are more demonstrative. However this may be, it is most certain that pruning has this effect upon the plant. Branch pruning may result differently, according as it is done when the leaves are on or when they are off, or, in other words, in summer or winter, as the one is said to be used for increased fruitfulness and the other for increased wood growth.

SUMMER PRUNING

consists in going over the trees or the vines (this is very much used in grape vines), and with the thumb and forefinger pinching out the tip of the young growth. This pruning is sometimes called “pinching,” from this circumstance. By this means, trees may be modelled and the growth directed in a most surprising manner. Pruning in winter is much more laborious and complicated, as we have to do with matured buds and branches. It consists in cutting off or out such buds or branches as are deemed unnecessary. For this kind of pruning, it is a good and very safe rule to examine the trees annually and properly direct the growth, so that we may never have to cut out very large branches at any one time. The disastrous effect on the tree is thus reduced to a minimum, and is not so marked as by cutting off large heavy branches at once. The minutiæ of the business must be learned by practice, under the direction of a good master.

THE OBJECT

of pruning may be said to be twofold: 1st, To regulate or balance the growth; that is by checking luxuriant branches and encouraging weak ones to push forward, and also by encouraging the growth on the sides of the tree that are deficient. 2nd. To form and mature fruit spurs and buds; that is, by checking luxurious wood growth and directing the energies of the tree or vine to the formation of fruit spurs and fruit buds to be developed in other seasons. But the objects of pruning may be, 1st, To change the size and outward form of the tree or vine. To cut into less prescribed limits will have the effect to render more dense and to sensibly alter the shape. By this means trees and vines can be totally changed from their natural habits, and towering trees be made low and open, spreading trees dense, and the regardless clambering vine be made obedient and domestic. 2nd. To render more enduring of severity in cold climates: This is done only in the summer, and the effect is to more perfectly ripen the wood growth, and render it hard and enduring against severe cold. By this means less hardy trees can be brought through successfully and safely. 3rd. To change the bearing year: This pruning must be very severe, and done only in the summer time. By taking off all the prospective fruit and severely pruning or checking the wood growth, the bearing year may be changed to suit our convenience or profit. 4th. To render fruitful: This is best done in the summer, and is performed, as previously described, by diverting the energies of the tree to the formation of fruit spurs and fruit buds. Root pruning is chiefly used for producing this much-desired object. But 5th, and lastly, the object may be to develop and perfect higher standards of fruit. The philosophy of this proposition is very easily shown, for, granting the tree to have a certain amount of energy to develop samples of fruit, the less the samples the higher the development. This is demonstrated in practice. The results are, increased size, or increased beauty of appearance, or increased flavor, or each and all of these; the prices also are better and the rewards greater.

We have very hurriedly and very imperfectly gone over the most important points connected with the art and practice of pruning. Our object is that it may in some slight degree further the interest of our Canadian Horticulture, a great national interest that we are so intensely concerned about. We are most heartily glad of the gigantic strides already made in this benevolent art whose object is to beautify and adorn, to elevate and enrich.

B. Gott,

Arkona Nurseries, Jan. 2nd, 1882.

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ROTTING OF TOMATOES.

I have been interested in the correspondence on the rotting of Tomatoes. The extract from the Gardeners’ Chronicle given in your December number, if carefully looked at, will be found to be no answer to the enquiry made. It is established that as soon as the vitality of organized matter is affected, decay sets in and fungoid growth finds its habitat there. It has been my ambition to be early in Tomatoes, and I have found much disappointment in finding the young fruit withering and spoiled by spotting, with all the appearance of what is called “sun-scalds,” though, as the writer asserts, they cannot be that, as the crown of the fruit hangs downwards; nevertheless I opine that the sun has a great deal to do with the spotting, and that the stunted fruit is caused by the drying up of the plant from a want of moisture. Last season, as usual, my vines, while pushing well, and ahead of my fellow-amateur friends, made no sensible progress, as fruit after fruit spotted, dwindled and died; but adjoining my cucumber-frame, which I kept well watered, I noticed that those Tomatoe plants which came in for a share from the garden-hose were entirely free from any blemish, and the plants, moreover, looked healthier. Taking a hint thereby, I regularly watered the lot, and was troubled no more with spotty Tomatoes, the fruit large and handsome and in great abundance.

Having had only one season for experimenting, I do not assert that water is a cure for spottiness, but the results in my case are somewhat suggestive.

Has anybody else anything to say on the matter which will give light and be of practical service in growing tomatoes.

Richard Baigent.

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THE JEFFERSON GRAPE.

Charles Downing says:—This new, handsome and excellent grape is a cross of the Concord and Iona; it is healthy, very vigorous; wood rather short-jointed; leaves large, thick and downy; very productive; bunch large, shouldered, often double shouldered; compact, berry medium to large, roundish oval; skin rather thick, light red, with a thin, lilac bloom; flesh melting, yet tender, juicy, sweet, slightly vinous, aromatic and rich; the berries adhere strongly to the pannicle, and the fruit maintains its freshness for a long time after being gathered. It is of fine quality, and very promising either for market or home use. It ripens about the time of Concord.

J. J. H. Gregory says:—A rare good grape, the Jefferson. Among the score or more of new grapes before the public, this seedling of Mr. Ricketts stands out so exceptionally good that I have purchased several for my own grounds, and can recommend it to my patrons.

The judges at the Lynchburg, Va., Agricultural Fair in 1880, say:—The Jefferson was one of the very best on exhibition, and for fine eating qualities could not be excelled.

The Editor of the American Wine and Grape Grower says:—The Jefferson is one of our best red grapes for table, fully equal to Iona, and more vigorous and very productive, often giving bunches weighing one pound or more.

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THE CRESCENT SEEDLING STRAWBERRY.

This is beyond question a wonderful strawberry; its productiveness is astonishing. In size it is medium to large; in color, brilliant scarlet, and does not get dull when in market; in quality, rich, having the peculiar wild flavor. The fruit colors on all sides at once, so that all red berries may be gathered, a quality appreciated by market growers; all berries perfect in form and merchantable. It bears immense crops even in weeds and grass. It is the “iron clad” of the new sorts.

The above is what A. M. Purdy says of this new strawberry, and he has every opportunity for forming a correct opinion.

A correspondent of the Fruit Recorder, who resides at Burlington, in the State of Vermont, says of it:

“I fruited some Crescents this year, they are simply immense. Although I had many kinds, none equalled the Crescent. I let them all run together on very rich, moist land (a loam), and they produced more large berries than I ever saw on the same amount of land. I did not get any of the very large berries that some of my neighbors did from the Sharpless. I do not care for a few very large berries, but my Crescents were all large; I might almost say very large—except for some of those rare specimens that are now being produced, they were certainly as large as are required for the table or market, and the quantity was astonishing, and the quality very fine.”

J. A. Benedict, in Chautauqua Farmer, says:

“In regard to strawberries, I find the Crescent Seedling ahead of anything I have ever grown. Its yield is from a quarter to a third better than the Wilson. Have the Sharpless, but shall discard it, although its quality is very fine. Find that reports from berries in Michigan give the Crescent Seedling as the equal of the Wilson. The Crescent Seedling when properly picked and packaged can be shipped anywhere. In yield it is superior, and in size it is equal to any. The red raspberry is the one that takes the lead with me.”

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ENGLISH SPARROWS.

A premium of 6d. per dozen has been placed upon sparrows’ heads by the Government of South Australia, acting on the advice of a Commission specially appointed to enquire into the “sparrow question,” while the somewhat disproportionate sum of 2s. 6d. per hundred is offered for the tiny pale blue eggs of the bird. The bird, which only a few years ago such efforts were made to acclimatize in Australia, and whose first arrival was hailed with greater enthusiasm than would now be displayed on the landing of a Bend Or, a Duchess, or a prize merino, is now doomed to extermination if that can possibly be achieved. So rapidly have the few pairs which were introduced a few years ago multiplied under the congenial skies and amid the luxuriant vegetation of the Australian Colonies, where there are few or none of the checks on their increase which exist in the Old Country, that the agriculturists complain of the serious injury done by them to their wheat and fruit crops, and have called upon the Government to devise some means of insuring their destruction. The evidence given before the Commission appointed to inquire into the matter affords eloquent examples of the destructiveness of these hard-billed birds. One witness says that in the short space of ten days the sparrows took a ton and a half of grapes; they stripped all the figs off five trees, and kept low 15 acres of lucerne during summer. Another complains that in the season they took £30 worth of fruit; while a third declares that he sowed peas three times, and each time they were destroyed by sparrows. The fecundity of the sparrow in South Australia is described as astonishing. A few to-day are thousands next season. Its work is done on a scale disheartening to the cultivator, and under conditions he cannot control, for the seed is taken out of the ground, the fruit-bud off the tree, the sprouting vegetable as fast as it grows, and the fruit before it is ripe, and therefore before it can be housed and saved. Neither apricots, cherries, figs, apples, grapes, peaches, plums, pears, nectarines, loquats, olives, wheat, barley, peas, cabbages, cauliflowers, nor seeds nor fruit of any kind are spared by its omnivorous bill; and all means of defence tried against its depredations, whether scarecrows, traps, netting, shooting, or poisoning, are declared to be insufficient to cope with the enemy.

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ORANGE CROP OF CALIFORNIA.

The Press and Horticulturist, of California, has the following on the coming orange crop in that State: “So far as this State is concerned, the crop will be about as large as last year. The San Gabriel Valley will produce but 35,000 boxes, in place of 60,000 boxes last year, and there will be a similar falling in the old orchards of Los Angelos; but the new orchards of Passadena, Orange, Tustin City, Anaheim and Riverside, will nearly or quite make up the loss of the older orchards. The crop this year will be of a much better quality than last. In 1880-81 the orchards were overloaded, and much of the fruit was consequently inferior. This year the old orchards have a light crop, and therefore the fruit is of a better quality. Again the increase of the crop this year is in localities where the scale and black fungus have not done so much damage as in the older orchards. A much larger proportion of the fruit will this year come from young trees than it did last year.”

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NATIVE FRUITS.

A Paper read before the Western New York Horticultural Society at Rochester, January 25th, 1882, by W. C. Barry, Sec. Native Fruit Committee.

APPLES.

The list of valuable apples is now so large that few attempts are made to acquire anything better. Chance seedlings of apparent merit are frequently brought to notice, but when placed beside the older sorts and compared carefully, few are found worthy of introduction. We have several seedlings grafted upon bearing trees, and hoped to obtain fruit of them the past summer, but did not; hence we must defer mention of them till the next annual report. At the West strenuous efforts are being made to obtain sorts which will endure extreme cold. The Russian as well as other hardy sorts are being carefully tested, and ere long we may expect some important developments relative to this class of fruit. The introduction of the Wealthy is an important step in that direction. Hardiness and fine quality are combined in this variety, and the new apple has come to be regarded as an acquisition of much value. The Whitney Crab fruited with us for the first time the past season, and as regards its quality was an agreeable surprise. The fruit is of medium size, large for a Crab, flesh fine, melting, juicy, and pleasant flavored. It matures in August.

Occident, the new California apple, resembling Yellow Bellflower, and referred to in former reports, is now being disseminated, and we hope it may succeed so well as to merit a permanent position on the select lists.

Sutton Beauty continues to grow in favor, and should it succeed as well generally as it has in New York and Massachusetts, it may with all justice be accorded a high position among our best apples.

Stump, frequently mentioned in the reports of this society, is a beautiful and valuable table apple. It has been on trial long enough to enable us to award it a place among the most desirable fruits.

Magog Red Streak is a hardy variety, of which Dr. Hoskins says: “If it were not for the Wealthy, this would stand at the head of our winter apples;” and of

Scott’s Winter, another variety, he adds: “This is the apple which well replaces for us the Roxbury Russet of a milder clime.”

In our anxiety for novelties, we frequently place too low an estimate upon the older fruits, and the committee feels that a brief reference occasionally to some of these sorts will not be out of place. Some fruits require peculiar care and culture to develop their best qualities, and when a variety of acknowledged merit fails to succeed with us, we should endeavor to find out the cause, and if possible apply a remedy. Soil and climate often exert such a powerful influence over the fruit, that particular sorts cannot be grown in certain localities, even with the best of care. But several sorts fail from utter neglect, or from a lack of the requisite care which such sorts demand. The Fameuse apple, than which there is no finer dessert fruit, is very small and scabby in some localities, and in others remarkably fine. During the past summer Mr. J. J. Thomas, chairman of our committee, compared specimens of the new Kieffer pear which were grown in Rochester with those from New Jersey, and found the former too poor to eat, while the latter were of fine quality. Mr. Thomas also cites the case of the Winter Nelis pear, which in this vicinity is unquestionably our most valuable winter pear, and in Westchester county it is said to be hardly worth cultivating. Mr. Thomas therefore suggests that it is worth while to try and find out the influences which produce these great differences. The causes of failure of such valuable fruits as the Winter Nelis pear and Fameuse apple are worth looking into. Intelligent cultivators, such as assemble at our meetings, should give the results of their experience on these points; and if they are aware of any peculiar methods of culture for certain fruits they would do the public a great service by making them known. I am pleased to note that the valuable qualities of the Fameuse are becoming appreciated. When in New York a short time ago, I noticed an abundance of fruit upon the stands, and dealers now advertise it as the delicious Snow Apple.

The Jonathan is another white-fleshed apple which is destined to rank high as a table fruit. It ripens immediately after the Fameuse, and is very desirable to succeed it.

Ladies’ Sweet is one of those delicate-fleshed apples which deserve the highest esteem. Its flesh is white, tender, rich, and being entirely free from acidity it is easily digested, and as an article of food for dyspeptics would be highly prized if better known.

The Mother is a choice winter apple of fine quality, which deserves a higher place than is usually awarded it.

The Northern Spy has valuable qualifications as a dessert fruit, which do not seem to be fully appreciated. Succeeding the Jonathan, it is in prime condition for eating in mid-winter, and in point of delicacy and delicious flavor is hardly equalled. Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon this noble fruit. I trust the time is not far distant when consumers will readily pay three times the price for it that they do for Baldwin and the like.

Jefferis, from Pennsylvania, is worthy of attention. It is of medium size, skin yellow, splashed with crimson; flesh white, tender, juicy and mild sub-acid. It ripens in September, and is a variety which will always rank high on account of its admirable qualities.

PEARS.

It requires so much time to determine the value of a new fruit, that although several novelties have been on trial for some time, it is not possible yet to give much accurate information concerning their importance for general cultivation. In the localities where they originated they may be very desirable, but when tried elsewhere they are often found to be of little value. At the present time the most prominent aspirants for public favor are Hoosic, Frederick Clapp and Kieffer’s Hybrid. The two first are unquestionably of the highest quality, and bid fair to prove acquisitions. The last named has acquired considerable popularity in New Jersey as a market sort. We had fruit of it from our own tree the past summer, and found it too poor to eat. Mr. Thomas compared our specimens with some from New Jersey, and found the latter of good quality. The tree is remarkably vigorous, and has handsome glossy foliage, which readily distinguishes it from all other sorts.

P. Barry, Fox’s Seedling, is a remarkable new variety, and particularly valuable, as it extends the season of fine pears into April. The flesh is very juicy, buttery, fine grained, sprightly and rich. It resembles Beurre d’Anjou in texture of flesh, and Winter Nelis in color of skin and juiciness. Its keeping qualities are really wonderful. Unlike other late winter pears, the flesh retains its freshness, delicacy and juiciness even under unfavorable circumstances, and in April it is just as agreeable to the palate as a fine Winter Nelis in December or January. Now that the Beurre Easter can not be ripened successfully, this variety will supplant it.

The Secretary suggests that cultivators should give Clapp’s Favorite more attention than they have hitherto done. This splendid pear, one of the handsomest of American fruits, is rarely seen, and from all we can learn has never been tested as it ought to have been.

CHERRIES.

The Windsor, a new cherry originated with James Dougall, Windsor, Ont., is very promising. It is black, or liver-colored, flesh very firm and of fine quality. It ripens a few days after Tradescant’s. On account of its lateness and firmness it will undoubtedly be found valuable. We have fruited it upon our grounds several seasons, and esteem it highly. Mr. Dougall says: “The Windsor is enormously productive, very hardy, being the only Bigarreau or Heart cherry, the fruit buds of which were not winter killed last winter on my grounds: even Dukes were killed.”

PLUMS.

The Wild Goose is a pleasant flavored early plum, and is justly entitled to a place among worthy fruits. Miner, similar in character, ripens late in September, when plums are scarce, but in quality it is not equal to Wild Goose, nevertheless it may have value.

PEACHES.

This is a subject which still possesses more than ordinary interest. The large number of new sorts introduced within the last ten years has drawn peculiar attention to this fruit. Special interest is taken in the very early sorts, which are now so numerous and so similar as to render it difficult to determine which to keep and which to reject. We have many of the early sorts growing side by side, and though we watched them closely from day to day we have often been puzzled to determine the values of each. It would be tedious to give the results of these tests in detail, so we will at once state the conclusions we reached after careful examinations:

Alexander or Amsden are not surpassed in size or earliness; Alexander averages larger, but Amsden is better flavored. Waterloo is higher flavored than either. It may not be any earlier, but its fine quality will render it valuable. Early Canada is a close competitor in this class. It ripens with Alexander, is not so large, but very handsome, and may part from the stone a little more freely. Brigg’s Red May is not so large as Alexander, and three or four days later. Governor Garland, we are informed, ripens several days after Alexander and Amsden.

The lengthy list of new sorts is becoming gradually reduced, and though the results prove that much labor has been in vain, we have the satisfaction of knowing that the claimants have had a fair trial. We earnestly hope that future introductions may possess qualifications not yet realized. We want early sorts that are free at the stone, and that are less liable to decay than those now known. The following are the latest introductions:

Galand June, May Beauty and Williams’ Early Freestone, said to be two weeks later than Amsden, and of better quality.

The following well-known varieties ripen nearly at the same time, but when compared and tested, they show a marked difference in quality.

Conkling is superior to all in flavor. Foster comes next, then Surpasse Melocoton, Crawford’s Early and Richmond ranking in quality in the order named.

Ward’s Late Free is the most delicious late peach in this district.

GRAPES.

Grapes are receiving marked attention from cultivators at the present time. Particular interest is manifested in the new sorts, and all growers are waiting anxiously for the experience of those who have the novelties on trial. We regret that it is not in our power to offer any information about them. It will probably require two or three years more to determine their value. I had the pleasure of testing a new grape which is remarkable for its fine flavor, equalling, if not surpassing, in this respect any variety I know of. The grape I refer to is the Amber Queen, raised in Massachusetts. It is of medium size, purple when perfectly ripe, and has a rich, sprightly flavor which is remarkable. The vines which produced the fruit being young, it was not possible to judge fairly of the habit of the plant, or size of cluster. This variety may be regarded as promising.

Burnet, a hybrid between Hartford Prolific and Black Hamburg, and raised by Mr. Dempsey in Canada, deserves notice on account of its fine quality.

Early Victor, a black grape originated by John Burr, of Leavenworth, Kansas, the same gentleman who originated Burr’s Seedling Strawberry, is said to be the earliest variety known, and is expected to displace Champion and Hartford Prolific. Reliable grape culturists give us this assurance, so we may look toward this grape with considerable interest. The Secretary Grape, one of Mr. Rickett’s seedlings, referred to in a former report by the writer of this as a grape of poor quality, produced some fine flavored fruit the past summer. It ripens very unevenly, however, and the vine is such a poor grower that it cannot become popular. Highland, another of Mr. Rickett’s grapes, appears to be very late.

Lady Washington we did not see under favorable circumstances, and cannot speak of it intelligently.

Miner’s Seedlings fruited with us for the first time, and were quite a disappointment. They all partake of the character of Concord, and are said to have been selected from 1,500 seedlings. One trial is not sufficient to estimate their value, but I fear they are not destined to become popular. The seven white varieties bear a strong resemblance to each other, though of course there are points of difference. Victoria is the best. There are two Black ones, Linden and Rockingham, neither of which show any points of excellence. All resemble Concord in habit of growth and productiveness, and some of the white varieties would have been considered acquisitions had they been disseminated a few years ago before the new White Grapes we now have in the Market.

Lady Charlotte, one of Pringle’s hybrid grapes, gives promise of excellence. It is remarkable for its fine flavor. Vermont Giant, another of his hybrids, is to all appearances of no value. It is black, very pulpy, and the flavor poor.

I should not fail to refer to three varieties of Rogers’ Grapes, the importance of which has been overlooked. They are Lindley, Herbert and Gaertner. Herbert is a magnificent black grape, superior in quality to Wilder or Barry, and the bunch is nearly as large. Gaertner is a very large red grape, and so attractive that when exhibited in a collection it is the first to receive notice. Lindley we have spoken of before. It is one of the best red grapes, and deserves to be so regarded. It is singular that these varieties have not attained the distinction which they merit. It shows plainly that we are liable to overlook some important fruits.

Rockland Favorite from Massachusetts resembles the Concord, but does not surpass it in any respect so far as we can see. The White Ann Arbor, raised from seed of the Concord, is represented to be of much value. The bunch and berry are described as being large fruit of first quality, and the vine vigorous and free from mildew. Feemster Favorite from Indiana is said to excel the Concord in hardiness, and if so, is probably of some value at the west. The bunch is said to be of medium to large size; berry large, green in the shade, and in the sun slightly shaded with salmon.

Wyoming Red or Wilmington Red, which originated on the Hudson, being described as a variety which was likely to supersede the Delaware, was watched closely. We may have a spurious sort, for the plant which we have under the name produced a dark red or purple grape; very pulpy, foxy and of inferior quality.

Mr. A. M. Smith, of St. Catharines, writes that several promising seedlings have been raised and are on trial in Canada.

One, an improved Delaware, raised by C. H. Biggar, Drummondville. Another being a fine White Grape, seedling of the Concord, and better flavored.

Our own seedlings, the Rochester and Monroe, continue to be very satisfactory. Last season when many grapes failed to set their fruit well, owing to unfavorable weather at the blossoming time, these proved remarkable exceptions and produced such an amount of fruit that we took off fully one-half from the vines when in a green state. The Rochester, with its large, shouldered, compact clusters, is a remarkably handsome grape; and the bunches are borne in such abundance that they are very showy and attractive. The vine is vigorous and the foliage very healthy. It has some defects, but where is the grape that has not? The Rochester is not destined to be spread broadcast, for it cannot be propagated except with some difficulty. Monroe is very early, pleasant flavored, vine very vigorous, hardy, prolific, and the foliage is healthy.

RASPBERRIES.

Public attention seems to be concentrated in the Cuthbert. I have not seen enough of it to form an opinion. It is evidently the best flavored of the so-called hardy sorts, and as such is calculated to displace a number of varieties which have been valued for hardiness and shipping qualities. In 1877 I fruited side by side nearly all the raspberries then known, new and old. Clarke and Brinckle’s Orange seemed to be the cream of the collection, so far as the quality of the fruit was concerned. I have fruited the assortment since, and have not changed my opinion. Objections are raised occasionally to the Clarke, but for the amateur I think it is unequalled. Turner is one of the hardiest sorts, and withal of good flavor. Caroline, the new yellow Cap, is hardy and very productive, but its quality, we must admit, does not equal our expectations. We were promised a luscious fruit, but with us it proved to be only of fair quality.

Niagara is the name of a raspberry originated and introduced by A. M. Smith, of St. Catharines, Ont. It is said to be a cross between the Clarke and Philadelphia, and superior to either as a market fruit. Berry large, dark red, shape of Clarke, but firmer and more productive, and fully a week later.

The Superb, which originated in New Jersey, was sent out for the first time last autumn. It is described as large, handsome, bright crimson, and having a sprightly sub-acid flavor.

Shaffer’s Colossal is a new Cap berry, which originated with George Shaffer, in the town of Wheatland, Monroe county, N. Y., in 1869, and is now being disseminated by Mr. Charles A. Green, of Clifton, N. Y. It is said to be the largest raspberry in the world, and the most vigorous in growth of cane, and exceedingly productive.

Mr. Green is also sending out Lost Rubies, a red raspberry, described as large, bright red, with considerable bloom, firm and of fine flavor. The plant is said to be very hardy.

Souhegan, a new Black Cap, is described as being early and of fine quality. Well known authorities give it the highest commendation. Hopkins is another which originated at the West, and is said to be hardier than the Gregg. Centennial Black, from the West, is still another which Mr. E. P. Roe recommends highly.

The Black Cap family has been considerably augmented by these accessions, and it will be interesting to compare them.

STRAWBERRIES.

The list of new strawberries is being constantly enlarged, so that our interest in this fruit is not allowed to flag in the least. The Bidwell leads the newcomers, and is introduced to notice with the most flattering recommendations. On the Hudson it has done admirably, and from all accounts possesses so many valuable characteristics that we may reasonably expect a great deal from it. The Manchester, which originated in New Jersey, follows, fairly loaded down with commendations from prominent fruit growers. Jersey Queen, one of Mr. Durand’s seedlings, is also regarded as promising. Mr. Green mentions the Moonstone as a variety which ripens late in the season. New Dominion, raised by J. H. Biggar, of Drummondville, Canada, is said to resemble Cumberland Triumph. Mr. Beadle says it possesses all the good qualities of that variety, and is at the same time more productive, of somewhat firmer flesh and better flavor. The fruit which we tested the past season was not as good as Cumberland Triumph. Early Canada was originated by A. M. Smith, of St Catharines, and is said to resemble Wilson strongly, but it ripens a week earlier.

We tested fifteen or eighteen new sorts last summer, but were not favorably impressed with any of them. Possibly another season’s trial will enable us to form a better opinion of them.

I compared Glendale carefully with Kentucky, and came to the conclusion that the latter was the more valuable.

CURRANTS.

Fay’s Prolific is now in the market, and we hope to give it a trial soon. Mr. Smith says Lee’s Prolific does not show any points of superiority over the Black Naples.

We have endeavored in this report to refer to all the most prominent novelties now under cultivation. You will, I am sure, agree with me that we are making progress; and if the same interest and energy be evinced in the future as in the past, we may look for great advances in fruit culture. By hybridization and crossing the most wonderful results may be accomplished. There is in fact no limit to the novelties we may produce. But let our efforts be directed in such a way as to produce the most useful results.

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FARMERS THAT DISLIKE FRUIT GROWING.

The Chicago Herald thus speaks to those farmers who neglect fruit planting:

“While all parts of our country are adapted to the cultivation of excellent fruits of various sorts, and while all locations will produce a fair variety, it is a singular fact that many farmers never undertake to produce even the very moderate amount which would be used by their own families. The writer of this went to his farm some ten years ago. About the first serious work that engaged his attention was the planting of fruit, of the sorts that would bring a return—as currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries and apples—of the latter several hardy standard sorts, as well as several varieties of crabs. It really seems now that it was but a very short time until we not only had a large supply for our own use, but a surplus began to come along, which in our own section commanded a ready sale and good prices. Our raspberries and currants are a regular mine of luxury during the summer heat, when one so appreciates such cooling and healthful and nutritious articles of diet. The currants are specially craved during haying and harvesting, and it would be a deprivation indeed to go without them!

“But our nearest neighbor, though he had ten years the start of us, has never yet raised an apple, and not a single berry or currant! He has once in awhile set a few apple trees, but he has left the pruning to his cattle and colts, and they have done the work far too well! He is very glad about these days to send ‘the children’ over to our orchard to pick up the fruit which drops off, from which ‘the old lady’ elaborates a little ‘applesass!’ But such a thing as a dish of berries and choice ripe currants is very seldom, if ever, seen on his table. He has never set so much as a pie-plant, and if even this coarse substitute for fruit is ever used in his house, it has been begged from some more thoughtful and thrifty neighbor.

“Such neglect as this is without any excuse whatever. What motive, or lack of motive, it originates from one can hardly guess. Whether these procrastinating people are too stingy to make the small outlay required at the start, or are afflicted with downright laziness, or a combination of both these ailments, would be a difficult matter to establish. But the fact exists, that such utterly shiftless people do abound in every community, and that they are content to live year after year upon ‘hog and hominy,’ when the soil at their very doors would supply them with the choicest fruits that can be grown in the temperate zone! Every variety—grapes, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants and gooseberries—can be produced in any quantities. Once established, their after care is very easy and simple, and they will load the farmer’s table with choice, delicious and healthful food all the year round.

“Our advice to every farmer is simply this—make it a point to produce fruit enough to supply your own table all the year round. If you are going to open a new farm, do less of the hard work which brings only a small return, and plant fruit. If you cannot do all in one season, do a little each year, until you are quite sure that you have sufficient for a home supply. Not only will it pay you as we have set forth above, but the thought, investigation and study which its culture requires is a most excellent discipline for the mind—almost ‘a liberal education.’ There is no reason why every farmer should not be, in a moderate and modest way, a horticulturist, capable of not only supplying a choice variety of fruit for his own table, but skilled in adorning his home in a way to make it a pleasant abiding place for all who are sheltered under its roof.”

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THE QUINCE.

Since the canning of fruit has become so simple, cheap, and easy, the question naturally arises, what shall we use for a family supply? In answer, we reply that in our own family the Peach and Quince hold important places, and are regarded as indispensable. We feel very much in regard to the Quince as the old farmer did about his boiled Indian pudding—“wanted three hundred and sixty-five in a year.” Few will ever tire of good canned Quince; hence its culture is of importance.

Varieties.—The Apple or Orange Quince is the best in texture and quality, but the Pear is a healthier grower and more productive, ripening also later. The new variety, Champion, is more vigorous and productive than either, and is also an excellent keeper. A good plantation of Quinces should embrace all three varieties.

Soil and Location.—Almost any good soil will produce Quinces; a dry, sandy soil is the least favorable, a strong, moist loam, well drained, the best.

A peaty soil, on the margin of a free-running stream, almost always produces good Quinces in abundance.

Culture.—Shallow culture only should be given, as the Quince throws its roots near the surface. The best Quince orchard I have seen is where the owner resorts to mulching rather than culture. Sufficient manure should be applied annually.

Enemies.—The borer, the same which attacks the Apple trees, is the worst enemy of the Quince. The best remedy is a pint of soft soap mixed with one gallon of lime wash (common whitewash), which, when thoroughly applied from the base of the tree up eighteen inches, early in May each year, will save your trees from subsequent attacks of the borer.

Continual intelligent care will be followed by success in nine cases out of ten.—American Garden.

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ROOT PRUNING.

The experiments were made on the apple and pear. A vigorous apple tree, eight or ten years old, which had scarcely made any fruit buds, has done best when about half the roots were cut in one season, and half three years later, by going half way around on opposite sides in one year and finishing at the next pruning—working two feet underneath to sever downward roots. It has always answered well, also, to cut from such trees all the larger and longer roots about two and a half feet from the stem, leaving the smaller and weaker ones longer, and going half way around, as already stated. The operation was repeated three or four years later by extending the cut circle a foot or two further away from the tree. By this operation unproductive fruit trees became thickly studded with fruit spurs, and afterwards bore profusely. This shortening of the roots has been continued in these experiments for twenty years with much success, the circle of roots remaining greatly circumscribed. The best time for the work has been found to be in the latter part of August and beginning of September, when growth has nearly ceased, and while the leaves are yet on the trees, causing greater increase of bloom buds the following year than when performed after the leaves have fallen.—London Garden.

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THE ONION SMUT.

The Onion is one of the leading crops in many localities in the eastern states, and in some of them the culture of this vegetable has, within the last ten years, greatly diminished, and has even been abandoned because of the destructive prevalence of the Onion Smut. This pest is closely related to the Corn Smut, and makes its appearance upon the Onions while they are quite small. The smut plant in its early stages of growth consists of a multitude of small filaments or threads collected in knobby masses within the tissue of the Onion bulb and narrow parts of the leaves just above the bulb. A little later the epidermis or skin of the leaves bursts open and a vast number of dark brown particles of dust are found, which are the spores of the fungus. The Onion is still small when the spores are produced, and it seldom continues to grow.

It is thought by those who have investigated the trouble that the smut has come from the wild Onion or Garlic, and this suggests as a precaution that all of the wild Onions should be destroyed. When the smut plant has perfected itself and ripened its myriads of spores, the soil becomes more or less charged with these seeds, and spores are seeds as far as their functions are concerned, of a destructive pest, and give truth to the expression often heard among afflicted Onion growers, that “the disease is in the ground.” A remedy is always the desired thing when there is any disorder. If the spores have already infested the ground they must be destroyed. The best way to do this is to cease growing Onions on that land for a term of years sufficient to exhaust the vitality of the dormant smut spores. Put other crops on the land, and after about six years it will be safe to try Onions again.

The Onion smut is still somewhat limited in its range and every precaution should be taken to keep the pest from getting widespread. Great care should be exercised in not taking seed from a smutty locality. The spores being very small they may cling to the rough surface of the Onion seed and be sown with it. As a precaution soak the seed, that the water may remove, as it will, many of the adhering spores. Onions grown from sets are not so much troubled with the smut as those from the seed. It is probable that the tender substance of the young seedling offers much more favorable conditions for a successful growth. It is a fact of general application that the stronger (and it would seem as if even young Onions were strong enough) the plant, the more vigorous its growth the less liable is it to attacks from fungi.—Dr. Byron D. Halsted, in American Gardener.

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WASH FOR FRUIT TREES.

The object in applying a wash to trees is not so much to remove the rough and scaly outer bark as to destroy the parasitic plants and insects which adhere to the surface of the bark and sap the vitality of the trees by a constant drain upon the circulating current. One form of wash is made by adding one pound of whale oil soap to three gallons of warm water, stirring well and applying with a stiff broom brush. The trunk should be rubbed thoroughly and hard to remove as much as possible of loose bark, that the liquid may reach every part of the surface. Another good wash is a weak lye from wood ashes. A third wash is made by adding two quarts of soft water to one gallon of common soft soap. Place these in a vessel over the fire, and when warm the soap and water are readily combined by stirring, and should be applied in the same manner as the whale oil application. The best results are obtained by washing the trees about three times during the season, applying the first in March or April, the second in June and the last in August. The insects as well as moss will be effectually removed, leaving the bark in a fine healthy condition.—Western Farmer.

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CARBOLIC SOAP FOR INSECTS.

I am experimenting with Buchan’s Carbolic Soap, as a preventive for injurious insects, and am so well pleased with the result thus far, that I wish to stimulate other horticulturists to try some experiment with the article.

For cut worms, I made the soap suds pretty strong—two gallons of water to half a pound of soap, and with it saturated a bushel of sawdust; then placed a little around the stem of each cabbage and tomato plant,—using a handful to eight or ten plants—adding a little more after two or three days when the odor seemed gone. This was completely successful in ground where the worms were quite plenty, and where plants not protected were speedily cut off by them. It is the cheapest and most easily applied remedy that I have yet seen.

For striped bugs on melons and cucumber vines, I find the same method of using the soap effective, if the sawdust is sprinkled on the plants every day,—which is very little trouble,—but I am now trying wetting the plants directly with weak suds made of ten gallons of water to half a pound of the soap, and I think this will prove the best.

For aphis or plant lice on cherry trees or the like, a sprinkling or two with the suds, by means of a sponge, or bending the shoots so as to dip them into a pail or basin, is speedy death to them. Care must be had not to have the suds too strong when applied to tender plants or young shoots of trees; experiments are needed for this point.—Fruit Recorder.

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PALESTINE OF TO-DAY.

Nothing can well exceed the desolateness of much of the country. Treeless it is for twenty or thirty miles together. Forests which did exist thirty years ago—for instance, on Mount Carmel and Mount Tabor—fast disappearing; rich plains of the finest garden soil asking to be cultivated, at best but scratched up a few inches deep in patches, with no hedges or boundaries; mountain terraces, naturally or artificially formed, ready to be planted with vines as the German colony is doing at the foot of Mount Carmel, the villages nothing but mud huts, dust, dirt and squalor, the inhabitants with scarce clothes enough for decency, their houses ovens; large tracts without a horse or cow, sheep or dog; no pretence at roads, except from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and this like a cart road over a plowed field.

Everything is taxed; every fruit tree, so none now are planted; every cow or horse, etc.; every vegetable sold out of a private garden. Every eighth egg is not taxed, but taken by the government. In some places the taxes of the district are sold to the highest bidder. Nothing like a small farm-house is to be found far or near. If there were, the owner is liable to have soldiers or revenue officers quartered upon him, to be boarded and lodged at his expense. The towns are filthy in the extreme, none more so than Jerusalem itself.

This is a picture, I believe, in no way over drawn of that land which was once “flowing with milk and honey.” What might it not become again with fair usage and good government? But there is no hope for Palestine while it remains in the hands of its present rulers.—Cor. London Times.

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BOOK NOTICES.

We have received from the publishers a copy of a new book on Roses, by H. B. Ellwanger, of Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y.

It contains 300 pages of most useful information necessary to the successful cultivation of the Rose, the results of the experience and observation of many years of one who is himself an enthusiastic and most successful cultivator. It treats in a full and most comprehensive manner of soil, planting, pruning, manure, insects, diseases, and the varieties best adapted for particular purposes, as bedding and forcing, and those for bleak and very cold situations, with an exhaustive catalogue of varieties now in general cultivation.

Much pains has been taken with the classification, so that valuable distinctive features may be preserved and yet simplicity maintained, so as not to confuse and perplex.

The book is issued in very handsome style, by Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 16 mo. cloth, $1.25.

Hubbard’s Newspaper and Bank Directory of the World.

This most comprehensive work of 2,591 pages is issued in two Volumes, Vol. I. being devoted to America, Vol. II. to Foreign Countries.

It contains lists of all the American newspapers and of the British Provinces, maps of the World, a fine map of North America, much interesting and instructive reading matter, facsimiles of English, French, Spanish, Egyptian, South American and Australian newspapers, articles descriptive of the several States and Territories of the United States; also a series of Gazetteer articles, descriptive of all foreign countries, and maps of all foreign nations. There is also a list of the responsible Banks of the World, embracing about twenty thousand Banks.

The whole work is a most astonishing compendium of valuable information, which should be in the hand of every business man.

Published by H. P. Hubbard, New Haven, Conn. Price $10.

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GRAFTING THE GRAPE.

Though I have practiced grape-grafting for thirty years, and was one of the first to make it practicable, I am studying and experimenting with the subject yet. After testing with the utmost care, at various seasons, with apparently good wood, upon good stock, my success has been diverse, and I can fix on no particular season as positively better than another, yet my choice now is just before the buds begin to swell. If the stump at the cut bleeds, it will do no harm. On young vines, with a smooth place to operate, there need be but little failure; but with old stocks, the rough knotty butt is a serious drawback; but if the vine is laid down, say a foot deep, three feet or more distant from the stock, and then grafted on a smooth place, held in position with a peg, the earth pressed firmly around both stock and graft, with one bud of graft only above the surface, the chances of success are much better than when worked at the root of the vine; but in this case the shoots must be rubbed off as fast as they shoot up around the base of the stock. If the graft takes, the vine laid down will, by taking root, greatly help its growth, and after the second season the young plant can thrive on its own roots, and the old stock may be grubbed out.

The grafting of the grape on pieces of grape roots, in the house, in winter, with those that will not succeed from cuttings, is a simple and successful method, of which I will send you an illustration if desirable.—Samuel Miller, in the Fruit Grower.

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THE BRIGHT FLOWERS.

  Oh, they look upward in every place,

    Through this beautiful world of ours,

  And dear as a smile on an old friend’s face

    Is the smile of the bright sweet flowers.

  They tell us of wanderings by woods and streams,

    They tell us of lanes and trees;

  But the children of showers and sunny beams

    Have lovelier tales than these—

                These sweet bright flowers.

 

  They tell of a season when men were not,

    When earth was by angels trod,

  And leaves and flowers in every spot

    Burst forth at the call of God;

  When spirits, singing their songs at even,

    Wandered by wood and glade,

  And the Lord looked down from the highest heaven,

    And blessed what he had made—

                These bright, bright flowers.

 

  That blessing remaineth upon them still,

    Though often the storm-cloud lowers,

  And frequent tempests may soil and chill

    The gayest of earth’s fair flowers.

  When Sin and Death, with their sister Grief,

    Made a home in the hearts of men,

  The blessing of God in each tender leaf

    Preserved in their beauty then—

                These sweet bright flowers.

 

  The lily is lovely as when it slept

    On the waters of Eden’s lake,

  The woodbine breathes sweetly as when it crept

    In Eden from brake to brake:

  They were left as a proof of the loveliness

    Of Adam and Eve’s first home;

  They are here as types of the joys that bless

    The just in the world to come—

                These bright, bright flowers.

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DOMESTIC RECIPES.

Nut Cake.—Ingredients: Sugar, two cups; butter, one cup; flour, three cups; water, one cup; eggs, four; soda, one teaspoonful; cream tartar, two teaspoonsful; hickory nut kernels, two cups. Mix the ingredients, adding the nut kernels last.

Lemon Dumplings.—Ingredients: Suet, four ounces; moist sugar, four ounces; bread crumbs, one-half pound; lemon, one. Grate the rind of the lemon, squeeze out the juice, mix all the ingredients. Put in buttered tea cups and boil three quarters of an hour.

Apple Fritters.—Pare and slice in large round slices some fine tart apples; sprinkle the slices with sugar, and squeeze over them the juice of a lemon, and let stand a few hours. Make a batter of three eggs and two tablespoonsful of sweet milk, with flour enough for a thin batter, in which dip the slices of apple, and fry separately in butter or lard. When done sprinkle with powdered sugar.—Aaron’s Wife in Prairie Farmer.

To Pickle Sweet Corn.—Cut the corn rows from the cob; to every heaping four quarts you mix a small teacup of fine salt; pack in jars and set in cool place. It will soon form a thick, leathery skin over the top; let that be until wanted for use; when you take out to soak, wash it, and then soak in cold water for a few hours; it will retain its flavor far better than either dried or canned, and is far less trouble to care for than to dry, and is sure to keep well until spring.

To Pickle Peaches, Plums and Pears.—Take of ripe peaches, plums, pears, or apples; seven pounds of sugar, one quart of vinegar, and one ounce of mixed spices; put the sugar and vinegar together, and pour over the fruit, allowing it to stand until the next morning, when repeat this process, straining the juice of the fruit, letting it come to the boil, and continue to do so for four mornings; then add spices, and put all over the fire and cook very slowly until they look rich and clear. Pears should be boiled in water until you can run a broom whisk through them. Quinces are also delicious when preserved in this manner.

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The Schizanthus.—The Schizanthus is a genus of beautiful flowers, adapted either for the open ground or conservatory. The name signifies cut-flower. All the species of this genus we believe, are natives of Chili, and were introduced into Europe between 1822 and 1831, seeds of S. pinnatus having been carried to England in the former year, and the more beautiful species, S. retusus, at the latter date. If seeds are sown in a hot-bed or cold-frame, and plants are put out in a warm, light soil, they will sometimes grow three or four feet in height, and will give abundance of flowers during the middle of the summer and autumn. We have also succeeded very well by sowing the seeds in the open ground in May, but the soil must be mellow and warm. The branches are slender and require the support of a light trellis, and they are broken very easily by the wind, so that a sheltered position is desirable.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]JUNE, 1882.[No. 6.
  

TULIPS.

These beautiful flowering bulbs can be purchased at such moderate prices, and be grown so easily, that it is a wonder that every lover of flowers does not have a large bed of them. Their colors are so varied and brilliant that they make a most gorgeous display when planted in masses; and they are so hardy and grow so readily in any good garden soil that there is not the slightest difficulty in their cultivation.

Fig. 1—Duc Van Thol Tulip.

Fig. 2.—Double Tulip or Tournesol.

The earliest varieties will usually be in bloom in the last days of April, and by planting the sorts that come later, a succession of bloom can be kept up until the first of June. The Duc Van Thol tulips (Fig. 1), are the first to bloom. These are both single and double; the double are all red with a yellow border, the single are of various colors—scarlet, crimson, yellow, white, &c. These all grow about six inches in height, and are very showy. After these come the variety known as the Tournesol (Fig. 2), with very large double flowers, yellow or orange and red, which continue for a long time without fading. These are followed by Single Early Tulips (Fig. 3), of many colors, as red, crimson, violet, purple, yellow; also many of them very beautifully striped, and others edged with white or yellow or red. Flowering as they do so early in the season, they continue longer than the late flowering and make a splendid display.

Fig. 3.—Single Early Tulip.

Fig. 4.—Late Show Tulip.

The later Tulips (Fig. 4), grow taller than the earlier sorts, and are great favorites with all lovers of this showy flower. They have been divided in sections known as Bizarres, Byblooms and Roses. The Bizarres have a yellow ground color, which is broken with any other color, as purple or red; the Byblooms have the ground color white, broken with purple; and the Roses have also a white ground color, broken with cherry, crimson, or pink. Numerous rules are laid down for judging these tulips, and the “points” of the flower defined with most minute exactness; but as it is not probable that the readers of the Horticulturist will be growing them for exhibition purposes, we shall not weary them with these rules.

In planting tulips it is necessary to choose well-drained soil, as standing water is very injurious to them. Autumn is the proper season for planting them, say the month of October. They should be covered to the depth of about three inches, in soil that is sufficiently rich to yield a good crop of potatoes. An occasional stirring of the surface and eradication of weeds is all the further cultivation required. Most writers on tulips insist upon the necessity of taking up the bulbs as soon as the leaves have withered, and keeping them in a cool, dry place until the planting season. It is true that if this is not done the more delicate varieties will die out after a while, and the stronger will lose their variegation and revert to the old red color. But after all, one gets tired of the same thing year after year, and when the tulip bed begins to run out, there is a pleasure in procuring a new lot to supply their places, and enjoyment in marking the changes that further cultivation by those who devote themselves to the raising of new tulips may have produced.

Fig. 5.—Parrot Tulip.

There is also a variety known as the Parrot Tulip (Fig. 5), having long, loose, fringed petals, the most of them having three or four colors, yellow, crimson, orange and green intermingled, the yellow color, however, usually predominating. They are very brilliant and showy, and will be particularly interesting to those who are not familiar with their peculiar form.

The Tulip holds a conspicuous position in the history of commercial speculations. It hardly seems possible that men, business men, shrewd and calculating, should have been so beside themselves as to value a single tulip bulb at one and two thousand dollars. A Harlæm merchant paid half his fortune for a tulip that he might keep it in his garden for the admiration of his visitors. In 1635 the tulip mania had seized upon all classes, and speculation in tulip bulbs took the place of ordinary business. Upwards of $46,500 was paid for forty bulbs, and a sailor is said to have eaten a tulip bulb, mistaking it for an onion, the value of which would have furnished a princely dinner party.

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DRIED FOODS.

At present we export to Europe about 6,000,000 pounds of evaporated apples. The process is extremely simple. The fruit is “cored” and sliced into pieces one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness; it is then exposed to sulphur fumes, which arrest all fermentation, and then to a dry hot blast of air, which reduces it to about half its original weight. The sulphur fumigation prevents the fruit from becoming dark, and after drying it is almost as white as when first cut. Simple as is this process, it costs about twice as much as drying the fruit in the sun, but such is the saving in weight and flavor that it is preferred, and evaporated apples sell to day in the European markets for fifteen cents a pound.

An old produce dealer interested in the European export trade told an Evening Post reporter that in view of the astounding magnitude of the export trade in food products, it would not be surprising to hear of attempts at compressing or drying every product of the country. The same process as that applied to apples has been used with some success with peaches, and some berries that can be grown cheaply, and as the export of dried food products increases, the import is constantly decreasing. The raisins from California promise to drive all foreign raisins out of our markets. There are vineyards of hundreds of acres in Placer, El Dorado, Los Angeles, San Diego, and other counties, given up to growing and drying grapes, partly by evaporation and partly by sun heat.

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CORRESPONDENCE.

THE GOOSEBERRY.

The Gooseberry is a fruit which seems rather at a disadvantage in Ontario, as the standard English sorts do not succeed, both from their liability to mildew and because their mode of growth is unsuited to the climate.

Only two kinds are considered reliable—the Downing and the Houghton, and these in quality, growth and size of fruit are but middling. From their appearance I should suppose these to be hybrids, and that the small, smooth, swamp berry is the female parent.

If this be correct, it is quite possible and probable that we may yet have a considerable number of new sorts, and of a much better quality; but the matter must be taken up without loss of time, or it may be too late.

It has often been said that this was a land of wild grapes, but when first settled it was even more a country of wild gooseberries, and the varieties were endless; red, green, rusty-purple, and even blue; small, middling and large; prickly, spiny, hairy and smooth.

Some of the two last are, or were, of very fine flavour, almost equalling the finest English kind, which is also hairy.

In many old settled and improved districts the native gooseberry is practically extinct, and ere the march of civilization completely annihilates it, we need men of observation, practical and scientific knowledge, who have taste and leisure, to experiment and improve this fruit. Seedlings with the native habit of growth, and the fruit more like the English in size, would make a name and a profit for the successful originator. But even if good hybrids cannot be produced, we need not confine ourselves to two sorts, nor to twenty.

When this district was new, I was struck with the superior habit of growth and the efficient mode of renewal of the native bushes in the woods.

On trying the fruit I found the quality not only bad and indifferent, but also good, and used to mark plants of superior flavour when ripe that I might transplant in the fall.

In this way I selected and removed three or four dozen bushes, which filled a considerable plot of ground when placed at a due distance from each other, intending to prune, mulch and manure them, but owing to various untoward circumstances they were quite neglected.

Notwithstanding want of care they have borne for more than twenty-five years, and for pies, preserves and ripe use, we think them better, and certainly more reliable, than the two standard sorts.

Several years ago I saved and sowed seed from the best and largest, but did not find the fruit of the seedlings equal to the parents. Cultivation will not improve them.

They differ from the English sorts in having a disinclination to take root from cuttings, but any sucker or offshoot with the least portion of root will grow.

Partial shade is desirable, as in some kinds the fruit drops considerably in arid situations.

C. Orillia.

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REPORT OF FRUIT TREES.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Dear Sir,—I am a little late with my report for 1881. The winter of 1880 and ’81 was a very hard one here. My Ontario apple tree was winter killed dead to the snow line. I had a graft of the same variety, which was grafted into a seedling stalk; it was also killed. This is sufficient proof that this variety will be too tender for Eastern Ontario. I had two trees Beauty of Kent, one Fall Pippin, one Sweet Bough, bearing trees, all winter killed; also a row of young trees of Gravenstein, every one killed. My Glass Seedling plum survived; the fruit buds were all killed, but the tree was not injured. I had a fine McLaughlin plum tree killed. My Flemish Beauty and Clapp’s Favorite pear trees came through the winter uninjured, only the fruit buds were killed. All the other varieties of pear trees that I had were winter killed. The Swayzie Pommie Grise and Grime’s Golden apple trees are growing fine; they are hardy. Grime’s Golden has borne some fruit for three years. My Burnet grape made a large growth last year, but bore no fruit, which disappointed me very much. I think I over-manured it; it came into blossom the latter part of July, and the blossoms all fell off. Do you think that over-manuring would make it act in this way? All my other varieties of grapes bore heavy, but none got any manure. I removed the surface earth from my Burnet, and put a heavy coat of rotten manure over the roots: then put the earth back again over the manure. I have heard that grapes will stand any amount of fertilizing, but I think that I overdid it. I find the Burnet needs but very little winter protection.

The cold days for the Winter are as follows: November, 4 days thermometer below zero, the lowest being 11 degrees; December, 1 day 10 below zero; January, 17 days thermometer below zero, the lowest being 24—it went to this figure three times; February, 10 days below zero, the lowest 25 degrees. The average cold for 11 days, taking the last four days of January and the first seven days of February, was 12½ degrees below zero. The ground was well covered with snow the whole winter. Yours respectfully,

A. Bridge.

West Brook, near Kingston, March, 1882.

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FRUITS IN ALGOMA.

Mr. Editor,—I have been on the point of writing to you for some time, but have not, as I have been trying to promote the interest of our Association; but as this is a newly settled part of the country, and some have not enough land under cultivation to allow them to set apart an orchard, so they say they would rather wait a while longer, and see how the trees and vines grow and stand the winters before purchasing for themselves. We have quite a variety of wild fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, cranberries, and I have heard of a few wild grapes, but as I have not seen any, I cannot speak about them. There are also some very old apple trees on this island which bear fruit most seasons, but seldom have a chance to ripen, as the Indian and half-breed pick them before they ripen. One of my neighbours ripened a few bunches of Concord grapes last season. I have four Concord and four Isabella vines, but they are not bearing yet. I expect they will have some fruit this summer. All small fruits will do well here, and I think that if we can get the most hardy that will ripen early, that we can grow apples. I don’t see why we should not, as our climate is no worse than that of Collingwood or Goderich, and they grow fruit in these townships. Also at Sault St. Mary’s, I am told, they have fine orchards, and ripen their fruit. Most of the tops of my apple, pear, plum and cherry trees got killed last winter, but sprouted out of the stems or roots. I will still protect them, and see if I can make anything out of them. I intend trying some Black Walnut and Chestnut trees this next spring, unless you think we are too far north to admit of their growing. If you think they would not do well here, I wish you would make a note of it in next number. I read the articles in one of the back numbers, and don’t understand if that is the only distance north that such trees will grow. Of course we have no such trees here, and I would like to plant a few to test them for a winter or two. I cannot think of any more at present to mention, so hoping you will excuse this from one who is not accustomed to write long letters,

I remain, yours respectfully,

Jas. C. Cooper.

Note.—It is not probable that the Sweet Chestnut would endure the climate. The Black Walnut might.

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ENGLISH SPARROWS.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Sir,—In your March number there was a communication from Mr. Newhall, referring to an article from an Australian paper respecting the destructiveness of the English sparrow, which article I had previously read.

As Mr. Newhall gave no particulars of his own observation, I doubted the facts as stated, as my garden and small plum orchard is constantly filled with sparrows, they having made it a roosting place all winter, and I had never noticed any harm they had done to fruit or fruit buds.

I wrote a short article to send you to that effect, but before sending it I happened to notice a pear tree in my garden with a dozen of sparrows on it busy pecking at the fruit buds which were then just beginning to expand, and going to examine them closely I found they were nibbling at the incipient stalks of the blossoms. Thinking they might be after insects, I concluded to watch them more carefully before writing you; but on going into my plum yard adjoining, I found there was hardly a fruit bud left on several hundred bearing plum trees, the places where the fruit buds had been picked out being quite distinct all over the trees. They had not then touched any cherry or peach buds, but on Saturday last I discovered dozens of sparrows on my specimen tree of the new “Windsor cherry” seedling, which stands at my kitchen door, and which was, as usual, perfectly covered with an enormous show of blossoms. On examining closely, standing under the tree and looking up, I saw they were all busy eating the unopened fruit blossoms, and looking under the tree found the ground covered with the debris of the buds dropped in eating them. Since then they have been busy on all my cherry trees, more than half of the unopened blossoms being already gone. To-day I found them eating the peach blossoms for the first time, and doubt not but all will be destroyed before the week is over, as there are hundreds of them busy at work all the time.

It is evident that strong measures must be taken to prevent the spread of the sparrow, and to destroy them where they are already a nuisance, as they are here. As long as they were few in numbers they did apparently little or no injury to the trees or fruit, living on what they could pick up out of the horse droppings on the streets and any spilt grain about the railway depot and elsewhere. But this spring there has been little or no movement of grain by rail, and the birds have increased so much that they can’t make a living off the horse droppings, and have been supplimenting it with fruit buds.

The benefit they were to do in destruction of insects has been greatly exaggerated. It is only when they have young that they hunt for them. I saw a female to-day busy catching spiders from a vine trained against a wall, while several hundred others were eating fruit buds. One chipping sparrow is worth twenty English for destroying insects, while the English drives them away.

Law or no law, I will try and destroy as many sparrows as I can in the most wholesale manner possible.

Yours truly,

James Dougall.

Windsor Nurseries, April, 1882.

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“LOST RUBIES.”

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Dear Sir,—Allow me to call the attention of your correspondent, Mr. J. C. Robinson, of Owen Sound, to an unfortunate slip in his note on page 95 of your April number.

Mr. Robinson says, “No one can convince me that ‘Lost Rubies’ is akin to foreign sorts; the leaf and cane are as plainly native as our Canada thistle.”

Mr. Robinson will be perhaps mortified to learn that Canada cannot claim the honour of being the mother country of this prolific thistle. Had he seen as many acres of it as I have seen in the old country, he would know that, like many others of our plant and insect pests, it has been introduced—like the white man himself. The simile was unfortunate for his argument.

While I am writing, I should like to mention that the name of the manufacturer of Buhach, on page 76, should be Mr. Milco, not Miles. This correction may prevent the miscarriage of letters.

E. W. Claypole.

New Bloomfield, Perry Co., Pa.

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GRAPE VINES AT BALTIMORE.

I am well pleased with the Canadian Horticulturist. It was a well-spent dollar. The report is well worth the amount. I have over nine hundred Grape Vines set out at present; and I am experimenting and trying to improve or invent new or better systems of training, that will harmonize better with the natural growth of the vine, and that can be successfully and economically laid down and covered for winter, which is a necessity in this country.

T. A. Chapman.

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CANADIAN APPLES IN THE ENGLISH MARKET.

The arrivals of Canadian apples at the port of Liverpool last year were something over 200,000 barrels, but owing to the shortness of the crop in both the United States and Canada these numbers will certainly not be reached by the imports from the two countries during the present (1881) season. In fact, the shipments to Liverpool within the last three months, as compared with those in the corresponding period of last year, show a decrease of nearly 30,000 barrels. With the view of giving the trade an opportunity of judging for themselves as to the most valuable class of apples to be imported to this country, Mr. Smythe, the Canadian Government Agent at London, Ontario, has forwarded a consignment of some hundred different varieties of Canadian apples, properly classified, which were supplied by the leading growers in his district. These are on exhibition at Liverpool. It is expected that the next Allan steamship will bring from Canada a further supply, which will be exhibited at the leading pomocultural shows in Great Britain. By this means it is intended to promote the interests of this important branch of the Canadian export trade.—The Grocer.

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THE UTILITY AND BEAUTY OF TREES.

Address of the Hon. George B. Loring, United States Commissioner of Agriculture, delivered before the American Forestry Congress, at their recent meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Gentlemen,—I have accepted your invitation to be present on this occasion and to preside over your deliberations, not because I feel competent to instruct in the art of forestry, but in order that I might assure you of the sympathy of the Agricultural Department of the Government, and of my own high estimate of the value of your work. The question of forestry is one of the most intricate and difficult of all the agricultural problems which come before us.

That our forests are wasted by reckless extravagance and by uncontrollable conflagrations; that they are diminishing before the immense demands upon their products, we all know. Their importance as a climatic influence is conceded. The profit of tree-growing on wisely selected lands is acknowledged. But the methods by which our forests can be restored and preserved still puzzle the statesman and the cultivator alike. The nature of property in timber lands as adjusted for the State and the individual, in all those countries where the forests have attracted the special attention of the Government, particularly in the Old World, has so much of exclusiveness and reservation for the gratification of personal desires, that we can derive but little benefit from its study. The rights and powers and duties of State and Federal legislation, as regards our forests, require the most careful and ingenious consideration. We learn from the statistical returns the vast value of forest products to our commerce, to our domestic manufactures, to our internal trade. And by constant investigation we are ascertaining the best systems of tree-planting, and of cultivating specific wood crops in favorable localities. You will pardon me, therefore, while I leave all these difficult, practical problems for the consideration of those who have brought here the results of long study and experience, and turn my attention to the value and

IMPORTANCE OF TREE CULTURE

as one of those arts by which man beautifies his abode, and manifests that taste which especially distinguishes him in the scale of animate being, and which he labors to gratify as soon as he has laid the hard and substantial foundations of State and Society. Men build first, and then plant. The primary work of erecting an empire, in which all the sturdy virtues are called into operation, and where courage fixes the national power, and wisdom establishes the national education, is not a field for the exercise of man’s love of beauty. With the wars and the felling of the forests, and the log cabin and primitive school-house of a newly-settled country and a newly-founded empire, taste has but little to do. But when safety and property are made secure, and the highways are well worn, and the skill and strength of the cultivator have stripped the landscape of its natural beauty, and the foot of man has trampled out the graceful lines in which Nature always works, then there uprises man’s demand for the beautiful, and he endeavors to restore by art what he was obliged to destroy for his subsistence. For whatever may be his outward circumstance, however hardening and depressing may be the incidents of his life, man has an instinctive love of beauty, which insists on being gratified. He knows that this is his distinguishing characteristic which separates him from the beasts that perish—an element of his mind and heart which leads him “from nature up to nature’s God.” To him the sunrise means glory as well as daylight. The lone and lofty mountains elevate him to the contemplation of the Almighty power, even while they are “a shelter to the wild goats;” and the dewy pastures where the cattle graze and recline in the long shadows, lull him to the sweets of evening repose; the sparkling stream, “where the wild asses quench their thirst,” will soothe and sing him to happiness and rest. The majestic and commanding tree, whose widespread branches shelter the panting animals from the blaze of the noontide sun, is a picture of power and strength and varying loveliness, which is to him a source of never-ending delight. When his eye surveys the swelling landscape, the emotions which belong to him as a child of the Creator of all, inspire and elevate him above the earth on which he treads, and distinguish him from that other order of animal existence, to which all scenery is alike, whose sensibilities no ugliness of nature or art offends, which no starry heavens delight, and no homely surroundings disturb; whose vision is blind both to the graces and deformities of even its own kind, which nibbles the daisy and the June grass with equal satisfaction, and whose soul “can not rejoice with those who rejoice, nor weep with those who weep.” It is man alone who knows that “a thing of beauty is a joy forever.”

TASTE IN TREE PLANTING.

It is in accordance with this sentiment that man has applied his skill and taste to the creation of all the charming scenery of groves and bowers and gardens, and to the enhancement of natural beauties themselves. Great gardens of antiquity, the monstrous towering pleasure grounds of Rome and Babylon, set an example which advancing civilization has not failed to follow. The cultivation of parks and gardens constitutes one of the most interesting and important duties of modern art—a duty in the faithful performance of which England has set an admirable example. Leaving, in the early part of the eighteenth century, the formal and heavy style then in vogue, through the influence of some of her most illustrious poets—Addison at Bilton, and Pope at Twickenham—the English people revolutionized that whole system, and established that classical style of planting which has since been so much admired and imitated throughout the most refined parts of Europe.

This science of landscape gardening, which advanced so slowly in the Old World, and the proper system of constructing a city with light and water, and parks and shaded streets, which was so shamefully neglected until a comparatively recent period there, have until within a few years been entirely overlooked in our own country.

When more than seventy years ago, the city of Cincinnati was founded and the spot was chosen on which has been erected such a splendid array of public buildings, private dwellings, music halls, art galleries, churches and libraries, the application of art to the arrangement of gardens, parks, streets and highways, was hardly thought of. It was enough to clear the land and till it without converting it into a pleasing picture. It was all the early settlers in our country could do to blaze a path through the forest without considering how best to crown and drain a highway, and it was not until after the Revolutionary war that the planting of trees and shrubs was made a necessary part of the laying out of gardens and grounds. I remember well the only garden in the State of Massachusetts, laid out early in this century by an English gardener, and kept in good order until within a dozen years, an object of delight to all who were allowed to enter its sacred inclosure and perambulate its well-visited walks. Such a scene as this was rare. Public-spirited citizens planted avenues of trees in highways, and were considered benefactors. Here and there a “door-yard” was ornamented with clumps of lilacs and syringas, but nowhere, that I am aware of, were there associations of enterprising and tasteful citizens organized for the purpose of adorning their towns and of providing for the health and comfort of themselves and of the community of which they formed a part. It remained for our own generation to unite for so important and laudable a purpose; and I congratulate this beautiful city that its natural comeliness has been enhanced and its suburbs made delightful by the combined efforts of those who believe that a love of beauty is a human attribute, and that we are under a sacred obligation to preserve that health which is given us for a high and useful purpose. The practical service of an association like this, as I have said, it is not necessary for me to discuss here, in the presence of those who know by experience how trees and shrubs should be grouped; who have learned that an evergreen should be transplanted in August, and that a little lime and muck applied to the roots when it is planted will give it a wonderful stimulus; who understand that a plantation of trees should be made to suit the building it is to surround and the landscape it is to occupy; that trees should not be planted too near a building, or too near each other; that the plants nearest the house should be low in stature and of a beautiful sort; that the shades of green should be properly blended, and the foliage selected accordingly; that trees should be protected by each other against those winds which are obnoxious to them; that the Norway will not bear the rough gales from the sea, and that the Scotch pine rejoices in them; that trees and plants should not be “marshalled in regular order and at equal distances,” like beaux and belles standing up for a quadrille or country dance; “that it is easier,” as Downing says, “to make a tasteful park by planting new trees than by thinning out an old forest, and that nature herself is full of hints and suggestions,” an observance of which constitutes the highest art of which man is capable in all that work of which earth, sea and sky form a part. With all this you have long been familiar, as the practicable part of a most agreeable labor; but for the trees themselves, these living monuments of nature’s bounty, or of man’s skill; those landmarks which we love to contemplate; those sentinels and armies along the landscape; those silent friends who somehow connect themselves with so many of the dearest scenes and events of our lives, and watch over the graves of the departed day and night, and through all the changing seasons—for the trees themselves let us say a word.

BEAUTIFUL TREES.

Now I know not how it is, but next to the face of an old friend returned from a long absence, the sight of a landscape or a tree, once familiar and connected with the early event of our lives, long lost and now bursting upon our vision, fills us with the tenderest emotion. Who that has suddenly come upon a flower by the wayside in a foreign land, which grew beside some well known path in the country of his home, has not been filled with sweet recollections and transported to that spot which will forever outshine the glory of all others?

How often have we turned our eyes unexpectedly upon a solitary tree keeping watch and ward over a hillside pasture, and at once, as if the heavens had been opened, there came a vision as dear to us as the memory of that sacred band of the loved and lost! How often has a footpath, winding through the woods, opened suddenly upon us, and in a moment a long past, and perhaps long-forgotten hour of joy, shone around about us? The trees are indeed our companions, clothed by us with the most delightful associations, appealing and responding at once to our sense of beauty, and preserving, as it were, with tender care our choicest memories. Their story is all told and well told by the young Indian who, in the midst of the splendor of Paris, regretting the simple beauty of his native island, sprang forward at the unexpected sight of a banana tree in the Jardin des Plantes, embraced it while his eyes were bathed in tears, and exclaiming with a voice of joy, “Ah, tree of my country,” seemed by a delightful illusion of sensibility to imagine himself for a moment transported to the land which gave him birth.

TREES OF HISTORY.

And then what a living and vital interest gathers about those trees which either by accident or by design have become monumental and representative. To know them well is to be intimate with the great deeds and the great men of history. Into what classic associations and deeds of daring, and raging and majestic conflicts by land and by sea, and profound mysteries and rites are we borne by the long and interesting story of the

OAK,

the tree which Pliny says held “Honos apud Romanos perpetuus”—the highest honor and repute with the Romans. We recall the solemn ceremonies of the Druids among the oak groves which stood strong and solemn on English soil, during the morning twilight of English civilization. The scarred and sturdy tree near “White Lady’s,” in which the defeated monarch hid himself after his almost miraculous escape at the battle of Worcester—how like a guardian angel it stands in the history of royalty in England.

The contemporary of this tree, the wide-spreading oak of Hartford, spared from the primeval forests of America, as imposing and perhaps as ancient as the Pyramids, decayed and broken, concealing in its stout heart the Charter of Colonial Privileges—what a cherished and commanding figure it is in the record of freedom on this Continent! What a tale of valor and proud endeavor, and the heroism which triumphs where “the battle rages long and loud,” could that pasture oak tell, which was borne from the fair hillside of Andover, Massachusetts, to become the sternpost of the immortal frigate Constitution?

THE ELM.

Call to mind now the story of the elm tree, and what a mingling of fable and fiction and interesting fact gathers around it. When Orpheus returned to earth from his melodious mission for Eurydice to the dominions of Pluto, and sat him down upon the verdant hill, it was the elm which first responded to his plaintive airs, and offered him his refreshing shade. It gave its name to the imperial city of Ulm, in Germany, and as Elmwood it designates the home of one of the most brilliant of modern American poets.

The elm planted by Henry IV., of France, in the Luxembourg gardens of Paris; the elm which Queen Elizabeth planted with her own hands at Chelsea, while waiting for the crown; the elms planted by Sir Francis Bacon in Gray’s Inn walks, will not be forgotten so long as the memory of these remarkable persons shall endure. And when we turn to the pages of Columella to learn the food most used for cattle in his day; and to the plays of Plautus to read with what twigs the Roman rogues were beaten; and to Evelyn to find out what timber made the best pipes, pumps, poles, ship-planks, beneath the water line; and to Galen and Pliny for a sovereign remedy for all the ills that flesh is heir to—we find that the elm reigns supreme, and is nutritive, corrective, medicinal, and imperishable, alike. To my mind there gather around this tree, also, historic associations at once romantic and tender. One hundred and fifty years ago, Captain John Lovewell, of Dunstable, Mass., with a little band of forty-six followers, started in early spring to drive Pangus and his tribe of Piquackets from the fertile lands which they occupied near Fryeburg, Maine, and from which they made their murderous assaults on the white settlements. The march was through pathless woods, and the expedition was one which required all the strength and courage which man can possibly command. Chaplain Frye, who accompanied the little army, was a young man, born in Andover, a graduate of Harvard, an exemplary youth, an accomplished scholar, and a devoted servant of Christ, the profession which he had chosen. On that beautiful May morning, when Captain Lovewell’s men were ambushed by the Indian warriors of Pangus, on the shore of the Piquacket Pond, Chaplain Frye was one of the first to fall mortally wounded. When he left his home to join the expedition he planted an elm tree, in that early spring time, on a commanding eminence in his native town, in order, as he said, that he might be remembered should he fall in battle; and there it stands at this day, a lofty and noble monument to the devoted young Chaplain, putting on its green robe each year on the anniversary of his death, and taking on its sad yellow hue in the autumn as if in mourning for him whose name it bears. And to every son and daughter of America, what a representative tree this is! Would you learn its significance? Go with me, then, to that ancient farmhouse, standing as it has stood for more than a century on that sunny slope which our fathers loved so well. That ancient dwelling, with its broad and open front, receiving on its ample brow the sweet south wind, and with its long sloping, defiant roof in the rear, closed firm against the invading north, the type of our ancestral architecture. It stands there still, as it has stood for generations, gathered around and supported by the massive chimney, which has so long sustained and warmed its hospitable heart. It is a bright June morning, and the sun is pouring in its flood of light upon the narrow entry, with its homespun carpet, and its steep and winding stairway, leading to the cheerful chambers, fragrant with sweet herbs and the sweeter air of heaven. From the sunken door-stone, trod into earth by the footsteps of many a hardy and honest generation, to the humble roadside, the green and grassy slope extends, telling its story of the joy and happiness which have gathered on its sod, and the sad tale also of sorrow and woe, how young and old have been borne out of that threshold, the child and the mother, the youth and the gray-haired father, amidst tears and sobs, down to the silence of the grave. And over all that scene the drooping elm looks down from its towering height, a witness of the domestic drama which has been acted there for years, and now the recognized type of those virtues which adorned our ancestors, those protests and assertions which made them great, the courage and defiance which made us free. Do you think there is in all the world another tree like this American elm—the accepted ornament of our ancient rural homes, the grand and solitary sentinel, seen from afar, and telling this story of American life with which you are all so familiar, and of which you are all so proud? In this centennial period of our history, too, how this tree is woven into the heroic events of our annals! There are many incidents of that great time when our fathers rose up to assert their independence; the amazing stand at Lexington and Concord; the calm and steady courage at Bunker Hill; the solemn assembling of the Continental Congress; the generous devotion of the colonies to each other; the impressive patience of our own great revolutionary existence; but not one stands out in grander proportions than that scene at Cambridge, when Washington, in the calm majesty of his manly strength, assumed the command of a disorganized body of militia, named it the Continental army, and waged war against the most powerful Empire and the best disciplined troops in the world, and founded an independent nationality of freemen. The canopy beneath which this sublime event occurred has become immortal as the Washington Elm.

Who that is familiar with sacred history can fail to be reminded of the most stirring scenes in the career of God’s chosen people, as he contemplates the

CEDAR,

the tree which crowned Lebanon, and was associated with the highest and most sacred art and architecture of the Jews. Never was tree dedicated to more illustrious architecture than when Solomon sent his four score thousand hewers into Lebanon and covered his Temple “with beams and boards of cedar.” And the great king immortalized the tree when he selected it as the type of one of his noblest conceptions: “His countenance is as Lebanon, excellent as the cedars.”

The temple of Diana, at Ephesus, which was 220 years in building, was constructed in its frame and boarding entirely of cedar. It is of this tree that Madame de Genlis says: “The rose will be in all countries the queen of flowers; but amongst trees the honor of being king belongs only to the ancient and majestic cedar.” And so high a place has this tree secured in history, that “the few cedars still remaining on Mount Libanus are preserved with a religious strictness; and on the day of the transfiguration the Patriarch repairs in procession to them, and celebrates a festival called the feast of cedars.”

TREES FOR INSPIRATION.

The intimate relations which trees bear to remarkable events and illustrious persons in history are almost innumerable, as you may infer from the few and striking illustrations to which I have called your attention. But these insensible though living companions of man do not stop here. They afford shelter and encouragement to his loftiest aspirations, and offer him protection and sympathy in those hours when his mind is filled with fervor and inspiration. Evelyn says: “Innumerable are the testimonies I might produce concerning the inspiring and sacred influence of groves from the ancient poets and historians. Here the noblest raptures have been conceived; and in the walks and shades of trees poets have composed verses which have animated men to glorious and heroic actions. Here orators have made their panegyrics, historians their grave relations, and here profound philosophers have loved to pass their lives in repose and contemplation.” Would you find instances of this in your own day? Attend Hawthorne, then, in his wooded walk at Concord, and learn the height which man’s contemplation may reach amidst the whispering silence of the groves; join Thoreau in his forest seclusion, and know the inspiration which belongs to those solemn arches and to the leafy chapels which Nature prepares for her worshippers.

TREES FOR PROFIT.

And now, to him who, in a spirit of thrift and economy worthy of that people to whom as an American he belongs, would ask what is all this worth? Let me say that the judicious selection and planting of trees may be made one of the most profitable branches of agriculture. Not for the beauty of the town alone, but for a thrifty use of remote and deserted acres also may the culture of trees be made a part of the business of life. A venerable clergyman in Massachusetts, the father of one of the most distinguished bankers in Boston, left at his death a large territory of woodland in the town which was blessed with his ministry for more than fifty years, and the profits on this land, which he had purchased at a very low rate at the beginning of his professional service, and which had been devoted to the growth of wood, principally pine, were greater than those realized on lands purchased and sold at the same periods in the most prosperous parts of Boston. “We have heard of a gentleman,” says the author of Practical Economy, “whose lands were more extensive than fertile, whose practice was to plant fifteen hundred trees, on the birth of every daughter, upon his waste grounds, which were on an average worth one pound each on her becoming of age, thus enabling him to give her a fortune of £1,500 without any extraordinary economy on his part, the regular thinning of the trees at proper seasons, with barking, &c., paying off all the current expenses, besides yielding him a small rent for the land.” The profits derived from the growing of the pine, the locust, and the birch, all capable of flourishing greatly in light and somewhat worthless lands, have been in many instances very remarkable. Perhaps I would not recommend the cultivation of wood and timber as a universal branch of agriculture in these days when the secret of the business lies in quick returns and devotion to local markets; but I can find in the experience of those who have tried it an encouragement to those who, by the possession of large tracts of waste lands, may be compelled to follow their example in the business of tree-planting; and I read with profound interest the statement addressed to Governor Foster by an enterprising citizen of this State, with regard to his success in tree planting, and the groves of walnuts, maples and chesnuts which he is cultivating with pleasure and profit.

But more than all this, to the poetic and practical alike I would present the advantage of

ORNAMENTAL GARDENING,

both in our towns and around our rural homes, and its kindly effect upon the character of those who are subject to its influences. It is an old story, I know—this of the refinement and invigoration which attend pursuits upon the soil—but it is so true and so charming and, I am sorry to say, so little heeded, that it may, if properly told, be repeated a thousand times, and heard with pleasure and profit. The devotion of mankind in all ages to the land is a feature of social and civil history which can not be lost sight of by him who would trace the steps which man has taken in his progress and development. “To dress the garden and to keep it,” was the first duty imposed on man when he entered upon his career on earth, and “to dress the garden and to keep it” has been the desire of every man who, after long wanderings, has learned the point from whence all his impulses sprang. The poor man seeks the soil; the rich and the powerful believe in its refreshing influences and its repose. The industrious and frugal mechanics and labourers of our country all toil for a home and a spot which they can cultivate. The merchant of our day, like his ancestor in the early periods of our commercial history, when every man bought a farm, believe now in the delights of rural and suburban life. The law and the custom of our fathers was a land-holding clergy, established for life in their ministrations. From the farms and plantations of the colonies sprang brave and hardy and wise men, who gave us our freedom and our nationality.

I trust, therefore, that to this and to all other associations dedicated to the work of preserving and restoring our vast forest wealth, and of beautifying the earth upon which we tread, the people of this continent will extend a grateful heart and a helping hand.

In conclusion, let me urge upon this Association the most careful consideration of the topics before it—the use of forests; the conservation of forests; the influences, injurious and beneficial of forests; the educational means by which we may become acquainted with Forestry work. To what extent can the land-owner enter profitably upon the business of tree-planting and forest culture? What legislation can the States best adopt for the increase and preservation of their forests? How shall the General Government provide for the planting of forests on its public lands? “What is the precise extent of forest waste? What is the comparative value of various timber trees? How shall we secure wind-breaks on the prairies? By what chemical processes can we preserve our timber used in building and fencing? What forest trees are best adapted to various localities?—these are questions which should be answered as definitely as possible. They are questions which the American people are anxious to have answered, and before which all discussion of foreign legislation, all consideration of the value of wood products, all statistics of trade, all study of land tenure, sink into insignificance. I trust the deliberations of this convention will point the way by which these problems can be solved, and by which our vast forest wealth can be economically preserved and profitably used.

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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FLOWERS AND FRUITS.

The habitat of our favorite flowers is always a source of interest to the flower-lover, as well as to the botanist,—but a climate, which will by adoption give home and nurture to the more delicate forms of plant-life, and give results nearly, if not quite, equal to the finest conservatory conditions, is one deserving the attention of amateurs. Below the 35th parallel, these results in multitudes of instances are daily witnessed. This is true of the valleys at the foot of the Santa Ynez mountains, and the valleys for twenty or thirty miles below sheltered by the trend of the coast from cold north winds and the hot winds of the desert beyond the mountains; especially in the belt of country known as the Santa Barbara valley, a strip of land lying on the sea-coast, protected by the outlying islands from ocean winds and storms, rendering the harbor a naturally fine one, where steamers land at all seasons. Then, with the protection on the north and west before noted, a climatic condition may be found embracing the needs of temperate, semi-tropical and many tropical plants. The Stephanotis will climb amicably beside the fragrant Honeysuckle. Tecoma Jasminoides will intermingle its lovely leaves and flowers, shielding in winter the leafless Wistaria and rejoicing in the spring over its clusters of royal bloom. Rhus Cotinus will produce its wreaths of delicate fringe in the shadow of the Magnolia and Pomegranate. Fuchsias will lift their tall heads from circles of Gladiolus and Tuberoses, none feeling an alien presence of a stinted growth. But over all these will reign a crowned queen—the Tea Rose, and royally she fills the throne. No garden is complete without a hundred varieties of Roses, and with intelligent culture nothing finer in results can be imagined, and all the year around. April and May are, perhaps, the most royal months of bloom, but no season is without Roses, and a morning hour is required for taking off the old Roses, making room for the on-coming bud and bloom. A circle of these around a Dicksonia antarctica in carefully combined colors, with a border of Diosma alba, is a thing of beauty. You cannot cure the once possessor of such a garden; the gravitation toward it is as certain as the laws of any other gravitation. And the Eastern florist, after a winter among such gardens, will pack many a sigh and regret away in the recesses of trunks and portmanteaus, and with infinite disgust will fight Jack Frost another winter, until discretion becomes the better part of valor, and sooner or later the dream of a sunny home and a semi-tropical garden becomes a reality. A commingling of fruits from all zones becomes also a possibility. Citrus fruits grow side by side with the Apple and Pear, Figs and Bananas with Plums and Peaches. Perhaps nothing financially is of more importance to this valley than the following list of fruits: Apricot, Prune, English Walnut, Raisin Grape, Bartlett Pears, Olives, Egg Plums and Nectarines. The Peach does well ordinarily, having off-years, and some varieties a curled leaf. These fruits are mostly purchased by the cannery in large quantities, as also immense quantities of Tomatoes. I have seen Tomato vines seven years of age, but young plants produce better. Eternal vigilance is the price of orchards here, as to insects, as elsewhere. But with it the finest results are realized. Olive culture is becoming prominent, and in another letter will be described. Lima Beans have brought, with their present high prices, a bonanza to farmers in this valley, in many cases realizing from $75 to $125 per acre, this season; the land is of course very rich and of many descriptions. Fruits of the leading varieties are proved, from the cash-books of producers, to vary from $200 to $500 per acre, and some instances of Apricots run higher, at six and seven years of age. Most fruits, deciduous ones, bear at three years from planting in considerable quantities.

As a home, with its thoroughly equable climate, neither hot nor cold, nothing can be more desirable than this portion of Southern California.—Mrs. N. W. Winter, in American Gardener.

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HARDY RASPBERRIES.

The hardiness of Raspberries is a somewhat mooted question, but so much seems well established, that the amount of cold which the canes can withstand depends mainly upon the degree of ripeness of the wood. While a fully ripened cane may survive almost any possible degree of cold, an immature one may be killed by a few degrees below freezing point. Many varieties which we are in the habit of calling “perfectly hardy” were killed last winter by the unusual earliness—before the plants had ripened their wood—not by the intensity of cold. “Turner,” “Brandywine,” and even wild kinds, were killed down to within a few inches of the ground, while the same degree of cold, if it had occurred a few weeks later, would not have injured them in the least.—American Garden.

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CELERY CULTURE AT KALAMAZOO.

Celery culture is becoming a local industry of no small importance at Kalamazoo, the marsh land in the vicinity having been found to be admirably adapted to its growth. From the Kalamazoo Gazette we extract the following account of the mode of culture as there practiced:

“Not alone from the increased area will there be a larger quantity of celery in after years, but there is being more raised from the same land each year, as the gardeners become proficient in raising it, for it is comparatively a new industry for Kalamazoo. Instead of rows being five and six feet apart, as the books advise, they are raising it successfully three feet apart, and instead of five and six inches apart in the rows, it is raised half that distance, and as close as one’s fingers for the last or winter crop, so double the crop is raised from the same land.

“Gardeners who have read books on celery raising say Kalamazoo men can teach the authors their A. B. C’s in that business. Peter Henderson, the great New York gardener, advises to store it for winter by packing in shallow trenches, covering with lumber, marsh hay, etc. J. W. Wilson estimates that it would cost him $300 for lumber to secure his crop in that manner. The Kalamazoo way is to dig about two feet below the surface; then board up about two feet above; then on a frame six feet high, 12 foot boards meet and slant down the sides, with windows, all of which is banked and covered with manure. They are usually built 24 feet wide, and 40, 75 or 100 feet long. If the building is 50 feet long it will hold 50,000 celery; 100 feet long, 100,000 etc. It is built on upland, if possible, for marsh is too damp and cold. When first put in the houses it is green, but bleaches in a few weeks. They pack as close as it will stand, putting boards every few feet to prevent heating and rotting. People can keep their own celery as well as apples or potatoes, by putting some marsh soil in the bottom of a barrel, packing the celery, root down, not sideways, and keeping where it will not freeze. It is desirable to keep it growing. The sprouts may run over the top of the barrel, but will be no disadvantage. Put in green, and it will bleach, and you can wash, trim, as you wish for the table. One of the most annoying jobs in the business is the tying in half-dozen bunches. The long-felt want is for some Yankee to invent a self-binder.”

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CURRANTS.

If there is any living thing that possesses the Christian virtue of returning good for evil in a higher degree than the Currant-bush, we should like to know its name. Neglected and despised in an out-of-the-way corner, half-smothered under a tumbled-down garden-wall, or on a rubbish heap where nothing else could grow, a few Currant-bushes are frequently tolerated, and never thought of until the scorching July sun makes our system long for cooling and refreshing fruit acids. It is then that we call to mind our patient Currant-bushes, and become eager to gather—without blushing—their bright, glossy clusters, as interest for the worthless spot we have suffered them to occupy. Perhaps the advent of the Currant-worm is only a blessing in disguise, sent to teach us more charity and wisdom, and to compel us to give better treatment to our much misused bushes. Try it for once to give the Currants a respectable place in the garden, and cultivate them like any other shrub or plant which you expect to bear fruit, and you will soon become convinced that “it pays” to give fair play even to a Currant-bush.—American Garden.

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A CHANCE FOR BOYS.

Boys on farms want spending money, and are often sorely troubled to obtain it. Their best chance appears to be in cultivating some crop at home that requires small capital and a small amount of land for its production. The small fruits are excellent in these respects. They can generally be disposed of to greater advantage in country villages, or even among neighboring farmers, than in large cities, as there is no expense for packages, transportation, or for selling. The country boy can take his own fruit to his customers, sell it by measure, and pocket the proceeds. Probably the most profitable fruits to raise are strawberries and grapes, although blackberries and raspberries sell well in their season. Strawberries offer many advantages over other small fruits. It costs little to get a start with them. A hundred plants set out in a rich place after the bearing season will produce a thousand plants by fall. They will produce a good crop the year after they are transplanted. No implements are required for their cultivation except those found on every farm.

It takes but a small patch of land to produce 50 quarts of strawberries per day during the bearing season, and there are few places where they will not bring at least six cents a quart. By having late and early varieties, the strawberry season may be extended several weeks. There are few persons who will deny themselves strawberries. Grapes have some advantages over strawberries. They are not as perishable, and may be transported long distances without injury. Mature grape vines are almost sure to produce a crop every year. There is little trouble in keeping grapes till Thanksgiving and Christmas, when there is always a demand for them at good prices. With grapes and strawberries to dispose of, any farmer boy can keep himself supplied with money and have some to lay up for a rainy day.—Fruit-Grower.

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DO BEES INJURE GRAPES?

The above question has so often been asked, and so often been answered in the affirmative by persons who never took the pains to ascertain the truth of their assertions, that I now venture a few words.

I wish to relate a series of experiments made at the residence of one of the Western Illinois Bee Keepers’ Society.

This gentleman was showing to a friend a bunch of grapes which, having been purposely placed in one of his hives of bees, had been left untouched, though it had remained there several days.

“Well,” said the friend, “it might be that in a hive they don’t work on the grapes; but, out-doors, where they generally get their honey, they will certainly cut the berries open.”

“We can try,” said the bee keeper.

All his grapes were being gathered that day, and as bees were thick among the vines just then, everything was suitable for the experiment. The two friends, therefore, took all the damaged berries from quite a number of bunches in the same spot and left them ungathered. A few hours after all the crop of grapes had been gathered except these particular bunches, they again went to the vineyard and found the grapes as they had left them. The bees were almost all gone.

“I do not think that only a few like this could do much harm,” said the friend, “but you can’t make me believe that if a large number of hungry bees had tried to get the juice of a bunch of grapes they could not do it.”

Just as they were coming near the house, they noticed that a number of bees, having gone home a while before with a load of grape juice, were greedily coming back to the place where barrels of grapes had been left a few minutes, before being taken to the cellar.

“Now,” said the friend, “is our chance.”

They carefully took away everything in which the bees could find grape juice, picked up all the bruised berries scattered here and there, and left nothing to eat for the bees but one bunch of perfectly whole grapes.

The bees at once clustered upon it, and so many were there, that they hid the bunch completely. The friend looked at them with a smile of triumph. After a while they examined the bunch again; it was as shiny as a freshly-blackened stove. The bees had rubbed off all the bloom, but not one berry was opened.

The bee keeper then, with a needle, made a small puncture in one of the berries, the bunch was left in the same place, and when examined on the following day it was found that the bees had drank the juice as far as their tongues could go, but they had not torn the skin open any further.

I could further say that the bee keepers’ society of Bordeaux (France), thinking that bee culture in that locality might interfere with the wine interests, made continued experiments the whole summer long, with all possible kinds of fruit, with results like the above. Let me add that the juice of grapes there is much sweeter, and consequently more tempting for bees than it is here.—American Wine and Grape Grower.

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THE BIDWELL STRAWBERRY.

The American Agriculturist says: “After a careful inspection of the Bidwell strawberry, on various soils, and in different conditions, we feel like congratulating those who have received the plants as premiums. The productiveness of the plant is simply wonderful, and that is one great point in the strawberry, while it runs of unusually uniform size. With our present knowledge, if asked to name a strawberry which we would prefer to the Bidwell to send out as premiums, we could not do it, as we do not know of any one berry that we can so confidently recommend for general cultivation. The leading strawberry of the last two years has been the “Sharpless,” and an admirable fruit it has proved to be. The markets are an excellent test of the value of a fruit, and the Sharpless has appeared in great abundance. As compared to the Bidwell, we should say that it did not equal that in productiveness, and was not so firm for shipping—still the Sharpless will long hold a prominent place in the list of first-class strawberries.” Purdy’s Fruit Recorder says: “We obtained from three different parties in Michigan, all of whom had their plants direct from Bidwell, fifteen thousand plants. Then to make sure that our plants were the same as Mr. Roe’s, (who is properly and carefully cautioning the public against spurious plants), a friend ordered from him a few plants, which were set on our grounds. The three lots from Michigan and those from Mr. Roe have all proved the same, so we do not question the purity and genuineness of our plants, and further the shape of the fruit is of that peculiar cast shown in the drawing given by us, which was copied from the American Agriculturist, describing this sort in an article written by Mr. Roe. The fruit is of the meaty, luscious character of the Sharpless, but more sprightly, and for us better, in sugar and cream; and judging from these late spring set plants, the large size and uniformity of the berries, the fine clusters show to us it is a variety of a high order of excellence. Right alongside of our plantation of this sort we have a bed of Sharpless, set two weeks earlier, the first spring, and having a much better start. Yet the show of fruit in the Bidwell is as fine as those on the Sharpless.

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THE PANSY.

We wish all the lovers of flowers among our readers to understand that no flower we cultivate in our gardens is more worthy of attention than the Pansy. The Pansy has long been a favorite with the florists of England, but the English varieties, though very large and perfect flowers, are of a loose, straggling habit of growth, and under ordinary culture seem unsuited to our warm and dry seasons. The Germans have produced varieties much better suited to our wants. The flowers give a great variety of colors, mottled, striped, crimson, and other colors, bordered with white, looking so nearly like the fancy geraniums that a single flower would be taken for a pelargonium, sky-blue, and almost black. The plants have a very compact habit, and flower very freely, from fifty to a hundred blossoms being often seen on a single plant at one time. The flowers are borne on a short, strong stem, and stand erect, above the leaves, producing a most charming effect.

The German varieties are very hardy, and if seed be sown in a hot-bed or cold frame in April, or even in the open ground in May, a good show of flowers will be had during the latter part of summer and until they are covered with snow. They are the first flowers seen in the spring, and even a mild spell in mid-winter is improved to produce a few blossoms. From early spring until the middle of June every plant is almost a bouquet of flowers. If the weather is dry and hot after this time, and the bed exposed, the flowers after this will be small until the cool nights, and dews, and rains of autumn. From this, until heavy frost and snow, the pansy bed will not be surpassed by any in the garden.

Late in the spring an examination of the bed will show many young plants produced from the fallen seeds of the past summer. These can be transplanted to a new bed, and if they produce superior flowers this course may be continued; but if the flowers exhibit deterioration in size, form or coloring, obtain fresh imported seed, and start a new bed. We cultivate flowers for the pleasure they afford us, and there can be no pleasure to any person of taste or intelligence in half doing any work, or in producing inferior flowers. All will therefore like to learn how to grow the pansy well. Select a place for the bed, if possible, where the soil is cool and shaded a little from the noon-day sun,—the north side of a fence, or building, or where trees will afford a shade, at noon, though not too much, or the plants will become “drawn,” that is long, slender, and weak. Give a heavy dressing of cow manure and dig the soil very deep—eighteen inches at least.

Make it fine and mellow, and do this work in a dry time, when the soil can be well pulverized. When prepared, set out the plants, and water until they are established. In such a bed you will have abundance of flowers during the whole season, though in very dry weather it is best to give a good watering—a thorough soaking—occasionally.

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THE CARDINAL FLOWER.

(Lobelia cardinalis.)

This beautiful native we find advertised in some seed catalogues, among the novelties of the season. This is a move in the right direction, and this brilliant and gorgeous flower which has been growing wild in our meadows and along our brooks ever since man first set foot on our soil, and no one knows how many millions of years before, is probably a novelty to many who have lived a life-time within a short walk of its native habitat. We search the wide world over for “novelties,” while here they are growing around us in splendor and brilliancy. Nothing more dazzlingly beautiful can be imagined than a bed of Cardinal Flowers in autumn, when in full bloom, grouped in a shady spot on a smooth, velvety lawn with a group of Cannas or Rhododendron as a back-ground.

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THE CARNATION AND PICOTEE.

PROPAGATION BY LAYERS.

The proper season for layering is June or July. When the time arrives for performing the operation, procure a quantity of small hooked pegs; then take a trowel and remove the earth to the depth of an inch or so directly under the shoot to be layered. Take the shoot in one hand, and with the finger and thumb of the other hand remove the leaves from the body of the shoot, and shorten those at the top an inch or so. With a thin, sharp knife, cut through the strongest joint on the body of the shoot, cutting upward until within a short distance of the next joint, and if the joints are close it may be necessary to cut through more than one. The slit may be from one to two inches in length. Then press the centre of the shoot down to the earth, being at the same time careful to keep the slit open and the top in an upright position; take one of the pegs and secure it in this situation. A little clean sand placed around the cut will aid in the formation of roots. In September or October the shoots thus layered will be rooted sufficiently to separate from the parent plant, when they may be cut away and removed to winter quarters.

PROPAGATION BY PIPINGS.

This is a simple operation, yet requiring great care and attention to insure success. Prepare a small bed in some partially shaded part of the garden, composed of the same materials as that recommended for the seed bed, but with a larger portion of sand. Select the strongest short-jointed shoots, and cut them off immediately below the second or third joint from the top of the shoot.

As fast as prepared in this manner, place them in a pan of rain water to prevent flagging. Plant these shoots, or pipings, as they are called, as soon as a sufficient quantity is prepared in the bed, an inch and a half asunder; water slightly through a fine rose, and after the leaves are thoroughly dry, cover with a hand glass and shade from the mid-day sun. Pipings may be prepared in July or August, and if closely covered with a hand or bell glass, and shaded from the sun, will scarcely require any water until rooted. If they should need water, it will be found, in most cases, sufficient to pour a little on the outside of the glass. This will moisten the earth inside, and prevent the cuttings or pipings from drying.

POT CULTURE FOR EARLY FLOWERING.

In September or October, provide a sufficient number of pots, six or eight inches in diameter at the top. Make a compost of two parts turfy loam, one part of thoroughly rotten hot-bed manure, and one part of clean lake or river sand; place on the bottom of the pots a layer of broken crocks, and on this place a small quantity of the prepared compost. Take the plant in one hand by gathering the leaves together so that the roots may be all clear; hold the plant in the pot in such a way that the roots may lie lightly on the mould; then with a trowel in the other hand commence filling up the pot with the compost all around the roots of the plant. When this is accomplished, release your hold of the plant and take the pot in both hands, holding on by the rim, and give it a few sharp raps on some solid substance. This will settle the earth better than by pressing it with the hand. Give a slight watering from a water can with a fine rose, and the operation of potting is complete. In November place a hot-bed frame in a sunny and sheltered situation, and place on the inside of this six or eight inches of tan bark; plunge the pots in this up to the rims, put on the glasses, water moderately, and during mild weather give plenty of air. In very severe weather cover the frame with straw or mats to protect the plants from frosts, but in mild weather the covering must be removed, otherwise the plants will become weak. In spring the plants may be removed to the garden or other suitable quarters.

THE PINK

is hardier than either the Carnation or Picotee, and will thrive in any good garden soil with even ordinary care, but to grow and flower it in perfection, beds similar in form to those recommended for the Carnation must be prepared for them. The component parts of these beds should be three-quarters good loamy turf and one-quarter two years old well rotted cow dung. These materials must be trenched to the depth of eighteen inches or two feet deep, well mixed, and the surface raked smooth. Introduce the plants to the beds thus prepared, in September, and plant them in the same manner as Carnations. In the following spring the plants will begin to show their flower stems. The largest and strongest of the plants will throw up numerous stems; these should be nearly all cut away at least a month before their time of bloom, leaving only the strongest stems, and removing from them the weakest buds. No plant, however strong, should be permitted to mature more than ten or twelve good full flowers.

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TREE PLANTING.

The following extracts from an appeal to the people of Manitoba by Mr. H. P. Bonney, now of Hamilton, Ont., are well worthy of attention by the farmers of Ontario. We are fast making our country a treeless prairie, and already need to take up the subject of tree-planting in good earnest:

It is now over two years since I first devoted my attention to the subject of tree planting, and the more I learn of it the more I become convinced of the necessity of some means being taken to get our farmers to take a like interest in arboriculture, and I am sure that as soon as we all lay the matter to heart it will not be long before quite a change for the better in the appearance and climate of our country will take place, and our prairies will be more beautiful both to the eye and feelings than they are at present. Our timber, in fact all the timber of the North American continent, is rapidly being used up. It is not 400 years yet since Columbus first landed at San Salvador; yet in that comparatively short space of time the forests of America have dwindled down to one-fourth their original size, and as our population increases the consumption becomes more rapid, and unless we set to work energetically, and at once, to plant trees, it will not be many years before our forests will be things of the past, and how shall we manage then? We want shelter from such storms as the one that caused such loss of life in the Northwestern States in January, 1873. (Remember that storm passed over Manitoba, too). We want to see our grain stand up instead of lying down, as it only too often does now-a-days. We want to get rid of our hail storms and check the progress of the insatiable “hopper,” and tree planting is the only remedy for all these evils.

To surround ourselves with trees will make us happier, richer and better—for man generally feels a better man when living in the midst of beauty than he does when living in a dull, monotonous plain.

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BOOK NOTICES.

The Agricultural Review and Journal of the American Agricultural Association for May, contains an exhaustive article on the Cattle Industries of the United States, by Hon. J. B. Grinnell of Iowa, giving a complete history of cattle breeding, the development of the industry, and a detailed description of cattle raising on the Plains in the Western States and Territories; showing the lands best adapted to the business, and describing the methods of herdsmen owning from 500 to 20,000 head each.

The number also contains articles by Hon. Cassius M. Clay, Dr. Peter Collier, Prof. J. P. Stelle, Hon. T. Bowick of England, Col. Robert W. Scott of Kentucky, Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant, and other practical and scientific writers.

The January number and Supplement contained the proceedings in full of the Great National Agricultural convention recently held in New York, including addresses and papers by Hon. J. F. Kinney, Francis D. Moulton, Dr. John A. Warder, Rear-Admiral Ammen, Gen. H. E. Tremain, Hon. N. T. Sprague, X. A. Willard, Seth Greene, and other leading writers and speakers.

The thirteen papers on Ensilage, giving full directions for growing the crop, building silos, and preserving the fodder, by the ablest practical experimenters in the United States, comprising the fullest, most reliable and most valuable information on this subject yet published.

The Agricultural Review is published quarterly with supplements, and is pronounced by the highest authorities the most valuable publication of its class issued.

Terms.—$3.00 per year. Edited and Published by Jos. H. Reall, Secretary of the American Agricultural Association, 26 University Place, New York.

The American Exposition of Products and Manufactures, being inaugurated by the Association, gives immeasurable value to the Agricultural Review.

The American Encyclopædia of Agriculture.

This work, as the name indicates, is, in point of fact, an Encyclopædia of Agricultural Knowledge. It is a truthful record of agricultural progress, and not of methods that have gone out of date. It is a handsomely bound volume of 1,100 pages, of which 38 pages are devoted exclusively to the household department. The important subjects of economic entomology, forestry, agricultural geology, the grasses, farm laws, manures, ornithology, horticulture and veterinary science, and in fact all other subjects of special interest in a volume of this kind, are concisely considered. A needed work has been supplied, and it is one every progressive farmer should have in his library. It is a library of itself. Edited by the Hon. Jonathan Periam, and published by Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago.

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WITHERED FLOWERS.

  ’Twas on a bitter winter’s day,

    I saw a strange, pathetic sight;

  The streets were gloomy, cold, and gray,

    The air with falling snow was white.

 

  A little ragged beggar child

    Went running through the cold and storm;

  He looked as if he never smiled,

    As if he never had been warm.

 

  Sudden, he spied beneath his feet

    A faded button-hole bouquet;

  Trampled and wet with rain and sleet,

    Withered and worthless, there it lay.

 

  He bounded, seized it with delight,

    Stood still and shook it free from snow,

  Into his coat he pinned it tight,—

    His eyes lit up with sudden glow.

 

  He sauntered on, all pleased and proud,

    His face transformed in every line;

  And lingered that the hurrying crowd

    Might chance to see that he was fine.

 

  The man who threw the flowers away

    Never one-half such pleasure had;

  The flowers’ best work was done that day

    In cheering up that beggar lad.

 

  Ah, me! too often we forget,

    Happy in these good homes of ours,

  How many in this world are yet

    Glad even of the withered flowers!

                      St. Nicholas.

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The Sharpless Strawberry.—I will give my experience. Have only raised one crop of berries, the plants being set a year ago last spring. They were extra strong, vigorous plants, were set in common clay garden soil. The berries were the largest I ever saw. They astonished every one that saw them. I weighed several that weighed an ounce each. Their shape is irregular, but their flavor is delicious, as all will testify who tasted them. They stand up well from the ground as any berry possibly could, as heavily loaded with fruit as my plants were. I filled a pint cup rounding full, one day, from some I had been picking, to let my neighbours, who were present, see how many berries it would take to do it; poured them out and counted them. There were thirteen berries. I may say with truth, there were no small berries on the vines, the smallest being about like a medium sized Wilson’s Albany Seedling. I have had considerable experience in the culture of strawberries, but never saw anything to equal the Sharpless.—Mrs. J. McRae, in Prairie Farmer.

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MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY.

A remarkable wood, known as “mountain mahogany,” is said to grow in Nevada. A local paper thus describes it: “The trees do not grow large. A tree with a trunk a foot in diameter is much above the average. When dry the wood is about as hard as box-wood, and being of very fine grain might, no doubt, be used for the same purposes. It is of a rich red color and very heavy. When well seasoned it would be a fine material for the wood-carver. In the early days it was used for making boxes for shafting, and in a few instances for shoes and dies in a quartz battery. Used as a fuel it creates an intense heat. It burns with a blaze as long as ordinary wood would last, and is then found (almost unchanged in form) converted to a charcoal that lasts about twice as long as ordinary wood. For fuel it sells much higher than any kind of wood; indeed a cord of it always brings the same price as a ton of coal. The only objection to it is that it creates such an intense heat as to burn out stoves more rapidly than any kind of coal, however bad.”—Journal of Science.

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JAMES VICK.

As we go to press the telegraph brings the sad intelligence that James Vick, the well known and everywhere esteemed horticulturist, is dead. American horticulture has lost a most devoted and enthusiastic promoter; and every lover of flowers in all this broad continent will feel that a much-honored friend and counsellor has fallen.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]JULY, 1882.[No. 7.
  

CHERRIES.

In our climate the Duke and Morello varieties of cherries are the most valuable, and although these are for the most part more acid than the more tender Heart and Biggareau cherries, yet when we consider their superior culinary qualities they seem on the whole to be the best, as well as the most hardy. Many years ago the Kentish cherry was very largely planted in the Old Niagara District, and rows of them formed the boundary of the apple orchard, or a lane from the highway to the house. These have grown old and decayed, and mostly disappeared, without having their places supplied by more recent planting. Hence the supply of cherries, in proportion to the population, is much less than it was five and twenty years ago; and we presume this is, in the main, true of the whole of the Province of Ontario. Taking all things into consideration, we esteem this old Kentish cherry the most valuable variety that is grown in Canada. It is the most hardy of all, capable of enduring a very severe degree of cold, and of accommodating itself to a great variety of soils. It is an exceedingly abundant cropper, coming into bearing early and continuing to bear to extreme old age. When about half ripe, that is when the fruit is of a bright red, it may be used for pies, tarts, and all cooking purposes; and when fully ripe, at which time it will be of a dark mahogany color, it is a very agreeable dessert fruit. If any cherry tree can be planted with profit for market purposes, this variety will yield the most sure returns of any that have yet been fully tested.

New varieties have been brought to our notice within a few years. Prominent among them is one raised by James Dougall, of Windsor, Ontario, which he has found to be one of the most hardy sorts in his collection. It is to be hoped that it will soon be widely disseminated over the Province, and its ability to endure the cold fully tested.

The Leib is also a promising variety, of larger size than Early Richmond, less acid, and of better quality. It gives promise of being very hardy.

Trial is being made of some of Weir’s new cherries, in the hope that some of them will be found to be well adapted to our climate. Of these his Flagg, Galusha, and North-west seem to give promise of being extremely hardy, excellent in quality, and enormously productive.

The colored plate which is given in this number is a representation of a new variety lately introduced under the name of “Cumberland.” It originated in Pennsylvania, and is highly commended by prominent horticulturists in that State.

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AMERICAN FORESTRY.

It is both interesting and gratifying to see that there are representative men, occupying positions of influence and power, who are alive to the importance of preserving, and in some places of restoring, the wood-lands of America. It is so natural and easy for men to become absorbed in the study of what seem to them, and are, great questions of state policy, questions affecting the great interests of commerce, manufactures and national prosperity which have engaged the attention of statesmen in all civilized countries, and will necessarily engage it to the end of time, that when an effort is made to interest them in a subject such as this of forestry, they are slow to be convinced that it is a matter that should engage their attention, and are disposed to look upon those who have studied the subject as enthusiasts. But men who can take broad views of national interests soon find that this is a subject which touches the national prosperity at many points. That it has most vital connections with commerce, with manufactures, with the supplies of food, with the health and the life of a people. Among such men stands prominently the Hon. Mark H. Dunnell, of Minnesota, whose speech in the House of Representatives of the United States is replete with earnest words, most valuable information, and an evident appreciation of the importance of the subject. From his speech we learn that in February, 1874, a committee of the American Association for the advancement of science brought a memorial from that body to the President of the United States, urging the duty of Government concerning the cultivation and the preservation of forests, and recommending that a commission should be ordered to mature plans calculated to meet the requirements of the subject. The President laid this memorial before Congress, which resulted, in 1876, in the appointment of Dr. Franklin B. Hough, of Lowville, New York, to the duty of ascertaining the annual amount of consumption, importation and exportation of forest products, the probable supply for future wants, and the best means for the preservation and renewal of forests; the influence of forests upon climate, and the measures applicable in this country for the planting of forests.

In pursuance of this appointment, Dr. Hough made two reports to Congress, one in 1877, the other in 1878-9. Of the first of these an officer of the Wurtemberg forest service says: “It awakens our surprise that a man, not a specialist, should have so mastered the whole body of American and European forestry literature and legislation.”

From this speech we also learn that the quantity of pine lumber produced in the State of Maine has steadily declined from an average of 100,000,000 of feet per annum in 1851 to 1855 to an average of 11,800,000 per annum in 1876 to 1881; that the timber supply of the upper peninsula of Michigan, at the rate of production in 1879, will last eighteen years; that of the lower peninsula will last seven years; that of the State of Wisconsin scarce twenty years; and that of Minnesota about eleven years; and that at the rates of present consumption in the North-west, the whole supply of the timber of the United States would last about seventeen years. Hence he concludes that it is the duty of Government to inquire how far it can withdraw remaining timber lands from market and place them under regulations that shall secure the greatest present benefit from the use of timber now fully mature, having regard to the requirements of the future, and to ascertain how to impress upon private owners the importance of planting, and how far and in what manner it may encourage this object. To this end he advises the establishment of experimental stations for the careful study of the requirements and capabilities of soils, and of the several kinds of trees, and publish the results in a form particularly calculated to impress their importance, and to teach the simplest rules for securing success. He concludes his very interesting and instructive speech by saying:

“We are using up the capital which nature had for centuries been providing for us in the growth of forests, and we are doing nothing to restore them. Under skillful management the supply might be so arranged that in twenty-five or thirty years for some kinds, and in fifty or sixty years for others, a new crop would be furnished by growth; and if only a twenty-fifth or thirtieth part of the former, or a fiftieth or sixtieth part of the latter, were taken yearly, the supply would be perpetual. But, instead of this, we are taking a tenth or a twentieth part every year, while the growth from our neglect is not a fourth part of what it should be where any growth is allowed.

“We shall only too soon be reminded of the consequences of this improvidence in the growing prices of lumber, which in some kinds have already doubled within a very few years, and which are advancing every day. These advances may be ascribed by some to speculation, and doubtless to some extent they are, for the speculator never loses a chance to turn a penny in his own favor, it matters not who suffers; but when these advances are steadily going on from month to month, and year to year, at an accelerating rate, it means that the intrinsic value of the commodity they represent is becoming greater under the combined effects of diminishing supply and increasing demand. It will inevitably lead to the realizing conviction that there is profit in growing timber, and the sooner this is understood and acted upon the better will it be for the country and for the future.”

The large gathering of influential and representative men which recently took place in Cincinnati, embracing not only scientists, whose special studies have led them to understand the importance of this subject, but also members of state and national legislatures, leading agriculturists, and the chief of the National Agricultural Bureau, this gathering is a cheering evidence that our neighbors across the border are becoming aroused to the importance of this subject, and that steps will be taken to prevent the needless destruction of their forests, and to secure the planting of woodlands as a branch of economic industry.

It is also very gratifying to us as Canadians to know that the Honorable the Commissioner of Agriculture for Ontario is fully alive to the great importance of this matter to us, and that he is using every means at his command to procure and diffuse information on this subject, and to encourage the planting of forest trees for timber, shelter and fuel, wherever it can be done with advantage.

Doubtless our own forests are disappearing as rapidly as those of our neighbors under the united ravages of the woodman’s axe and the devastating forest fires. Already some parts of Ontario are beginning to suffer for want of a due proportion of woodland in the diminishing volume of her springs and streams in protracted summer drouths, and in the unbroken sweep of frost-laden winter winds. It is time, full time, that public attention be turned to this matter; that something be done to limit the annual cutting of lumber, so that it shall bear a proper relation to our present supply and present needs; that measures be taken to prevent wholesale destruction by forest fires, and that planting be commenced without delay on lands suitable for the purpose, with a view to keeping up the supply perpetually, and of preserving the proper proportion of woodland, so as to save us from those climatic changes which are sure to follow the denudation of the country, bringing in their train drouths, excessive floods, sterility, famine and pestilence.

 

Ripening Grapes.—Josiah Hoopes says in the N. Y. Tribune:—“No surer evidence of the impropriety of defoliation to admit the sun’s rays can be cited than the results of recent experiments in bagging grapes. We see that the covered clusters ripen more thoroughly, color more beautifully and assume that charming bloom which, without artificial aid, in many sections, they rarely attain. The foliage in a great measure acts as the lungs do in the animal creation, and every perfect healthy leaf taken off a plant destroys a portion at least of its power of subsistence, for vegetation extracts from the air a wonderful amount of nutriment, which enters into its organism through the myriads of minute apertures which nature has so wisely ordained for this express purpose. Then why partially cut off its means of supply to gratify the whim that fruit must receive the direct rays of the sun?”

—————

HORTICULTURAL GOSSIP XIV.

BY L. WOOLVERTON, GRIMSBY.

The Horticulturist.—Our magazine is making rapid strides in advance. The beautiful plates which embellish the volume for 1882, will make it an attractive table book, and the large number of practical hints cannot fail to make it popular with fruit growers in general. I have shown some numbers to several growers here, who had become apathetic toward our Association, and I have succeeded in demonstrating that a horticulturist cannot spend a dollar to better advantage than by subscribing for the Canadian Horticulturist, a magazine which is entirely devoted to his interests; for in addition to this he also gets the Report of the meetings of the Association, nicely bound for preservation, an excellent plant, and the benefit of some very interesting discussions.

Altogether, I am quite sure that the Ontario Fruit Growers’ Association has entered upon a new era of prosperity, when the labors of its Directors will be more than ever appreciated by the public.

Keeping a Calendar.—For some years I have been in the habit of keeping a calendar in connection with the orchard, and would recommend it to others, as forming in time a useful book of reference. A book of twenty-four pages, foolscap size, is convenient for the purpose. Two pages may be devoted to each month, and will answer for six years by dividing each page into three perpendicular columns, one for each year. The number of horizontal lines ruled upon the sheets will correspond with the number of days in each month. This will afford room for a brief note for each day of the month, and will present before one, at a single glance, the same day of the same month for six different years. Comparisons can thus be easily drawn, and will often be of practical benefit in planning work. For example, here are a few extracts for the month of May for six years, without, of course, showing the form, which would require too much space:

1874.—18th, Peach blossoms. 25th, Apple bloom.

1875.—1st, Snow. 7th to 11th, Wet. 22nd, Cherry and plum bloom. 26th, Killing tent-caterpillars. 27th, Apple bloom.

1876.—18th, Peach and cherry bloom. 20th, Transplanting tomatoes. 25th, Killing tent-caterpillars. 26th, Apple bloom.

1877.—3rd, Sowing early corn, planting pear, quince and peach trees. 8th, Started cultivator among currant, strawberry and blackberry plants. 15th, Peach bloom. 18th, Hot. Corn up. 20th, Apple bloom. 22nd, Rain. 23rd, Transplanting from hot beds. 24th, Killing tent-caterpillars. 25th, 10 acres ready for corn. 30th, Killing cankerworms with garden syringe and Paris green.

1878.—3rd, Apple bloom. 5th to 8th, Too wet for working soil. 9th, Transplanting from hot beds. 10th, Cold and chilly. 13th, White frost cutting off beans, tomatoes, strawberries, cherries, potatoes, &c. 21st, Corn all planted. 24th, Hot. 25th, Killing tent-caterpillars. 30th, Digging out peach borer.

1879.—Great drouth through the whole month. 17th, Peach bloom. 23rd, Apple bloom. 26th, Killing tent-caterpillars.

1880.—5th, Peach and cherry bloom. 11th, Apple bloom. 18th to 30th, Very dry.

Bearing qualities of various kinds of Apple trees.—This would be a very practical subject for discussion on some occasion, and a great deal of interesting data might be gathered. According to my own experience the leading apple in this respect is the Rhode Island Greening. One old tree of huge dimensions, about seventy years of age, produces enormous crops, almost beyond credulity. One season the huge yield of twenty barrels was taken from it, and from fifteen to seventeen barrels is by no means an unusual quantity each alternate year.

I do not think any other kind will equal this one for productiveness. The Baldwin, at maturity, will yield eight or ten barrels, the Snow or Fameuse about six, while the Fall Pippin and the Early Harvest yield about four barrels each every alternate year.

Now, if we could obtain from various sections of the country information as to the productiveness of the various kinds of apples, it would be a very useful aid to those wishing to select varieties for orchard planting, because it would help them to determine what varieties would give the highest net returns per acre.

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FRUITS OF MANCHURIA.

An interesting letter has been received by Mr. Thomas Beall, Lindsay, one of the Directors of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario, brought out by inquiries made by him concerning the fruits of Northern China, or properly Manchuria, with a view to ascertain whether there might not be some found there which, on account of their ability to endure extreme cold, might be worthy of introduction for planting in the more northern parts of this Province. The letter is dated at Newchwang, 23rd February, 1882, and is as follows:

“My Dear Doctor Watson,—I fear the fruit trees of this Province are valueless for the purposes of the Ontario Association. The gooseberry does not exist here, and the raspberry is only known in a wild state (in the south of the Province). I have not seen the cherry here, the fruit we eat being imported from Chihli or Shantung—in which latter Province I have seen fair specimens, but none which would repay transportation. The native plum I have seen in our own garden. We value it for its spring flowers, and it must be confessed it blossoms magnificently. Last year we had two trees in fruit—a five and a four-year old. They bore remarkably well, and to our surprise the fruit was palatable. It is a small russet brown plum, not unlike some of our common varieties at home; but one could not say of it that it is equal to our inferior sorts, or that it is a fruit one would care to eat if one had any choice. The pear is abundant all over the Province, and during my last journey down south, I saw some fine large growers of some fifteen to twenty years’ standing. Those I have myself grown are from Kuang-Ning, in the west of the Province, where the Chinese seem to take some pains with the cultivation. I was supposed to have quite a large assortment, but I can only count four varieties, and of these, I say confidently, there is not one which would be tolerated in the west. It might be worth while to enquire whether the variety we commonly speak of as the ‘Peking’ pear (native of Chihli Province), would not bear removal to America, but I should fancy we only think it luscious in comparison with the turnip taste of the others. I confess I have eaten it as a great delicacy in mid-winter, but then it was in the north of China, and after I had forgotten the taste of home fruit.

“The peach is also a poor thing in this Province, nor did I ever think much of it in Shantung. Some good judges, however, declare it to have a flavor of its own, and I have heard one friend say, that neither the English nor American varieties which he has tasted have the rich, fruity flavor of our native peach (such as we have here in our own garden). Of this you are yourself competent to judge, as you have frequently tasted them. It is noteworthy, however, that the very palatable peaches you ate last year in Mrs. C.’s garden were from wild plants sown only three or four years ago. We had no such good eatable peaches ever from trees we consider to be grafts.

“As to the grape, I should not fancy we have anything to offer to the west. I differ from most in their enthusiasm for the grape of this Province. All I know is that I could not refrain from eating grapes in Shantung, even when I suffered a severe penalty, whereas here I am simply beyond temptation. I have eaten grapes in Germany, where they were as common as gooseberries with us, and I am meanwhile awaiting the advent of a grape which will dimly remind me of these. But the Chinese seem to me very backward in the matter of grape culture, and therefore we don’t know as yet what the native varieties are capable of. For the quince you must enquire further south. I used to see it used largely in condiments in the south of Shantung Province.

“We have, of course, no currants. As you know, a year or two hence we shall have some notion of how American fruit trees do in our Manchurian climate. Excuse poverty.

“Yours sincerely,

J. Macintyre.

P.S.—Mr. Macintyre refers to some fruit trees which he and I got last year from the States. We can say nothing of them yet.

J. W.”

This letter was accompanied by one from Dr. Watson himself, dated at Newchwang, 2nd March, 1882, in which he says:

“I very much fear there are no fruit trees worth sending to Canada from this portion of China. There are two pears however—a large and a small kind—grown in and near Peking, which to my mind are simply delicious. I differ from Mr. Macintyre in his estimate of the grape. It certainly is not so sweet as the hot-house grapes we get in England, but it is beautifully grown, and the fruit ripens in immense and splendid bunches from three to ten pounds in weight.”

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ORNAMENTAL TREES AND PLANTS.

BY GEORGE ELLWANGER, ROCHESTER.

THE HAWTHORN.—(Cratægus.)

This distinct and interesting genus is deserving of far more attention than it has generally received. If nature be taken as a guide in the effects produced by the employment of different varieties of trees in adorning and individualizing sylvan scenery, the Hawthorn will stand among the best types of arboreal picturesqueness and a certain boldness of beauty. Among ornamental trees it should be accorded a high rank; as an English enthusiast observes, “it brings the fragrant breath of summer—the purity, freshness and perfume of a real June day.” No less on account of its beauty of bloom, however, than for its other many valuable characteristics, should it receive acknowledgement as an important factor in landscape adornment. All of its many varieties are perfectly hardy, thriving in almost any dry soil. In general they produce fine shaped, low trees, occupying comparatively little space, and whose wealth of green foliage and compact heads form most pleasing objects, the tree being scarcely less attractive during winter in its rugged picturesqueness of naked lines. The flowers are conspicuous, of varied colors, from white to crimson, the single varieties especially possessing a fine aromatic perfume.

During autumn and early winter, when the beauty of most deciduous trees remains only as a memory, most of the species stand out in brilliant array, covered with bright red and yellow fruits. Many garden birds remain as long as the berries are plentiful, and on the fruit of trees skirting woodland, the grouse and other birds are in the habit of feeding in the fall. In addition to its other qualities, the thorn is of much value for its wood, which is almost equal to that of the much prized box, and which is even finer in color. No more advantages can be enumerated for any other genus of ornamental trees. The blooms of the double flowering varieties, together with the single scarlet and pink, are very desirable for decorative purposes. They are also fine objects for conservatories, forcing well and flowering finely. For this purpose the Hawthorn has also been unjustly neglected; and by utilizing it florists might add largely to their store and variety of valuable flowers.

Among native varieties the scarlet fruited is in particular worthy the attention of the landscape gardener. On our own grounds we have a large tree of this charming variety upon which, perhaps, a hundred summer suns have shone, which nature kindly planted in a corner of a line fence. No tree in our arboretum is more admired when in bloom or in fruit. The flower is large, of a pure white, the berries flashing a deep scarlet, and being quite pleasant to the taste.

The double varieties I have referred to—Paul’s Double Scarlet, the Double White and the Double Pink—are all European sorts of the cratægus oxyacantha type, and are specially recommended for small town gardens, as well as for large lawns and parks. These are all profuse bloomers, covering the trees with miniature roses. The English, appreciating the beauties of the Hawthorn, employ it for hedges more than any other material; and any one who has travelled through English lanes in the flowering season will remember with after-delight the pleasing impressions to sight and smell. Most of the American species are of more robust growth than the European, and therefore better adapted in our climate for hedge purposes.

The Cockspur Thorn, which is widely distributed over the Northern and Middle States, is one of the most vigorous growers, and, if planted in good soil and well taken care of for the first few years, will make an impenetrable barrier for animals.

It does not take up as much room as the Osage Orange and Honey Locust, and can be kept under control with the shears. The Thorn is also more lasting than either of these commonly employed hedge plants, besides being easier cared for, and more ornamental on account of its beauty of flower and berry.

Some of the most distinct varieties in the very large list that have come under my observation, are herewith presented, without adding any particular description, which may be found in the Ornamental Catalogues. It may be stated that the most ornamental are the double varieties previously referred to, and which I place at the head of the list, as deserving the very highest commendation:

Double Varieties.—Paul’s Double Scarlet, Double Red, or Superb, Double White, Double Scarlet.

Single Varieties.—Gumpper’s Variegated Scarlet-flowering, Pink-flowering, Common White, Variegated-leaved, Scarlet-fruited, Douglass, Azarole, Glossy-leaved, Hybrid Smooth-leaved, Black-fruited, Tomentosa, Oriental, Parsley-leaved, Cockspur, Tansey-leaved, Pyramidal, Maple-leaved, Medlar-leaved, Apple-leaved.

While the double-flowering varieties may, perhaps, be chosen in preference for single specimens where space is limited, the various single varieties are almost equally deserving a place in larger collections where the space will admit. As to choice among the many excellent sorts, this may best be left to individual taste.

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NEW VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES.

Manchester.—This is certainly a remarkable strawberry. It is a new variety to the world at large, and yet it has been carefully tested for seven years on a private fruit farm, and each year has been growing in favor with those who have had an opportunity for inspecting the fruit. The Manchester will, I think, prove a decided favorite with those who have sandy soils, as it gives fine crops on such soils that are so light that weeds do not thrive well upon them. Another very valuable point is that the berries are very firm, and stand shipment finely, and usually keep their color so well that they can be kept on sale a day or two longer after being picked than can most strawberries. The fruit is of good size, and ripens from medium to late in the season.

Mt. Vernon.—Though this variety is not sufficiently firm to ship long distances, yet the fruit is so luscious, and of such a brilliant scarlet color as to make it a great favorite for home use or near markets. The berries are of large size, and average large. Their uniform size and brilliant color makes them sell well in market—one-third of an acre yielding over $600 worth of berries. The fruit ripens moderately late, making it possible to extend the season a week or two longer than would be the case if only early varieties are planted.

Bidwell.—This is proving very popular. The plants are exceedingly productive, the fruit at times averaging as large as the Sharpless, and sometimes being produced to the extent of as many bushels to the acre as the far-famed Crescent. It is a fine eating berry, and also a good shipping berry. The plants are very vigorous growers, and, what should be carefully noted, have stood the drouth here better than almost any other strawberry, scarcely a leaf having wilted or burned. It is well worthy of trial.

Orient should succeed in places where the Monarch of the West does well, as it has very similar habits of growth. Finche’s Prolific is also a vigorous growing variety, and a promising market sort. Sharpless, Miner’s Great Prolific, Chas. Downing and Capt. Jack are other excellent varieties that succeed finely in many places.

Of the one or two hundred varieties that I have been growing at different times, the above, including the Wilson’s Albany, appear to be among the most desirable.—R. H. Haines, in Southern Cultivator.

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HANGING BASKETS.

For hanging baskets the Partridge vine is invaluable, as its brilliant scarlet berries enliven and relieve the sober green. Take up large vines of it with as many berries as possible. If they are green when found they will turn red shortly. Always place the vines around the edge of the basket, put in some Maurandia vines to climb the wires. For the centre a Happy-Thought Geranium, or what is prettier, a Myosotis—Forget-me-not.

The popular tradition, which tells how the name of Forget-me-not came to be applied to the plant which now bears it throughout Europe, is not generally known. It is said that a knight and a lady were walking by the side of the Danube, interchanging vows of devotion and affection, when the lady saw on the other side of the stream the bright blue flowers of the myosotis, and expressed a desire for them. The knight, eager to gratify her, plunged into the river, and, reaching the opposite bank, gathered a bunch of flowers. On his return the current proved to strong for him, and after many efforts to reach the land he was borne away. With a last effort he flung the fatal blossoms upon the land, exclaiming as he did so, “Forget-me-not!”

      “And the lady fair of the knight so true

      Still remembered his hapless lot,

  And she cherished the flowers of brilliant hue,

  And she braided her hair with the blossoms blue,

      And she called it Forget-me-not.”

                        —Floral Monthly.

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OLD AND NEW PLUMS.

A New Jersey plum grower writes to the Chicago Inter Ocean the following in reference to plum culture:

There is something peculiarly fascinating in this fruit—a certain charm connected with it, that makes the person who is presented with a basket of plums generally feel that he is receiving an unusual treat. It may be that it is partly owing to the widely prevalent theory, “That the sweetest roses have the most thorns,” that this is so, and that consequently as it is usually thought that the plum is a very difficult fruit to grow, it is more highly prized on that account. It certainly is a decided favorite, otherwise persons living in large cities, like New York and Boston, could not be found paying for plums at the rate of a cent a plum at the retail fruit stands or of $2 to $3 for a half bushel of the fruit in the wholesale markets. On some accounts the plum is a difficult fruit to grow, not so much from its requiring any special training or cultivation, as superb large plums are often grown on ground that is not touched by plow or hoe oftener than once in five or ten years, but the difficulty arises from the fact of the liability of the plum to be stung and injured by a little insect called the curculio, causing the fruit to decay or fall to the ground before ripening. The curculio is a small grayish brown insect, about one-sixth of an inch long, and with wings that appear like two little humps on its back. Owing to the crescent-shaped mark that it makes when biting into the young fruit and laying its eggs, it has also been given the name of the “little Turk.” However, fine crops can easily be obtained in most sections of the country, notwithstanding this insect. One of the simplest or surest methods is to plant the plum trees in a chicken yard, or to turn the plum orchard, if not large, into a poultry yard when the trees become of bearing age. If pigs are allowed to run in the orchard and eat up all the injured fruit as it falls, then they will prove almost equally as serviceable as chickens. Another method is to plant the trees on the edges of brooks or ponds, so that the branches shall hang over the water. Still another is to have the ground closely paved with large flat stones or shells around the trees. As plums are always picked from the trees, and not from the ground, none of the above plans will interfere very much in gathering the fruit. I could give many other successful plans for preventing the fruit from being injured by the curculio, but must now turn my attention to giving descriptions of some of the finer varieties of plums.

The General Hand is a handsome, very large, golden-yellow plum that is supposed to have originated near Lancaster, Pa. The fruit is of a roundish oval shape, and frequently marbled with greenish-yellow. It is a showy, attractive looking plum, sweet and moderately juicy, and of fair quality; ripens in September. It succeeds better in New York, Pennsylvania, and in some of the Gulf States than it does at the West or North.

Wild Goose—This is proving quite a favorite in many localities, but especially in places where it has been considered difficult to grow the ordinary varieties of plums. It has been heralded throughout the length and breadth of the country as being a “curculio-proof” plum. Though this is not strictly the case, yet it appears in many places to be less attractive to that little insect, either on account of its thicker skin or something distasteful in the fruit. The wild goose is of small or medium size, round, of a yellowish red color, and ripens moderately early. Though it is excelled in quality by some other plums, yet, as it succeeds so generally throughout the United States, and even in Wisconsin and Minnesota, it will probably continue to be a favorite.

The Richland is a plum that is not very widely known. The fruit is of medium size, of a purplish red color, tinged with blue, of oval form, and of quite good quality. It ripens in August, at about the middle of the plum season. It is grown for either market or table use, and thus far mostly within the Middle States.

Pond’s Seedling is one of the largest and most beautiful of plums. The fruit is of oval form, skin of a yellow color, profusely dotted with red, and with a white bloom. It ripens in September, and is of moderately good quality. It is of English origin, and has not yet been very generally tested, but thus far has proved quite promising where grown.

Coe’s Golden Drop, Imperial Gage, Washington, and Yellow Egg are some of the largest, best, and most delicious of yellow plums, and are very general favorites. The first is quite a late variety, and the second moderately early. Lombard, a reddish purple plum, is popular on account of its great hardiness at the far North.

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STRAWBERRIES.

The following account of the opinions given at the last meeting of the American Pomological Society was given to the Prairie Farmer by the horticultural Editor, Mr. T. T. Lyon.

P. T. Quinn, of Newark, N.J., commenced by saying that his views, as to the proper method of growing strawberries had undergone a change within the last dozen years. He is now of the opinion that the best of soil and cultivation is requisite for the production of fine berries and profitable crops.

Until recently he had planted in summer, but now thinks spring planting more profitable. He gives clean culture till the middle of September, and then mulches for the winter, raking off the covering in spring. He omits the use of horse power in cultivation during the year of fruiting, for the reason that the feeding roots come too near the surface, and would hence be too much disturbed by the cultivator.

He stated that he had produced over 170 bushels from a single acre. It is his practice to test the promising, new varieties. All things considered, the Charles Downing is his favorite, though Boyden’s No. 30 (Seth Boyden), is popular with dealers. His last crop netted him fourteen cents per quart.

Dr. Hexamer, of N.Y., dwelt largely upon the value and importance of irrigation. He concurred with Mr. Quinn in a preference for spring planting, but thought Wilson one of the best shipping berries. For amateur planters he recommended the use of potted plants. In response to a question by a member, he remarked that the Triomphe de Gand was one of the finest of shipping strawberries.

The consideration of the several varieties served to bring out prominently the fact that nearly or quite all varieties are more or less local, so far as successful cultivation is concerned; a very few only proving satisfactory over an extended range of territory.

Agriculturist was not generally thought worthy of a place in the catalogue.

Black Defiance was commended as “best” for those who want a first-class large berry.

Captain Jack, one of the best market berries. Quite prolific.

Charles Downing, one of the best of all berries for general use. Said to be liable to blight in some places.

Col. Cheney, good, if well fertilized.

Crystal City, a valuable early berry. Commended in Georgia, but not as good for shipping. Said to be poor and small on clay.

Crescent is very well able to take care of itself, has great vitality, is profitable for a near market.

Cumberland Triumph, one of the best, popular everywhere. A good shipping berry in Ohio; holds its size till last picking.

Downer’s Prolific is being replaced by more recent and better varieties.

Duchess, an early berry; does well grown in hills.

Duncan, early and of very fine quality.

Forest Rose, under ordinary culture has not realized the anticipations of growers. Its foliage fails and the blossoms are tender.

General Sherman, poor in quality.

Glendale, generally regarded as worthless.

Glossy Cone, fails under the influence of sun and drought.

Golden Defiance, a fine, late variety, for home use.

Great American, variable and uncertain, usually unproductive; very disappointing.

Green Prolific, very sure, prolific and profitable for a near market. Some members suggested that it is no longer needed since we have the Crescent.

Henry Davis, a good amateur berry, does not bear heavy crops, but is of good quality.

Hovey’s Seedling, originated fifty years ago, was the first hybrid strawberry of American origin; still retains its quality.

Jenny Lind, little grown outside of Boston and its vicinity.

Jucunda, once so popular, has ceased to be satisfactory.

Kentucky, one of the best market berries in Arkansas, the late market berry of Ohio. It takes care of itself.

Longworth’s Prolific, is the great berry of California.

Matilda, generally unsatisfactory.

Miner’s Great Prolific, one of the finest and largest of all the strawberries.

Monarch of the West, uncertain, liable to be injured by spring frosts.

Newman’s Prolific, the popular berry of Charleston, South Carolina, quality often poor elsewhere.

Nicanor, very early and hardy, some say earlier than Duchess and Wilson.

Pioneer, an early variety and a strong grower.

President Wilder, of the finest quality, under high cultivation, handsome and unsurpassed. It has stood for twenty years as one of the best in form, color and quality.

Prouty, superseded.

Rocky Hill Triumph, same as Cumberland Triumph.

Russell’s Prolific, superseded.

Russell’s Advance, of good quality; stands the sun well, hardy, soft.

Seneca Chief, little known; of no value.

Seneca Queen, of good quality, productive, uniform in size and shape, a little later than Duchess.

Boyden’s No. 30 (Seth Boyden), sweet, valuable in some places, especially with abundant moisture.

Sharpless, fruit not good in a wet season; large and prolific under good treatment; quality usually good, misshapen only when overgrown. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society gave it the first premium this year. It is less prolific the first season.

Springdale is very fine for home use.

Triomphe de Gand, the type of high quality, and on suitable soil will give the best results; keeps well.

Triple Crown, of very high flavor.

Victoria (Golden Queen), unsatisfactory.

Windsor Chief, a fine berry.

Manchester, a very promising berry, uniform in size, prolific, as large as Cumberland Triumph; said to thrive on poor soil.

Kirkwood, a vigorous plant, profitable for a near market, precisely like Mount Vernon.

Longfellow, said to be very valuable.

Warren, of good quality, but very uncertain, resembles Seth Boyden.

Cetewayo, one of the strongest growers.

Gypsey, hardy, good quality.

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PINCHING MELON, CUCUMBER AND SQUASH VINES.

A practical gardener makes the following important statement: “Last year, as a test of a frequent practice among growers of melons and squashes, I pinched the ends of the long main shoots of the melons, squashes and cucumbers, and left some to run at their own will. The squash plant sent out a single stem, reaching more than forty feet, but did not bear any fruit. Another plant was pinched until it formed a compact mass of intermingling side shoots eight feet square, and it bore sixteen squashes. The present year, a muskmelon plant thus pinched in covers the space allotted to it, and it has set twenty-three specimens of fruit, the most of which have been pinched off. The pinching causes many lateral branches, which latter produce the female or fertile blossoms, while the main vines only produce the male blossoms. The difference in favor of the yield of an acre of melons, treated by this pinching process, may easily amount to 100 barrels.”

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HOW TO SECURE HARDINESS IN OUR TREES.

(From Address of President Barry, before the Western New York Horticultural Society).

 

Hardiness, or the power to resist extreme cold, is generally recognized as a quality of the first importance. When a new variety of fruit or a new ornamental tree or plant is introduced, the first enquiry made is about its hardiness. In such climates as ours, it is the one indispensable quality. What, then, can the cultivator do to promote hardiness? He can do much; first, and above all, our land must be dry, that is, absolutely free from stagnant moisture, either naturally, or made so by underdraining. We all know that plants grown on low, rich, moist lands are filled with watery fluids, which render them peculiarly susceptible to injury from frost. We often see plants on low, moist grounds killed by an early frost, when on adjacent dry ground, only a few feet distant, they escaped. Vegetable physiologists have adopted the axiom, “That the power of plants to resist cold is in the inverse ratio of the rapidity with which the fluids circulate,” and “that the liability of the fluids of plants to freeze is greater in proportion to the size of the cells.” That is, the less water there is in the fluids of plants, and the smaller the cells, the greater is their power to resist cold. This is in harmony with all our experience. This is the reason why such destruction has fallen upon Western plantations. I have seen orchards at the West, on low, rich lands, frozen while in full leaf, so that they looked perfectly black and dead. They were full of watery fluids when overtaken by the frost. The Chairman of the Wisconsin State Fruit Committee reports that “the exposed crowns of many of the highest limestone bluffs in that State, from 100 to 400 feet above the adjacent valley, produce as perfect orchards as can be desired, up to latitude 44½°, where a large variety of our

EASTERN APPLES AND PEARS

are permanently successful; while in the valley below nothing but the Siberians or Duchess of Oldenburg will stand.” This is the experience all over the West, and it is ours only that in our milder climate it is not so marked. In the second place soil must possess sufficient fertility to produce a moderate healthy growth. Trees or plants that are underfed become stunted, and are neither useful nor beautiful. The sooner they die the better. Those that are overfed make a rank, watery growth, which does not ripen, and is not in a condition to resist cold. These extremes are by no means uncommon in the treatment of trees. As a general thing, the starvation process is more common, but it is also very common to apply manure to excess. To maintain trees in a state of health and vigor, yielding their maximum of utility or beauty, requires both care and skill in the application of fertilizers and the treatment of the soil. In the management of fruit trees, over-cropping is a great and very general evil. A tree overloaded with fruit can neither perfect the fruit nor ripen its wood properly, and in a severe climate is quite likely to succumb to a degree of cold, which, under proper treatment, it could have resisted perfectly. It is safe to say that millions of trees are annually ruined in this country by over-crops. The grape is very sensitive in this respect; if overloaded, the fruit will not color, nor will the wood ripen. It is not uncommon to hear people complain of their grapes not ripening and their vines being killed, and ascribing the trouble to every cause but the right one, over-cropping. This is an error committed not by novices only. A great many trees and plants are killed by kindness, too. New plants, costing a high price, are very apt to be stimulated by manure and water, so that, instead of making a moderate, well ripened growth, they are forced, as it were, and come out dead in the spring. I have seen many such cases. I will only refer to one on our own grounds as

A FAIR EXAMPLE.

There was a large bed of the new Hydrangea paniculata on the lawn; the plants were set close, and it was thought that a surface dressing of manure and plenty of water would assist their flowering, which takes place late in the season, and generally when it is dry. This treatment was well enough, but they got too much of both manure and water. They did not ripen either roots or tops, and nearly all were dead the following spring, while those in other parts of the ground left to themselves were not injured in the slightest degree. I will mention another instance which has frequently arrested my attention, as showing the importance of well-ripened wood. The varieties of Golden Arbor Vitæ have proved so liable to be injured in winter, that their culture with us has been almost abandoned. Four years ago a couple of them were planted on a piece of rock work, and these have escaped the slightest injury, even during the last severe winter. They make a moderate growth, but it is healthy; the color is perfect, and they seem quite at home. In every other situation they have failed. It is because the roots running among the rocks, free from stagnant moisture, acquire perfect ripeness, as do the whole plants. I believe that by special means of this sort we may do much to increase the hardiness of many beautiful trees and plants only half-hardy. Much injury is done in city gardens by the excessive use of water, not only to the lawns, but to trees and plants, and to health as well. Ripeness, then, is essential to hardiness, is

THE SOURCE OF HARDINESS,

and the cultivator should never lose sight of this. Thanks to our climate, it is not so difficult to secure ripeness here as it is in some parts of our country. In reading a report from Minnesota, a few days ago, the writer stated that they had scarcely any autumn, but passed at once from the season of growth to severe frosts. Here our autumns are splendid, with rarely frost enough to kill flowers until about the 1st of November. The early frost is the exception, and it is generally so light as to do little harm, so that generally it is our own fault if our trees and plants are not well ripened. The generally acknowledged superiority of nursery trees grown in Western New York is due mainly to the perfect ripeness they acquire. The means to be employed to secure ripeness and hardiness may be very briefly summed up as follows:—

First—A dry soil, absolutely free from stagnant moisture.

Second—Sufficient fertility only to produce a moderate and healthy growth.

Third—Such treatment of the soil as will encourage growth early in the autumn. In the case of tender plants these precautions will be all the more necessary.

Fourth—In the case of fruit-bearing trees and plants, avoid over-cropping.

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NOTES ON NEW VARIETIES OF POTATOES.

Lyman Wall, of Webster, N. Y., writes to the Rural Home an account of the observations he has made upon the quality and productiveness of some of the new varieties of potatoes. In his report, Mr. Wall makes quality and productiveness the two main considerations, the next thing being hardiness, shape, size, color, etc. He says:

“Several years ago I discarded the Early Rose, and grew the Early Vermont, for an early potato. I think the Vermont far preferable to the Rose. It is more productive, less liable to scab, full as early, and of better quality. Beauty of Hebron, not quite as early as the Vermont. Quality slightly inferior. Have raised the Early Ohio two years and shall discard it. Am satisfied that in some sections it is a first-class early potato, but with me it is inclined to scab, and yields about half as many merchantable potatoes as the Vermont.

“The Ontario, a new seedling originated by H. H. Doolittle, is the best early variety I am acquainted with. In size, shape, quality and productiveness, it is as near perfection as anything yet introduced.

“The Belle, a new seedling of the Early Rose, is one of the best medium early varieties. Ripens about three weeks after the Vermont, is productive, and one of the best table potatoes I have ever eaten.

“The Mammoth Pearl, a large white potato of good quality and very productive. With ordinary field culture it produced this season, at the rate of 210 bushels per acre of large fine potatoes.

“The Magnum Bonum is one of the best very large potatoes I ever saw. Season about the same as the Belle. It is a seedling of the White Peachblow, which it resembles very much in shape and color. The only objection is deep eyes in the seed end, the other eyes are few and of ordinary depth. For poor land I think it preferable to any other variety. Potatoes invariably large. On the poorest soil capable of producing only one in a hill, that one will be large.

“Have raised Burbank Seedling for two years, and shall discard it. During four days’ attendance at the Western New York Fair, I talked with several hundred farmers about the different varieties of potatoes, and nine-tenths of them condemned the Burbank. But I find no potato so poor but some one will praise it, and none so good but some will condemn it.

“For a late potato I know of nothing equal to the White Whipple, originated from the Whipple. No potato has given such universal satisfaction to customers as the Whipple. In spite of its objectionable color it has won favor, and no potato is more sought after in the Rochester market.

“The White Whipple is equal in every respect, and has the advantage of being white, very much resembling the old White Pinkeye. When on exhibition at the fair this fall, many old farmers declared it to be their old favorite, the White Pinkeye.

“We commence eating it at digging time, and eat nothing else till potatoes grow again. It is not as late as the Peachblow, but ripens before frost. I planted half an acre this season, the 17th of June, and they were ripe and ready for digging the 1st of October, making a very good crop of fine large potatoes.

“Wall’s Orange is another new potato originated by me from the Whipple. It is of a reddish orange color; in shape, size, and productiveness it resembles the White Whipple; when cooked, not quite so firm as the Whipple, but dry and mealy, and of the very best quality. From 25 lbs. of seed, I this year, with ordinary culture, raised 35 bushels of first-class potatoes. For quality and productiveness I know of no varieties equalling the White Whipple and Wall’s Orange. They are about the strongest growers I ever saw, vines completely covering the ground, and as nearly bug-proof as possible. Growing in my experimental field beside other varieties which were bugged several times, they took care of themselves, and were the last to succumb to the drouth.

“I have a quantity of selected seedlings, one, two, and three years old, that I shall thoroughly test before putting on the market. My seedlings are from seed balls of Whipple and White Whipple. Among all the varieties grown by me for several years, the Whipple and their seedlings are the only ones producing seed balls. Other varieties blossom freely, but fail to produce seed. I have been investigating the subject this summer, and will give the result for what it is worth, hoping that others better qualified than I am will give us the truth in the matter.

“I noticed the bumble-bees were very busy apparently collecting honey from the blossoms of the Whipple, and paying no attention to the blossoms of other varieties growing near them. I came to the conclusion that the blossoms of the Whipple contained honey, and the other varieties did not, and that the bees carried the pollen from flower to flower, thus fertilizing them and producing a large amount of seed. I think I could have gathered a bushel of balls from an acre.”

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FASHION VERSUS TASTE.

Single buds of Gen. Jacqueminot Roses were sold on New Year’s Day in New York for from two to four dollars, and even at these extravagant prices the supply fell short of the demand, so that one wealthy young gentleman considered himself fortunate to be able to procure the last four Roses of New Year’s Day for fifty dollars, rather than appear before his bride without a gift of Rose-buds.

Is this an indication of an increasing taste for flowers? We think not, and if it were, it would be but a doubtful compliment to the æsthetics of our fashionable society if it had required all this time to discover the beauties of the Rose.

Pleasant as is the custom of sending one’s New Year’s compliments to his lady friends in the shape of fresh flowers, the fact that this year it cannot be done in any other form than Gen. Jacqueminot Roses is no more a sign of refined taste or individual preference than is the wearing of one-button gloves or the crinoline so soon as fashion dictates.

Violets and Lilies of the Valley are also admissible, and, strange to say, a bunch of Daisies—particularly when they are called “Paris Daisies”—may find an honored place in the most fashionable parlors, while a few years ago the offering of a bunch of Daisies to a lady would have been considered an insult. Is it taste that rules the queenly Camellia and sweet Orange blossoms out, and Daisies and Tulips into fashion? Even the graceful Smilax, decreed fashionable by the whim of an opera prima donna, is losing caste in society, to be supplanted by Fern leaves, which should never have been ruled out.

These various freaks in floral fashions may add something to the stock of botanical knowledge of our city belles, but taste—a clear perception and appreciation of beauty and excellence—is rarely developed by fashion, which often takes retrograde steps and brings faulty modes and ill-shaped forms into common use, which, by their frequent contact, rather dull the taste for real art and beauty. A fine taste is not created by a freak of fashion; it is either born with us or is the result of careful study and high culture.—American Garden.

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THE FARMER’S FRUIT GARDEN.

I contend that every prosperous farmer owes it to himself and to his family to supply his table with all the desirable and wholesome luxuries which his farm, under ordinary cultivation, is capable of producing, and to supply it bountifully, and failing to do so he fails in his duty to his family, and can not reasonably expect his sons and daughters to grow up contented with their lot. Children brought up on a farm are deprived of many privileges enjoyed by those brought up in the city, and should be provided as compensation with those which the farm is capable of producing. The farmer’s boy or girl, visiting town, sees upon the green-grocer’s stand almost every species of fruits and vegetables, and know that these desirable luxuries are grown on soil similar to their father’s, and if they are continually deprived of such luxuries, what wonder that they are discontented.

None of the products of the soil are more enjoyed by children than fruit, and there is no portion of the homestead farm that are longer remembered or more fondly cherished, than the fruit garden. I remember, when a mere infant, visiting an uncle at Red-Hook, Duchess county, and the only thing about the place that made a lasting impression on my mind was a garden of plum trees, loaded with luscious blue, red, and yellow plums. I pity the farmer’s son who grows to manhood’s estate with no such cherished spot to chain him to the parental home.

Having said so much to prove the value of the fruit-garden to the farmer’s family, I will say but little about its character. In the first place, it should be ample. No farmer is so pinched for room that he can not afford space for a liberal fruit garden. A large garden can be cultivated in less time than a small one, as it affords room for using a team to advantage.

Then plant liberally of every desirable species, so liberally that there will be an abundant supply for the family without using defective fruit. A well-to-do, independent farmer should put no second-class products of the field, orchard or garden upon his own table. Throw wormy or rotten fruit to the pigs, but never offer it to your children.

Plant enough of the hardy, vigorous, productive varieties of the various species to insure a supply in unfavorable seasons, and then plant some of the higher-flavored, that require more nursing, so that you may have some of the best. I would say, plant none but those of highest quality, but should that be done, unless the farmer is an expert, there would be seasons when there would be no fruit, or at least an insufficient supply.

Plant in the fruit garden, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, quinces, grapes, gooseberries, currants, black-berries, raspberries, and strawberries. Cultivate the surface well until the trees are well in bearing, and then you may cease ploughing the trees, if you choose, but never cease to manure them. The small fruits, of course, must always be cultivated. A bearing fruit-garden would afford a more delightful promenade for the family, if kept in grass, closely cut, but it would soon cease to be a pleasant resort if allowed to decline in fertility, and consequently in the quality of its fruit.—American Rural Home.

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HARDY SHRUBS.

BY ANTOINE WINTZER, WEST GROVE, PA.

Persons who have places in the country sometimes desire to plant a few shrubs that will thrive and bloom without too much nursing. To assist them in their efforts, I will give a list and description of about a dozen of the most desirable varieties for general culture.

In the first place a few suggestions about the planting and treatment of hardy shrubs may not be amiss. They can be planted at any time from October to May, when the ground is not frozen or is not too wet.

Now allow me to say a few words about the pruning of shrubs. This is a very simple affair. All shrubs that bloom in spring, or early summer, should not be pruned in winter or spring unless they have been newly planted; in this case they should have their tops shortened. When shrubs grow too many shoots, a number of them should be cut out entirely in February or March. If they grow too tall the tops can be clipped in summer, after the plants are through blooming for the season. But Altheas and Hydrangea Grandiflora should always be cut back in winter or early spring, because they bloom in late summer on the young shoots, while the Spireas, Deutzias, Weigelas, and all shrubs that bloom in May or June, must have shoots of the past season’s growth to produce their flowers.

Weigela Rosea.—This beautiful Chinese shrub is one of the most effective plants in the lawn. It produces its beautiful rose-colored flowers in June in the greatest abundance. The plant grows to the height of six or eight feet, and will thrive in any soil.

Weigela Nana Variegata.—This is another fine plant. It is desirable both for its flowers and its beautiful foliage, which is green in the centre and white on the outside of the leaf, and retains its distinct color all summer. The flowers are a beautiful blush in color, and it would be hard to find a more charming looking plant than this when in full bloom.

Hydrangea Grandiflora.—This fine shrub was introduced into this country from Japan. It is as hardy as an oak. It begins to bloom in this section (latitude of Philadelphia) about the latter part of July, and the flowers remain on the plant until frost. When the flowers first open they are pure white; after a few weeks they become rose-tinted. They are produced on the ends of the young shoots in large panicles, which are a foot or more in length, and good bushes will grow from 50 to 150 of these immense heads. This plant should be trimmed every year, at any time from November to April. If you want large flowers, prune sharp; if smaller bloom is preferred, prune light. Plant it on the lawn in a sunny place (for this variety does not require shade), keep the sod from growing around the roots, and give it a surface dressing of stable manure in the fall, and you will have a plant of which you will be proud. It will flourish for a lifetime with decent treatment. It will grow from seven to eight feet high.

Viburnum Plicatum.—This is a beautiful shrub of the Snowball family. It produces its flowers in pure white bunches like the old variety, but the plant has firmer and thicker foliage and a more erect habit of growth. It blooms in spring, and requires but little pruning at any time.

Spirea Reevesii.—A fine plant for the lawn. The bush, when in bloom, is charming in the spring of the year, when it is one mass of white. The leaves are small, and the plant has a half-drooping habit, which gives it a graceful appearance.

Spirea Thunbergia.—One of the most graceful hardy plants we have. Produces small white flowers early in the spring. The foliage is very small, and the bush remains green until late in the fall.

Cydonia Japonica (Japan Quince).—This is a very showy bush early in the spring, when it is covered with its bright scarlet blossoms. It bears clipping, and can be kept in any desired form; it also makes a very nice hedge. There is also a light colored variety, which is fine when planted in contrast with this.

Deutzia Crenata.—This is one of the best Deutzias. Flowers double, rose-colored, and produced in great numbers. It blooms in June. The bush grows four to six feet high, and will do well in any soil.

Deutzia Gracilis.—This is a more dwarf-growing variety than the preceding. Flowers pure white, single. A nice plant to force for winter flowers.

Hibiscus Purpurea Pleno (Purple Althea).—This well-known shrub blooms in August. Altheas are fine plants when well kept, and all that is necessary to keep them in good condition is to clip them back every fall or winter. This will not affect their bloom, as they flower on the young wood. There are several good varieties beside the above, such as Double Rose, Carnation Striped, Double White, Variegated Leaved, and several others. They can be used as hedge plants or for ornaments.

Syringa Vulgaris (the common purple Lilac).—A list of hardy shrubs would hardly be complete without this old favorite. There are several newer varieties, but the old purple is as good as any. It thrives in any soil, and the plant requires no pruning—only an occasional thinning out of surplus shoots.

Philadelphus Coronarius Nana (Dwarf Mock Orange).—This is worthy of a place in any lawn. The plant blooms in late spring. The flowers are pure waxy white and delightfully fragrant. The bush grows nice and compact.

Berberis Purpurea (Purple Barberry).—This is a good plant for the lawn, and it will also make a fine hedge. Its flowers are yellow, produced in spring, but its beauty is in the rich purple foliage, which remains on the plant until late in the fall. It should be clipped every year in fall or winter.

The above make a small collection of hardy shrubs that will do well in any soil that will grow grass, and can be bought at a reasonable figure from any good nurseryman.—Farm and Garden.

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Celery.—Celery is a vegetable which apparently receives but little attention from the public, and still the trade in this article amounts annually to many thousands of dollars. While many use it for its medicinal qualities, its well-known effect on the nervous system causing it to be highly prized, others and by far the majority of consumers consider it a luxury, fit only for the wealthy. Few are aware that fully one-third of the celery of commerce is thrown away as useless. All the coarser parts—the outside stalks and the greener portion of the stock—all, in fact, that is unfit for the celery glass, can be utilized by cutting into short pieces, cooking and serving in precisely the same manner as asparagus. All housekeepers who try it never after waste any of their celery.

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PERSIAN CHAMOMILE OR INSECT POWDER.

“How is the Persian insect powder used to destroy flies, mosquitoes, bed bugs, etc.? I have tried burning some but the fumes did not kill flies.”

A teaspoonful of pure “Persian Chamomile” heaped in a little cone and burned in a medium sized room, that is not ventilated during the burning, will kill every fly in it. If it fails to do this the powder is not genuine. To test its purity, put a little in a bottle with a dozen flies; when the bottle is closed they will go into spasms and die almost instantly if the drug is what it should be. “Persian Insect Powder,” like other things, is sometimes adulterated; it will also lose its strength if kept loose too long. Druggists mix it with other ingredients for various purposes. Borax is a valuable addition when cockroaches are to be disposed of, but for flies, mosquitoes, and bed bugs, the pure powder must be used. It costs from seventy to eighty cents a pound, has a bright, buff color, is light, burns readily, and gives a rather pleasant tea-like fragrance. It is the powdered leaf of a harmless flower growing in Caucasian Asia, where for centuries it has been used to keep the insect world in subjection. It acts on their breathing apparatus, evidently producing vertigo, respiratory spasms and paralysis, but is perfectly harmless and not particularly disagreeable to human beings. Of course a little curl of blue smoke can’t be expected to kill the flies over all creation or even in a large airy space. It will weaken the ambition of all those which come within its influence, but to produce death the effect must be concentrated.

In rooms where windows and doors are opened the burning powder will keep out unwelcome insect intruders. In a house protected by screens, the flies already in may be most conveniently disposed of by using the dry powder with an insect gun, which costs about twenty-five cents. Puff the powder into a close, warm room, until the air is filled with it, then shut the door and return in half an hour. If every fly in it is not either dead or dying, throw away your powder and send to a reliable dealer for that which is good. Pure “Persian Insect Powder” never fails in its effect.

For bed bugs puff the powder with the insect gun into all the cracks and crevices where such vermin harbor; leave the room undisturbed for a few hours, closely shut meanwhile, they will walk out and surrender at discretion; a semi-annual application will prevent all further trouble.

Dust your house plants, your pet dog and your poultry with insect powder, but don’t undertake to kill spiders or you will be disappointed.—Prairie Farmer.

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CATCHING CURCULIOS.

It is now over fifty years since I first learned when a boy to catch curculios by jarring on the spread sheet, and since that I have tried several modifications. Although I have published the mode which answers best, I find some of our best and most intelligent fruit growers still pursue old and inefficient means. Stout muslin about 6 by 7 feet is stiffened with light rods along the opposite edges, and these are kept apart with a cross-rod at the middle. This cross-rod is a little shorter than the width of the muslin, so as to leave the muslin a little slack and concave to hold the insects. Iron plugs are set in the trees, if small, or in the larger limbs if large, on which a single blow with an axe brings down every beetle. This is incomparably better than any padded mallet, or any other imperfect pounding. The operator carries the sheet on his left arm, first to one side of the tree and then to the other; never has to stop, works rapidly and it costs almost nothing to keep the trees clear.—John J. Thomas, in Green’s Fruit Grower.

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NEW VARIETIES OF GRAPES.

Several persons deserve much praise for their success in the production of new varieties of grapes. Years ago I fully published my observations on the thirty-nine varieties produced by Mr. Rogers, of Salem, Mass. And what I said of them has been fully sustained. They are such rampant growers, so hardy, that the continent over they are known and valued. I would as soon part with my fruit-yard as let go Rogers’ No. 3, that feasts me every year; or No. 13, like No. 3, but a little later; or No. 15, that honored number. Another successful man has come on the field with newer varieties that will satisfy those who dislike the stronger flavors of the Rogers. It is James H. Ricketts, of Newburgh, N. Y., who presents us with Lady Washington, Jefferson, Naomi and Bacchus. These are probably valuable in about the order I have placed them.

The Lady Washington, when grown for agricultural fairs, is a grape three-quarters of an inch in diameter, white, with a rusty cheek, somewhat transparent, with a golden greenish tint; bunch two-shouldered, six or seven inches long by five inches through the shoulder. As ordinarily grown it should be a third less in size, and yet be one of the most magnificent American varieties, equalling European grapes in size and appearance. So far its flavor is unexceptionable. The Jefferson is a red grape, claimed to be a cross of Concord and Iona, having the form of Iona, and the hardiness of the Concord. A full-grown typical bunch is six inches long by six inches through its two shoulders; berries about five-eighths of an inch in diameter. As ordinarily grown it should be half an inch in diameter, and five inches long and wide in the bunch, or about equal to bunch and berry of the Isabella. In flavor it is much like Iona. Those who like the somewhat indefinite sweetness of Delaware and Iona, as compared with the higher flavored American grapes, ought to be satisfied with this, for it is the popular taste to eat such grapes.

Next I name the Naomi, because I believe it is a grape that will fully please me. I do not completely fancy a mere sweet bag of a grape, and as this is a hybrid of the Muscats and Clinton, it has shape and flavor enough. Mr. Vick says: “I have fruited it about ten years, and pronounce it one of the most magnificent grapes for the table that ever grew.” It is a white grape, berry medium, oval, greenish yellow, ruby cheek, in a large shouldered bunch. I have not eaten it, and hence can only say that it is much praised by those who have seen and tasted it. The Bacchus is a seedling of the Clinton. The Clinton is not a favorite of mine, though it is of most people, but it is hardy and productive. The Bacchus is a peculiar shaped grape in its bunch, reminding me of an English grape called the Eldred; that is, the bunch is long, and nearly as large at the bottom as at its slightly shouldered top, measuring, when not overgrown, five or five and a half inches long by two and a half inches at top and two inches at the bottom. This is a smallish bunch. The Eldred is similar in shape, and nine to eleven inches long. The flavor of the Bacchus is acid and Clinton-like. I am now no believer in the use of wine or other alcoholic liquors, and I repent of all I ever wrote and said or did for wine making. Hence I have nothing to say of its wine qualities, but Bacchus is a fair table grape.

As I close this article, I can but invite the grape-lover to the new feast of grapes so amply provided for him. Certainly they claim a fair trial, and if they have won their high esteem, in the face of a taste educated by so many years of excellent kinds, they are a step in the onward, creditable to their originator, and one that no grape-grower can neglect.—S. J. Parker, M.D., in the Country Gentleman.

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THE ONTARIO POTATOE.

This potato originated with H. H. Doolittle, the originator of the Doolittle raspberry. We have tested it thoroughly, and find it all he claims below. He says: “The smoothness or shallowness of eyes is the first striking peculiarity. Its shape is flat and oblong. Never grows together or knots up or deforms. Its skin and flesh are white, cooks dry, but avoids the fault of all shelling off and falling to pieces when boiled, and its quality such that the usual expression is, ‘The best I ever ate.’ In size, it reaches to 1¼ pounds, but the largest are never deformed.”

As to earliness, one testifies to planting “17th day of May, and commenced eating dry ripe potatoes from them the 3rd of July and a good yield.” One calls them two weeks and another ten days earlier than the Rose. One’s enthusiasm may lead him to mistake the effects of blight or some local cause in ripening a hill or a rod square several days in advance. But my own testimony is that having planted this seedling for four years alongside of the Early Rose and Extra Early Vermont, the whole plat of the Ontario shows a general earlier deadening of the tops, so as to be noticed from a distance.

With this earliness it combines the best keeping qualities for summer use. Many think that this heaviness and solidity as an old potato is sufficient to commend its universal growth.

Yield.—From the tiny seed five years ago it has grown yearly in size and yield till this year on one-fourth of an acre of ordinary soil, without manure this year or last, or fertilizers of any kind, there were ninety-five bushels, taking about thirteen hills to make a bushel—showing a native vigor and capacity of yield unsurpassed in late years.—Green’s Fruit Grower.

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TREES IN CITIES.

An interesting paper has been recently read by Dr. Phene at Edinburgh on the benefits to be derived from planting trees in cities. Among the beneficial results to be attained are, he stated, the relief to the optic nerve through the eye resting on objects of a green color. Just that which is effected by the use of green or blue glasses in strengthening and sustaining the power of sight is attained, or, at any rate much aided, by the presence of green in nature; and in streets the only method to produce this result is by planting trees. It was pointed out by the author that wherever opportunity exists nature provides green and blue (the latter being the same color minus the presence of the yellow) and that the absence of color produces snow blindness, and in tropical calms, where the ocean presents only a white reflected light from a uniform glassy surface, reduced optical power soon follows a long continuance of the absence of blue color, which becomes immediately apparent on motion of the waves. So in the streets, to the occupants of houses having a northern aspect, the glare of the reflected light is injurious; but the effect would be much modified by the coolness to the eye, produced by the green trees. In ancient surgery, persons of weak or declining sight were advised to look at the emerald. In the old style of building, the streets being narrow, were both cooler, from the sun not being able to penetrate them with direct rays, and less subject to noxious exhalations from the purifying effect of the searching air to which the narrow streets were subjected, so that while there was no space for trees, there was also less necessity. Wide streets, on the contrary, are hotter, and require the shade of trees to cool them; and, as is the case in London, which has so far done without trees in its streets, it was pointed out that not only the compulsory width of modern streets, but also the enormous increase in metropolitan buildings render every sanitary question one of importance; and the chemical properties of trees, as shown by experiment, give an important standing, irrespective of ornament or the pleasure they produce. Some of Dr. Phene’s experiments on this subject have extended over a period of 30 years, and he it was who first tried the planting of trees in the streets of London. Since the reading of a former paper by him at Manchester, where the importance of the subject was pointed out, a number of streets in wealthy localities have been planted, and even Trafalgar Square, in the heart of the metropolis.—Michigan Farmer.

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WHITEWASHING TREES.

Do not be afraid to whitewash fruit trees of all kinds. It looks neat, fresh and nice; and it not only destroys insects and their eggs, but the white coat on the body of the tree reflects the heat and keeps the inner bark and sap vessels from being scalded and blighted by the rays of the sun. Every fruit grower knows by experience how injurious the blaze of the sun is to the limbs and trunk of a tree.

A thick coat of whitewash will be much better protection than straw, boards or other materials, under which mice and bugs and worms can harbor. These destructive pests can be completely kept away by using sulphur in the whitewash. The way to mix it is to take for each peck of lime four pounds of flour of sulphur. Mix the lime and sulphur together in a barrel and pour in a bucketful of hot water. Cover the top of barrel while the lime is slacking, so as to retain all the fumes of the sulphur. When slacked add sufficient water to make a thin whitewash. Put this wash on the trees with a broom or a brush, taking care to keep the sulphur well stirred up, as it will be found to float like a scum of oil on the surface of the water.

This lime and sulphur wash is good for grape vines and posts and stakes in the vineyard. When properly made and put on a strong smell of sulphur will be detected several feet from the trees and vines during the whole summer. These fumes are caused by the slow combustion or oxidation of the sulphur when sulphurous acid gas is formed, which is certain death to all the low order of animal and vegetable life. This oxidizing action of sulphur is the reason why it is used to dust grape berries and leaves to check the spread of oidium, mildew, grape rot and other fungoid diseases, because as soon as the sulphurous oxide gas is formed and pervades the surrounding atmosphere, all these fungus growths are instantly killed. So, too, would be all insect life, and on a large scale, so, too, would be all animal life.

The use of sulphur as herein recommended, in combination with lime, in a whitewash, has been found efficient and valuable by several who have tried it; it is hoped it will be more generally adopted by all orchardists and grape growers.—Farmers’ Home Journal.

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THE PLANTING OF THE APPLE TREE.

WM. CULLEN BRYANT.

    Come, let us plant the apple-tree,

  Cleave the tough green sward with the spade:

  Wide let its hollow bed be made;

  There gently lay the roots, and there

  Sift the dark mold with kindly care,

    And press it o’er them tenderly;

  As ’round the sleeping infant’s feet

  We softly fold the cradle-sheet,

    So plant we the apple-tree.

 

    What plant we in this apple-tree?

  Buds, which the breath of summer days

  Shall lengthen into leafy sprays;

  Boughs, where the thrush, with crimson breast,

  Shall haunt and sing, and hide her nest;

    We plant upon the sunny lea

  A shadow for the noontide hour,

  A shelter from the summer shower,

    When we plant the apple-tree.

 

    What plant we in this apple-tree?

  Sweets for a hundred flowery springs

  To load the May-wind’s restless wings,

  When, from the orchard row, he pours

  Its fragrance through our open doors;

    A world of blossoms for the bee,

  Flowers for the sick girl’s silent room,

  For the glad infant sprigs of bloom,

    We plant with the apple-tree.

 

    What plant we in this apple-tree?

  Fruits that shall swell in sunny June,

  And redden in the August noon,

  And drop, when gentle airs come by,

  That tan the blue September sky;

    While children come with cries of glee,

  And seek them where the fragrant grass

  Betrays their bed to those who pass,

    At the foot of the apple-tree.

 

    And, when above this apple-tree,

  The winter stars are glittering bright,

  And winds go howling through the night,

  Girls whose young eyes o’erflow with mirth

  Shall peal its fruit by cottage-hearth,

    And guests in prouder homes shall see,

  Heaped with the grape of Cintra’s vine,

  And golden orange of the line,

    The fruit of the apple-tree.

Floricultural.—Every garden should have a clump of lilies. They are easily cultivated, and require but little attention. The bulbs should be planted five or six inches deep. In fall, cover them with coarse manure. The following are desirable varieties: Auratum, the famous gold-banded lily from Japan, which only a few years ago sold at $5 each; Candidum, the old, common white, but still one of the best; Brownii, trumpet-shaped, rich purple on the outside, cream-white within; Lancifolium album, white; Rubrum, white and red; and Eximium, large white flower of exquisite shape.—Libby’s Flower Garden.

Horticultural Notes.—A vineyard of 50 acres in New Jersey, in 1880, marketed 80 tons of grapes, and in 1881 a larger amount. Estimating the grapes to be worth three cents per pound at the vineyard, the income from the 150,000 pounds would be $4,500, or $96 per acre, with less than half the labor required to grow an acre of wheat or corn.

Proportion of Farmers.—The last report of the Commissioner of Agriculture shows that 7,600,000 persons in the United States are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The total value of farms and farm implements is $13,461,200,438, or two-thirds of the productive wealth of the nation. The value of farm products and live stock for 1878 was $3,000,000,000 against $2,800,000,000 of mining and manufacturing products. Thus it appears that only a majority of the adult population of the United States is engaged in agriculture, but more than one-half the wealth of the Union is invested in that industry.

Paper Bags for Grapes.—Having read with considerable interest the writings of horticulturists in reference to protecting grapes with bags while young, I tried the experiment. Having less than two dozen young vines, I shall say nothing of the cost or trouble of bagging grapes. My vines are rather close to the hen-yard, and I have always had trouble in this direction. The hens have invariably destroyed all the grapes before they were quite ripe, and thus caused me some annoyance. I saved all the paper bags that came into the house, and after the grapes were formed I commenced bagging them, and kept at it until they were almost full grown. Bagging may not be an effectual remedy for all the other ills which grape flesh is heir to, but I have found it a perfect remedy for all interference on the part of poultry. I believe that grapes will ripen just as well, if not better, in strong paper bags as otherwise. They will ripen as evenly, and if carefully handled will retain the same beautiful bloom, which is the greatest charm of a table grape. I have grapes growing in bags, and not bagged at all, upon the same vine. I am satisfied that it is a good thing.—F. K. M., in Country Gentleman.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]AUGUST, 1882.[No. 8.
  

THE BALSAM.

The beautiful colored plate which adorns this August number will illustrate much better than any description the improvement that has been made in the form and coloring of this beautiful flower.

It is a tender annual; hence in our climate it is desirable to get the plants well started in the house or in a frame, so that they can be planted in the open border when all danger from late frosts is over, and come into bloom early enough to enable us to enjoy their flowers before the autumn frosts come and ruin their beauty. As soon as the plants are up and nicely started, they should be transplanted either into small pots or into the frame, and as soon as the roots fill the pots be shifted into larger pots, or, if set out in the frame, moved as often as they begin to become crowded. The soil should be made light and rich, kept free from weeds, and frequently stirred, to secure a strong, healthy growth and abundant bloom. They may be flowered in pots if desired, and grown in this way they make handsome window plants or ornaments for the verandah. Our hot summer weather is much better suited to the cultivation of this popular flower than the cool, moist climate of England, so that with suitable soil and little care we can grow them in the greatest perfection.

The plants can be pruned to any desired form, either to a single, straight stalk, or with three or four branches. Sometimes they incline to throw out so many branches that if all are allowed to grow the flowers would be hidden. It is better to cut away the superfluous branches as they start into growth, and leave only enough to display the flowers to the best advantage. Thus grown, the plant, when in full bloom, is in itself a beautiful bouquet. The cut blooms show to best advantage when arranged in a saucer of water, or of moistened sand, and in this way make an attractive table ornament. Florists find these double flowers, and especially the double white, very useful in the formation of crosses, wreaths and other floral designs. These double flowers have attained to such perfection of form that seedsmen have named them rose-flowered and camellia-flowered, intending thereby to set forth that they are so double that they resemble these flowers.

There is an opinion current among gardeners that old balsam seed is more likely to produce double flowers than the seed of last season’s growth. But we do not know of any experiments that have been recorded which establish this as a fact. Perhaps some of our readers may have made experiments in this direction; if so, they would be interesting as tending to throw light upon this point.

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ENGLISH SPARROWS.

Our attention has been called to the article under this title in the May number, page 108, where the eggs are spoken of as being of a pale blue. This is not the color of the eggs of this bird as they appear here. The young gentleman, who laughed at the description given, brought us some of the eggs, which are so nearly covered with rusty brown spots as to be almost brown in color, without any perceptible blue whatever.

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COMMUNICATIONS.

THE BLACK WALNUT.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Sir,—It is very gratifying to find so many “anxious enquiries” for information respecting the Black Walnut tree, but at this time of the year it becomes too great a task to reply to all letters on this subject, and, as many persons ask nearly the same questions, the constant writing of answers becomes somewhat monotonous. Will you, therefore, permit me to reply to a few of the most pertinent questions through the columns of the Canadian Horticulturist? By doing which, I think you will oblige many of your readers, as nearly all of my correspondents are members of the Fruit Growers’ Association.

1. Can the cultivation of the Black Walnut tree be profitably pursued as a commercial enterprise?

2. Are the Canadian walnuts as good a desert nut as the English?

3. What is the style of growth of the Black Walnut? and have the trees long or short trunks?

4. What kind of soil is most suitable to produce a healthy and vigorous growth?

5. What extremes of temperature will it survive?

6. Is it a rapid or a slow growing tree?

7. What time do the nuts ripen?

8. Can the trees be easily transplanted?

9. I intend planting several acres of Walnut trees. Would you recommend the nuts or the young trees? When—in the spring or fall?

10. Where can young Walnut trees be obtained, and at what price?

11. Where can the nuts be obtained suitable for planting?

12. How far apart should Walnut trees be planted?

13. What preparation of the soil is needed, and what is the best manure for that purpose, if any is required?

REPLY.

1st. There can be no doubt respecting the profitableness of an investment in the cultivation of the Canadian Walnut tree, provided an average amount of intelligence is brought into play in the planting and culture of the same during the first fifteen or twenty years. It can easily be shown that the planting of a given quantity of land with this species of tree will give, in from fifty to one hundred years, a larger profit on the investment than would any other legitimate investment in Ontario.

2nd. The Canadian Walnut is not the same as the nut of commerce, commonly called the English Walnut. The Canadian Walnut tree is the Black Walnut, Juglans Nigra. The desert nut known as the English Walnut is the product of the Juglans Regia, another branch of the Juglandacea family.

3rd. Much depends on the proximity of its neighbours. If the trees are grown near together they will be tall and slender; but if allowed plenty of room, the diameter of the top will about equal its total altitude. The general form of the head will be round, loose and open.

4th. A rich clay soil, worked as deeply as possible.

5th. At this place the thermometer often registers above 90 in summer, and below 35 in winter, and Walnut trees are perfectly healthy.

6th. I have several trees measuring over 24 inches in circumference, 12 years old.

7th. From the middle to the end of October.

8th. The Walnut tree, like most of the nut-bearing trees, are more difficult to transplant than seed-bearing trees.

9th. You will probably be more successful by planting the nuts than with the young trees. Perhaps it would be better in your case to plant both nuts and trees. The nuts must be planted in the fall of the year, and as soon after the nuts can be obtained as possible. Let them be in the ground by the 1st of November. The trees may be transplanted either in the spring or fall.

10th. I cannot answer this question. Nurserymen having Walnut trees for sale should advertize the fact in the Canadian Horticulturist.

11th. Same reply as above.

12th. If you want them simply for shade trees, I should say from 40 to 50 feet apart; but if for planting for timber, I would recommend planting the nuts in rows four feet apart, and two feet apart in the row. Each alternate tree in the row can be removed for transplanting purposes in two or three years, leaving the standing trees four feet apart. In from five to ten years each alternate tree can again be taken out, and also all the trees in each alternate row. What is left will then be eight feet apart. In 15 or 20 years, the thinning can again be done, as last mentioned, thus leaving the standing timber 16 feet apart. This will be all the thinning out required.

13th. Let the land be thoroughly subsoiled to a depth of 20 inches. If the land is then in proper condition to grow an ordinary grain crop, no manure will be required.

T. B.

Lindsay.

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PEACHES AND OTHER FRUIT AT AYLMER.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Dear Sir,—Can you tell me what is the matter with my peach trees; see enclosed leaf. I have only to look from where I am writing, and see that all peach trees look yellow, and on closer inspection all the leaves are like the enclosed. One of my neighbour’s trees are the same, and not only his peaches, but his pears. In his instance not only the leaves, but the young pears are just the same. It is worse on a splendid, thrifty young Clapp’s Favorite. My pears are all right. Can it be the yellows, of which I have read a great deal lately? Is that big white grub, with the watery end, injurious? He is very frequently met with this year. All the harm that I can see he does is to eat into potatoes and eat strawberry plants off.

Fruit looks around this section on the main very good, so far. Apples, pears, and cherries, splendid; in fact, never saw such a show.

Currants—25 per cent. blasted by east wind.

Gooseberries—Frozen on the top branches, May 23.

Grapes—Badly frozen in exposed positions same night; coming on again now.

Raspberries and Blackberries—Show is good.

Strawberries—Somewhat frozen on May 23, Sharpless worst of all. Jucunda and Wilson only open blows, but Sharpless is so tender that unopened buds froze, added to which it is not nearly as nice a berry to eat as the so-called third-rate berry Jucunda. These are two faults which even its large size and beautiful color of fruit will not compensate. For size and color they are simply magnificent, with me; but a neighbor got some plants from Ohio, and the shape of their fruit is like a man’s closed hand; almost in every one can the fingers be traced, with a green seam between, which renders them worthless.

Peaches—None; and if the rain was a little more like the peach crop, we would like it considerably better.

Yours, &c.,

A. G. E.

The leaves found enclosed with this interesting letter had the appearance of having been injured by the frost. Do not think it to be the yellows.

Editor.

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PROTECTING GRAPES FROM BIRDS.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Sir,—I have been much amused and instructed by reading the various subjects discussed in the Horticulturist, as also the report of the Entomological Society. I cannot help thinking what a labour it must be to tie paper bags on the bunches of grapes in a large vinery. Would not a sheet, made so as to go over and round under the whole vine, and fastened to the trellis, made of coarse gauze, be much cheaper in the end, and much handier, than to tie a bag on every bunch, although it would cost more at first? It could be taken down, laid by, and used again for many years; it would allow the passage of air through, and keep out bees or birds, and would save much labour in putting it on, as well as in taking off, as compared with paper bags.

Yours respectfully,

James Milligan.

Orillia, 26th June, 1882.

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FRUITS IN MUSKOKA.

Nine or ten years ago, I planted quite a few trees—apples, pears, plums, cherries, etc.—but all with the exception of two crabs, Transcendant and Montreal Beauty, died. Last spring I planted several apple trees, with the following result:—Duchess of Oldenburg, two out of eight were winter-killed; Red Astrachan all alive; St. Lawrence all dead; Snow-apple half killed, and Golden Russet a fourth killed. Last winter was an exceptionally severe one here on trees, and I congratulate myself I have so many alive. I bought my first lot through an agent, and did not then know what sorts were suitable for this district. I believe the sorts I have now can be successfully grown here.

I am, yours respectfully,

Wm. Gregory.

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BLACK APHIS ON CHERRY TREES.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Dear Sir,—I have a fine cherry tree, the growing shoots of which are full of small black lice. Will you kindly, through your columns, inform me the most effectual method of destroying them, and oblige,

Yours, Subscriber.

REPLY.

Tobacco water will kill the black aphis. This is made by steeping tobacco stems in water until the liquid is of a dark brown color. The stems can be procured of any cigar maker.

If the tree be small the twigs can be bent down and dipped in the water; but if large, it will be necessary to throw the tobacco-water on the young shoots with a garden syringe.

If tobacco stems cannot be conveniently procured, common plug tobacco will do just as well.

 

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Sir,—If convenient, will you please in July number mention how to grow Tuberose, and at what time of the year, and you will greatly oblige,

Yours, A Subscriber.

Please read the article on page 93 in April number for this year.—Editor.

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RICE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR POTATOES.

When the excellence of rice as a diet is fully understood, its use will be more frequent and of daily occurrence in every household. At this season of the year especially, it may properly be classed as superior to any of the cereals which are in such general use for the morning and mid-day meals. No other food is so easy of digestion, and at its present cost it is cheaper than potatoes, oat-meal, or grain-grits of any kind.

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CAP RASPBERRIES.

The improved methods of drying fruits, and the ready market for dried berries, have given a new impetus to the culture of Cap Raspberries, or Thimble-berries, as properly they ought to be called. This classifying two so distinct species under one name has always been productive of considerable confusion, yet, as they were so denominated by our forefathers, Thimble-berries will no doubt be called Black-cap Raspberries to the end of time.

In the early history of small-fruit culture, Cap Raspberries figured prominently, and many varieties, all chance seedlings were introduced and cultivated; but from disease and other causes most of them have become deteriorated and unreliable, creating a demand for good reliable new varieties, which seems in a fair way of becoming satisfied. The following varieties are among the most promising recent introductions:

Hoosier Mammoth is evidently a seedling of the old Mammoth Cluster, and is in no way superior to it, unless it be that it is less subject to the casualties which impair the value of the latter.

Florence.—This is a large yellow or buff variety, and were it not that the so-called yellow varieties are not popular, and not in demand in the markets, would be eagerly sought after. It is almost as large as the Gregg, of strong growth, excessively prolific, and entirely hardy. It ripens from mid-season to late, and is of sweet and pleasant flavor. A dish of this and the Gregg, nicely mixed, is a most appetizing sight to all who are fond of Cap Raspberries.

Hopkins originated in Missouri, and promises to be of great value. According to an excellent authority from the State of its origin, it is as large as the Gregg, decidedly hardier, and even more productive.

Gregg.—In congenial soil, and under proper treatment, this is, perhaps, the largest Raspberry of its class that has as yet been produced. Much disappointment has been encountered with this variety by planting it upon thin, light soil, where most Cap varieties succeed. The Gregg Raspberry, like the Strawberry, delights in a deep, rich, cool soil, and is so critical in this respect that it frequently refuses to respond in the least to any amount of coaxing on almost any other, and proves an utter failure upon sand. It is extra large, jet black, with a decided bloom, and, although quite good, yet not of the highest quality, being somewhat dry and meaty. In time of ripening it is a little later than the well-known Mammoth Cluster, hence late to very late. Very productive (when grown on congenial soil, and with thorough culture), and although exempt from the diseases that attack the Mammoth, and free from its weaknesses, it is not quite as hardy as that fine old kind. However, taken all in all, it is a variety of great value, and worthy of a place in all gardens suited to its culture.

Souhegan is just what every one interested in Cap Raspberries has long been looking for: to wit, a good early variety. It has steadily, and entirely upon its own merits, made itself known, and really leaves but little to be desired as an early Black-cap, either for market or the home garden. Of first importance is, that it succeeds on both light and heavy soils, and in productiveness it is simply wonderful, being, without exception, the most prolific variety of the productive Cap Raspberries that has yet come under my notice. In hardiness it appears to be “iron-clad,” having stood twenty degrees below zero without injury, when all others in the same plantation were killed to the ground, and is very early, ripening about a week earlier than Doolittle. It is of fair size, juicy, sweet, and rich, and, what adds much to its value as a market berry, shining jet black, without bloom.—J. T. Lovett, in American Garden.

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GRAPES.

In answer to frequent inquiries as to the relative value, quality and character of the more common and newer varieties of the grape, we place a number of sorts under the following heads:

Early grapes—Moore’s Early, Lady, Worden, Massasoit, Hartford Prolific.

Hardy half-bloods—Burnet, Salem, Wilder, and the other Rogers’ hybrids.

High quality and character, with a slight intermixture of exotic blood—Lady Washington, Brighton.

Of fine quality, but poor growth—Eumelan, Rebecca, Walter, Adirondack.

Hardy and high flavor, but poor bunch—Creveling.

Nearly perfect, but not quite good enough—Concord.

Prominent and promising white grapes—Prentiss, Pocklington. Red or darker—Jefferson, Vergennes.

Half-blood, tender, high quality—Allen’s Hybrid.

Faultless, but rather small—Delaware.

Hardy and productive, but not good enough—Hartford, Martha.

Good winter keepers—the late-ripening Rogers’ hybrids.

Grapes of high value or of high promise—Lady Washington, Niagara, Duchess, Brighton, Rochester, Prentiss, Jefferson.

Of little value—Blood’s Black, Janesville, Champion, Charter Oak, Dracut Amber. Israella, Northern Muscadine, Union Village.—Altered from Country Gentleman.

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A NEW PRINCIPLE IN PROTECTION FROM INSECT ATTACK.

BY J. A. LINTNER.

(Read before the Western New York Horticultural Society.)

Our more accurate writers in Economic Entomology, in the recommendations which they present for the arrest of insect depredations, have, of late, made a very proper distinction between preventive and remedial measures. If we construe an “insect attack” in its broadest sense, as a habit pertaining to a species of insect, of regularly attacking a plant or an animal, then its arrest at any time or in any manner, may properly be regarded as a remedy of the evil, and remedial measures would thus comprise preventive ones. But if we limit the “attack” to each separate periodical recurrence of the same, then it is possible by the interposition of preventives to preclude the attack and to render remedies unnecessary, and, indeed, impossible. In this latter sense, “remedies” imply that an attack has commenced: “preventives” that means are resorted to prior to the commencement of attack.

Of the latter, are such measures as change in crops, early or late planting, that may preclude the period of egg deposit, vigorous cultivation, selection of varieties which may be nearly or wholly exempt from attack, washes and coatings or other coverings, or the application of highly odorous substances to the object to be protected, or to the soil adjacent if it be a vegetable growth, to prevent the deposit of eggs.

While the preventives that have been proposed are comparatively few, the remedies could be enumerated by hundreds. Merely to specify a few, we have the popular applications of Paris Green, London purple, hellebore and pyrethrum, in powder or in liquid form; carbolic acid, kerosene and other oils; soft soap and other alkaline washes, lime, ashes, soot, dust, salt, hot water, hand-picking, tree-jarring, burning infested twigs, attracting to fires, to lights, or to adhesive sweets—all tending to the destruction of insect life in one or more of its several stages.

It will readily be conceded that the use of preventives, wherever practicable, is more economical, more effective, and often more convenient than a resort to remedies.

We propose, at this time, to limit our attention to those means now in great favor, which consist of such applications to the soil or to the plant directly that promise a safeguard against the deposit of insect eggs.

The great benefit of commencing our efforts at this point is so obvious as to need no words to commend it. It would not be “nipping in the bud” or “crushing in the egg.” It is prior to and beyond these. If no egg be deposited, we have no artfully concealed egg to search for, no larva, whose rapacity and destructiveness we must arrest; no pupa, whose retreat is to be discovered, and no imago, whose egg-distended abdomen is as fraught with evil as was that of the Trojan horse of old, to be captured or entrapped—in short, we have dispensed with the four insect stages that require such unwearied and unending investigation in order to ascertain the most vulnerable point of attack of insect life, and the best means with which to assail it.

Can the deposit of eggs be prevented? It can be, and has been done with perfect success in many instances. Please accept my simple assurance of this, instead of occupying your time by citing instances in proof thereof.

How may it be prevented? It may be prevented by applying to the plant or to the soil, certain odorous substances which are popularly believed to be disagreeable to the insect, and therefore, to drive it away.

Among these substances may be mentioned kerosene oil, coal-tar, naphthaline, carbolic acid, gas-lime, and bisulphide of carbon. That these and similar substances have been successfully used in preventing insect attack, is undeniable, resting as the claim does, on authoritative testimony, which I would be glad to present to you if there were the time.

How do they prevent the deposit? The answer to this question is the object of the present paper. The views that I shall present are my own—original, so far as I know. They have been but recently conceived, without the time or opportunity of maturing them. They, as yet, may only claim theoretic value, but believing as I do, not only in their correctness, but that they are destined to be of eminent service to economic entomology, I esteem it a privilege to offer them first to this Society. I do so from the deep interest which you feel in entomological investigations, as shown in the admirable papers that have been presented at former meetings, in the prominent place you have given to entomological topics in your discussions, and in the invitation extended to your State Entomologist, to address you at this time. And beyond these considerations, there is the fact that your membership offers all needed opportunity for testing these views, and I am sure that there is the willingness to take the pains requisite for their proper test.

In answering the question, how do these odorous substances, in their application, prevent the deposit of eggs, I must first premise, that much the larger proportion of the insect world are guided in the deposit of their eggs, not by the sense of sight, but by the sense of smell. Allow me a consideration of this view, before proceeding to its practical application. The idea is a popular one, that most of the moths and beetles and many of the insects that attack vegetation, select by means of sight the particular plant upon which to place their eggs. Their marvellous compound eyes, consisting of hundreds and even thousands of separate lenses, even to the number of 34,000, as in the eye of the butterfly, have been cited as a wonderful provision in nature, to afford that acuteness of vision which was needed in their selection of the proper plant on which to oviposit. While sharing in this belief, I had often wondered at the incomprehensible acuteness shown by an insect in the discovery of the particular species of plant upon which alone the young caterpillars proceeding from its eggs, could feed,—in the discovery of a single individual of a rare species occurring in a certain locality, and growing in such a manner as effectually to hide it from human observation. When its range of food plants extends beyond a species to all the members of a genus, how could it detect all of the often greatly different forms? When a still broader range embraces the several genera of an extended order, a still greater variety of forms are presented, which the rude insect brain must group and classify, and claim within its province. How amazing such knowledge without previous instruction. It had no parents living, as in the class of vertebrates, which might teach it by example. It had no ancestors a whit wiser than itself from which to learn. The deposit of the egg in its proper place may have been but the second voluntary act of its imago life, regarding that of flight for the purpose as the first. Perhaps a plant from some distant shore, of which not one of its ever so remote ancestry could have had any knowledge, is brought within its range of wing; its flight is unhesitatingly directed to it, and its precious burden of eggs, without a shadow of mistrust, is at once committed to its leaves. Such knowledge has never been attained by our most distinguished botanists, and it is beyond the scope of human intellect. We have called its displays instinct—a word conveniently framed to cover manifestations in other classes of animated beings, which we are utterly unable to explain. As a partial explanation of these wonders, it has been suggested that to the insect world may have been given senses differing in number and in kind from those which we possess. But all the wonderful phenomena attendant upon insect oviposition by selection is readily explained under the supposition that it is guided and controlled by the sense of smell. We know the value of this important sense to us, how greatly it may minister to our pleasure, and what service it may render in guarding us from deleterious exhalations and from improper food. It is capable of cultivation to the extent of rendering us still greater service. I have been told of a chemist in one of our colleges who can make quite a correct qualitative analysis of a patent nostrum by applying it to his nose, and picking out one after another of the ingredients, first naming those which are simply added as covers. It is related of a blind person that he acquired the faculty of recognizing his acquaintances by the sense of smell. There are negroes in Africa who will follow their masters by scent. A fish dealer in Albany claims the ability of naming each species of fish offered in the market, when presented to him blindfolded, by the odor peculiar to each. The illustrations given us of the acuteness of this sense, in some of our domestic animals, are so numerous as not to need citation. We will quote a single instance of this almost miraculous acuteness, related upon undoubted authority:—“A person, to make trial whether a young blood-hound was well trained, caused one of his servants to walk to a town four miles distant, and then to a market-town three miles further. The dog, without having seen the man he was to pursue, followed him by the scent to the above mentioned places, notwithstanding the multitude of market people that went along the same way, and of travellers that had occasion to cross it; and when the blood-hound came to the chief market-town, he passed through the streets without taking any notice of any of the people there, and left not till he had gone to the house where the man he sought rested himself, and found him in an upper room, to the wonder of those that followed him.”

That insects are controlled by this same sense may seem a bold supposition to those of you who may happen to know, or who may learn now from the confession that I am compelled to make, that notwithstanding the laborious investigations in insect structure, conducted through a century by some of our most distinguished scientists, we are utterly unable to point out with positive certainty the precise location and nature of the organs of smell. Naturalists have differed, and still differ, in their views in regard to their location. Cuvier, Audouin, Dumeril and Burmeister, have regarded the spiracles or breathing pores as discharging this office. Reaumer, Lyonnet, Latreille, and others, have referred it to the antennæ. Others have believed that the palpi were the true smelling organs, and others that the sense belonged to certain cavities in the front part of the head, and to the mucous lining of the mouth; while Kirby and Spence have thought that they have discovered a nose in the fore part of the head, which they call the rhinarium or nostril-piece, connected with which is a beautifully striated structure, which they have described as the veritable organs of smell.

I am indebted to Dr. Hagen, of Cambridge, Mass., for the following information as to the location of these organs, drawn from Hauser: Zeitschrift f. wisenschaft Zoologie, 1880. The Record has just been received, and it gives the latest observations of the best investigators.

Strong smelling substance, as turpentine, carbolic acid, and decayed meats, proved that the organs of smell were situated in the antennæ in very many insects. Nevertheless, not all the insects employed in the experiments were deprived of the sense after the amputation of the antennæ, among which were Carabus, Pyrrhocoris, &c. After the antennæ were cut the males rarely mated.

Sensitive bristles are present in Orthoptera (Œdipoda and Caloptenus) on every joint of the antennæ after the eighth or ninth, and fifty sensitive pits or furrows, which are probably closed by a fine membrane and have interiorly one smelling-rod. Stenobothrus and Gryllotalpa are similarly provided. Diptera (flies) have in the third joint 100 to 200 furrows, with as many as 200 sensitive bristles. Vanessa has on each joint of the knob of the antennæ fifty furrows. Of the Coleoptera, the Carabids, Cerambycids and Curculionides, possess no antennal furrows, while they are present in the Silphides, Staphylinides, and Tenebrionides. The Lamellicornes have on the under side an immense number of very small furrows, viz., in the female, 17,500, and in the male 39,000.

All insects which have to rely upon the sense of smell for discovering their food or placing their eggs possess many sensitive furrows or pits in the antennæ, as bees, wasps, ichneumons, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

Dr. Hagen suggests that probably in many insects the organs of smell and taste are united. Such may be the organs which are found in the honey-bee in the epipharynx (on underside of the labrum), consisting of numerous sensorial furrows, and which have just been discovered in the same position in Aphis and Cicada, by Mr. H. Osborn, of the Iowa State Agricultural College.

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THE NEW WHITE GRAPES.

A young inquirer wishes to know the comparative quality and value of four new white grapes which he names, namely, the Duchess, Pocklington, Prentiss and Niagara. Without having had an opportunity of examining them critically side by side, we should place the Duchess first in quality, a drawback being its one-fourth foreign blood, and the fear that this intermixture may possibly injure the foliage in future. Next in flavor would be the Prentiss, a strictly native sort, of excellent quality, but not equal in this respect to the Duchess. The Niagara, although one notch lower in flavor, is larger, finer in appearance, a prodigious grower and bearer, and on the whole has an unusual number of excellent points not found combined in any other variety. The Pocklington is still larger, and perhaps more showy than the Niagara, but a notch farther down in quality at the usual time of ripening. We are informed, however, that if allowed to hang several weeks it becomes excellent. These four sorts all stand high, and are all eminently worthy of trial.—From the Country Gentleman.

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CALLA ÆTHIOPICA, OR “TRUMPET LILY.”

A correspondent of the London Gardener’s Magazine says:

“The Trumpet Lily has become so much in demand of late years for furnishing cut flowers for church decoration at Easter and for indoor decorations generally, that a hint or two on its cultivation will perhaps be of service to some readers of the Magazine. First of all I would say that I have tried many ways of growing it. For example, I have tried drying off the plants through the summer at one time, and keeping them growing in pots and feeding them highly at another. But the plan which causes the least trouble, and gives the best results, is planting them out. If you have a few examples to start with, as soon as danger of frost is over, in the spring, turn them out in rich soil in the kitchen garden, and water liberally to settle the soil about the roots. They will soon become established and take care of themselves, unless the weather is very dry indeed, when an occasional soaking with clear water or liquid manure will be of service to them. They will not seem to make much progress until the nights become rather cool, when they will grow most sturdily. They must remain in the border until there is danger of frost, and then be taken up and potted. If an increase of stock is desired take off the offsets when the stock is lifted, and put them several together round the sides of five or six inch pots. These can be put out as advised above in the spring following. If it is desired to put them in small pots carefully remove all the soil from the roots, and put them in pots of the desired size. The massive plants which already contain the flowers will not show the least sign of distress if after potting they are well watered and kept well shaded for a few days. I have taken up thousands and treated them thus without losing a leaf. If wanted for Christmas, those which show flower (and many of them will bloom earlier than Christmas if forced on at once) should be selected for putting into heat. The others will come on in succession, and many of them, if kept cool, will not start until Easter, when the flowers are again in great demand.”

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THE SECRET OF GOOD LUCK.

It is very common to hear people say that it is no use for them to plant fruit trees. They have no luck with them. But in truth luck never did anything of any importance. We don’t trust our farm or general garden crops to this person, Luck; but the sensible farmer and grower employs good, careful hands, and directs their work by long experience, and the teeming harvest field and luxuriant vegetable garden attest to their wisdom and industry. There is no luck about it, but a careful measuring to the end to be accomplished with the means at hand to gain it. Whenever the same means have been adopted with fruit trees good results have followed. In our own district there are “loads” of people who have wonderful success with certain things that they set their hearts on, and the growing of fruit is among these successes. But these men, we repeat, do not trust to luck. The trees are pruned as they ought to be and manured with what they need; precautions are taken against injury from curculio and borers, and thus industry, and not luck, meets with its due reward. Try it as fruit raising and every other crop raising ought to be tried, and see how easy it is to get good fruit and plenty of it by going about it in the right way.—Germantown Telegraph.

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NUT-BEARING TREES.

(From the Witness).

BY JAMES DOUGALL, WINDSOR, ONTARIO.

As you have advocated, from time to time, the planting of nut-bearing trees in places where the land is not suitable or not intended for cultivation, and as there has been some inquiry through your columns regarding the proper time and way to plant and cultivate them, I give you my experience on the subject.

The Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra), owing to its gigantic size, its beautiful and graceful appearance when at maturity, its quick growth and the great value of its wood in a commercial point of view, besides its value as a nut-bearing tree, is first of its class. It is in every way suitable for road, lawn, or grove planting where the soil is suitable, but I doubt if it could be grown to advantage on rocky or barren lands unfit for cultivation, as it requires a rich, deep soil. It grows naturally to an immense size on the rich lands of the western peninsula of Ontario, in Ohio and other States. In 1853 I planted a row of one-year-old black walnuts. No after care was taken of them. The greater part, including the largest, were cut down to make room for buildings. On examination I find only four of them left, the largest of which measures four feet in circumference at the butt, three feet six inches at six feet high, and three feet at fifteen feet from the ground, and upwards of forty feet high; the other three trees are about an eighth less in size. Had the nuts been planted where the trees were to stand, and had they not been injured by buildings so near them, they would probably have been much larger.

The Butternut (Juglans Cinerea), is not so large or so valuable a tree as the black walnut, but it will grow in places where the other will not thrive, and grows naturally much farther North. I have seen it growing to a good size on the stony sides of the Montreal Mountain, and it would no doubt do well in places unfit for general cultivation. The wood is not so valuable, but the nuts are preferred for eating to the black walnut, though both are rather strong and cathartic. Both are nearly as good for pickling when gathered, green, as the European walnut.

The European Walnut or Madeira Nut (Juglans regia), where the climate and soil are suitable, would be a valuable tree to plant, but it is too tender for this section of the country. I have tried it largely, but it is invariably Winter-killed to within a foot or so of the ground, sending up strong shoots from the base the following season, to be again killed down the following Winter. My soil is a strong clay loam. If planted on a light soil, with gravelly sub soil, it would perhaps stand the Winter here, and further South it would no doubt succeed well and prove profitable for the nuts as well as for the wood.

The Hickory, shell bark (Carya Alba), is only second in value to the black walnut, if it is not really first. The wood is very valuable, being much used in carriage building and for other purposes, while as a wood for fuel it stands first. The nut, with perhaps the exception of the sweet chestnut, is the most prized of any of the nut-bearing trees of this country, and always commands a steady sale and high price, which will continue to increase as the trees in the forests get scarcer, large numbers being cut down for firewood everywhere.

In clearing a farm for pasturage some years ago I left all the hickory-trees, of which there were a great many, some of them of very large size. I found great differences in the size and quality of the nuts. Some were very large, with very thick shells and but little meat in them, others nearly as large with comparatively thin shells full of meat of a finer flavor, while others bore small or medium-sized nuts of inferior value.

The hickory, from its upright, graceful habit, its quick growth and valuable qualities, is one particularly suited for roadside, lawn, or grove planting. It requires a similar rich soil to the black walnut, or rocky hillocks with good soil among the stones, on which it will attain a large size, bearing early, and will prove very profitable to those who plant it largely. The nut must be planted where the tree is to stand, as owing to its large tap-root it will not stand transplanting from a seed-bed, as I have found by experience.

The Pecan (carya olivæformis) is a variety of the hickory, with oblong-shaped nuts, a thin shell and more delicate flavor. I have not heard of its being grown to any extent in the Northern States, its natural habitation being further South; but I have no doubt it would grow well wherever the hickory grows. It is equally hardy here, and grows fully as fast and strong as the hickory. Some years ago I planted some of the nuts in my garden in the Fall. They grew the following Spring, but being too close together I removed all but one and planted elsewhere. Like the hickory they did not stand transplanting, and dwindled away. The one left grew very fast till it attained two feet in circumference, when it suddenly blighted just as it was coming into bearing and died back. Supposing it had been injured by the Winter, or unsuitable to the climate, I thought it would not succeed so far North, but I afterwards found that my neighbor had placed a number of barrels of coal oil against my fence, which had leaked so much that two years after in digging I found the subsoil perfectly saturated with the oil. This had killed the roots of the tree on that side. On cutting back the tree to a shoot on the sound side it has since grown fifteen feet, and bids fair to become a good-sized tree. The pecan is well adapted for a shade tree or for planting for profit.

The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Vesca), is one of our largest and handsomest trees, and is very profitable when grown on suitable soil. It is very prolific—the nuts, which are easily gathered, falling to the ground when ripe, and selling at high prices in any quantity. It will only grow on light, sandy soils, with gravelly subsoil, where it attains an immense size. A friend made as much from a fine grove of gigantic trees near his house as he did from the rest of his farm of fifty acres. His trees were near enough to overshadow the ground so that grass would not grow, and he kept it clean and smooth, so that the nuts could be gathered once or twice a day, as they fell. The timber is also valuable and very lasting.

The European or Spanish Chestnut is said to be the same as the American, but larger fruited. It has been greatly improved by cultivation, and is now nearly as large as a small horse-chestnut, but is not so sweet or fine-flavored as the common American variety. In Spain, the southern parts of France, Italy, and the adjacent countries, sweet chesnuts, either raw, boiled or roasted, or ground into flour, form a common article of diet. It is not, however, the wild chesnut which furnishes the nuts that are consumed in the south of Europe and exported to more northern countries, but a number of cultivated varieties, the nuts of which are larger and sweeter.

I formerly imported a large number of trees of the best of these varieties from France, but they were too tender for this climate, and died off in a few years. This may, however, be attributed to unsuitable soil, and I presume that, planted on soil in which the common chestnut thrives, they would stand our Winters. Farther south, on land as previously described, they would no doubt do well and prove highly profitable; while in the light, sandy soil best suitable for it other crops do not prove profitable.

The Almond (amygdalus communis), will do well in many parts of the United States, wherever the peach grows and the seasons are long enough to bring its fruit to maturity. I have grown the hard-shell variety in perfection here, but I have not heard of orchards being planted with it, though it would prove highly profitable in the Southern States or California; and it could be grown in place of peaches where the latter would be too far from a market. Its cultivation is the same as the peach, to which it is nearly allied. In France the peach is commonly budded on the common almond, being considered more hardy. There are several varieties, the common, the hard-shell sweet, the soft-shell sweet and the bitter almond. The soft-shell sweet ripens much earlier than the other varieties, but is rather tender north of Philadelphia. As the nuts imported from Europe are often stale and musty there is no reason why all that are required in this country should not be grown in it, so as to have them always fresh and sweet.

The cultivation of nut-bearing trees is very simple when understood. As a general thing they will succeed much better if the nuts are planted as soon as ripe in the Fall where they are to stand. The greater part of them have very large tap-roots which have to be cut off short in removing them, so that they do not thrive or even grow, as before mentioned, when transplanted.

Two or three nuts should be planted in a hill, the best only being allowed to grow. The great difficulty in planting in this manner on waste lands which are usually used as pasturage will be to keep the cattle from browsing them till they are high enough and large enough to be out of danger. A few stakes driven in around them and wattled with thorn branches is an excellent protection, and a space round each tree wherein grass should be hoed for some years.

When planted as orchard or groves it would be advisable to keep the land planted with corn or hoed crops. Thick planting is advisable, to be thinned out by degrees to the proper distance. The thinnings of the hickories more especially would sell well and pay for the cultivation till the trees begin to bear.

After procuring the nuts in the Fall they should not be allowed to dry or shrivel in the least. If not convenient to plant at once where they are to stand they should be mixed with sand or light mould in a box or barrel and exposed to the freezing and thawing of Winter, to be planted out the first thing in Spring, as is usually done with peach-stones.

Windsor Nurseries, Ont., Canada.

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Mulching Strawberry Plants.—A correspondent of the Rural World advises fruit growers to use old straw for a mulch for strawberries when applied in the spring to keep down weeds, as in a dry time the straw does not settle down to the ground.

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THINNING OF FRUIT.

A fruit tree cannot bear a very heavy crop oftener than once in two years, and in order to obtain an even-bearing tree, the fruit should be thinned very freely every year. This would secure not only very even crops every year, but finer and superior fruit. Thinning is easily done if we obtain a slender pole with a hook-like knife attached, or even a codfish hook, by which the extra fruit could be easily cut out.—Michigan Farmer.

We fear that there will be little occasion to urge upon our readers the practice of thinning out the fruit this season, unless it be in the matter of grapes, for the cold easterly storm that prevailed when the trees were in blossom in the Niagara District has thinned the fruit quite too severely in that great fruit-growing region.

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SALT FOR ASPARAGUS.

Chas. Hovey, in the Massachusetts Ploughman, takes exception to the general impressions that salt is essential, or even beneficial, to asparagus, saying thousands of plants are annually killed or injured by its application. He also says that our “mammoth” specimens do not compare with some grown by the ancients, and quotes Pliny as saying “there was a variety which grew near Ravenna, a deep, sandy country, three shoots of which would weigh a pound.”

It may be that enough salt has been applied to injure asparagus, but we have never seen an instance. It is a maritime plant, growing naturally in salt marshes, hence not likely to be injured by any reasonable application of salt.

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TO GET RID OF MELON BUGS.

A Virginia farmer, as soon as bugs appear upon his melon vines, puts about half to a whole gallon of sharp sand immediately around them, and with melons, cucumbers and squashes found it a sudden and sure cure. It is supposed the heat and the inability of the bugs to shelter themselves from the hot sun by going into the ground, constitute its virtue; at any rate, in this instance, it succeeded perfectly and gave great satisfaction. Just spread the sand as if putting ashes around grape vines or fruit trees.

Will some of our readers please give the above remedy a trial, and report results to the Canadian Horticulturist? It is a new expedient to us, and we have grave doubts as to its success with our Canadian melon bugs, and yet it is so easy of trial and inexpensive, that it would be interesting to know whether it will succeed.

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ROOT PRUNING FOR TOMATOES.

Root pruning of tomato plants is recommended to induce early maturity of the fruit. While the plants are young they are transplanted several times, which of course destroys some of the roots; and after they are put into their final resting place, a spade is once in a while thrust down into the ground a foot or so from the main stalk. In this, of course, size, and perhaps quality, are sacrificed to a few weeks earliness; but many are willing to pay this penalty for the sake of the early dish. Those wishing to secure an early ripening of fruit will do well to practice this system of root pruning upon a portion of their plants. Tomato plants produce better and more evenly ripened fruit when afforded some support, as by stakes or trellises, to keep vines from the ground.—New York Herald.

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THE CANKER WORM.

This destructive pest is making sad havock in some of the apple orchards of Western New York. It is therefore quite possible that some of our readers will find the enemy at work in their own orchard, and will be glad to read the following which we clip from the Michigan Farmer on fighting the Canker Worm.

The New England Farmer recommends the following method of reducing the numbers of the Canker Worm:

“It is very common for writers on Canker Worms to recommend that the trees to be protected be treated with printer’s ink quite frequently, beginning in October or November, and continuing the practice till the trees are leaved out in spring. It is not improbable that the moths may occasionally mature sufficiently in their pupa skins to burst them and come forth, during unusually mild weather in autumn, but in average years the number that come out of the ground before spring will probably be found to be very small. Mr. O. A. Hillman, whose apple orchard is one of the best in the vicinity, has made the habits of the canker worm a study, and has found that the female moths, which are wingless, very seldom crawl up the trees till the first really warm day in spring. His method of protection is printer’s ink, spread upon strips of paper some six inches wide, which are wound round the trunks of the trees and fastened by two or more carpet tacks it each end of the band, the paper receiving one application of the ink early in the spring, and then the trees are examined every warm day till the moth begins to move, when the ink is again applied. His observations lead him to believe that the moths move almost solely by night, and that the greater portion leave the ground the same night and immediately following the first warm day. By watching closely, and by having the papers all in place and covered by one application of ink, he is able to know by the few scattering moths caught, just about the right time to give them a sticky path to travel in. Last spring a very warm day in April gave promise of starting out the moths in full numbers, and by painting the bands of the entire orchard one afternoon, he was enabled the next morning to see nearly the whole previous year’s crop of moths imprisoned in the sticky mass. The number which crawled up late was too insignificant to be worth paying much attention to, unless utter extermination of the species be aimed at, which would be an undertaking of no small moment where an orchard is surrounded by trees belonging to careless neighbors.

“At the close of the pairing season, the tacks are drawn out from one end of the paper bands, and they are allowed to hang loosely during the growth of the tree in summer. Before winter the papers are replaced, and if the trees are now too large to be encircled by the bands, the ink is brushed over the intervening space on the bark itself.”

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SALSIFY.

Salsify, or Vegetable Oyster, is one of the easiest crops to raise, and every garden should have a row or so. Salsify is excellent, fried or boiled. If boiled, it should be scraped, cut in half-inch pieces, and thrown in water (made acid with a little vinegar) immediately, or the pieces will turn a dark color. Boil for half an hour, and add milk, salt, pepper and butter. Our readers should try this really delicious vegetable, cooked as above. The culture is much the same as that for parsnips or carrots. Sow early in drills 10 inches apart, and thin out to four inches apart in the drill. It may remain in the ground all winter, and will not be the worse for freezing.

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FERNS AS HOUSE-PLANTS.

Ferns for window-plants should be such good-growing common sorts as cannot fail to give satisfaction; the finer and more delicate kinds, and those requiring special treatment, should not be attempted, unless we are prepared to give them the care they demand. A well-grown, thrifty Fern is always pretty,—a scraggy, sickly thing is a miserable-looking plant indeed. You can grow your Geraniums, Fuchsias, Mahernias, Pinks, Mignonette, Petunias, and Oxalis, in your sunny windows; Ferns do not like such quarters, but prefer the very quarters those flowering plants don’t like—namely, sunless windows. Ferns like lots of light, and to be grown near the glass, but they dislike direct sunshine. Ferns may be grown separately in pots, or baskets, or in the same pots as Calla Lilies and other window-plants.

Soil for Ferns.—Ordinary observation will teach us that different Ferns require different soils: for instance, we go into the woods and find the little Spleenworts growing in the chinks of rocks, the Virginian Chain-fern in wet swamps, the Hart’s-tongue under limestone cliffs, the Sensitive Fern in wet meadows, and evergreen Acrostichums on the hill-sides. Then, again, in California and Colorado we find little farinose and crispy-leaved Ferns growing in open rocky and gravelly places, and so on. For ordinary Ferns I should advise a compost of turfy loam with the finest stuff sifted out of it, old-leaf soil and peat (that is, if you have upland peat; but if you have not, do not use any), in equal parts, and some sharp sand. Gross-growing Ferns like a little manure. Some pounded charcoal is a good addition to the soil.

Watering Ferns.—Give Ferns lots of water at all times. The soil should be of such a porous nature that superfluous water will run off as fast as received, but care should be taken not to over-water the plants. Ferns like to be dewed overhead; gold and silver and some Maiden Hair Ferns, when they become old plants, had better not be watered overhead, but young ones of them are assisted by dewing. In mild, showery weather in spring put out your plants to get the shower; it will do them good; but take them in again.—Wm. Falconer, in American Garden.

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CHINESE PÆONIES.

The Chinese Pæonies are so valuable on account of their large size, beautiful coloring and delightful fragrance, and so entirely hardy and vigorous, that all should have at least a White and a Pink Pæony. Fragrans is one of the best Pink varieties, but there are few exhibitions that present such a wonderful combination of colors as a bed of Pæonies. The Pæonies are perfectly hardy, never suffering injury by cold, and will succeed in any ground, unless so wet that the water will lie on the surface in the winter and spring. They may be planted either in the autumn or spring, and are transported with greater safety than almost any plant—not one in a hundred failing. They are also easily increased by division of the roots. A little extra attention the way of manure will induce a vigorous and rapid growth. We do not know of anything that injures the Pæony, except starving in a poor soil and standing water during the cold season. For large floral decorations few of our flowers can surpass the Pæonies. They seem designed for a grand display, without anything cheap or gaudy in their appearance.—Vick’s Floral Guide.

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THE WATERMELON.

Hon. C. M. Clay, of all fruits, most esteems the watermelon, believing them when fully matured exceedingly healthful, and keeping down tendencies to fever. He says the meat should be red, clear, fine grained, tender and sweet, that but one variety should be planted at a time, but if more are planted they should be set very far apart, as they hybridize very easily, and even at great distance, the wind and the bees convey the pollen of one variety to the flowers of another. He has never succeeded in getting two first-class crops from the same ground in succession, and has found blue grass sod the best for them, and second in desirability newly cleared land. He recommends as fertilizer sand mixed with the vegetable debris of forests, or well rotted sods from fence corners or highways. He manages the striped bug and takes care of the vines in the following manner. “As soon as the seed are planted and struck with the shovel to compact the surface, in order to prevent the escape of moisture, I place shingles upon each hill to trap the striped bug, the great enemy of the vines. They seek the shelter of the shingles in the cool nights, when each evening and early morning they must be turned over and the bugs killed with a paddle. Many persons fail to raise melons because of these bugs, which conceal themselves in the ground and suck the juices of the young plants, and may never be seen till the whole crop is destroyed. An old melon raiser told me that he was in the habit of making blazing fires in his melon grounds at night, and that bugs would fall into the flames and be killed; I never tried it, finding the shingle trap sufficient. As soon as the plants are well up you may begin the thinning, till, as they get past the chances of destruction by the bugs and their leaves are well formed, they must be thinned to two plants in a hill. As the plants advance, the weeds must be kept well under before the vines, but never touch behind them, as the vine will not admit of being handled or moved. I think nearly the same weight of fruit will be produced without topping or shortening the vines, but if large specimens are wanted, after the fruit is set, the ends of the side shoots and the main runner may be pinched off, so as to force all the sap into the few melons left for maturity. It is best to cultivate the vines late in the afternoon, so that the roots injured by the cultivator, plow or hoe, can have the whole night to recover before the sun comes upon them. When ripe they should be gathered early in the morning when cool, for the sun gives them the dull sound which maturity produces. They should be thumped lightly with the finger nail, when, if they sound with a metallic ring, seeming to pass through the whole melon, they are yet green; but if the sound is dull and seemingly confined to the rind, the melon is ripe. When the belly next the ground is white, or the curl of green fresh vines dead, these are also indications of ripeness. As the frequent walking to the hills to kill the bugs solidifies the surface, it ought to be lightly hoed towards the end of this operation. No careless persons should be allowed to enter the melon grounds, as a vine trod upon ceases to be useful; and the one who gathers the fruit should have a long stick to steady himself, and to displace the leaves to find a place for his feet. It also often happens that the vines on clean surfaces find nothing to lay hold of with their tendrils, and are blown over by the winds and severely injured. In such case they should be set upright, and clods placed on the leaves to steady them, or small sticks set near the vines for the tendrils to lay hold of. Avoid walking on the ground when quite wet, and never hill up or reduce the height of the soil about the stems of the vines.”

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PRUNING THE GRAPE-VINE.

BY GEO. W. CAMPBELL.

The objects in pruning the vine are mainly to keep it within reasonable space and control; to induce a new growth of healthy and strong bearing wood; and to regulate the quantity and improve the quality of the fruit. The best time to do the principal pruning is in the Autumn, as soon as practicable after the falling of the leaves, and when the energies of the vine are dormant. If the little Summer pruning and pinching that are necessary have been properly attended to, there will be only required in the Fall to cut out the old bearing wood of the current year and to shorten the new canes which have been grown for the next year’s bearing, in order to occupy their appointed spaces upon the trellis, the wall, the stake or the arbor upon which they are to be trained. And for all partially tender varieties, and for all localities subject to excessive cold in winter, it is better to lay down the canes upon the ground after pruning. Where the ground is covered with snow during the severest weather, simply pegging or fastening the canes upon the surface of the ground is all that is needed; but in other places a light covering of earth or of leaves is necessary in addition for perfect protection. It is the testimony of some old, practical vineyardists that vines so treated make a healthier and stronger growth and bear much finer and more abundant fruit. A very successful grape-grower in Southern Ohio recently declared that vines pruned early in Autumn and slightly protected during the succeeding winter bore twenty-five per cent. more and better fruit than vines that were left unpruned upon the trellis until Spring. All methods of pruning the vine are based upon the fact that the fruit buds for the next year’s bearing are formed upon the wood grown the present year; hence as much as practicable of the old and past-bearing wood should be taken out at the annual pruning.

In my own practice, I prefer what is called the “annual renewal system,” which allows a young vine in its first fruiting to bear no more than it can bring to maturity, and at the same time grow one or more strong and healthy canes from as near the ground as practicable for next year’s bearing. The bearing wood of the present year is cut away and the new wood takes its place. This practice, with slight modifications, is continued during the life of the vine, is readily understood and applied, and a little observation and experience render it quite simple and easily performed.

A cultivated vine is in an artificial condition, and all its energies are directed toward the production of the greatest quantity of fruit within its allotted space; and some vines respond so readily to this artificial treatment that they are disposed to overbear, and set more fruit than they can mature. Attempting to grow too much fruit may so overtax the powers of the vine that it can neither ripen its grapes nor mature its wood perfectly for next year’s bearing. Vines so treated are unhealthy and short-lived. It is better, however, to avoid the evil of overbearing by thinning out the fruit, especially all the small and imperfect bunches, than by too close pruning; for an abundance of healthy foliage is necessary for the ripening process.

The Summer treatment consists in thinning out the fruit upon vines disposed to overbear; early pinching off the ends of fruit-bearing shoots two or three joints beyond the last cluster, and then removing all superfluous shoots except what are started from below and are needed for next year’s bearing. This, with an occasional pinching of the end of a too rampant shoot will be all that is required. And when one has learned so to gauge the capacities of his vines as to bring each year his crop of fruit to perfect maturity, and at the same time have a sufficiency of sound wood for the next year’s crop, he has learned all that is necessary for successful grape culture.—Rural New-Yorker.

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SPINACH.

For winter and spring “Greens,” Spinach takes a front rank in every well-managed kitchen-garden, and, in the vicinity of large cities, it is also a profitable crop for market.

Spinach needs a deep, rich soil to produce maximum crops, for it can only be grown with profit on land that is well drained and highly manured. For a succession, the seed may be sown early in April and again in May—for the principal crop from the first to the middle of September, or late enough to become about half-grown before cold weather sets in.

A piece of land from which a summer crop has been taken is most suitable. Before sowing, the ground should be well manured, thoroughly pulverized, and the surface leveled. The rows are then marked out, twelve to fifteen inches apart, with a garden “marker,” or by stretching a line, and making drills with a hoe. The seed may be sown in the garden by hand, and in the field with a seed-drill, using five or six pounds to the acre. A quarter of a pound of seed will sow enough for home use. With this, as with most other seeds, it is important to firm the soil, after covering, with a roller, or by packing with a spade or board. As soon as the plants are large enough, they should be hoed and thinned out where too thick. What is wanted for home use in midwinter should be mulched lightly with salt hay, forest leaves, or straw, to a depth of two or three inches; this is sufficient to protect the leaves from injury by frost. Or if the Spinach has grown to full size in the fall, it may be kept very well by cutting it, then placing it three or four inches thick in a frame, and covering it with a sash and a little rubbish. The covering of the open beds should not be removed before the leaves commence to grow.

The main crop is cut during April and May. When the soil is rich, and proper care has been given, a barrel of Spinach can be cut from a square rod of ground.

The Round-leaved is the most popular variety for home use as well as for market. It is perfectly hardy, standing our severest winters with but little injury, and is of the best quality.

The Prickly or Fall variety is said to be more hardy than the round, although there is but little difference in this respect. It is used principally for fall sowing, but does equally well when sown in spring.

Savoy-leaved has a large curled or crumpled leaf like Savoy Cabbage, is very hardy, and produces a heavier crop than the other sorts. It is especially adapted for late fall sowing.—The American Garden.

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THE TUNISIAN’S PASSION FOR FLOWERS.

The Tunisian Arabs have a passion for flowers, and as soon as their spring commences even the poorest and raggedest may be seen with a delicately scented blossom stuck above his ear, the stalk resting amid the folds of his turban, and the flower projecting forward over his dark cheek. I have been told by those who have had thirty years’ knowledge of these people that they will almost go without bread to buy flowers. And there is something in the sight of a gaunt, toil-worn Arab, whose sole garments may consist of a piece of coarse sacking and a ragged old turban, with a bunch of delicate spring blossoms drooping their cool freshness against his swarthy cheek, which stirs a strange mingling of sympathy and pity and admiration.—All the Year Round.

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THE RUSSIAN MULBERRY TREE.

This tree was introduced into the United States by the Mennonites, a sect which formerly lived in Germany, but who emigrated because the German government insisted upon their serving in the army, which their religious scruples forbade their doing. The Czar of Russia offered them a tract of land for settlement in 1800, and agreed to exempt them from military duty. From Russia a goodly number have emigrated to this country and settled in Kansas, Dakota and Nebraska. The mulberry tree was introduced into the colonies in Russia by the Czar, for the purpose of silk culture. He compelled the Mennonites to buy these trees of government. Each land holder must plant a certain number. After cultivating them until they learned their value they voluntarily propagated these trees very extensively, and learned that silk culture was not the only consideration in raising them. They found the timber very desirable fuel. It also furnished the finest material for cabinet work, and fence posts made from it would outlast those made from any other timber. The tree soon became the most highly prized of any Russian timber tree. It also bore edible fruit which was marketable in Russia. When the Mennonites came to this country they brought the seed of this mulberry with them. They brought the seed of several other trees, but planted these more extensively than all others combined. They grew quite rapidly. Trees, the seed of which was planted six years ago, are now twenty feet high and large enough for fence posts. The tree resembles the apple tree in its habits of growth. The Russians say that they grow quite large, often reaching the height of forty feet, and from three to five feet in diameter. They bear fruit very young, frequently commencing when two years old, and bear every year. It varies in flavor from sub acid to sweet, color jet black and reddish white, ninety per cent. being black. The bark is grayish white, and branches drooping. The Mennonites also use it as a hedge plant, and it makes a beautiful hedge and stands shearing as well as any tree.

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SHAFFER’S COLOSSAL RASPBERRY.

President T. T. Lyon, of the Michigan Pomological Society, thus speaks of this newest novelty in raspberries:

“Last spring I received for trial, plants of the Shaffer Raspberry. Its growth from last spring ‘tips’ would seem to justify the title Colossal sometimes imposed upon it. Judging from its habit, as well as from the color, texture, and flavor of the fruit, I am led to consider it a hybrid between our two natives, Occidentalis and Strigosus. It ripened a few berries, on canes of the current year, about the middle of August, 1881. It seems to possess much more than the usual vigor of Occidentalis; and, so far, roots from tips only. The foliage, as well as the wood growth, is very vigorous and healthy. Fruit large, dark purplish-red, with a very slight bloom. Texture rather firm, moderately juicy, with a rich, acid, sprightly flavor.”—Rural New-Yorker.

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THE SUCCESSFUL EXHIBITION OF CANADIAN FRUIT IN GERMANY.

Yesterday afternoon, in connection with the anticipated increase in immigration from Germany, reference was made to a letter received by the secretary of the Horticultural Society. Mr. Evans to-day sends us the letter:—

Sir,—The directors of this Society will be glad to have you give publicity to the following letter relative to the collection of apples sent to Germany lately by the Association. As Mr. Munderloh observed, the Germans being a thoughtful people will speedily decide that a country producing such fruit cannot be the barren, inhospitable region that interested parties have sought to make out. This Society would be able to make collections of fruit from time to time as it arrived at maturity the coming season at very trifling cost to the country.

I may state that the last shipment of fruit was made in the patent cases furnished by Mr. George A. Cochrane for the purpose. The safe arrival of this fruit at its destination goes far to show that our delicate fruits can be transported to distant markets in prime condition if properly packed and picked.

Yours respectfully,

Henry S. Evans,

Sec’y and Treas.

Montreal, Dec. 15, 1881.

Reutbiegen, Wurtemburg, Germany,

November 21st, 1881.

Sir,—I received with a letter of Mr. Munderloh a collection of apples which you had the kindness to hand to him for me. It arrived at the moment as I was opening the exhibition of the objects brought over by the Geneva delegates from their journey through Canada. It received the highest approbation from all judges, especially from Dr. Lucas, the principal of the Pomological Institute at this place, to which gentleman I presented the exports of your society. I presented them also to our Department of Agriculture. As agent of the Dominion of Canada in this country, I think of continuing a permanent exhibition of Canadian products for stimulating and encouraging emigration to Canada, and I will be very grateful to you if you will assist me for the coming year by sending such excellent fruits. It is the best way to direct attention to Canada. The reports of our newspapers about the exhibition of Canadian products have expressed themselves in very complimentary words.

I am, yours obediently,

(Signed) Dr. Otto Hahn.Montreal Witness.

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FRUIT-TREE CULTURE.

1. Instead of “trimming up” trees, according to the old fashion, to make them long-legged and long-armed, trim them down, so as to make them even, snug and symmetrical.

2. Instead of manuring heavily in a small circle at the foot of the tree, spread the manure, if needed at all, broadcast over the whole surface, especially where the ends of the roots can get it.

3. Instead of spading a small circle about the stem, cultivate the whole surface broadcast.

4. Prefer a well pulverized, clean surface, in an orchard with a moderately rich soil, to heavy manuring and a surface covered with a hard crust and weeds or grass.

5. Remember that it is better to set out ten trees with all the necessary care to make them live and flourish, than to set out a hundred trees and have them all die from carelessness.

6. Remember that tobacco is a poison, and will kill insects rapidly, if properly applied to them, and is one of the best drugs for freeing fruit trees rapidly of small vermin—and is better used in this way than to make men repulsive and diseased.

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CONTINUOUS DAYLIGHT AND VEGETATION.

Dr. Schubeler, of Christiana, who has been studying the effect of continuous daylight on vegetation, finds that flowers growing within and about the Arctic circle are larger and deeper in color than corresponding species growing further south. This is the case with garden flowers and such plants as field peas, beans, etc. Not only have the size and colors of flowers thus developed by the continuous sunlight, but their aroma is also intensified. This applies to all parts of the plant. The intensification of the flavor of savory garden plants renders some of them almost uneatable in Scandinavia. All the wild and cultivated fruits that can be ripened at all in Norway have more aroma and characteristic flavor than those which are grown further south. The strawberries, cherries, bilberries, and other wild marsh and wood berries, all exemplify this.

Yet the increase of aroma and heightening of flavor are accompanied with diminished sweetness in going north. The golden-drop plum and greengage of Christiana or Trondhjem, although large, well colored and rich in aroma, are deficient in sweetness. In like manner, the Rheinish, and other northern vineyards produce wines of finer aroma and flavor than those of Spain and Portugal, but they are less alcoholic, on account of the smaller quantity of sugar which, by its fermentation, produces the alcohol. Therefore, it is inferred that the light produces aroma, and heat produces sweetness. Another theory is that the difference is all due to time; that in the north the continuous daylight, and the day-heat also, develop the fruit so rapidly that there is not sufficient time for the conversion of the starch and woody fibre into sugar to be fully effected. The same fact is seen in the ripening of pears. Many of these when gathered in the autumn are hard and sour, but become lusciously sweet by merely storing them away until December or January, or even later. Oranges and other fruits sweeten in like manner after they are gathered, without the help of any notable amount of either light or heat. The summer in Norway begins so late and ends so early that the snow often falls upon the cherries before they are gathered.—Florida Dispatch.

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HOUSE PLANTS.

A correspondent writes:—I will give you the benefit of my experience in keeping house plants just received from the greenhouse. It may be of benefit to some one who is not able to have a glass case for their plants.

I had a frame made of lath, three feet long, two feet high, with a shallow tray in which the frame just fitted. I set out my plants in pots, placed them in the tray, then watered my plants, but not so that the water leaked into the saucers. I then paste newspapers on the frame and place it over the plants, and they need no more attention for a week, except sprinkling the plants once a day. After I have kept them covered for a week, I remove the frame for an hour each day, extending the time until they get used to the temperature of the room; and the frame is very serviceable to place over them at night, or when we are sweeping, or when the room gets too hot or too cold,—the best way I have ever known to preserve even temperature. I placed them in the sun at the south window; they never wilted. I had twenty-five plants—Daphnes, Geraniums, Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, Heliotropes, Lantanas, Bouvardias, Abutilons. I have not lost one.—Western Horticulturist.

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DEACON DAY AND THE HIGHWAY COW.

  The best o’ bein’s will hev their cares—

  There’s alwus somethin’ to cross our way,

  To worry and fret us in our affairs—

  An’ sech wus the lot o’ old Deacon Day;

  He had his trials—I’ll tell you how

  He was tempted an’ tried by a highway cow.

 

  The hue o’ her hide wus a dusky brown:

  Her body was lean, an’ her neck was slim;

  One horn turned up, and the other down;

  She wus sharp o’ sight, and wus long o’ limb,

  With a peaked nose, and a short stump tail,

  And ribs like the hoops on a home-made pail.

 

  Many a day bed she passed in pound,

  Fur meanly helpin’ herself to corn.

  Many a cowardly cur and hound

  Had been transfixed by her crumpled horn,

  Many a tea-pot and old tin pail

  Had the farm boys tied to her stumpy tail.

 

  Old Deacon Day was a pious man,

  A frugal farmer, upright and plain;

  And many a weary mile he ran

  To drive her out o’ his growin’ grain.

  Sharp were the pranks that she used to play

  To git her fill and to git away.

 

  He used to sit on the Sabbath day

  With his open Bible upon his knee,

  Thinkin’ o’ loved ones far away,

  In the better land that he longed to see—

  When a distant beller, borne thro’ the air,

  Would bring him back to this world o’ care.

 

  When the Deacon went to his church in town,

  She watched and waited till he went by,

  He never passed her without a frown,

  And an evil gleam in each angry eye.

  He would crack his whip and would holler “Whay”

  Ez he drove along in his “one-hoss shay.”

 

  Then at the homestead she loved to call,

  Liftin’ his bars with her crumpled horn,

  Nimbly scalin’ his garden wall,

  Helpin’ herself to his standin’ corn,

  Eatin’ his cabbages one by one—

  Scamperin’ home when her meal was done.

 

  Off’en the Deacon homeward came,

  Hummin’ a hymn from the house of prayer,

  His kindly heart in a tranquil frame,

  His soul ez calm ez the evenin’ air,

  His forehead smooth ez a well worn plough—

  To find in his garden that highway cow.

 

  Over his garden, round and round,

  Breakin’ his pear and apple trees,

  Trampin’ his melons into the ground,

  Tippin’ over his hives of bees,

  Levin’ him angry and badly stung,

  Wishin’ the old cow’s neck was wrung.

 

  The mosses grew on the garden wall;

  The years went by, with their work and play;

  The boys of the village grew strong and tall,

  And the gray-haired farmers dropped away,

  One by one ez the red leaves fall—

  But the highway cow outlived them all.

 

  The things we hate are the last to fade,

  Some cares are lengthened through many years;

  The death of the wicked seems long delayed,

  But there is a climax to all careers,

  And the highway cow at last was slain

  In runnin’ a race with a railway train.

 

  All to pieces at once she went,

  Just like a savin’s bank when they fail;

  Out of the world she was swiftly sent,

  Leetle was left but her own stump tail.

  The farmers’ gardens and corn fields now

  Are haunted no more by the highway cow.

                          Eugenie J. Hall.

—————

Lemon Ice.—Soak half of one box of gelatine in a pint of cold water, put it in a porcelain kettle, pour on nearly one pint of boiling water; when the gelatine is dissolved, put in two-thirds of a coffee-cup of white sugar and a half a coffee-cup lemon sugar boiling long enough to make jelly; remove from the fire, then pour in, slowly, three beaten yolks of eggs, the whites of the eggs beaten to a froth; flavor with two teaspoonfuls extract lemon; pour into a mold and set to cool. This is a delicious desert, nourishing and relishable for the convalescing sick.

Fences.—According to the Prairie Farmer, 40 rods of rail fence, in construction and repairs, costs in 11 years (after which it is supposed to be worn out), together with 5 per cent. interest, $110. Board fence, 40 rods as above, costs $80. Hedge fence, 40 rods as above, $164. Steel wire netting, 40 rods as above, $73 85. In our opinion, 100 acres will require about 500 rods of fence, costing here nearly $1,000, besides occupying considerable soil. The interest on the $1,000, the annual cost of repairs, the use of the waste land, and the excess of feed secured by mowing one’s pasturing, will much more than pay the wages of help to care for stock kept in stables and yards. We consider farm fences a relic of barbarism, and confidently look forward to the time when our farms will be made conspicuously attractive by their absence. A fenced yard or field cannot be made so attractive as one unfenced, though millions are invested. They are ruinously expensive to farmers, are perpetual abomination, and should be converted to ashes, in which form they can accomplish some good. Of all fences, the stone wall is the most vexatious. Every passing hunter sets it crumbling as he scrambles over, and when in ruins what shall be done? If you don’t want the fence again it is worse than the old man of the sea who clung so persistently to the back of Sinbad, the Sailor.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]SEPTEMBER, 1882.[No. 9.
  

THE SECKEL PEAR.

Our readers are presented this month with an accurate colored picture of the venerable original pear tree from which the thousands and tens of thousands of Seckel Pear trees now growing in Canada and the United States have sprung. It is a tree to be held in remembrance, one to which the lovers of pears of high quality might well make a pilgrimage, and standing with bared heads in the presence of this ancient tree, reverently look up upon its time-scarred branches, and count the generations that have gathered its luscious fruit for mayhap two centuries gone. This picture is copied from a photograph taken in 1880, and published in the Gardener’s Monthly for September of that year. At that time the trunk was a mere shell, one-half of it entirely gone, but Mr. Bastian, the owner, who first knew it forty years ago, said it was much the same when he first knew the tree as now. It measured at three feet six inches from the ground, five feet four and a half inches in girth around the half trunk and across the exposed diameter, and was twenty-six feet high. No one knows who planted this old pear tree. Perhaps it was never planted, but Topsy-like, it “growed;” and the imaginative reader may draw such portrait as fancy pleases of the one who dropped the seed in the fertile soil, in the long time ago, whence sprang this tree. Downing says that the late venerable Bishop White used to say that when he was but a lad, a well-known cattle dealer of Philadelphia, known as “Dutch Jacob,” used in the early autumn to present his neighbors with pears of an unusually delicious flavor, but would never divulge the place where they were procured. In course of time “Dutch Jacob” purchased from the Holland Land Company the parcel of ground on which stood his favorite pear tree; but as time rolled on it came at length into the hands of Mr. Seckel, who introduced the pear to public notice, and after whom it was named. The farm now belongs to Mr. Bastian, who has owned it for more than forty years, and was told when he moved there that the Seckel family had known the tree for eighty years before.

In 1819 this pear was sent to Europe, and the fruit pronounced by the London Horticultural Society to exceed in flavor the richest of their autumn pears. Downing, who is esteemed to be the highest authority in regard to American fruits, thus speaks of this pear:—

“We do not hesitate to pronounce this American Pear the richest and most exquisitely flavored variety known. In its highly concentrated, spicy and honeyed flavor it is not surpassed, nor indeed equalled, by any European variety. When we add to this that the tree is the healthiest and hardiest of all pear trees, forming a fine, compact, symmetrical head, and bearing regular and abundant crops in clusters at the ends of the branches, it is easy to see that we consider no garden complete without it. Indeed, we think it indispensable in the smallest garden. The stout, short-jointed, olive-brown colored wood distinguishes this variety, as well as the peculiar reddish-brown color of the fruit. The soil should receive a top-dressing of manure frequently when the size of the pear is an object.”

We have found this tree to be quite hardy in our Canadian climate, and remarkably free from the disease known as pear-blight. Once or twice in the course of twenty years have we seen some of the twigs on the Seckel suffering from the blight; but while other varieties have perished and passed out of sight, this has continued to flourish and yield its annual crop of delicious fruit.

—————

The Manchester Strawberry.—It can but be described in a single word—“wonderful.” So fine, so beautiful, so firm, so highly flavored and highly perfumed, and so enormously productive. Plants planted but last August forming stools as large as a half-bushel measure, producing fruit in such quantities as to be literally piled about the plants.—Farm and Garden.

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A MARKET FOR ONTARIO APPLES.

The following letter is from a life member of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario, who has for some time been endeavoring to open a trade with the Fruit Growers of this Province. He wants only first-class fruit, free from blemish, codlin moth, &c., and is willing to pay for such fruit whatever it is worth. But it must be strictly first-class throughout, no inferior apples in the middle of the barrel, but each apple fit to be placed on the table of any gentleman. Whoever will supply him with such fruit, securely packed and shipped in good season, will find him a constant and increasing customer.

Yarmouth, Nova Scotia,

31st July, 1882.

To the Fruit Growers and Shippers of Ontario.

Gentlemen,—As a member of the Ontario Fruit Growers’ Association, I have for some years (since 1875) taken an interest in the introduction of Ontario Apples into this market, from the persuasion that when once well-known, reliable shipments will meet a ready and extensive sale, as well as from the more personal motive of supplying my own family and my friends with choice fruit.

I have paid $1,020 in first cost of the several lots shipped, and $487 15 in charges of transit, and have lost in all about $300 in the price received for surplus sold, owing to inferior quality of shipments, and to damage by frost and by decay. Last fall a party in Ontario shipped 25 bbls., ordered by telegram in October, so late in November that they were all frozen on the way, and did not even reply to my letter advising him of the fact.

I cannot afford to persevere in experiments with such expensive results. At the same time I am desirous of continuing to import Ontario Apples, either in 20-bbl. lots for my own use, or in car loads for sale.

I would like to hear from any grower or shipper who will agree to supply me with strictly first-class fruit, so that I can sell without opening the barrels to examine, at what price he will ship me in October, say 15th to 25th, 20 bbls. or a car load; also what varieties, and cost of freight through to St. John, N.B., by 20 bbls. and by car load. Payment to be made through Bank draft at sight.

In a 20-bbl. lot I would prefer one barrel each—

  1 Amer’n Golden Russet.

  2 Baldwin.

  3 Esopus Spitzenburg.

  4 Fall Pippin.

  5 Fameuse.

  6 Grime’s Golden Pippin.

  7 Hubbardston Nonsuch.

  8 Melon.

  9 Northern Spy.

  10 Newtown Spitzenburg.

  11 Peck’s Pleasant.

  12 Pomme Grise.

  13 Ribston Pippin.

  14 R. I. Greening.

  15 Seek No Further.

  16 Swaar.

  17 Swayzie Pomme Grise.

  18 Talman Sweet.

  19 Wagener.

  20 Yellow Bellefleur.

For any of these varieties not to be had substitute additional barrels of Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, or 17.

For a car load say—

Nos.12369131517
Bbls.2020201530152010= 150 bbls.

Charles E. Brown.

—————

MOORE’S ARCTIC PLUM.

Having formed a favorable opinion of this plum, I have made extensive enquiry regarding it, and have thought it advisable to place the facts gathered prominently before this Association. For much valuable information I am indebted to the kindness of F. P. Sharp, Esq., of Woodstock, N. B., a Pomologist of mature experience, and the originator of a system of fruit culture for cold climates that bids fair to be highly successful and largely adopted when more generally known. I hope in another paper to be able to give full details of this system to the Association.

The origin of the tree is traced to the grounds of Mr. A. J. Moore, of Ashland, Maine, about sixty or seventy miles north-west of Woodstock, N.B., where unprotected and exposed to arctic cold, the mercury freezes, it has for many years borne enormous crops. It is a chance seedling, but close observation of its characteristics, particularly in the foliage and wood, lead to the belief that it is a cross between the Imperial Gage and Damson.

In growth it is one of the handsomest of trees, being very erect when young, afterwards forming stout trunks with large heads, extremely vigorous, and forming a wonderful number of fruit spurs on the previous year’s growth, down to the very base of the most vigorous shoots, even when not headed back. Carries a large quantity of foliage, healthy, of good color, and substance which never “sun scald,” or, as far as my experience goes, become infested with aphis or other, insects, when other varieties growing beside them are completely covered and the growth much interfered with.

In productiveness this variety is all that can be desired—in fact, the crops produced are something enormous, and it has the extremely valuable characteristic of bearing every year, some seasons, of course, less, than others, but every year a good crop of fruit. Mr. Sharp says: “Nothing I could say to you would convey any idea of its real qualities in this respect, but if you will do me the pleasure of a visit to Woodstock, I will show you a nursery of thousands of trees blue with fruit.” I have 30 trees planted in a permanent row now in the fourth year from bud, and where they have not been cut hard back for scions are loaded with fruit.

I would not go so far as to say that it is Curculio proof but it is so to a limited extent, as I find that in many of the specimens on the trees that have been severely “stung” by the Curculio, the eggs have failed to produce the young, and the fruit will come to perfection. Why this should be the case I am at a loss now to say, but hope to be able to define another season. Added to this its enormous productiveness, and we have in it a plum on which we can depend for a crop after the Curculio has taken its share, where jarring the tree is not practiced. I believe thinning the fruit in most seasons will have to be resorted to.

In early bearing it is without a rival, as it will, in many cases, bear fruit in the nursery rows the second year from bud.

In color it is a deep blue, with a fine heavy bloom, that gives it a handsome appearance which will make it sell in any market at sight.

Its keeping qualities are remarkable, beating Coe’s Golden Drop in this respect. Last year I had about a peck of the fruit sent to me by express from New Brunswick, and after this long carriage, at the expiration of one month from the time of taking from the tree they were in a perfect state of preservation.

In quality I would class it as at least good. On this point Mr. Sharp says: “If I were to express the popular opinion here, I should say it is first-class, as nearly all prefer to eat it in preference to all the finest plums; and perhaps I grow as fine plums as are grown in the world by a method of my own, bending them down in Fall so that the snow covers them, and by fair training and close pruning, get very large and high colored fruit. But I cannot say that it equals the McLaughlin or some other fine plums, although I frequently eat it in preference where they grow side by side.”

For hardiness there is nothing in the list of good plums at all approaching it. On our grounds this spring the terminal buds were in every instance in perfect condition, when the Bradshaw, within a few feet of them, was killed to the ground, and the Lombard badly injured. I have learned that an orchard of one thousand trees has been planted at Dominion City, Manitoba, and the trees have stood the last two winters there perfectly. I again quote Mr. Sharp where he says: “In hardiness they are unrivalled, as it originated 50 or 60 miles north of Woodstock, where I found it bearing great crops unprotected. This is the more remarkable when I tell you that we are at Woodstock north of the isothermal line upon which any cultivated plum will stand up and bear fruit. It will, with fair treatment, be the means of furnishing all sections and soils where civilized man resides in the north with an abundance of fine plums that the best judges would eat.” He further adds: “I stake my character as a skilled Pomologist in recommending this plum.”

And I would say in conclusion, that I believe this variety to be worthy of very extended trial, not only in the colder parts of our country, but where the very best and tenderest varieties succeed.

Geo. Leslie, jun.

—————

MOST PROFITABLE STRAWBERRIES FOR MARKET.

BY A. M. SMITH, ST. CATHARINES, ONT.

The most profitable varieties of strawberries for market depend greatly on the markets to be supplied and the distance the cultivator is from market. Formerly the Wilson was considered by most growers the only strawberry fit for market, and many cling to the idea still; and perhaps, taking all parts of the country, and considering all of its good qualities—its hardiness, productiveness, shipping qualities, &c.—there is no other variety that will excel it in its season. But, for local markets, and markets where size and quality are taken into consideration, there are many varieties which will pay better. Some varieties are much earlier, some later, some larger and more attractive in appearance and better flavored; and I think it just as absurd to claim the Wilson as the only market berry as it would be to claim the Baldwin as the only market apple, because it is the best shipper. Besides, when we can have as good a berry a week earlier and another a week later, it is a great advantage, not only to the producer but to the consumer, to have a succession of varieties, and thus prolong the season. In growing berries for profit, some people forget that it is not always the variety that produces the most fruit, or even sells for the most money per acre, that is the most profitable. For instance, if an acre of Wilson’s produces say 3,000 quarts, and sell for 10 cents per quart, that is $300, and it costs a cent a quart to pick them, $30, and $20 for crates and baskets, there would be more profit in an acre of Dominions, yielding 2,000 quarts and selling at 15 cents per quart, $300, because there would be a saving in picking of 1,000 quarts, besides baskets and crates, transportation, &c., which would amount to about $20. My experience with these two varieties would be in just about that ratio; and I think there would be a greater difference still with the Sharpless in some of our large towns and cities, where people are willing to pay fancy prices for extra fruit. In regard to early varieties, we all know that the first fruit of the season, particularly strawberries, brings the best price; and when you can get a berry that will produce as much fruit as the Wilson, and get it into market four or five days ahead of that variety, you certainly have a more profitable one. And I am quite sure we have at least one or two varieties that will do this: the Early Canada for one, and one of Arnold’s Seedlings for another, though the latter is not quite firm enough perhaps for shipping long distances. Again, if we can get a berry that will produce as much fruit, and sell for as much money at a much less cost of production and cultivation, we can make a profit in that direction; and I think we have this in the Crescent Seedling, which, I believe, will produce more fruit at less expense than any other variety yet tested. It should be called the Lazy Man’s Berry, for when once started it will almost take care of itself. I have fruited several new varieties the present season, which, I think, will take a front rank as profitable for market where they will not have to be shipped too far. Among these are two or three sent out by our veteran hybridizer, Charles Arnold. One has already been mentioned as an early kind. There are two or three more, which, for productiveness, I think, are fully up to Wilson, while for size and beauty of appearance they are head and shoulders above it; but, like most large berries, they are not firm enough for long shipment. In regard to their flavor, that depends upon tastes: those who admire a tart, sprightly berry would not be satisfied with them perhaps, while those who like bannanas would. But flavor in strawberries, in a money point of view, is of but little consequence: it is size and color that tells. But if flavor is desired in connection with the other good points, I think we shall get it in the Bidwell, which I regard as a very promising variety. There is another new one clamoring for public favor, called the Manchester, said to be enormously productive and of excellent quality. I have only fruited it enough to judge of the quality, which is good. If asked which of all the strawberries I have grown combine in the greatest degree the excellencies of size, color, flavor, firmness, and productiveness, I should say the Bell. I have only fruited it one year, however, and may be obliged to change my mind another year, as we often do with new kinds. For a late berry to ship long distances, I know of nothing better than the Glendale. I might mention the Windsor Chief and Miner’s Great Prolific as very fair market berries, the latter perhaps a little soft for long shipments, but both productive and showy berries.

But, without taking more of your time, I will enumerate what I consider the most profitable, hoping to hear the experience of others with them. For distant markets, I would take Early Canada, Wilson, Sharpless, Bidwell, and Glendale; and with these, for near markets, I would take Arnold’s Seedlings, Miner’s Prolific, Crescent Seedling, and Dominion.

—————

GOOSEBERRIES AND OTHER FRUITS AT CAMPBELLFORD, ONT.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Dear Sir,—I forward you by express to-day a sample of two varieties of gooseberries. I got the cuttings originally from the garden of the late Rev. Dr. Buchan, of Stirling, some eight or ten years ago. They were said to be English varieties that did not mildew. I felt interested in them and tried them. So far they have never shown any signs of mildew, and I have had them bearing for about eight years. They yield much heavier than Houghton or Downing; in fact, I do not consider the two latter worth growing as compared to the former. They overbear with me every year; you will see from the branches sent that they are overbearing this year, also, and consequently there is but little growth of new wood, the bushes yielding eight to ten quarts each, and they sell for one half more than Houghtons.

On young and cultivated plants, not allowed to overbear, I have had them more than double the size of those sent, which are smaller than usual, owing to inferior cultivation, &c., and no manuring the past three years.

The heaviest crops of strawberries I ever raised never paid anything like as well as these gooseberries.

I intended to exhibit them at Trenton at the late meeting of the F. G. A.; but it was raining that morning, and consequently too good a day to lose, as I set out 3,000 cabbage and cauliflower successfully.

Apples in Northumberland Co. are a failure, and will be very scarce. The fruit did not set properly. There was any amount of blossoms.

Pears are also a poor crop. Cherries none. Plums none. Currants and gooseberries good. Strawberries a partial failure. Raspberries, tame and wild a failure.

Yours truly,

J. W. J.

P. S.—The gooseberries sent are not yet quite ripe.

The sample of gooseberries came safely to hand. The fruit was not sufficiently ripened to enable one to form an opinion of their quality, but the fruit and leaves exhibited no sign of mildew, and the branches were indeed heavily laden. There is no question but that the plants are exceedingly productive. One of the varieties bears some resemblance in form to the well known Whitesmith; the other is more decidedly oval in shape, and the color more of a yellow tint.

We require gooseberries of larger size and better in flavor than either the Houghton, Smith’s Improved, or Downing, and which will thrive in all soils and locations. The English varieties are subject to mildew in our climate, and cannot be successfully grown here, except in a few favored localities, where there is more than usual humidity of the atmosphere. The Downing gooseberry is the largest of the American varieties that has been disseminated. The Fruit Growers’ Association gave a plant, of this variety, some years ago, to each of its members, and the general testimony has been that although inferior in size and quality to the English varieties, it was not as subject to mildew; indeed, with rare exceptions, it was exempt from that destroyer. But we want something better, and everything that gives indication of being a step in this direction should be thoroughly tested. It may be that these two which we have received from Campbellford will be found to suffer from mildew when grown in other localities; but if they do not, they certainly are worthy of wide dissemination.

—————

REPORT FROM MUSKOKA FALLS.

I have received three numbers of the Canadian Horticulturist, also Annual Report for 1880, and must say they are worth the money spent; they are read with much interest as well as profit. The grape vine, Moore’s Early, I received has made very little growth, owing to the weather being cool. I have two Moore’s Early, one Pocklington and one Champion; none of them have done well so far. They are all planted in a sunny exposure, and the soil is tolerably rich. I don’t care to make it too rich, as I like well ripened wood to stand our cold climate. The Flemish Beauty Pear, which was planted this last spring, has made very little growth. The Plum has done fairly; how it will do I shall report again. My father has several apple trees bearing this season—five years from planting; they are the Haas, St. Lawrence, Peach Apple, Hawthornden, Alexander, Golden Russett. He has several grape vines, the Clinton, Agawam and the Concord; two others, names not known.

I shall report again.

Yours respectfully,

Harry Clifford.

Muskoka Falls, July 31, 1882.

—————

SUMMER MEETING OF THE FRUIT GROWERS’ ASSOCIATION OF ONTARIO.

This meeting, which was held at Trenton, was exceedingly well attended, and the discussions were deeply interesting and animated throughout. Our short-hand reporter was present, and took down the various items of information, and will have them fully written out so that they will be given in their completeness to all our members in the Annual Report for 1882. The programme as published was nearly all gone over, and many valuable papers on most of the subjects were presented, which will also appear in full in the Report.

The citizens of Trenton and vicinity attended the meetings in large numbers, and through their Mayor invited the members to dine with them on the evening of the first day. This social re-union was a most enjoyable occasion, enlivened with sentiment and song and many earnest and telling speeches. The second day they arranged an excursion for the members to Picton and the famous Sand-banks, thus enabling them to have an opportunity of inspecting the fruit-producing capabilities of Prince Edward County. After returning from the excursion, the evening was spent in the discussion of shrubs and ornamental plants suited to the climate of that section, and desirable to be planted for the adornment of our country homes.

The Association adjourned at the close, to meet in Kingston on Tuesday, the 19th day of September next, much gratified with the kind attentions they had received, and feeling that it had been a very instructive and enjoyable occasion.

—————

CAULIFLOWERS.

Among the unsolved problems which still puzzle the minds of the intelligent American market gardeners, stands prominently the one how to succeed every year in raising maximum crops of well-developed Cauliflowers. The practical and trained gardener gives himself no trouble of mind about growing paying crops of early Cabbages, Lettuce, Beets, or Onions, with the present well-established practices now in common use. But with Cauliflowers the matter is different. They are capricious, becoming very responsive to good treatment one year, while the next year the crop, grown with the same care, results in failure. Very often, not more than fifty per cent. of the number planted will make large, compact heads. This uncertainty is not in consequence of any neglect or oversight in preparing the ground, nor in the methods of cultivation, for I have known dozens of instances of failure where the ground was rich and the culture thorough, from planting-time to the close of the growing season. This serious and expensive obstacle has been partially overcome, of late years, by the introduction of some newer varieties, which are surer to head than the older kinds under the same treatment.

In growing Cabbages, one may get a fair crop with light manuring and indifferent cultivation. But it is a waste of time and money to risk this plan with Cauliflowers, no matter whether the old or newer varieties are planted. To start right, the soil must be deep, mellow, and rich. This will be the first step toward insuring success in raising a crop of full-sized Cauliflowers.

For the fall crop, the seed is sown, in the latitude of New York, from the first to the fifteenth of May, in a seed-bed in the open ground. The rows are usually a foot apart, and the seed sown thickly and covered lightly. When the young plants come through the surface they are very frequently attacked by the “black fly,” and, unless these are checked, they will destroy every plant. My plan is, and has been for years, to soak some tobacco stems in water, and add to this some soft-soap and urine. With this mixture, diluted with water, the plants are syringed early in the morning, and then dusted with air-slacked lime. One or two applications of this mixture, in the way described, never fail to save the plants. It is simple, and not expensive.

In former years, the varieties which were generally grown included the Half-Early Paris, Early Paris, Early London, and Walcheren. Of late years, the Erfurt Early Dwarf, Early Snowball, and the Algiers, have taken the place of those named first, and, on my own farm, and wherever I have seen them growing, I have become thoroughly satisfied that they are more reliable for a crop. While they attain an equal size, they are fully up to the standard in quality. In a lot of 3,000 plants of the Algiers planted on my farm last year, over eighty-five per cent. grew to full size, and made large, firm, compact heads, many of them measuring eighteen inches in diameter.

As mentioned before, to grow Cauliflowers to full size, the soil must be rich and mellow. We usually plant them on ground after early Potatoes. The ground receives a liberal dressing of manure in the spring, at the time of planting the Potatoes. The Potatoes are dug and marketed early in July, after which the ground is again manured, ploughed, and harrowed. The plants are then set out in rows two and a half feet apart, and two feet apart in the rows. They are planted with the ordinary dibble, in precisely the same way that Cabbage plants are set. From this time on, the surface of the ground is kept loose and free from weeds and grass—in the open field by horse-tools, and in the garden with the common hand-hoe.

The time of planting Cauliflowers for fall and early winter use, in the Middle and Northern States, may be extended from the end of June to the latter part of July, and even up to the first of August. As a matter of course, common sense would dictate that the plants should be set out when the weather is cloudy and moist, and the soil damp. Cauliflower plants are not so hardy as Cabbage plants, and will need a trifle more care when set out in the garden or open field. Once started, they will grow rank and thrifty. When grown solely for home consumption, it is the best plan to set part of the plants on or before the first of July, and the balance a couple or three weeks later.

In the latter part of September, when the heads are forming, they need some protection from the hot sun. If left exposed, many of them will “button,” as gardeners term it. A simple, effective, and cheap method of avoiding this is to go through the growing Cauliflowers, and, when there is a head forming, turn a few of the long outside leaves over the centre or head. By doing this they will grow compact, and become more sightly and valuable, either for home use or market purposes.—American Garden.

—————

A Good Way of Cooking Onions.—It is a good plan to boil onions in milk and water; it diminishes the strong taste of that vegetable. It is an excellent way of serving up onions to chop them up after they are boiled, and put them in a stewpan with a little milk, butter, salt and pepper, and let them stew about fifteen minutes. This gives them a fine flavor, and they can be served up very hot.

—————

THE LINDLEY GRAPE.

This superior variety must have been a great favorite with its originator, for he christened it after one of England’s greatest botanists and horticulturists, the illustrious author and editor, John Lindley. Had Mr. Rogers given us only the Lindley grape, his name would have been famous; yet this, the best of all his valuable seedlings, is scarcely known to the masses. It has been crowded aside and overlooked, while those inferior were applauded. Mr. Barry says it is the best red grape we have. Mr. G. W. Campbell gives it preference over the Wilder, Salem, Merrimack or Agawam. Mr. T. S. Hubbard thus describes the Lindley:—“Bunch medium long, sometimes shouldered; berries large, red or Catawba color. Flesh tender, sweet, with high aromatic flavor. Very healthy, vigorous and hardy. Ripens with Delaware. Best quality for table or wine. It is a very good keeper, with firm, tenacious skin. Resembles Catawba in some respects. Is here regarded as one of the best, if not the best, of Rogers’ Hybrids. Should be more extensively planted.” President T. T. Lyon says the Lindley is a vigorous and productive grape, of good quality, but little grown in Michigan. Of course it is but little grown. Probably not one fruit grower in one hundred there ever saw it.

Since writing the above, I notice the following in the Rural New Yorker from Marshall P. Wilder:—From the first introduction of Rogers’ grapes I have considered the Lindley one of the most reliable varieties. Its quality is but little below that of the Delaware with me; while in size, beauty, vigor and hardiness it is superior. As a proof of its excellence, I selected samples of both, taking small berries of the Lindley, so as to have them in appearance as much alike as possible, and had them tested by connoisseurs. Nine out of eleven persons preferred the Lindley.—Prairie Farmer.

—————

THE RELATIONS OF FORESTRY TO AGRICULTURE.

BY JOHN A. WARDER, M.D.

[Journal of American Agricultural Association.]

The plodding farmer of our country will ask what possible relation can exist between the wild, unbroken forest and the smiling, fruitful farm. Nor is such a question at all surprising, especially from any of that large class of American farmers who have spent their lives and bestowed their strength in the laborious efforts connected with the clearing of our broad tracts of arable land. Most naturally, and in all simplicity, may one of the pioneers of our country ask such a question? These forests have been an obstruction to his progress; he has been taught to consider them hindrances to agriculture that must be removed at any cost, before he can bring into play the very first appliances of his art! Yes, truly, they are so; and yet it is equally clear to those who can look beyond the limits of the corn field, that most important relations do exist between the so very different conditions of the earth’s surface, as are seen in the forest and field. Their relations are manifold and most intimate, and the dependence of the latter upon the former becomes more and more important, and is more and more manifest, as we advance in our study of the scope of the broad field of agriculture, and we appreciate that forestry is indeed, but a province of agronomy—and that the one is embraced by the other—of which it is a most important component part. Thus we may learn the relations of forestry to agriculture.

Let us reply to the query by asking: What were agriculture without forestry? * * * Simply, an impossibility; or, at the best, a constantly increasing struggle against difficulties and hindrances whenever in any extensive region the transformation of the natural woodlands into open tillage fields passes beyond a certain limit. To that point, be the ratio greater or less, according to the natural formation and surroundings, as well as the breadth of the territory in question, forests are a stern necessity, and they are an absolute requisite to our permanent success in any well regulated system of agriculture.

And why so! is it asked? * * * Because forests modify the climate; because they are the great regulators of the temperature and of the moisture of the atmosphere about us, and these are elements of necessity to our success in the management of vegetable life, for which agriculture exists.

Forests are the reservoirs and the conservators of moisture, and the source of continued supply to the springs and streams and rivers of the continent. Without their presence, in due ratio, these essential and life-giving currents would soon suffer in their continuous flow, and would eventually disappear, leaving desolation in their track.

Mahomet was right when he uttered that forcible apothegm—“The tree is father to the rain,” by which he meant, of course, trees in the aggregate. * * * Trees in forest masses attract, receive, and retain, and then gradually diffuse, moisture. The precipitated water is thus husbanded instead of being wasted by rapidly escaping, as it must do, from a bare slope, and carrying with it the accumulations of a soil that has required ages in its preparation for our use.

The true and proper forestal conditions of the surface of all well-regulated woodlands, render mountain forests the especial guardians and reservoirs of moisture, to supply the springs and streams and rivers of the world.

Locally, woods of greater or less extent exercise a most happy influence by breaking the force of the winds, and thus, in a marked degree, they modify the climate; they provide a kindly shelter to our crops and to our cattle from the rude blast, and from its chilling influence produced by the increased evaporation.

In this respect it is surprising how great benefit may be derived from single lines of trees. This is still more manifest when wider strips are planted, as shelter-belts around the farms in the broad expanses of an open country, like that of our Western prairies.

Intelligent nations who have learned to appreciate the value of forests, and who have acquired the knowledge that enables them to build up and to maintain a well-regulated system of woodlands, endeavour to keep from one-fifth to one-fourth of their superficial area covered with trees. These are best and most effective in their climatic influences when they are properly distributed, but it often happens that extensive tracts are devoted to tillage, while the forests are clustered in large masses on the crests of hills and on mountain ranges which are not adapted to farm crops.

In the brief period of our occupation, the energy of our people and the demands of our civilization have accomplished a most terrible and wasteful destruction of the beautiful forests bestowed on our land by the bountiful hand of the Creator. Counting upon what we have considered an inexhaustible supply of woods, we have wasted them sadly—and now we have reached a point where it becomes us to halt. Moreover, it is important for us to recognize that, while clearing the land for our farms, we have also culled out the best of the trees from the remaining forest which is thus greatly diminished in value; and already, in many places, the shrunken streams give us warning that we have approached the point of danger to the climate. Meanwhile, there has been no reparation to the woods, the destruction of the young trees caused by the browsing and tramping of cattle, and the introduction of grasses in place of the natural undergrowth, have not only destroyed all hopes of natural reproduction, but have so changed the physical conditions of the soil and atmosphere that even the trees, which have escaped our cupidity and remain in possession, are themselves suffering from the change—they are dying in large numbers, and compel us to extend our inroads upon the forest areas by their removal.

Now is the time to begin at least the conservation of our woodlands, and to aid them in the process of self-renewal. In this work natural forces most happily come to our assistance—the bountiful provision of nuts, acorns, and other seeds, is sown with a liberal hand, and we may count upon a full supply of young trees to maintain the succession, if we but furnish them the needful protection. Where they do not come in sufficient numbers, it is an easy matter to sow or plant such as may be most desired and most profitable; and we may also have to remove some of Nature’s planting which are of undesirable kinds; but we must carefully exclude all animals from the woodland, which should never be used as a pasture-field. This is the first great axiom of Forestry.

In our beginnings of the future systematic forestry of America, we must all soon realize our ignorance of the subject; and with many of us this need of information extends even to a want of knowledge in regard to our own native trees themselves.

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PICKLES.

Thrifty housekeepers are pleased to have an abundance of pickles, as they are convenient to help make out a variety when one is obliged (as is often the case) to get up a meal unexpectedly. They are delicious, and wholesome too, if properly prepared. It is a mistaken notion that fruit which is too poor for canning or for other uses, will do well enough for pickles. A good quality of fruit should always be chosen, large and well ripened, but not mellow. Perhaps the most generally used of all fruits for pickles are peaches and pears. A thin peeling should be taken from the latter with a sharp knife, and, if large, cut in halves and the core removed. If small they may be pickled whole and the stems left on if desired. The peaches must also be pared or rubbed very thoroughly with a flannel cloth to remove the fuzz or down which is very unpleasant to the mouth.

A very good receipt for a plain, sweet pickle, is this: To every quart of good cider vinegar—and nothing except good vinegar should ever be used—add two heaping teaspoonfuls of white or best brown sugar, with two level tablespoonfuls of ground cinnamon, and one of cloves. Tie the spices up loosely in a thin piece of muslin and put them along with the sugar into the vinegar, and heat all together. Add some of the fruit and cook till tender, then remove to a fruit jar; add more of the fruit, and so continue till all has been cooked and removed to the jar, then turn the boiling vinegar over. After three days turn off the vinegar and boil it for half or three-quarters of an hour, turn again over the fruit, then tie a cloth over the top and set away in a dry, cool place. There must always be vinegar enough to fully cover the fruit.

Cauliflowers and sweet apples also make delicate and wholesome pickles. The cauliflower should have the leaves stripped off and the heads broken in pieces, steamed till partially tender, and then served as above. Sweet apples, unless a very tender kind and mellow, should also be steamed a few moments before putting into the vinegar. For the latter, a vinegar not quite so sweet is preferable. About one coffee-cupful of sugar to every quart of vinegar will be found to make a very delicate and toothsome sauce. Green tomatoes make an excellent pickle if properly and carefully put up, but quite worthless otherwise. They are more difficult to keep than most other fruits, but in country households, where cider vinegar is abundant and cheap, this difficulty is easily obviated. Gather large, well-grown tomatoes that have turned white, but none that are beginning to soften or turn red; slice through the middle, and put into a weak brine. Let them lie in this over night; then take out, rinse in cold water, and steam a few moments; then put into clear, cold vinegar and cook till tender, or till a straw will pierce them easily; then drain and put into a pickle jar. Throw out the vinegar in which the tomatoes have been cooked; take enough fresh to cover them; add sugar and spices about as for peaches and pears, boil and turn hot over the fruit. Pickled in this way tomatoes will keep for any length of time desired.

Ripe cucumbers make a very good, sweet pickle also. They must be pared, cut in quarters and the inside scraped out, then treated much the same as tomatoes. To make green cucumber pickles, cut—not break—the cucumbers from the vines; wash them carefully and put into a jar; pour boiling water over them for three or four days in succession, then put into the jar in which they are to be kept, and pour boiling vinegar over them. Let them stand for a week, then turn off the old vinegar and add new, boiling hot. Cover with horse-radish leaves, and if the vinegar be good they will keep for a year. Or they may be laid down in salt; then when wanted for the table freshened with boiling water turned over them several successive days; then put into cold vinegar with a very little sugar, and in a couple of days they will be ready for the table.

The following is a mixed pickle, or piccalilli, of which many are very fond: Chop one peck of green tomatoes, add one pint of salt, cover with water and let stand twenty-four hours. Squeeze out this juice, put in fresh water and drain off. Chop one firm head of cabbage, then chop all together fine. Put into a kettle, cover with equal quantities of water and vinegar, bring to boiling heat, and drain off. Add the skins of ten peppers, one tablespoonful of cloves, one of allspice, half a pint of mustard seed, six onions, one pint of molasses, and half a pint of grated horse-radish. Put into a jar and cover with cold vinegar.—Country Gentleman.

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PACKING APPLES.

I have before made allusion to the discreditable manner in which some parties pack apples for the English market. Since then the complaints have grown louder and more frequent, and always coupled with the statement that our Canadian neighbors thus far pack fairly. Investigation, I am sorry to say, shows these complaints to be, in many cases, well founded. All, of course do not resort to this reprehensible method, but all should feel an interest in exposing and correcting the evil as far as may be, for the sake of our common reputation. It will only result in hurting the trade, and this trade is already of such dimensions as to be worth preserving, apples now forming an important item among our exports. It is officially stated that 1,203,670 barrels of apples were received in England from the United States during the year 1880. These figures will surprise many, but there can be no doubt that they may be greatly increased if some regard be paid to the much neglected “golden rule,” which is just as good in trade as anywhere else.—Rural New Yorker.

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HOW TO COOK SALSIFY.

Some of our correspondents say that they have followed our advice to grow Salsify—or Oyster Plant, as it is often called—and that we should now tell them what to do with it. To those unacquainted with the plant we may say that it is perfectly hardy, and if any has been left in the ground, it will be just as good in the spring, or if dug during a thaw. The roots, whether of Salsify, or of Scorzonera, often called Black Salsify—have a milky juice, which, when exposed to the air, soon becomes brown. In preparing them they should be quickly scraped, to remove the skin, and at once dropped into water to prevent discoloration. In the following recipes it is presumed that the root has been thus prepared.

Stewed Salsify.—Cut the root into convenient bits, and throw them at once into water enough to cover them. Add salt and stew gently until quite tender, pour off the water, add sufficient milk to cover, a good lump of butter, into which enough flour to thicken has been rubbed, season with pepper. When the butter is melted, and the milk boils, and is sufficiently thickened, serve.

Salsify Soup is essentially the same as the foregoing, only adding a large quantity of milk to form a soup, and omitting the thickening. To increase the resemblance to oyster soup some add a little salt codfish picked fine.

Fried Salsify.—The root cut crosswise in halves or shorter, is boiled until quite tender; remove from the water and allow to drain. Dip each piece in batter, and fry quickly in plenty of hot lard to an even light brown.

Salsify Fritters.—Boil tender and mash fine. Mix with beaten eggs and flour, thin enough to drop from a spoon, and fry as other fritters. Some prefer to mix hard enough to make into balls, and fry on a griddle, with very little fat, browning one side at a time.—American Agriculturist.

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PRESERVING GRAPES FOR WINTER.

As autumn approaches, we receive a number of inquiries as to the method of preserving grapes for winter use. It is not generally understood that there is as much difference in grapes, with respect to their keeping, as there is with other fruits. No one would expect to keep Early Harvest apples or Bartlett pears for the holidays, and it is so with the most generally cultivated grape, the Concord; it can not be made to keep in good condition long after it is fairly ripe. With other varieties it is different. There are some localities where that grand old grape, the Catawba, can still be cultivated with success, and, where this is the case, one need hardly to look for a better variety. The Isabella still succeeds in some places, and is a fair keeper. Better than either, if not the best of all grapes, the Iona gives good crops in some places, as does the Diana. Where either of these, the Isabella, Catawba, Iona, or Diana, can be grown, there is no difficulty in keeping them until the first of the New Year, or later. The grapes are allowed to ripen fully; they are picked, and placed in shallow trays, in which they remain in an airy room to “cure.” The operation of curing consists merely in a sort of wilting, by which the skin becomes toughened, and will not break when the fruit is packed. The clusters, when properly “cured,” are packed in boxes, usually of three or five pounds each. The bottom of the box is opened, the larger clusters laid in carefully, and smaller bunches packed in upon them in such a manner that it will require a moderate pressure to bring the cover (or, properly, the bottom), of the box to its place, where it is nailed down. The pressure used is such that when the top of the box is opened, the grapes next to it are found to be somewhat flattened. The fruit must be pressed in such a manner that it can not shake in travel, and this can only be done with grapes the skin of which has been toughened by being properly cured. If clusters were placed in the box as they come from the vines, and subjected to the needed pressure, the skin would crack around the stems, liberating the juice, and the whole would soon pass into decay. Towards Christmas and New Year’s, many tons of the varieties we have named come to the New York market in excellent condition. New varieties of grapes, of great excellence, have recently been introduced, but we have yet to learn as to their keeping qualities. With the Concord and related varieties, the skin is too tender to allow of long keeping, and it does not seem to toughen in the curing process. Still, with these, the season for home use may be considerably prolonged. The late Mr. Knox found that he could keep the Concord for some time by placing the thoroughly ripened clusters in baskets or boxes, with the leaves of the vine below and between them. We do not know how long this will keep these grapes, but we saw some in excellent condition several weeks after the harvest was over. Those who set grape-vines should be aware that no one variety will meet every requirement, and that the earlier the variety, the less likely it will be to keep.—American Agriculturist.

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WHAT TREES TO PLANT FOR FUEL AND TIMBER.

The attention of our people in the older States is being very properly turned to planting rocky ridges and worn out pastures with forest trees. This work is done by those who have no expectation of cutting the timber themselves, but with a view to improve their property for future sale, or for their heirs. These old pastures now are worth $10, or less, per acre. Forty or fifty years hence, covered with heavy timber, they would be worth $300, or more, per acre. Two elements may safely enter into this calculation of the profit of tree planting: the steady growth of the trees and the constant increase in the price of fuel and timber. There is great difference in the price of the varieties of wood, but still more in the rapidity of their growth. Hickory grows more rapidly than White Oak, and in most markets is worth a quarter more for fuel. Chestnut grows about three times as fast as the White Oak, and for many purpose makes quite as good timber. It is in great demand by ship-builders, and cabinet-makers. The Chestnut, the Tulip Tree, and the Hickory, attain a good size for timber in 20 to 25 years, and the Spruce and Pine want about 50 years. The Maples grow quite rapidly, and are highly prized, both for fuel and for cabinet purposes. On light sandy land, the White Pine will grow rapidly, and cannot fail to be a good investment for the next generation. As a rule the more rapid growing trees, if the wood is valuable, will pay better than the Oaks.—American Agriculturist.

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NARCISSUS.

The Narcissus is a very fine class of early blooming flowers including the well known Daffodil and Jonquil. Most of the varieties are hardy, and should be planted in the autumn, like the Hyacinth, but may remain in the ground a number of years, after which they will become so matted together as to make a division of the roots necessary.

The Single Narcissus is extremely hardy and popular as a border flower, and the central cup being of a different color from the six petals, makes the flower exceedingly attractive. Some have the petals of a light yellow and the cup orange; others have the petals white and the cup yellow; while the Poet’s Narcissus (Narcissus poeticus,) sometimes called Pheasant’s Eye, is snowy white, the cup cream color; with a delicate fringed edge of red, which gives its latter name. The Double varieties are very desirable. The common Daffodil is well known under that name, though not so well by its true one, Van Sion.

The most beautiful class of the Narcissus family, however, is the Polyanthus Narcissus. The flowers are produced in clusters or trusses of from half a dozen to three times this number. Like the others, they show every shade of color, from the purest imaginable white to deep orange.

The Polyanthus Narcissus is not quite hardy in this climate, unless planted in a sandy soil, and well covered before winter, and then often fails; further South it does well. For flowering in pots in the house the Polyanthus Narcissus is unsurpassed, and nothing can be more satisfactory for this purpose. The Jonquils are also desirable for winter flowering. Three or four may be grown in a small pot. Try them in the house next winter; you will find nothing sweeter. The Polyanthus Narcissus will also flower well in glasses of water, like the Hyacinth, and it is desirable to grow a few in this way, yet nothing looks so natural and nice as a good healthy plant in a neat pot of earth, and no other method leaves the bulb in a sound, healthy condition for the next season. The Polyanthus Narcissus succeeds admirably in gardens where winters are not very severe, and is prized for house culture everywhere. The Chinese, of California, brought over bulbs, and they created a great wonder on the Pacific coast and elsewhere, and were called the Chinese National Flower, though the same could be had at any respectable seed-house in America.—Vick’s Floral Guide.

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MELON CULTURE.

An Ohio farmer says:—“During the Winter and Spring I gather together all the fine manure I can, such as hog manure, with the cobs raked out, hen manure, barnyard scrapings, etc. After the melons are planted I load this mixture on the waggon, and if not wet enough I throw a few pails of water on it, drive into the field and straddle one row, and with another hand take two rows one on each side of the waggon and put a small shovelful of this mixture on each hill. By soaking the seed overnight before planting, it will be necessary then to examine a few hills in the course of five days, to see if they are making their way through the inch of dirt that was first covered over the seed; if so, then the manure should be shoved to one side with the back of a rake. After the melons are beginning to get the third leaf, I take a mixture of two-thirds of slaked lime, one-third plaster, and dose each hill with about half a spoonful, getting the greater part on the dirt around the plants. With this method I get 1,000 melons per acre, and always get a premium at our county fairs.”

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THE CULTURE OF STRAWBERRIES.

Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry of the Mount Hope Nurseries, at Rochester, give the following directions in their Strawberry Catalogue:

The Soil and Its Preparation.—The strawberry may be successfully grown in any soil adapted to the growth of ordinary field or garden crops. The ground should be well prepared, by trenching or plowing at least eighteen to twenty inches deep, and be properly enriched as for any garden crop. It is unnecessary to say that if the land is wet, it must be thoroughly drained.

Season for Transplanting.—In the Northern States, the season for planting in the spring is during the months of April and May. It may then be done with safety from the time the plants begin to grow until they are in blossom. This is the time we prefer for setting out large plantations.

During the months of August and September, when the weather is usually hot and dry, pot-grown plants may be planted to the best advantage. With the ball of earth attached to the roots, they can be transplanted without any failures, and the trouble and annoyance of watering, shading, &c., which are indispensable to the success of layer plants, are thus in a great measure avoided.

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GARDEN CULTURE.

To Cultivate the Strawberry.—For family use, we recommend planting in beds four feet wide, with an alley two feet wide between. These beds will accommodate three rows of plants, which may stand fifteen inches apart each way, and the outside row nine inches from the alley. These beds can be kept clean, and the fruit can be gathered from them without setting the feet upon them.

Culture in Hills.—This is the best mode that can be adopted for the garden. If you desire fine, large, high-flavored fruit, pinch off the runners as fast as they appear, repeating the operation as often as may be necessary during the summer. Every runner thus removed produces a new crown at the centre of the plant, and in the fall the plants will have formed large bushes or stools, on which the finest strawberries may be expected the following season. In the meantime, the ground among the plants should be kept clear of weeds, and frequently stirred with a hoe or fork.

Covering in Winter.—Where the winters are severe, with little snow for protection, a slight covering of leaves or litter or the branches of evergreens, will be of great service. This covering should not be placed over the plants till after the ground is frozen, usually from the middle of November till the first of December in this locality. Fatal errors are often made by putting on too much and too early. Care must also be taken to remove the covering in spring just as soon as the plants begin to grow.

Mulching to Keep the Fruit Clean.—Before the fruit begins to ripen, mulch the ground among the plants with short hay or straw, or grass mowings from the lawn, or anything of that sort. This will not only keep the fruit clean, but will prevent the ground from drying and baking, and thus lengthen the fruiting season. Tan-bark can also be used as a mulch.

A bed managed in this way will give two full crops, and should then be spaded or ploughed down, a new one having been in the meantime prepared to take its place.

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FIELD CULTURE.

The same directions with regard to soil, time of planting, protection and mulching as given above, are applicable when planting on a large scale.

The Matted Row System—the mode of growing usually pursued—has its advantages for field culture, but cannot be recommended for the garden. In the field we usually plant in rows three to four feet apart, and the plants a foot to a foot and a half apart in the row. In this case much of the labor is performed with the horse and cultivator.

How to Ascertain the Number of Plants Required for an Acre.—The number of plants required for an acre, at any given distance apart, may be ascertained by dividing the number of square feet in an acre (43,560) by the number of square feet given to each plant, which is obtained by multiplying the distance between rows by the distance between the plants. Thus strawberries planted three feet by one foot give each plant three square feet, or 14,520 plants to the acre.

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THE LILIUM AURATUM AT HOME.

The “Queen of Lilies” is thus described by a correspondent of the Gardener’s Chronicle:

“Coming from the south of Japan I saw for the first time the Lilium Auratum, a little after passing the gate of Hakoni, three days before arriving at Yokohama. They were grown in fields, as our Onions are, and quite as close to each other. As the flowers were beginning to expand the sight was magnificent, and the scent overpowering. It was much later, and far north of Tokio, that I saw them wild, coming out of the margin of the natural shrubberies, generally with a single huge blossom, sometimes two, rarely three. It is no wonder we got at first notice such quantities of them, as the bulbs are a common article of diet with the natives, and are sold everywhere as a vegetable in the markets. I have eaten them pretty often, and rather relished them, as they are, when cooked, sweet, mucilaginous, and without any taste to make them objectionable to a new comer.”

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BLACKBERRY CULTURE.

The home of the blackberry is in a deep sandy soil, not over-rich, the climate cool and moist rather than hot and dry. In such a soil the roots are safe from the influences of the weather, as they penetrate deep, the water in a wet season passing off readily, and the heat and drouth not reaching them to seriously affect them, unless unusually severe, then only checking the growth and shrinking the berries. Thickly mulching the ground in such case is a great help, using some vegetable material, like muck or leaf mold, which, worked afterward into the soil, is of great benefit. Partial shade from shrubs, or occasional trees, or other means of preventing the direct heat of the sun, is an advantage in our drouthy climate. Better still is a northern inclination of the ground, as it favors moisture and secures a more uniform temperature, having also the whole benefit of the soil. The only danger would be from a great growth of stalk in a moist, growing season, the wood not sufficiently maturing to withstand the cold of winter, especially if severe. This is readily avoided by pinching off with thumb and finger, the tips of the canes, which is best done when a height of three feet or more has been reached, depending upon the thickness of the stalk, as stockiness is required to sustain the weight of the fruit, thus dispensing with stakes for support. This diverts the growth into the side shoots or arms, which in like manner must be stopped when the proper length has been reached, which may vary from fifteen to eighteen inches. These laterals make an unequal growth, some reaching the proper length for stopping sooner than others; hence frequent attention is required, so that no unnecessary loss of wood results from excess of growth. If any are tardy and threaten to make too late a growth to stand the winter, pinch them back whatever their length to give the wood a chance to harden. In this way the whole plant becomes fortified against the cold, and is the better able from its increased stockiness and shortening of length to bear its fruit, the size and quality of which will also be improved. In this operation there is nothing rash, the plant receives no shock from severe pruning; only the direction of growth is somewhat changed, favoring the parts that most need it—the laterals, which bear the fruit.

One of the faults in blackberry culture is an excess of growth or too high manuring, favoring a tendency to produce stalk and leaf growth at the expense of fruit. But while less push is required for the canes, more is demanded to round out the growing crop of fruit, the two principles, unfortunately, being in antagonism. The only course is the medium, which produces a good cane and a fair to good crop of fruit, the lack to be made up by planting closer, which the lesser growth will allow. Rank manure should be discarded, stirring lightly the surface of the ground and mulching with fine vegetable material to be finally worked into the soil, is better treatment—well-rotted stable manure, if needed, preceding the mulch. The time for applying the manure is after the fruit is set, or at the blossoming period, or, if the soil is quite poor, earlier still, which will push the canes, that can then bear it, and improve the fruit. The manure mostly exhausted, the canes will grow more leisurely and slowly, thus getting a chance to ripen their wood and favor the formation of fruit buds. Treated in this way the largest and finest berries and greatest and most profitable crops are grown. Otherwise, with the too general treatment, the berry will be small and seedy, and lacking in flavor. The excellence of the blackberry, as of other berries, is obtained by growing it well. To develop the flavor requires a certain amount of sun. Excess of heat, however, must be avoided. It is best therefore to have the berry favored with the forenoon sun, and somewhat protected against the increased heat of the afternoon, especially the first few hours, when I have known exposed berries to get scalded. With a little attention to locality and treatment much can be done to favor this fruit.—Country Gentleman.

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THE NEWER RASPBERRIES.

In answer to frequent inquiries, we give in condensed form some of the results of the experiments which have been made with most of the newer varieties of the raspberry, with the opinions which have been given by different cultivators as to their character and general value. Raspberry culture generally, and the production of new sorts in particular, have received much attention of late years, and deserve still more. Every owner of a garden may have a sufficient plantation of this wholesome and delicious fruit to supply his family, with no more expense and labor than he bestows on his onions and cucumbers, provided he makes a good selection of varieties and gives them as intelligent culture. He wants hardy sorts which will not be winter-killed; they must be so productive as to furnish good crops; the quality must be good, and if they are of large size they may be more rapidly picked. Another important requisite, good bearing, would be more frequently reached if cultivators would bear in mind that suckers are as detrimental to productiveness as a heavy mass of weeds is to a crop of potatoes or corn. The trouble is, they do not cut out the suckers at the right time, but they are allowed to grow till they have choked the crop before they are thinned out. Select in spring the few shoots which are to grow, not over four or five to the hill at most, and cut out with a sharp hoe every other plant before it is three inches high, and keep all cut the season through. Again, the hardiness will be increased by planting on a well-drained soil with dry bottom.

There are nearly a hundred old sorts which have been described in books and tested in this country, some of which are perhaps as good as anything we have that is new; but the new ones may afford among their large number some better adapted to our wants. We furnish the following brief notes, with the hope that our readers may give additional information from their own experience. Among the red or suckering varieties are the

Herstine, not a new sort, but imperfectly known to cultivators, and for quality hardly equalled by any other. It is quite productive, and the berries are of large size. It is too soft for conveyance to distant markets, but excellent for home use. The chief drawback is its want of hardiness in many localities. But we find by selecting a soil, and giving it cultivation which will prevent late growing and favor early ripening of the wood, that it is scarcely ever injured beyond the tips of the shoots, and in any case laying down for winter would be a sufficient remedy.

Clarke is another sort which has been known for a number of years, but is now passing out of cultivation, on account of its moderate productiveness and the frequent imperfections of the berries. It suckers very freely, and requires the prompt removal of the suckers on their first appearance. With this care, and with pinching back the canes when half grown, it bears well. In some localities it has proved partially tender.

Cuthbert is newer, and is becoming one of the most popular of all varieties. It is regarded by prominent cultivators as the most valuable raspberry cultivated. The fruit is large, roundish-conical, red, firm, and of fair quality. It is generally supposed to be identical with Queen of the Market, or scarcely differs from it.

Turner, raised by Prof. Turner, of Illinois, is very hardy, the fruit medium or large, of fine quality, but too soft for long conveyance to market, and it appears to be remarkably adapted to many localities. It ripens early. E. P. Roe says he does not know a single good raspberry that is perfectly hardy except the Turner, which is, however, not equal in quality to the Cuthbert.

Brandywine has been a very popular market sort in Central and Southern New Jersey, and in Delaware and Maryland. Although the quality is poor and the size is not large, its bright color and firm flesh and bushy growth have been much in its favor, but its popularity is waning. It suckers enormously, and needs prompt and early thinning.

Thwack is like Brandywine, but larger, and is also poor in quality: its value is for market, for which purpose some western cultivators prefer it to all others. It suckers badly. Ellwanger & Barry describe its quality briefly in the words, “large, red, insipid.”

Reliance is a seedling of the Philadelphia, and much better—hardy, vigorous and productive, quite large, firm, not high in flavor.

Montclair—raised by E. Williams of Montclair, N. J.—a strong grower, hardy, productive, berries red, firm, of fair quality. It suckers quite moderately, which is much in its favor.

Highland Hardy, valuable only for its extreme earliness; although small it has a handsome appearance, and it is quite productive. It is rather poor in quality. Roe says “it has had its day,” but it will still be cultivated moderately.

Pride of the Hudson, when in perfection, is large and very fine, but this so rarely occurs that it will be generally discarded.

Caroline appears to be between the suckering and tip-rooting sorts, suckering freely and rooting sparingly at the tips of the shoots. The fruit is orange yellow, resembling Brinckle’s Orange, but not equal to it in quality. It is hardy and productive, and is much valued by some cultivators.

Marlboro is a new sort, raised by A. J. Caywood of Ulster County. It appears to be quite large, is bright, and of good quality. The canes are strong growers. It has been proved in only one locality, and needs further testing.

Lost Rubies is a temporary name for a large, fine and productive sort cultivated by Charles A. Greene of Monroe County, N. Y., the origin of which and its identity with any other sort he has not been able to ascertain. It is handsome in appearance, firm in texture, and excellent in quality. It does not resemble Cuthbert, and, although about the size of Franconia, is unlike it in character.

Among the newer Black Caps are the following:

Gregg (from Indiana), one of the largest of its class, the berries roundish oblate, black, with a slight bloom, firm, of good but not of the highest quality. A strong grower and very productive. Although not new, it is newly introduced in some places.

New Rochelle, a seedling of the Catawissa, very productive; the berries medium or large, dark dull red, firm, acid—excellent for canning. It is intermediate between the suckering and tip-rooting sorts, the latter quality predominating.

There are some other cap varieties requiring further testing, such as the Surprise and Elsie, which are large and of bright color, Duncan’s Blackcap, reputed quite large, and Hamilton Blackcap, also said to be very large and fine.

The Ontario, which originated many years ago at Fairport, N. Y., and which is a good and productive variety, failed to become popular on account of its dull color, and is now little cultivated. Nearly the same remark will apply to the Ganargua.—Country Gentleman.

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SOME NOTES ON A FARMER’S EDUCATION.

At the Farmers’ State Convention, held at New Britain, Conn., the leading topic was: “What the Farmer Ought to Know, and How he may Learn It.” The following remarks are extracts from our notes taken upon the lectures and discussions:

The old view that anybody could be a farmer is passing away. Farmers are “looking over the fence” more than ever before; they observe, and imitate when it seems desirable. This awakening of thought has developed into the establishment of various agricultural schools, many of which have been unsuccessful, and for various reasons. Too much was expected of them; the teachers were not trained to their work, and the pupils, in many cases, have been educated away from the farm. The love for farming and farm life must be developed in the child. The home teachings mainly shape the farmer boy’s future. Object lessons, instead of book lessons, most interest and instruct the young—and the farm with all its plants and animals offers the very best opportunities for this training of the powers of observation. Study nature and refer to books, and not study books and afterwards refer to nature.

The great lack in the farmer’s education is system and balance. In no occupation is there greater demand for independent thought and accurate judgment. To obtain these he must read the best agricultural papers, establish and attend farmers’ clubs, take part in the annual exhibitions, and in every way possible meet his fellow farmers, that by so doing he may increase his knowledge.

There is much work for agriculture to be done in the common school. The apparatus required is simple and cheap, and plants, etc., are always at hand. A text-book of the rudiments of farming could be put into every common school with great advantage to every child, and as Professor Johnson remarked, we should then have “more broth and less dish-water in our schools.” Scientific methods should be cultivated in youth; the method is as valuable as the facts. The only reason for this lack of agricultural instruction is the indifference of the people. Boards of Education and Boards of Agriculture should put their heads together and help to bring in this new dispensation. The village and city school should share in this work; the whole system leading up to the Agricultural College, where the highest and most thorough education can be obtained. As a stimulus and an aid in bringing about this system in agricultural education, schools of a few months’ duration, in the winter season it may be, might be held at various points. The nation is safest only when the youth are educated thoroughly—and agriculture is on a sound and permanent basis only when the boys, and girls too, are instructed in the elements of farming.—American Agriculturist.

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THE BLACK KNOT.

As the leaves fall away from the Plum and Cherry trees, conspicuous excrescences are frequently seen upon the branches, which, from their shape and color, have appropriately received the name of Black Knot. This is an old enemy of the fruit garden, and its ravages have been so severe in some parts of the country, especially the older sections, that the raising of Plums has been given up. Though known as a very destructive growth upon the trees for a long time, it is but within the last few years that its nature has become known beyond a doubt, through the careful and prolonged study of scientific men.

The history of the investigations into the nature of the Black Knot would make a volume of no small size, and of interest in more ways than one. The insect theory prevailed for a long time; and there seemed to be very strong indications that the Knot was similar in origin to the galls of the Oak, Willow, etc. The fact that the excrescences, especially the old ones, contained living insects, their eggs, and remains of the dead, was taken as positive evidence that the “house” they occupied was built by the indwelling insects. The Knot is now known to be of fungus origin, and therefore is related to the Peach curl, Potato rot, Wheat rust, and a long list of other microscopic plants too small to be seen, except by their destructive effects, as they prey upon the higher forms of vegetation. The fungus, or parasitic plant, was first described in 1838, but it remained for Dr. Farlow, of Harvard University, to publish a full account of the minute plant, and its methods of propagation and growth. I can do no better than to give the argument against the insect theory, or for the fungus nature of the Knot, as briefly presented by Dr. Farlow: “First, the Knots do not resemble the galls made by any known insects. Secondly, although insects, or remains of insects, are generally found in old Knots, in most cases no insects at all are found in them when young. Thirdly, the insects that have been found by entomologists in the Knots are not all of one species, but of several different species, which are also found on trees that are never affected by the Knot. On the other hand, we never have the Black Knot without the Sphæria morbosa [the scientific name of the fungus], and the mycelium of that fungus is found in the slightly swollen stem, long before anything that could be called a Knot has made its appearance on the branch; and, furthermore, is not known to occur anywhere except in connection with the Knots.”

The Knots range in size from an inch to a foot in length, usually growing upon one side of the branch, causing it to bend away from that side, or twist irregularly. The parasite first makes its appearance in the spring, when the affected branch increases rapidly in size, and becomes soft in texture. The bark is soon ruptured in various places, and the soft interior comes to the surface, expands rapidly, and soon turns green. Multitudes of minute spores are formed on this exposed green surface, which fall away and are carried by the winds, etc., to other twigs, thus propagating the disease. These spores continue to be formed until late autumn, when the surface of the Knot takes on a dry and black surface; in the meantime, insects may have taken possession of the soft tissue within, and so eaten and destroyed it that at the end of the season only a thick, hard crust, or shell, remains. Another kind of spore is found in small pits and sacks of the crust, and as they form late in autumn, they are the winter spores of the fungus, and the form in which the pest is carried through the winter. These spores germinate in the spring, and thus continue the Black Knot. The same Knot lasts for several years, or until the branch is killed, it spreading from the old growth up and down the branch.

The only remedy is the knife. A branch once affected is beyond recovery, and as long as it remains is a seat of propagation of the spores of the fungus. The Knots should be cut off some inches below the main part, because the wood for some distance is filled with the threads of the fungus. I have seen cases where the Knot was thought to be entirely removed by the knife, and a new one would form at the cut end of the stump, thus showing that the work was not properly done. The removed branches should all be burned, as the Knots contain spores which will otherwise become detached and spread the disease. The best time to cut the Knots is in late autumn, because, the leaves having fallen, the excrescences can be more easily seen.—Byron D. Halsted, in the American Garden.

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AMERICAN APPLES IN ENGLAND.

The New York Commercial Bulletin lately published the following statement from Mr. W. N. White, Covent Garden, London, as to the relative qualities and desirableness of American apples for exporting to the English market:

Baldwins—Free seller; bright color preferred.

Cranberry Pippins—Sells fairly well; bright color preferred.

Fall Pippins—Bad keeper.

Fallawater—Free seller, and commands good prices in the spring.

Golden Pippins—Soft, dangerous apple; no use here this season.

Golden Russets—Free seller, and when clear makes good prices.

Gravenstein—Soft apple; dangerous.

Greenings—Free seller; well known.

Gilliflowers—Poor; should not be sent to England.

Holland Pippins—Good apple, but soft.

Jennetings—See remark against Gilliflowers.

Jonathans—When of good color, command fair prices.

Kings—Good seller, but should not be sent ripe.

Lady Apples—Sell well at high prices.

Maiden’s Blush—Good apple; properly colored commands high prices.

Montreal Fameuse—Highly colored, sells fairly; green, bad seller.

Newtown Pippins—Large, selected fruit commands high prices; small, speckled fruit, bad to sell, even at low prices.

Nonpareils—Nova Scotia and Canadian always command fair prices.

Nonsuch—Soft, dangerous.

Phœnix—When clear, sells fairly; very liable to turn black on one side, which spoils the appearance.

Pomme Grise—Sells well, particularly when clear.

Pound Sweet—Dangerous.

Rambo—Medium only in price and quality.

Ribston Pippins—Good seller, but must never be sent ripe; loses its crispness, which is essential.

Roxbury Russets—Useful apple; medium price.

Spitzenburgh—Good apple, but quickly decays when ripe.

Spys—Must be large to sell well.

Swaars—Must be large to sell well.

Talman Sweet—Medium apple; fair seller when large size.

Twenty Ounce—Good medium apple.

Vandeveres—Fair seller.

Wageners—Good color, fair prices.

Woodstock Pippins—Good color, good prices.

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Muslin Sashes.—Rufus Mason, of Nebraska, says: Three years’ experience with muslin sashes where the thermometer ranges from 20 degrees below zero to 70 degrees above, satisfies me of their superiority. I make a square frame of 1¼ inch stuff, with a single bar of the same size down the middle, cover it with common, heavy, unbleached muslin, paint it over with two coats of boiled linseed oil, and find it far better than glass. Have had no freezing or scalding, but better colored plants, more stocky, and better able to withstand early transplanting. After the hotbed is filled with manure, lay in the soil so as to come within three inches of the muslin, sloping exactly as it does. As the season advances, the bed will settle about as fast as the growth of the plants require it. This plan prevents the plants from becoming long-legged, which is the main cause of the slow after-growth, and in the cabbage family of so many plants failing to make solid heads.—Michigan Farmer.

A Potato Experiment.—A writer in the Rural New Yorker says as follows: Last spring when planting my Beauty of Hebron potatoes, I planted one row through the piece as follows: I took potatoes below medium size, cut off the seed and stem ends, cut out all the eyes but two; planted them and gave them the same care as the rest of the piece. The “seed” for the rest was of the same sized potatoes cut in two, and planted one piece in a hill about eighteen inches apart in the row. Now for the result: The first row, containing seventy hills, gave one hundred and ninety-five pounds; one row by the side of it with eighty-six hills gave one hundred and forty-three pounds, a difference in yield per hill of over fifty per cent. in favor of the whole potatoes with two eyes. This row could be distinguished from the rest as far as the piece could be seen, until the dry weather dried up the vines. The whole piece yielded a splendid crop, as did a piece of Snowflake in another part of the field.

Queer Farming.—The latest novelty in the “live stock” business is leech farming, as carried out on a thirteen acre tract near New York city. The tract is devoted to small ponds having clay bottoms, and are margined with peat. The leeches form their gelatinous cocoons in these peat margins, crawl into them at the open end, and deposit their eggs during the month of June. By September the warmth of the sun hatches out the young, varying in number from thirteen to twenty-seven from each cocoon. During the summer months the water in the pond is kept at about three feet; in winter the depth is increased to prevent freezing the leeches. Leeches are not expensive feeders, a meal of fresh blood once in six months being their only diet. The blood is put in linen bags and suspended in the water. The leeches attach themselves to the bag and remain until gorged with the blood, when they drop into the water. The owner reports that his sales amount to about 1,000 leeches per day, the most of them going to the West and South. He makes this new branch of farming quite profitable.

Keeping Grapes on the Vines.—I have discovered that by the use of strong manilla paper bags, grapes may be kept on the vines in splendid condition long after the season for grapes out of doors has gone by. Passing through the vines, Oct. 31, three weeks after the frosts compelled me to gather the crop, and after the leaves had all fallen, I found a few clusters protected by bags that had been overlooked, beneath the leaves. Clusters of the Lady grape were slightly faded, and the quality not improved. The Brighton appeared as fresh, bright and beautiful as I ever saw it, with bloom undisturbed, the color a dark rich maroon. I have never eaten such rare specimens of this fine grape, and yet the freezing had been severe. They were the nearest approach to a raisin I ever saw on vines. The juices near the skin had condensed, and there was a temptation to chew the skin to secure the fine flavor. It would seem that by the use of such stout paper bags we may keep grapes on the vines several weeks later than otherwise would be possible, and that we may enjoy ripe specimens in this way, from varieties not usually fully matured in this latitude.—C. A. Green.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]OCTOBER, 1882.[No. 10.
  

FLOWERING PEAS.

It is surprising that one does not oftener see these beautiful, sweet-scented climbers growing about the dwellings of our flower-loving people. They are much more beautiful than the scarlet runner which is so generally grown, and besides are deliciously sweet-scented, so that they are known as Sweet Peas. Our plate shows their beautifully-varied coloring, but can convey no idea to those unacquainted with the flowers of the delightful perfume they exhale.

They should be sown early in the spring, just as soon as the frost is out and the ground has become settled, without any reference to the weather. It is desirable that the soil should be in good heart, and the seed be sown four or five inches deep, and about an inch apart. As soon as the plants are up they should be provided with supports upon which to climb, which they will do like any pea by means of their tendrils clasping the support.

In some of the larger cities of America the flowers have been in great demand of late for decorative purposes, especially where it is desired to fill the air with perfume, as well as to please the eye with variety and brilliancy of color.

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FRUIT AT THE TORONTO EXHIBITION.

Notwithstanding this unfavourable season the display of fruit this autumn was very fine. The varieties of Apples that were exhibited consisted chiefly of the well-known and long-tried sorts. The Baldwin, Northern Spy, Golden Russet, Roxbury Russet, King of Tompkins, Talman Sweet, &c., were present in full force, being known now the world over as among our most desirable commercial Apples.

In Pears, the old favorites, such as Bartlett, Flemish Beauty, Clapp’s Favorite, Seckel, and Sheldon, were well represented; and in some collections we noticed that new variety that challenges attention by its peculiar form and great size, the Souvenir du Congres.

The display of Plums was unusually good and varied. For some reason the crop of this fruit in the old Niagara District was much more abundant than it has been for several years before; while at Goderich, Guelph, Owen Sound, and in Northumberland and Prince Edward Counties, where Plums are usually abundant, there is scarcely any.

There was also a goodly number of varieties of Peaches exhibited. This fruit has been receiving much more attention of late than has been heretofore given, and it is taking its place as one of our important commercial products. It is a fruit that deserves more attention from those who are interested in the production of new varieties than Canadians have given it; and if proper care were bestowed upon this labor, the range of profitable Peach-culture could be greatly extended.

The lateness of the advent of warm weather and the coolness of the summer have not been favorable to the display of ripe Grapes grown in the open air. The samples shown were many of them very fine in form and size of bunch, giving promise of luscious fruit if the frosts come not too soon. The Niagara Grape was shown, very handsome in appearance, but not quite ripe. A new white Grape of exquisite flavor was exhibited, fully ripe, called Jessica. This delicious Grape was pronounced by many to be the best out-door Grape that has yet been seen.

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Moss for Plants.—We have been remarkably successful in restoring sickly plants that have been pining away in pots by shaking them out and planting them in a shallow box, filled with common moss, kept constantly moist. Almost anything seems to grow luxuriantly in this, and our own experience encourages us to advise others to try it. A little soil mixed with the moss could not possibly do any harm. Seeds also germinate freely in it. Coleus and Geraniums root quicker in it with us than in sand. We wonder how we did so long without it.—Farm and Garden.

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CORRESPONDENCE.

NEW SEEDLING GOOSEBERRIES.

To the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist.

Dear Sir,—In compliance with your request I sent you last week specimens of my new seedling gooseberries, which I hope reached you safely. The descriptions, habit of growth, &c., were on the bags containing each variety to enable you to compare them without delay.

The hybrid seedlings were raised some years ago, their origin was from a seed of an English gooseberry, fertilized evidently by the pollen from the wild prickly fruited gooseberry, which grew quite plentifully in a ravine near my garden.

It grew amongst seeds of the English planted to try and raise varieties free from mildew, and its growth was so very strong, reaching six feet high the second year from the seed, that I planted it out amongst my English gooseberries. When it fruited, instead of being prickly, it had strong hairs, almost spines, similar to specimens of No. 8 now sent you, and was evidently a hybrid between the two.

From its seeds sowed again were raised Nos. 1, 2, 7 and 8, specimens of which I send you. All have very strong upright growth, with the exception of No. 9 hybrid, the best of them all, but its blossoms were destroyed by frost, so that I could not send you specimens, there being only one berry left on two bushes. No. 1 hybrid is also different from the others. When its strong young shoots are topped at four to five feet high it sends out slender side shoots from the top which weep down to the ground, covered with fruit, making a very graceful pendulous tree. All the others send out erect side shoots when topped.

I am raising other seedlings from seeds of these, and think they will probably be better suited to this climate than any other variety as they never mildew.

The crosses between English and Houghton, of which I sent you two specimens, are Nos. 3 and 10. No. 3 is from a seed of the English crossed by the Houghton. It takes rather more after the former in its habit of growth, and in the texture and flavor of the fruit, but it has a strong strain of the native as it never mildews.

No. 10 is a cross between the Houghton and the English, raised from a seed of the former, and will prove, I think, the best market berry yet raised, owing to the solidity of its flesh, large size and good flavor. It never mildews.

I got some preserves (jam) made from it, as also from each of the others. Owing to its meatiness it makes the best I ever tasted, better than either of the others, though all are good.

The bushes are planted close together, about fifteen inches apart, in my garden, near my residence, so as to save them from the birds which destroy all in my nursery grounds, and have not been pruned, as I wanted all the wood for propagating. They are also partially under the shade of fruit trees, whose roots occupy the whole ground, so that their fruit is not so large as they would otherwise be under proper culture, as you will see from the specimens of Houghton grown close beside a bush of No. 10, which bore the largest fruit of any.

Downing and Smith’s seedlings grown beside these for comparison did not bear a single fruit this year, their buds being destroyed by a severe frost when in full blossom, while the others being later in blooming escaped.

Yours truly,

James Dougall.

Windsor Nurseries, 14th Aug., 1882.

The specimens referred to in the foregoing letter were duly received.

No. 1—Is a cross between the wild prickly gooseberry and the English, two removes from the wild. Bush grows with strong upright shoots five to six feet high. When topped at four feet it makes a handsome pendulous tree with slender branches weeping down to the ground. We found the fruit round, larger than Houghton, but smaller than Downing, color reddish-yellow, skin hairy, quality good.

No. 2—A cross between wild prickly gooseberry and English, and also two removes from the wild. Is also a strong upright grower, with shoots four to five feet high, but the side branches are upright in growth. The berries are red and hairy, much like number one in size and quality.

No. 3—Is a cross between the English and Houghton from seed of the English. The habit of growth is more like that of the native than of the English. The fruit is of a green color, round, about the size of Downing, of excellent quality. Mr. Dougall says that it never mildews. Plant very productive.

No. 7—A cross between the wild prickly gooseberry and the English, being two removes from the wild. The plant is a strong upright grower, with shoots about four feet high, the side branches are upright in growth. It is a great and constant bearer. The fruit is round, hairy, of a reddish color, very much like number one.

No. 8—Also a cross between the wild prickly and English, second remove from the wild. The plant shews more of the traits of the wild than any of the others. It is the strongest grower of them all, the shoots being fully six feet high and the side shoots upright. The berries are red, somewhat prickly, also bearing close resemblance to number one.

No. 10—This is another cross between the Houghton and English, but from seed of the Houghton. The style of growth is more like the English than like the Houghton. It is a great and constant bearer, and never has mildewed. The berries are pale-green in color, roundish-oval in form, considerably larger than those of the Downing, more meaty than any of the others, of very good flavor, and apparently the most promising of all these seedlings.

We trust that Mr. Dougall will continue his experiments in this direction until he has obtained a race of gooseberries that never mildew, and which rival in size and excel in quality the English varieties. These seedlings are very interesting as illustrative of what may be expected by persistent effort in the raising of new sorts. There is a growing demand for larger gooseberries. Downing, the best we have that has been widely disseminated, is too small to meet the demands of buyers of fruit, and will be dropped as soon as larger fruit can be abundantly supplied.

THE BURNET GRAPE.

Grave fears were entertained by the growers of this magnificent grape respecting its inclination during the season of 1881 to produce a number of small seedless berries in the bunch, thereby marring its very fine appearance. It is the cause of much satisfaction to its growers and admirers that no trace of this blemish is visible this year. It is hoped that a report will be sent to the Horticulturist as to how the Burnet is prospering from various localities. In this section it is fruiting heavily and producing some of the finest bunches that have been witnessed on any vine, having set its fruit remarkably well, in spite of the cold weather at the time it was in bloom. It is, of course, too early at this time of writing—22nd August—to say whether it will ripen thoroughly this backward season, but the promise is exceedingly fine. The vine is very vigorous, without the slightest sign of mildew. It is doubtful if any grape, with the exception of Arnold’s Othello, Hartford or Concord, will give as heavy a crop as that shown by the Burnet, and everyone knows that has ripened it, that for flavor and quality of fruit, it is the Queen of outdoor Black Grapes.

P. E. Bucke.

Ottawa.

MARKETING APPLES.

Dear Sir,—I see nothing in my June number of the Horticulturist (July not received), concerning a matter I have often wished to see, viz., the best mode of handling, and best and surest way of marketing fruit, so as to realize the most for it.

We have great care and concern to get the very best of stock, with the object of supplying home demands, and balance to place on the market. Now, concerning the whole operation of picking, packing, and handling apples so as to realize the most, is a matter I wish to be informed upon.

Formerly, I have, with my neighbors, gathered and piled them in heaps at the foot of the trees, and then waited the time and pleasure of the man who gets his commission on the job, and has no concern whether our fruit lies there until the frost ruins it or not. I think this is a very poor way for us to make the best out of our crop, which should be next to wheat.

Don’t you think our Association (for I am only a new member), could afford to employ a competent man to see to the packing, and then have some firm, say in Montreal; to see after the selling.

We have a number of bearing apple trees, about fifteen hundred, consisting of N. Spy, Baldwin, R. I. Greening, G. A. Russet, and Seek-no-Further, and I set out about one hundred Fallowater a year ago last spring, besides other sorts, nearly all of which are fruiting.

By giving me full particulars concerning mode of operation, you will much oblige

Yours very truly,

D. E Hopkins.

REPLY.

BY L. WOOLVERTON.

A correspondent asks for some information concerning the best mode of handling and marketing apples.

1st. Handling.—There is probably no better way than the old method of placing apples in piles on the grass, or on bunches of straw, in the orchard. Our own practice has been to bring the apples into the packing house and empty them there in bins, the floor of which is first covered with straw. We find it a good mode, but it is not practicable without plenty of house room, and it is rather more expensive. In a rainy season, however, it is very advantageous, giving an opportunity for packing on days when the workmen cannot go on with the picking. Apples need to be handled with great care, and as few times as possible. Careless pickers must be dismissed, or taught to handle fruit properly. Thumb marks may prove the beginning of decay. The picking basket may be lined with cloth; it should be round, and have a swing handle, and also be provided with a wire hook, by which it may hang from the ladder.

2nd. Packing.—In packing, all wormy and defective fruit must be thrown out and sold as second-class. Fair specimens should be used to face the head end of the barrel, and the quality should correspond throughout. The fruit should be closely packed, and the barrel should be filled to the height of about an inch above the chine, or even more if for a foreign market, and the tail end pressed into place by means of an iron lever press. The barrels must be carefully headlined, and the hoops safely nailed in place, or they may come to grief on the road to market. The name of both shipper and buyer, or consignee, should be plainly stamped on the head end of the barrel with a stencil; also the name of the contents.

3rd. Marketing.—I fear I can give no rule for this that will suit every case. In many instances, where lots are small, it is best to ship on consignment to a good reliable house, in such an apple mart as the city of Montreal. Some seasons, also, good success may be obtained by shipping large lots on consignment to some established Commission House in Liverpool or Glasgow. But in most instances it is best to accept a good offer, and sell one’s crop for cash, rather than wait for the slower, and not always better, returns from a Commission merchant. But whether one sells outright, or ships his fruit on consignment, it is best to make connection with some well-established Commission House, with whom one can correspond to get quotations of prices current, and through whom one can make sales, without waiting the pleasure of travelling buyers, many of whom speculate out of the seller for the benefit of their own pockets; and some of whom are quite irresponsible.

ONTARIO APPLE.

Mr. J. W. Cumming, writing from St. Hilaire, Province of Quebec, says the Ontario apple tree was winter killed, and I cut it down to two feet of the ground, and five new shoots grew this summer. It seems too tender for this locality.

KIEFFER’S HYBRID PEAR.

Since staying here I have been to visit the orchards in New Jersey and Pennsylvania planted to Kieffer Pear, and can only say, they must be seen to be appreciated. No one can tell the story. The oldest, largest and most experienced pear growers that have been growing pears for Philadelphia market during all their lives, are the men who are going into it strongest, and grafting their orchards all over to it. One man will have 200 bushels of fruit this year. Now understand this is no wild notion, but after testing and selling the fruit several seasons in the market. It is said further to be just what the canning factories want, they claiming there is nothing equal to it.

Such wonderful productions I have never seen in a pear. It is surely a splendid thing, and I am glad that I have worked over 100 trees in my orchard to it.

S. D. Willard.

SORGHUM SUGAR.

COST OF ITS MANUFACTURE BY GOVERNMENT.

The Hon. Geo. B. Loring, Commissioner of Agriculture for the United States, reports as follows:

On assuming the duties of my office in 1881, I found 135 acres of sorghum containing 52 varieties which had been planted in Washington for the use of the Department. On being informed that the time had arrived for manufacturing syrup and sugar, I engaged the services of an expert in sugar-making who had been highly recommended for the position of superintendent, and operations were commenced on September 26 at the mill, erected by my predecessor, on the grounds. These operations were continued with slight interruptions until the latter part of October, at which time the supply of cane became exhausted. Forty-two acres of the crop were overtaken by frost before being sufficiently ripe for use, and this portion of the crop was so badly damaged as to be unfit for manufacture. The yield of cane per acre, on the 93 acres gathered, was two and a half tons; the number of gallons of syrup obtained was 2,977; and the number of pounds of sugar was 165. The expense of raising the cane was $6,589 45; and the expense of converting the cane into syrup and sugar was $1,667 59—an aggregate of $8,557 04.

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STRAWBERRIES.

The Country Gentleman addressed an inquiry to several fruit-growers, for the best market sort, the best three market sorts, and the best six for general use.

The following opinions are the result:—

S. D. Willard of Geneva, N. Y., says: “The best market sort with me is the New Dominion; best three, as the matter stands to-day, New Dominion, Cumberland and Sharpless. The best six for home use, Crescent, Bidwell, New Dominion, Cumberland, Sharpless and Prolific. The New Dominion is a Canada berry, a fine producer, attractive in appearance, splendid foliage, fruit very uniform in size, ships well, and, above all, sells well.”

Charles A. Green (editor of Green’s Fruit-Grower) says: “The best market sort, as it appears to me and others about Rochester, is the James Vick, not yet disseminated. Next I think is Manchester. Best three for general purposes of those well known: Sharpless, Downing, Cumberland. Best three for quality, Jersey Queen, Black Defiance, Lennig’s White. Best six well known, for all purposes: Sharpless, Downing, Cumberland, Bidwell, Duchess, Wilson. Manchester is vigorous, productive, medium to large, roundish, light crimson, good to very good, moderately firm. I have not tested far enough to compare it with the older varieties but consider it very promising.”

T. T. Lyon (president of Michigan Horticultural Society) writes: “For all soils and under all kinds of culture, good, bad and indifferent, including ability to bear transportation, I must say Wilson still: and omitting transportation, Crescent. Under good culture and intelligent management, Bidwell, or for near market, Longfellow. Best three sorts for market, with thorough culture: Miner’s Prolific, Bidwell, Longfellow. Best six, with thorough culture: Miner’s Prolific, Bidwell, Longfellow, Champion (or Oliver Goldsmith), Cumberland, Seneca Queen, (or Marion, where it will bear the sun as it does with me). About an even thing between the Seneca Queen and Sharpless, the former more productive. From a single season’s trial, I think Arnold’s Pride, a new seedling of Charles Arnold of Ontario, likely to exceed all others except in firmness.”

Wm. C. Barry (late president of American Nurserymen’s Association), says: “I would name Sharpless as the best market berry. During the season it sold here at retail for 15 to 20 cents per quart, while other varieties were selling at 8 to 10 cents. Best three sorts in the order of ripening: Duchess, Cumberland, Sharpless. Best six for all purposes, in the order of ripening: Duchess, Bidwell, Cumberland, Wilson, Sharpless, Golden Defiance. Charles Downing merits a place among the six, and by some persons would be preferred to Cumberland. The best flavored sorts for the table are Duncan, Black Defiance, Seth Boyden, President Lincoln, Sharpless, and the Alpine varieties, Montreuil and Royal Hautbois. Manchester I have not tested yet. Jersey Queen is large and high flavored, and the plant is vigorous.”

E. B. Underhill of Poughkeepsie makes the following remarks: “I regard the Crescent as the best strawberry for local market. No well-tried sort displaces the Wilson yet as the best shipping berry. While Sharpless, during its season (late only) is unrivalled for profit, as it is certainly the largest berry of value we have, Crescent or Cumberland will pick nearly as late and a week or more earlier, and as single varieties are invaluable and preferable to any I think of. It is very difficult to say which are the three best sorts; however, I will venture to say Crescent, Miner, and Sharpless,—not without a misgiving at leaving out Mt Vernon, Champion and Cumberland, and even our old friends, Kentucky and Charlas Downing. As a promising variety, Bidwell stands high, but the trouble with my beds of that variety is that promise and performance are not equal. Its foliage is rather slender, except with highest culture; the berry is of medium size and value. At Mr. Roe’s it appeared to lead the van. With me I cannot place it above Seth Boyden. For very early, Crystal City will pay here, and Mt. Vernon I picked for market when Kentucky, Miner and Sharpless were gone. In company with Charles Downing I looked over Mr. Roe’s beds, and we were then all enthusiastic with Bidwell. Since then my beds have not accomplished half they seemed ready for.”

G. H. & J. H. Hale of South Glastonbury, Ct., sent the following notes.

Another year’s experience with the strawberry, testing one hundred or more sorts, and marketing hundreds of bushels from our own grounds, as well as visiting fruit-growers in fifteen States and the Canadas during fruiting season, have not materially changed our opinion of last year, except in regard to one or two of the newer varieties.

Manchester, for market, is by far the best of all; the plant vigorous; very prolific; fruit medium to large, the last picking almost as large as the first; no irregular or coxcomb berries; bright scarlet colour; good but not high quality; shipping and keeping qualities only equalled by the Wilson and Finch’s Prolific. Its only fault is that of having a pistillate or imperfect blossom, requiring it to be planted with or near some perfect flowering sort.

Crescent Seedling, the most profitable early market berry; its one great fault is that of the fruit running very small at the latter end of the season.

Wilson and Charles Downing, our most profitable sorts six years ago, are now of very little value, as they are more easily affected by the strawberry rust or leaf blight than any of our other varieties.

Miner’s Prolific is very valuable either for market or home use; with us, it fully takes the place of the Charles Downing.

Sharpless produces only a moderate crop on one-year beds, while those two years old give an abundant crop of berries of the largest average size of any variety we have ever grown. Its first and largest berries are very irregular in shape, and have the fault of not ripening all over at once—therefore requiring to be picked with unusual care. Owing to its large size, it sells for the highest price in market, and is very profitable on strong, rich soil.

Windsor Chief is a most valuable late market variety, producing enormous crops of rich, dark-colored berries, very acid, yet of good flavor.

Mt. Vernon, very late and prolific; better in quality than the Windsor but not as firm.

Finch’s Prolific, vigorous and productive, fruit medium to large, perfect in form, bright color, fair quality, and very firm. This and the Manchester we think destined to take the place of the Wilson for shipping purposes.

Bidwell, which did so well with us last season, has greatly disappointed us this, not only on our own grounds but everywhere that we have seen it. The trouble is that it “sets” more fruit than the plant can carry out, and the result is almost a total failure—one or two fair pickings, and that is all; and we doubt if it will ever prove profitable for market, unless possibly on very strong, rich soil where irrigation can be practised; we say this with much regret as we have several acres planted for next year’s fruiting, and had hoped for great things from the Bidwell.

We might mention many others, but the ones named are the best among more than one hundred sorts; and if we were to plant one variety for market it would be the Manchester, first, last, and every time. If three sorts, Manchester, Windsor and Miner’s Prolific; if six sorts, Manchester, Windsor, Miner’s, Finch, Crescent and Mt. Vernon.

Best one for family use, Miner’s Prolific; best three, Miner’s, Manchester and Mt. Vernon; best six, Miner’s, Manchester, Mt. Vernon, Crystal City, Sharpless and Cumberland Triumph.

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GRAPE LEAVES FOR PICKLES.

I wonder if housewives generally use fresh, green grape leaves to put on top of their pickles to keep them sharp and free from mold. I used to cover them with a flannel cloth, and rinse it out every other day. Two years ago a friend told me that grape leaves were much nicer, so I tried them, and I shall never try cloth again. Grape leaves keep pickles the best of anything I have ever found. I change them once a week, and the vinegar keeps sharp and clear, and it imparts a nice flavor to the pickles. I rinse the leaves in pure water, and let them drain quite dry, then lay them over every place in the jar. They exclude the air perfectly, and are better, and cause less work than anything else.—Country Gentleman.

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ASPARAGUS.

The most essential requisite for successful Asparagus culture is sufficient space, and yet not one bed in ten is planted with a view to supply this need. The old system of paving the bottom and crowding the roots into narrow beds, so that they could not extend in either direction, must have been borrowed from the Chinese, with whom the dwarfing and distorting of forest trees and women’s feet has reached the highest perfection, and ranks among the fine arts. But, as even the Celestials are commencing to shake off old superstitious notions, we shall, perhaps, also participate in the march of progress, and plant Asparagus according to the natural laws governing the plant.

Asparagus Crown.

The best and easiest way to raise Asparagus in the garden is to plant it two feet apart in a single row, and let it the roots reach out, for their nourishment, as far as they may. If it is not feasible to lengthen the row sufficiently to produce all the Asparagus desired, a second row may be planted not nearer than four feet to the first, and when more space can be given a distance of six feet is preferable.—American Garden.

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PROLONGING THE SEASON OF PEAS.

How to prolong the bearing season of Peas, as much as possible, has always been a problem, the solution of which is of great importance to every one who cultivates a garden, and the experience of Mr. H. J. Seymour, Madison Co., New-York, in this regard, deserves consideration.

Mr. Seymour writes: “While hoeing, last summer, my Little Gem Peas, growing on rich, mucky land, between strawberry rows four feet apart, I noticed that some of the plants had more than one bearing stalk. The question occurred to me why all could not have several stalks, and, of course, more pods, provided the land was rich enough and there was room enough between them for air and sunshine. Then came the thought of what I had heard and read about shortening-in-plants to make them more stocky and fruitful, and of the practicability of a similar treatment for peas. It was already late in the season, the first blossoms just showing themselves in most cases, yet the experiment was worth trying, and as I had an acre of these peas it could not amount to much if I did injure a few plants. So I counted off just six hundred plants on one row, stuck a stake firmly in the ground and pinched remorselessly an inch or more, blossoms and all, from the top of every one of these plants. Then I counted six hundred plants on the row next to this, and drove a stake, without disturbing the plants.

“I watched the decapitated vines with much interest, and sure enough new branches came out abundantly near the ground and from the axils of the leaves. They finally budded, blossomed, and fruited more abundantly than their neighbors, although about a week later. None of the peas were picked, the entire crop being saved for seed. They were threshed, winnowed, and carefully measured separately on the 22nd of August, with the following result: The six hundred headed-off plants yielded five plump quarts, while the six hundred unpruned ones in the adjoining row, yielded four scant quarts.”

The practical value of this shortening-in of pea-vines, as appears from this single experiment, consists, therefore, not only in an increased productiveness of twenty-five per cent., but also in the prolonging of the period of picking from a single planting. By pruning a part of the vines, the harvest of these becomes delayed a week, and thus all the advantages may be secured that would otherwise require two plantings.—The American Garden.

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EGG-PLANTS—HOW TO KEEP THEM.

Those who have a good stock of egg plants on hand, most certainly have an excellent and very convenient article. They can easily be kept till Christmas by storing away in a cool cellar, not too dry, on shelves. Though they may wilt and shrivel away, this does not injure them in the least. They form a most agreeable and excellent dish at dinner.

The usual way of cooking by cutting in slices, sprinkling on salt an hour before frying, and allowing the vegetable juice to drain out, when they are rolled in batter, or dry bread or cracker crumbs and fried, is of course well known. But a much better way is to cut the egg plant in half, longitudinally, like a water melon, scrape out the interior contents as close to the rind as possible, mixing the pulped mass with stale bread or cracker crumbs, a beaten egg, and seasoned with salt and pepper, then returning the whole into the shell and baking, makes a most savory dish that would be very popular if it were better known.—Prairie Farmer.

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FRUIT ON THE TABLE.

“Quite a large number of farmers have come to feel that they were not doing their family justice without placing upon their table, a bountiful dish of fruits, such as the various seasons of the year afford, beginning with Strawberries, and following with Cherries, Currants, Raspberries, Blackberries, Grapes, Apples, Peaches, Plums, and Pears. Farmers of this class are not so numerous as they should be, nor as they will be in our opinion, ten or twenty years hence.”—American Rural Home.

“While there has been a marked improvement at the tables of many of our farmers within the last few years there is yet much to learn. One of the greatest faults in this direction, and one of which is the cause of very much illness, is the comparatively small quantity of fruit they use. It is a mistake to consider that fruit, like confectionery, is to be taken only between meals, and not to be connected in the work of sustaining life.”—Farmers’ Advocate.

Such are some of the profound utterances of the late Agricultural Press upon the subject of fruit, as food upon the tables of our farmers. It is unquestionably a subject of great importance and influence in the economy and hygiene of our people. Fruit on the table is not merely a question of fruit for show, not merely to beautify or decorate, or to please our fancy, but more substantially for food, for the sustenance and support of our exhausted physical forces, for medication and health, for pure animal enjoyments, as well as to defend us against the many dangerous and hurtful influences to which “flesh is heir.” Fruit in this connection is one of those many merciful provisions of nature, designed for the highest and purest enjoyments of the needy creature man, one of those safeguards that the Creator of all has thrown around frail human life. In its very nature it is health-giving and pleasurable. It is mainly composed of diluted sugars and acids in delightful admixture held together by fine vegetable tissues, and in this diluted form is found not only pleasurable, but essentially necessary for the well being of the animal economy. It will be well for us to understand here that whenever fruit is mentioned in this connection, matured and well ripened fruit must be understood. Fruit in that beautiful tempting condition, when the internal acids are largely changed to sugars, and the whole mass is of that inviting toothsome color that engages at once the sense of sight, and is in that yielding, state of softness to the touch, that gives assurance to the eater.

The influences of such food upon the human constitution is doubtless very great and definitely marked. This to us is the ambrosia and nectar that were formerly thought becoming for the Deities only to use as food and never for ordinary mortals. The keen observer of human nature can almost readily descern at a glance the difference between the man who is in the habitual use of fruits and vegetables largely in his diet and the man who has a large dose only of animal ingredients in his constitution. In the first case the food being select, congenial and mild, the nature manifests the benign influence of such congeniality. How different is this beautiful influence to that of the mere animal or flesh eater. By this we would not be understood to discard in toto, animal diet, on the contrary we practice and most devotedly believe in a mixed diet as best and most suitable to the urgent necessities of our present economy. What we do mean is simply this, that we most firmly believe that we, as a people use too much animal diet, and if fruit more and more entered into our daily diet, it would, in our humble opinion be better for us intellectually, physically and morally. Further, we believe and would teach the use of fruit at all seasons, and at all times. We believe in fresh fruit, in canned fruit, in evaporated fruit, and in preserved fruit, in jellies, in marmalades, in beverages, in cider and in wine. We believe in its use further, in the autumn and in the spring, in the summer and in the winter and on all days and occasions in company and out of company. In short, we firmly believe in the wisdom of its use thoroughly, wholly and completely. We believe furthermore in all fruits that are by our experience known to be good for food, and pleasant to the eye, and to be desired to make us better. In this connection we believe in strawberries of all sorts although connoisseurs would fain have us believe that some varieties are better than others. But to us they are all good and equally to be taken with equal amounts of rich and well prepared fixings. We believe also in raspberries and blackberries and can take them in equal doses. With our present facilities for preserving and canning these fine summer fruits we believe it is our duty to have them at all seasons of the year, and in greatest abundance. We believe also in currants and gooseberries and in all varieties but not so firmly as we do those of strawberries. Our reasons for this are private, but nevertheless we believe in them. However, we most firmly believe in the free and untrammelled use of the whole of the following list of superb native fruits, viz.: Apples and grapes, and these in all their endless variety of sorts and kinds. In these fine fruits is an almost endless diversity of quality, as hard and soft, as sour and sweet, as woody and melting, as strong flavored and insipid, as buttery and as sugary, but still we believe in them. We believe they all have an appointed place to fill, a work to do and a use to exert and a character to sustain.

We believe also in tropical as well as temperate fruits, and those of all sorts, whether they may be called oranges or lemons from the torrid and tropical regions of California or Florida, or whether dates or figs from the more tropical clime of the East India Islands, or whether they may be limes or banannas, we could still use them and relish them and be thankful for them. But in our endless and varied wealth of rich and tempting fruits suitable to our condition and clime, we are most happy to say, we need never covet the tropical fruit of the southern zone. Our basket of fruit is so rich, so varied, so tempting, so seasonable, so luscious and delightful. Our earnest and best advice then to the people of this whole country from whatever part of the Globe you may have come, to the high, and to the low, to the rich and to the poor, to the male and to the female, to the young and to the old, whatsoever you may be or whatsoever may be your name, use fruit. Give it constantly and plentifully to yourself, to your wife, to your son and to your daughter. Give it without stint to your manservant and to your maidservant, to your ox and to your horse and to the stranger within your gates. We have thus attempted to show the value of our native staple-fruits as well as all fruits and some of the reasons why they should be more generally placed upon our tables, upon our dining tables and upon our tea tables and upon our festive boards, for our use and comfort. While we are very anxious to produce good fruits for export, fruits well fitted for the English market, we see at the same time very little good fruit placed upon the tables of our peasantry, as though it was perfectly fit and proper for the Englishman to use, but not good for us. We emphatically teach the contrary. Place it upon your tables in a natural state, in a prepared state, for the meal, for dessert for use and our humble word for it, the public health and the public purse would be the gainer.—B. Gott.

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MARKETING CURRANTS.

The consumption of Currants, both as a table fruit and for preserving increases every year. Thousands of gallons of juice are pressed out annually by the large preserving houses in New York city. This juice is so prepared that it keeps for many months, and large quantities are sold to persons who cannot procure the fruit in season, or do not find it convenient to press it out themselves. In addition to this, tons upon tons are manufactured into jelly, which finds ready sale for fancy-cake bakers and confectioners.

For preserving purposes the old Red Dutch Currant is preferred, and many preservers will buy no other kinds, while other manufacturers are less particular, and buy whatever is cheapest. There is but little demand from grocers and fruit-dealers for this small variety, as for table use only the large “Cherry” and “Versailles” find sale. Dealers in fancy fruits take much pains to procure extra large, selected Currants, and good prices are realized by those marketing a first-class grade.

The best packages for shipping are baskets containing from eight to ten pounds, packed in berry crates. Persons shipping from a considerable distance find it more advantageous to make cheap temporary crates for these baskets than to send berry crates which have to be returned. The ordinary quart berry-basket answers the purpose very well, and, in fact, is preferable to the peach-basket or any other of that size.

For White Currants there is but a very limited demand in the New York market. Black Currants, although not in great demand, sell fairly. These, being more solid than the red and white, may be shipped in any ordinary box or basket without injury.

In packing Currants for shipping, the baskets should be well filled, that the fruit cannot shake and become damaged during transportation. All Currants are sold by the pound; the net weight of the baskets or boxes they are shipped in should therefore be plainly marked on the outside of every package.—American Garden.

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NOTES ON HYBRID TEA ROSES.

This family of roses is of recent origin. Nearly all the varieties in this family were raised and introduced by Mr. Henry Bennett, of England, from seed of Tea Roses fertilized with Hybrid Perpetuals. The result is we have a race of roses, giving us the free blooming qualities of the former, with some of the hardiness of the latter class. This new race of roses will probably take an important position in American rose-culture, as they give us early bloom, beginning in early summer, and give a succession until frost. I will give a description of some of the best for general culture.

Beauty of Stapleford.—Flowers large, sometimes very large, color, bright pink; centre rosy carmine; buds very fine; free bloomer and nice grower.

Pierre Guillot.—Flowers very large and double; color, clear red veined with white, and highly fragrant; a good bloomer, and one of the finest roses in cultivation.

La France.—Flowers very large and full; color, a lovely peach; very fragrant; a good bloomer, and the finest rose of its color grown.

Antoine Verdier.—Flowers large and double; color, bright pink; blooms in clusters; a very free bloomer.

Viscountess Falmouth.—Flowers very large, very double; color, delicate pink; delightfully fragrant; a choice rose in a collection.

Nancy Lee.—Flowers medium; color, bright pink; fragrant; a good, free bloomer.

Michael Saunders.—Flowers large and very double; color, a rich crimson; the plant is a good grower and free bloomer; a very good rose.

Jean Sisley.—Flowers very large and double; color, rosy lilac, edges of petals silvery; opens finely, and is a good bloomer.

Pearl.—Flowers medium size, quite double; color, pale flesh; a finely formed rose and very good bloomer.

Duke of Connaught.—Flowers large, buds very fine; a very free bloomer; color, deep, velvety crimson; growth moderate; requires rich soil to do well.

Madame Alexander Bernaix.—Flowers large and full; color, clear rose; flowers finely formed; a good bloomer, and fragrant.

Madame Julie Weidman.—Flowers large and well formed; color, clear salmon pink; a good bloomer.—Antoine Wintzer, in Farm and Garden.

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CUCUMBER PICKLES.

I never plant cucumbers for pickles before June 15th, as the striped bug seldom troubles them after this date, and I have grown excellent crops planted the first of July. I prefer the Early Cluster for pickles, as this sort does not run to vine so much as the Long Green. It will bear closer planting, and the pickles are easier picked. There are certain strains of this variety which are earlier and more prolific than others, and I have found that sold under the name of Boston Pickling, and Perfection Pickling, far superior to the ordinary Cluster. With these varieties one may plant 5 by 5 feet, which will give over 1,700 hills to the acre. No matter how rich the land is, I find it pays to manure in the hill; cover the manure about four inches with mellow earth, and drop the seed on the hill and step on it. This presses it down firmly into the soil, and prevents its drying out, while the loose earth, with which I cover, keeps it from baking. The seed will come up sooner and much more uniformly for this pressing into the soil. If the weather is favorable the vines will run in five weeks so that one cannot cultivate with a horse and up to that time the more they are cultivated the better.

As soon as fairly in the rough leaf, thin to four in a hill. With good weather you can begin picking in six weeks from planting, and to get a nice, uniform-sized pickle, they must be gone over every day. The vines should never be moved in picking them, for a vine that is disturbed never does so well afterwards. The best-sized pickles are those from three to four inches in length. If any are missed until they are too large for pickles, they must be taken off the next day, for the vine on which a cucumber is going to seed will not continue to bear pickles. A forty-gallon barrel will hold about 4,000 of the small-sized pickles, after they are salted, and I have kept them three or four years. I do not use brine for salting, but put in a layer of salt, and one of pickles, and let them make their own brine. It will take about a half bushel of salt for a barrel of pickles, and the barrel will need to be filled up two or three times as they settle. A board that will fit into the head of the barrel should be placed on them, and a weight sufficient to keep them under the brine. I would rather sell the pickles as gathered for $1.50 per 1,000 than to salt them, although I have never sold at less than $2.50. It is difficult to state with accuracy the yield of an acre of pickles, but under favorable circumstances they will yield a large profit at the lowest price named. I have often grown my best turnip crops among the pickles, and I have adopted the rule of always sowing turnips at the last hoeing of the pickles. The shade of the vines seems to be favorable, and there is plenty of time after the pickles are done bearing for the turnip crop to mature.—W. F. Brown, in the Country Gentleman.

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THE CULTIVATION OF THE SUMAC.

There are thousands of people who wander through the woods in Autumn, picking the beautiful scarlet and yellow leaves of the sumac bush to decorate their rooms, without knowing that there is any other use for the plant. Yet the importation of the sumac into the United States this year, will amount to about 11,000 tons, costing about $1,000,000. The leaves of the sumac, dried and ground, are largely used in tanning and dyeing, and in Sicily and other parts of Italy the plant is carefully cultivated and treated. In view of the fact that the American sumac contains from six to eight per cent. more tannic acid than the Italian, and remembering that the plant grows in wild profusion throughout the country, it seems reasonable to believe that it might be a very profitable crop. At the present time the amount of native sumac brought into market does not exceed 8,000 tons yearly, and its market price is only $50 per ton, just half the price of the Italian product. This large difference in the market value of the foreign and domestic article is due to the fact that the American sumac, as at present prepared, is not suitable for making the finer white leather so much used for gloves and fancy shoes, owing to its giving a disagreeable yellow or dirty color.

The many attempts that have been made to avoid this difficulty by care in collecting and grinding the leaves have not resulted in success, and it has long been supposed that this objectionable quality was inherent in the American plant; but Mr. William McMurtrie, in a report to the United States Commissioner of Agriculture, shows that this difficulty can be surmounted and the American product made even superior to the foreign. Mr. McMurtrie made a number of tests to learn the relative amounts of tannic acid found in the leaves at different periods of their development, and while the amount was found to be greatest in the leaves gathered in July, he found that those gathered in full development in June were even then more than equal to the best foreign leaves in this respect. But, further, he found that the deleterious coloring matter (due to the presence of quercitrin) was not yet developed, and that therefore the American leaves gathered in June were superior to the Italian for all purposes.

The importance of this discovery may be seen by the fact that the cultivation of the plant may be carried on most profitably in this country as soon as manufacturers and dealers recognize the improvement thus obtained in the domestic article, and by classifying it according to its percentage of tannic acid, and its relative freedom from coloring matter, advance the price of that which is early picked and carefully treated. In Italy the sumac is planted in shoots in the Spring, in rows, and is cultivated in the same way and about to the same extent as corn. It gives a crop the second year after setting out and regularly thereafter. The sumac gathered in this country is taken mostly from wild plants growing on waste land, but there is no reason why it should not be utilized and cultivated on land not valuable for other purposes.—Scientific American.

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THE SOUHEGAN RASPBERRY.

This very valuable, early, and prolific blackcap is a chance seedling, originating in the garden of a Mr. Carleton, of Hillsboro’ county, New Hampshire, about 1870, and for the past five or six years he has had two or three acres of it growing for market. I visited the original plantation several years ago, and was so very favorably impressed with its great value as an early market berry, that I at once made arrangements with the originator for his stock of plants. For three years now we have had it in fruiting at Elm Fruit Farm, and have received far better returns from it than from any other Raspberry we have ever grown.

It surpasses all other sorts in three very important points, viz: hardiness, earliness, and great productiveness.

The canes are very vigorous, branching quite freely, with many strong, sharp spines. In hardiness and vigor of plant it has no equal among blackcaps, and I doubt if even the hardy Turner, which is called the “iron-clad” among red sorts, is any more hardy. From last year’s experience I am led to think that Souhegan is the more hardy of the two, as Turner was badly damaged in one of our fields, while Souhegan was uninjured; and among the hills of New Hampshire, and along the banks of the Souhegan River, near where it originated, it has always passed through the winters sound to the tip. In my travels the past month, in fifteen States and the Canadas, wherever I found the Souhegan growing, almost the first thing said of it was, “It is the most hardy plant we have.”

The originator claims that it is four times as productive as any other blackcap, and while I cannot fully agree with him, must admit that it is far more prolific than anything I know. Quarts upon quarts of delicious berries, jet black in color and approaching the Gregg in size, are piled upon the bushes. It is about one week earlier than the Doolittle (which in years past has been the early market black-cap), and herein lies its chief value, ripening as it does along with the late varieties of Strawberries, when fruit is scarce, it just fills in the gap before the red Raspberries, and sells for double the price of Mammoth Cluster or Gregg, which are ten days or two weeks later.—J. H. Hale, in Farm and Garden.

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ZINC LABELS.

Sheet zinc, from its indestructibility, and the ease with which it may be cut and managed, is a favorite material for tree and shrub labels. If cut in the form of a very long tapering wedge, the smaller portion may be coiled around a twig, or small branch, and thus avoid the use of a wire, and where the small end of the label is coiled around a small branch, it will yield to the increase of that in size, and not cause strangulation. The old method with zinc labels was to write upon them with an ink made of some salt of copper, and several have asked for the formula for preparing it. The original ink was made of Verdigris and Sal-ammoniac, of each 2 drams, Lamp-black 1 dram, Water 4 oz. As these need to be well rubbed together, it will be as well to let the apothecary mix them in a mortar. This is to be used with a quill pen upon the surface of zinc that has been made clean and bright by the use of emery paper. We have been informed by our correspondent “Horticola” that a strong solution of Sulphate of Copper—“Blue Vitriol,” or “Blue-stone,” will answer the same purpose, adding a little gum water to the solution, if need be, to prevent the ink from spreading. The use of the lamp-black in the ink first mentioned, is only to make the ink visible while writing with it. In both these cases, the copper is, by chemical action, deposited upon the zinc, and, becoming oxidized, makes a permanent and conspicious writing. Another and much simpler method is simply to write upon a clean zinc surface with a common lead pencil. By the action of the air the zinc becomes tarnished and grayish, while the black lead prevents any such change where the writing is, and though not so conspicious as that written with the ink, is quite as permanent, and being much less trouble is preferable.—American Agriculturist.

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PRUNING ROSES.

Roses are better for a little pruning, if it has been previously neglected. This must of course be done with a definite object in view. First, a well shaped bush on top, and also to promote growth to a desired end, as for instance, whether the plant is to be a standard trained on a pillar, or a trellis, a wall, etc. Again some varieties require more pruning than others, but in all pruning the cut should be made so that the terminal bud will be left in position for the most favorable growth, whether right, left or upwards. If a great quantity of bloom is wanted irrespective of size, prune only so as to have the plant in good shape and well furnished. If large bloom is required, after taking out all weak wood, cut the balance back to not more than three or four buds each. Some roses as a rule require less cutting in the West than in the East, and for the farm yard all that will be necessary will be to thin each season as may be indicated by the previous summer’s growth. So-called Hybrid perpetuals (Remontants) that bloom in the spring and again in the late summer, may be cut back after the first bloom is over, when they will generally make growth for the autumn bloom.

The Remontants require little pruning in summer. They, however, must have plenty of manure and water, especially in the drouth of summer, if autumn blooming is expected.

The ever blooming class comprises four principal sub-classes, Noisette, Tea, Bengal and Bourbon. The Noisette are strong in growth, usually bearing their bloom in clusters. The Bourbons come nearer to the Remontants and the Teas and Bengals are of more delicate growth and generally liked in the North for pot growth. None of this class require excessive pruning, only occasionally cutting back in out-door culture. For pot cultivation plants started the previous season are preferred.—Prairie Farmer.

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MANCHESTER STRAWBERRY.

The Manchester, regarding which we have hitherto restrained any positive expression of opinion, is one of the most desirable strawberries we have ever raised, and we have tested not less than 250 different kinds. The only thing that can be said against it is that it is a pistillate, and must be grown near perfect-flowering sorts, which for many farmers is attended with trouble or perhaps inconvenience. Our plants are exceedingly vigorous and productive. We have just examined them and find that each plant, on an average bears 16 peduncles or flowering stems, and each flowering stem bears, on an average, 10 berries—giving 160 berries to a plant. We beg to emphasize that we are speaking of average plants. On one plant we counted 22 peduncles and 220 berries in the various stages from ripe to just set. This berry is firm, very uniform as to shape, which is roundish conical;—it ripens in every part and averages above medium as long as it remains in fruit. The quality when ripe is good, though, like the Wilson, it is sour when it first colors—a characteristic, it seems, of all excellent market berries. It ripens with the Sharpless and after the Bidwell. On the grounds of the plain, hard-working farmer, Mr. Jesse Beatty, with whom it originated, it thrives in a light, dry, sandy soil. With us it thrives in a moist soil inclining to clay. Several years ago, from our own tests, we spoke highly of the Sharpless, and soon after its introduction, of the Cumberland Triumph. We have never had occasion to regret this, and we have now little fear that we shall regret commending the Manchester to our readers as the best market berry at present known. It is now in the hands of all nurserymen and will be offered at reasonable prices next Spring, if not this Fall.—Rural New Yorker.

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AN EXPERIMENT WITH PEAR BLIGHT.

Arba Campbell, of Oswego, N. Y., reports to the Elmira Farmers’ Club the following experiment which we take from the Husbandman:

“I have a beautiful Bartlett pear tree standing in the front yard by my residence that is a good bearer, beautiful in form, and affords a fine shade to my sitting-room window. It is growing in what we consider a rich, deep, alluvial soil, on the river bottom, within a few rods of the river. In the heat of the summer nearly four years ago when the weather was very dry I discovered that this tree was struck with what we call ‘pear blight,’ and as I had lost two fine trees at the side of the house the year before from the blight, I thought all that could be done was to put up with the loss. A week or two later as I stood in the street looking at the tree I saw that the top boughs were dead down at least four feet, and every limb on the tree seemed more or less affected, then the words of Scripture came to my mind: ‘Dig about it and dung it one more year before you cut it down.’ I went into the house and examined Emil Wolff’s tables of analysis to see what the mineral supply to the pear was composed of, for I thought the land rich with barn manure, and found it to be 54 per cent. of potash, 9 of soda, 5 of magnesia, 8 of lime, 15 of phosphoric acid, and 6 of sulphuric acid.

“I called my man and dug away the soil for six or eight feet around the tree and down until the top roots were all uncovered, and then took 100 pounds of German salts (containing 15 pounds of pure potash) mixed it with four or five times its weight of earth and spread it over the roots. I next took seventy-five pounds superphosphate and mixed it with earth and spread it on top of the mixture with potash salts. Then I took fifty pounds of lime mixed with earth and spread on top of the potash and phosphate (these contain all the above minerals.) We then drew from the well twenty or thirty pails of water and gave the whole a thorough wetting, and in one week’s time I could see that the tree was reviving and the blight apparently never extended an inch beyond what it was at the time of making the experiment. The tree bore a small crop of good pears in the centre of the top that summer, but at the extremities of the limbs they fell off. The next year it bore a large and fine crop of pears. None fell off and no insects seemed to touch them. The third year was the same, the crop large, fine, and smooth; and this, the fourth year, the crop promises to be as good as the two previous years. Now this proves to my mind (so far as one experiment can prove anything,) that what we call ‘pear blight’ is simply starvation; that the mineral supplies in the soil had become exhausted and the tree was dying for want of food. I fed it, and it got well, and returned me many times four-fold. And it proves a little more, for what had been a semi-annual bearer became an annual bearer, and I doubt much if most trees, if properly fed, would not produce yearly crops of good fruit.”

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PLANTS BY MAIL.

The following directions are for the guidance of those who receive plants by mail: Unfold the packages carefully, and put the moss-bound roots into a pan of water quite warm to the hand, and let the roots drink to their fill of it. It will not hurt them to soak an hour in the water, or until it becomes quite cold, and if the leaves still look a little crisp turn off the cold water and add warm water. Then take off the moss carefully and dip the roots into fine sand; if you only have white sea sand for scouring purposes, wash it through two or three waters, in a colander or sieve, and dry it in the oven partly, then roll the roots in it until they are coated with it. Plant in good, rich compost, of one-third decomposed manure, and two-thirds garden soil, good and rich, and well mixed together. Take small pots for small plants. Three-inch pots are large enough for all plants sent by mail. Put a small bit of charcoal or broken pottery at the bottom, and fill one-third with soil. Press in the roots and fill up tightly with the soil. Close planting—i. e., settling the earth closely around the roots—is needful for success in planting in pots, as well as in the open border. Set the plants in the shade for two or three days, or into a well-prepared hotbed, and cover them with newspapers. Water freely with a watering-pot—but if kept in the house do not give enough to sodden and decay them—and in a week they will have taken root in their new home and begun to grow, and when they have entirely recovered from a long journey they can be transplanted into the border. If they have only come a short distance, however, after a bath and a roll in the sand they can be planted directly into the border, and should then be well watered and shaded from the hot sun for several days.—American Cultivator.

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THE RADISH AND CABBAGE FLY.

Every gardener has been sufficiently annoyed by the larvæ of these flies, in the form of little white maggots, eating his radishes or burrowing in the stalks of his young cabbage plants, to hail with delight any remedy that will rid him of these pests. Prof. A. J. Cook, Michigan Agricultural College, writes to the American Agriculturist as follows:

“For the past two years I have been experimenting with Bisulphide of Carbon to destroy subterranean insects. This substance has proved effectual, but in case of the insects in question, especially the Radish Fly, its expense is an objection to its use. The past season I have tried a new remedy with gratifying success. This consists of a preparation of Carbolic Acid. The material which I used was prepared as follows: Two quarts of common soft soap were added to one gallon of water, and all heated until it commenced to boil, when it was removed from the stove, and while yet hot one pint of crude Carbolic Acid was added, and all thoroughly mixed. This was then set away in a close vessel, and was ready for use as occasion might require. To repel the insects in question, one part of this mixture was added to from 50 to 100 parts of water, and the new mixture was sprinkled on the plants as soon as they were up, and after that once every week. This same preparation will serve to repel the Cabbage Fly (Anthomyia brassicæ). But for the latter, my experiments go to show that Bisulphide of Carbon is cheap, efficient, and does not simply drive the fly away, but destroys the maggot. As ‘he that fights and runs away, may live to fight another day,’ the Bisulphide of Carbon remedy is, I think, to be preferred to the Carbolic Acid mixture for use against the cabbage maggot. We sprinkled the Carbolic Acid preparation directly upon the radish plants, without injury to the latter; but if it is found to injure the plants from too great strength, it will serve as well to turn it in a trench made close along beside the rows of plants. The peculiar odor of the acid which repels the flies as they come to deposit their eggs so far escapes that it is necessary to apply the liquid as often as once a week to insure perfect success. Caution is required also that the preparation be not so strong as to injure the plants when placed immediately upon them. From one season’s trial I can strongly recommend the above application.”

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WHITE GRAPES FOR THE MILLION.

Josiah Slater, well and favorably known to pomologists, has a spicy article in the Gardener’s Monthly on the new white grapes, from which we glean the following points regarding the Pocklington, which is attracting general attention:

I have been familiar with the Pocklington for five years. The first two years of my acquaintance with it the original vine was so over-cropped as to retard its ripening and spoil its quality. It has, however, improved in quality every season since. This last year, 1880, the Pocklington was fit for market in Monroe Co., N.Y., about September 6th, but it is much better, with little or no pulp and with a honeyed sweetness by 15th or 20th of September, and fully ten days earlier than the Concord on the same grounds. It hangs well on the vines till destroyed by frost. The Pocklington is a seedling of the Concord, just as strong and vigorous a grower, fully as hardy to withstand the winter’s cold and summer’s fluctuations in temperature, to resist mild-dew as its parent, the Concord. Last fall I kept a bunch each of Lady Washington, Niagara, and Pocklington till near the middle of December, on a plate in a close room. To my surprise, the Lady Washington, although the thinnest skin, was apparently the best keeper. I have no doubt, with a little care, either of these grapes may be kept to January 15th in good condition. To my taste the Lady Washington is the best as to quality. The Pocklington is the next best, and while we are in doubt as to whether we can grow the Lady Washington successfully, it being a hybrid, I think there is no doubt whatever that the Pocklington will thrive and do well over a wider extent of country than any other good grape, not excepting the Concord; for where the Concord will do well, I believe the Pocklington will do better because of its earliness.

While I cannot agree with my friends who think the Pocklington grape better in quality than the best hothouse grapes, I do think it will prove the best and most valuable purely American Grape we may have for years. And on purely American and of the Labrusca species, I think we shall have to rely for our crops of market and wine grapes in most localities of this latitude east of the Rocky Mountains.

I consider the Pocklington grape, the white “grape for the million.” We have had scores of white grapes introduced, tested, proved wanting, and discarded within the last thirty years but the Pocklington has come to stay. It is of the largest size both in bunch and berry and the most successful white grape in taking premiums at fairs. It is seen above all others, it attracts more attention, and recommends itself—the grape men cannot let it alone.

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THE CHERRY TREE APHIS.

This insect, a plant louse, infests the under side of the leaves and the tender twigs of the cherry and plum. And I have this season found it attacking the green fruit of the plum. It appears with the earliest leaves in the spring, in countless numbers, causing them to curl or wrinkle into fantastic shapes, lose their color and fall prematurely.

It appears in both the winged and wingless forms, the earlier broods containing fewer of the winged forms than the later. The winged females measuring about one-tenth of an inch to the tips of the closed wings; color black or brownish-black; abdomen broader than the thorax, having an ovoid or egg shape which is more marked in the wingless female.

The wingless female measured about five-hundredths to six-hundredths of an inch in length; antennæ whitish with the two basal joints and the apical half black; legs whitish except the feet, tips of tibiæ and femurs which are black. The abdomen has a prominent raised ridge along the lateral margins. General color black or brownish-black.

There are several broods in one season (from five to eight) and they are so prolific that were it not for their natural enemies they would soon over-run and kill the whole tree.

One of its most persistent enemies is the larva of a two-winged fly of the genus Syrphus. The larva is of a pale greenish color, translucent, spindle shaped, attenuated anteriorly, and about one-half an inch in length. And it is a refreshing sight to the fruit grower to see with what avidity this sluggish looking worm sucks the juice from these tiny pests and casts their empty skins aside.

The larva of a small beetle (Coccinella) and of a neuropterous fly (Chrysopa) have also been found feeding on this aphis.

Some of the more common remedies for this pest are strong soap-suds or a mixture of kerosene and water with which the trees should be given a thorough drenching. The latter mixture, however, if too strong may slightly injure the foliage, but will do no permanent damage. Suffocation with tobacco smoke has also been highly recommended.—Prairie Farmer.

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SMILAX.

Smilax makes a beautiful plant for the window, if a strong young plant is secured in the fall, placed in an eight to ten inch pot, set in such a position that a string on which to train it can be run up one side of the window and across the top. As soon as the young shoot is long enough, twine it around the string to give it a start, as it were, after which it will rapidly grow and reach the top, when it will have to be directed in its course across the top of the window. Be sure to get a young plant, as they do much better than old ones, and when growing vigorously, give plenty of water; keep the leaves free from dust, and it will soon form one of the most beautiful window ornaments which can be imagined. After it has reached as far as wanted, pinch off the end of the shoot, which will induce fresh shoots to start from the different joints, and at the same time induce it into flower sooner than when allowed to grow at random. During the time it is in flower the room is filled with the sweetest odor, after which comes the beautiful fruit, hanging in clusters and remaining for weeks in perfection.

Many fail with smilax in windows, but if they would attend to getting a one-year old plant, then, good, porous soil, and a string—not a wire, to run on, there is not much danger but it will grow if attended with water sufficient to keep the soil moist all the time, but not in such quantities to produce saturation of the soil.—The Prairie Farmer.

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THE CAROLINE RASPBERRY.

In regard to the Caroline Raspberry, I have tried it so thoroughly that I do not hesitate to recommend it as one of the best of raspberries. When the berry begins to color it is a pale yellow which turns to a pretty salmon color when ripe. Among berries of its colour it is equalled by none except the Brinckle, and it is but little inferior to that old standard when ripe. It is thoroughly hardy, a very strong grower, and immensely productive. Its ability to bear long carriage has yet to be proved, but for a near market its value is already established. The amateur, at least, should accept the Caroline as a boon—“Horticola” in Rural New Yorker.

[We have not found it to be high flavored.—Ed.]

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A NATIVE AMERICAN PLUM.

Golden Beauty.—Here we have a most remarkable and valuable acquisition. It is one of Onderdonk’s seedlings, and seems to be, from leaf and bloom, a hybrid, between some large late Chickasaw of Wild Goose type and some fine variety of Prunus Americana, as the leaf, bloom, method, and time of fruiting remind one of the Weaver Plum, but Chickasaw blood is visible just as well. Young twigs are yellow when mature, green before; the leaves are very large, of a rich, light green, with the glossy surface of the Wild Goose, and hang on very late. The growth is as free and smooth as the Peach, with twigs as large; the fruitage is astonishingly great; Plums are deep golden yellow, of size of best Wild Goose, but orange-shaped, very solid, rich, small seed, nearly free; ripens with Heath Cling Peach, blooms with the Weaver Plum, about a week later than Wild Goose. Free from all diseases and insect depredations as any known variety.—Farm and Garden.

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THE TUBEROSE.

Because many farmers’ wives cherish the belief that some wonderful skill attends the cultivation of this plant, they deny themselves the pleasure of its possession. The bulbs must be lifted before there is any danger from frost and spread in a warm sunny place to thoroughly dry. If they become chilled in any way, either before being lifted or during the winter, their value is destroyed. But if kept in a warm closet they will repay for all the trouble by their spikes of beautifully pure and fragrant blossoms.

Tuberoses are reproduced very rapidly. Therefore after a start has once been made with a collection of bulbs of one, two and three years’ growth, the owner can continue to set the same and there will be no trouble in having all that are desired.

There is no difficulty about the planting and cultivation. They will do well on any soil that will produce a good crop of corn. The soil should be made mellow, so as to be easily worked, and the bulbs set at such distance apart as the extent of surface will allow, and covered with the soil. All the cultivation that is necessary is to keep the soil mellow and free from weeds.

If desired for early blooming the bulbs may be set in boxes the latter part of the winter and kept watered and in a warm room. They will then come to flowering earlier than if not set in the ground until all danger from frost is past.—Farm and Garden.

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PIONEER BEET-SUGAR COMPANY.

Through most worthy efforts of the directors, etc., of the beet-sugar company at Coaticook, P. Q., Canada, the Canadian Government has granted to it a subsidy of $35,000. This amount added to the money elsewhere obtained will permit, it is thought, the manufacture of beet-sugar under more favoring circumstances than last year. The planting season has been considerably retarded, owing to late frosts, etc. In the early part of June there remained yet considerable sowing to be done. The greater number of contracts for beets have been made on the Island of Montreal. The seeds appeared above ground with a satisfactory regularity; and the weather is said to have been favorable, as regards amount of rain, heat, etc.

The seeds sown were of the Imperial and Electoral varieties. The fertilizer used was mainly superphosphate manufactured from the bone waste, and residues from defecation; this, it is considered, makes a most excellent plant food.

About 10 tons of seed were used to the acre, distributed with an ordinary seed-drill.—The Sugar Beet.

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Apple Jelly.—Pare, core and quarter two dozen large, tart, juicy apples. (If the apples are red and you desire the jelly to be colored, leave the skins on, only being careful to remove imperfect spots.) Boil them until thoroughly soft, in enough water to cover them, being careful not to mix to a pulp by stirring. Strain the juice by letting it drip slowly through a flannel jelly-bag made into a cone. Do not press it, or the juice will not be clear. To each pint of juice allow three-fourths of a pound of sugar. Boil the juice until “clear,” add the sugar and boil fifteen or twenty minutes longer. To one pint of the jelly add the juice of one lemon—not the grated rind, unless you wish your jelly to have the lemon instead of the apple flavor.

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Honey Pudding.—Ingredients: Honey, one-half pound; butter, six ounces; bread crumbs, one-fourth ounce; eggs, eight. Beat the honey and butter to a cream, and add the bread crumbs; beat all together for ten minutes with the yolks of the eggs. Put into mould and boil for an hour and a half. Serve with any nice pudding sauce.

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Strawberries.—The Crescent strawberry proves to be the earliest here, marvelously productive, and meets with ready sale at good prices when sold at home markets. It is not firm enough for shipment. It will thrive on ordinary soil with ordinary culture. It is more profitable for near market than Wilson. Sharpless is the largest strawberry of all; vigorous, and of good quality when at its best. When over-ripe it loses character. It ripens slowly and unevenly; these are its defects. It is not firm enough for shipment. While it does not yield as many quarts as Wilson or Crescent, it will be profitable to have a portion of the market plantation of this variety, as it brings a fancy price anywhere. It is well to have some firm berries like Wilson or Manchester, as when a hurry comes these can be neglected a few days without loss, while the soft berries must be gathered and sold without delay.—Charles A. Green, in Country Gentleman.

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Arsenic for Canker Worms.—We gave an account a few years since of the successful use of Paris green by the late Mr. Chapin, in his great apple orchard in East Bloomfield, N. Y., for the destruction of the canker worm. A wagon tank, such as threshers employ, was filled with the usual mixture of Paris green and water, and from it the infested trees were showered by means of a forcing pump. We observe by some late journals that the same method is employed by A. R. Whitney, of Illinois, who has an orchard as large as Mr. Chapin’s. A visitor stated that he found the foliage of the trees clean, entire and healthy, while the apple orchards around were desolated with the canker worm. Mr. Chapin destroyed the codlin moth by the grazing of sheep, and we had occasion to observe the contrast between the smooth fruit of this orchard and the badly infested apples of a neighbor who took no care.—Country Gentleman.

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Glucose Honey.—The Boston Journal of Chemistry makes these queer revelations about glucose honey and other confections:—“Millions of pounds of glucose are made every month. It is used mostly as an adulterant in the manufacture of table syrups, and in adulterating the dark, moist sugars used largely by the poor. Its next largest use is in the manufacture of candies. All soft candies, waxes, taffies, caramels, chocolates, etc., are made of glucose. Children are, therefore, large consumers of this substance; the honey bees also are fond of it, and will carry it away by the ton if it is placed within their reach. The honey made from it is no better than the pure glucose, as it is stowed away in the cells without change. Human ingenuity, it is stated, has reached the point of making honey and storing it in the comb without the intervention of the bee. By appropriate machinery a nice-looking comb is made out of paraffine, and after the cells are filled with glucose syrup, this fictitious ‘honey’ is warranted true white clover honey from Vermont.”

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Bacteria and the Yellows.—Prof. Burrill says that very recent examinations of specimens of diseased peach trees sent him from Michigan, where this malady has prevailed, confirm his opinion that the disease known as the yellows is caused by bacteria. He finds the same disappearance of stored starch in the peach shoots as occurs in blighted apple and pear trees, and at the same time numerous bacteria. These minute organisms in the pear are rounded oblong, and commonly double-jointed; but sometimes they are single, and occasionally several joints are found. Those found in the diseased peach are long and slender, and consist of several joints. Both may, however, be mere modifications of the same organisms. The pear bacteria are about one-thirty-thousandth of an inch cross diameter, and one-half more in length. Those in the peach are about twice as long. To examine their shape, a microscope magnifying the diameter one thousand times is requisite, and so small are they that a thousand millions would be required to form a solid mass as large as a pin’s head.

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SAVING MOTHER.

  The farmer sat in his easy chair,

  Between the fire and the lamp-light’s glare;

  His face was ruddy and full and fair,

  His three small boys in the chimney nook

  Conned the lines of a picture book;

  His wife the pride of his home and heart,

  Baked the biscuits and made the tart;

  Laid the table and steeped the tea,

  Deftly, swiftly, silently.

  Tired and weary, and worn and faint,

  She bore her trials without complaint,

  Like many another household saint—

  Content, all selfish bliss above

  In the patient ministry of love.

  At last, between the clouds of smoke

  That wreathed his lips the husband spoke.

  “There’s taxes to raise, an’ interest to pay,

  And ef there should come a rainy day,

  ’Twould be mighty handy, I’m bound to say

  T’have sumthin’ put by. For folks must die,

  An’ there’s funeral bills, an’ gravestuns to buy—

  Enough to swamp a man, purty nigh;

  Besides, there’s Edward and Dick and Joe

  To be provided for when we go.

  So ’f I was you, I’ll tell you what I’d do,

  I’d be saving of wood as ever I could—

  Extra fire don’t do any good—

  I’d be savin’ of soap, an’ savin’ of ile,

  And run up some candles once in a while;

  I’d be rather sparin’ of coffee an’ tea,

        For sugar is high,

        And all to buy,

  And cider is good enough for me.

  I’d be kind o’ careful about my clo’es,

  And look out sharp how the money goes—

  Gewgaws is careless; natur’ knows;

        Extra trimmin’

        ’S the bane of women.

  “I’d sell the best of the cheese and honey,

  And eggs is as good, nigh about’s the money;

  And as to the carpet you wanted new—

  I guess we can make the old one do;

  And as for the washer and sewing machine

  Them smooth-tongued agents so pesky mean,

  You’d better get rid of ’em slick and clean.

  What do they know about woman’s work?

  Do they calkilate women were made to shirk?”

  Dick and Edward and little Joe

  Sat in a corner in a row.

  They saw the patient mother go

  On ceaseless errands to and fro;

  They saw that her form was bent and thin,

  Her temples gray, her cheeks sunk in,

  They saw the quiver of her lip and chin—

  And then with a warmth he could not smother,

  Outspoke the youngest, frailest brother:

        “You talk of savin’ wood and ile,

        An’ tea and sugar all the while,

  But you never talk of savin’ mother?”

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Delicate Apple Sauce.—Pare, halve and quarter a sufficient quantity of nice stewing apples; put them into a baking dish, and cover thickly with sugar—bits of lemon peel may be added if liked. Put a plate over the dish, and set it into a pan having a little hot water in the bottom, and place in a hot oven. Bake until the pieces are clear and tender.

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Coal Ashes.—Common coal ashes, if well distributed about the roots of currant bushes, is one of their best promoters. This should be done by loosening the soil about their roots, and placing the ashes near them; cover firmly with earth above, and the bushes will bear such clusters as will speak the beneficial effects of this application of material too commonly thrown aside as of no use. Cherry trees also gratefully accept this renovator, and if carefully bedded about the roots with coal ashes in the fall, the yield of fruit the following year will surprise the cultivator. Especially is this effect produced in the black loam of Illinois. We have in our mind one fruit garden there where all the small fruit was treated in this way, and have never seen their yield excelled.—National Farmer.

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The Fruit Garden.—There should be a Fruit Garden on every farm for the profit, health, and enjoyment that it brings, where well cared for—yielding a succession of fruits from early strawberry time until the latest grapes are gone. It is our desire that all who have no garden for small fruits may resolve to prepare the ground and plant one the coming spring. The soil for a Fruit Garden should be rich, deep, and mellow, and above all thoroughly drained should it be naturally wet. There is nothing better than well rotted stable manure for enriching a garden soil. The list of Strawberries that may be planted is a long one and has been added to from year to year. Charles Downing, Seth Boyden, Monarch of the West, and Sharpless are all reliable. The Bidwell has proved excellent, and the Manchester is a promising new sort. On heavy soils the Jucunda and Triomphe de Gand do well. Among Raspberries are the Cuthbert, Patrician, and Herstine. The Mammoth Cluster and Gregg are among the best Black-caps for general use. For Blackberries the Kittatinny and Snyder are the best. The Versailles, Red Dutch, and White Grape lead in the Currants. It is difficult to select from the long list of excellent grapes, Concord, Wilder, Brighton, Eumelan, Delaware, and Pocklington give a good variety.—American Agriculturist.

PRINTED AT THE STEAM PRESS ESTABLISHMENT OF COPP, CLARK & CO., COLBORNE STREET, TORONTO.




  
VOL. V.]NOVEMBER, 1882.[No. 11.
  

ASTERS.

These are late summer blooming annuals, without which the flower garden in September seems bare of bloom. The coloured illustration in this number will give our readers a good representation of the general form and colouring. There is a great variety of these beautiful flowers, differing in size of plant and form of flower, but each having a beauty peculiar to itself. Some of them grow quite tall, upwards of two feet in height; others are very dwarf, scarcely attaining to more than six inches. The variety known as new rose is a great favourite, and may be had in fifteen separate colours. The new Crown or Cocardeau Asters have all a white centre surrounded with a broad border of carmine, or blue, or scarlet, or violet, &c., and are very attractive. One of this class will be found in the coloured plate. The New Victoria variety has a fine pyramidal habit with large flowers. The largest flowered is the Washington Aster, sometimes attaining to five inches in diameter. The dwarf Chrysanthemum-flowered grows to about one foot in height, and flowers later than most of the others.

Asters require a rich soil, worked to a good depth, in order to their full development. The seed may be sown in a cold frame or in a seed bed in the garden. After the plants have become strong they should be transplanted in damp or cloudy weather into beds prepared for them. The plants may be set about a foot apart each way in the beds, except the dwarf growing sorts, which may be planted about four inches apart. The dwarf varieties make a very pretty border planted in single rows along the edge of the garden walk.

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THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST FOR 1883.

The next number will close the current volume, and the term of subscription of most of our readers will expire at the same time; of all, indeed, save a few names which have already sent their dollar for 1883. Many encouraging letters have been received during the year expressive of kindly appreciation of the efforts made to improve this monthly, and many have given practical expression to their appreciation by shewing the magazine to their friends and inducing them to subscribe. To all who have in any way encouraged the efforts of the Directors to maintain a monthly periodical devoted to the dissemination in Canada of information concerning horticultural matters, most sincere and hearty thanks are hereby given. It is believed by them that such a monthly periodical is essential to the horticultural progress and prosperity of the country, and that any effort made to extend its circulation deserves the thanks of everyone who desires to see this country take the position it is capable of maintaining in all fruit-growing and horticultural matters.

It is the intention of the Directors to continue the Canadian Horticulturist during the year 1883, and to make it as attractive and interesting as it has been during the past year, and as much more so as the means at their disposal will permit. If the circulation could be increased to four thousand, the additional means derived therefrom would be expended in still further enlarging and embellishing the magazine. Will not our readers make an effort to accomplish this desirable object by sending one new subscriber with their own renewal before the close of this year, so that the Directors may feel enabled to begin the year with an additional number of pages of reading matter, and make arrangements for increased illustration. If each subscriber would procure but one new name the circulation would then be about four thousand, and such improvements could then be made as the Directors have not yet been able to secure for want of means.

Every subscriber becomes entitled to receive not only the Canadian Horticulturist every month, but also a copy of the Annual Report of the Fruit Growers’ Association for 1882, and bound with it, the Annual Report of the Entomological Society for the same year. In addition to these, each subscriber will have sent to him by mail, post-paid, whichever of the following articles he may prefer, namely:

A Rose Bush, or

A Peonia, or

A Vine of the Worden Grape, or

A Plant of the Niagara Raspberry.

In order that a sufficient number of these reports and plants may be secured to meet the requirements of subscribers, it is essential that subscriptions should be sent in before the first of January next. The Directors cannot promise that those whose subscriptions are received after that day will be supplied as they might wish. The edition of the Reports was exhausted this year, so that those who sent in their names at a late day may have failed to receive a bound copy. And the same was true of some of the plants distributed last spring. That all disappointment from these causes may be avoided, the Directors wish it to be clearly understood that subscribers whose names are received after the first of January next, must not depend upon receiving the reports or plants. The Directors will do all in their power to meet the wishes of any who subscribe after that date, but cannot promise anything more than the current numbers of the magazine.

Those who may desire to make an effort to increase the circulation of the Horticulturist will be furnished with a sample copy and receipt book, on application to the Editor at St. Catharines, or to any of the Directors, whose names and address will be found on the third page of the cover. As some remuneration for their labor they will be allowed a commission of twenty per cent. on all new subscribers, and ten per cent. on all renewals of present subscribers, whose names and subscriptions are sent in to the Editor before the first day of January, 1883.

The subscription price is only one dollar a year. Will it be possible for anyone who has any desire to be informed upon any of the subjects discussed in the pages of the Horticulturist, or treated of in the Reports, to obtain so much valuable and practical information elsewhere for that sum? The twelve colored illustrations alone are well worth the whole subscription. The information given is drawn largely from the practical experience of Canadian cultivators, and is just such as Canadians need to guide them in their operations. It is the only work of the kind published in Canada, and as such has claims upon the support of Canadians, if it be suited to their needs. And the publication of it is not undertaken for any private ends, but all the funds received are expended in the interests of its readers. The Directors, therefore, look confidently for the hearty co-operation of every one who feels any interest in developing the resources of our country in this direction, and expect through your efforts in this behalf that the subscription list of this magazine will be at least doubled before the advent of the new year.

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FRUIT AT THE PROVINCIAL EXHIBITION.

Notwithstanding the almost entire failure of the leading fruits in many parts of the province, the show of fruit at Kingston was not only large but of excellent quality. The display of apples and pears was hardly as large as it was last year, but the samples shown were generally very fine. In plums there was a marked increase, some very fine collections having been shown from sections that heretofore have not made much of an exhibit of this fruit. The Owen Sound collection carried off the first prize, notwithstanding that the crop was reported to have been a failure this season.

The progress made in the cultivation of grapes is very marked. The extent of the exhibit of this fruit, as well as the beauty and perfection of the samples shown, is very creditable to our grape growers. Each year brings out a greater variety, and more perfect specimens. It is a wonder that every farmer does not devote some space to a choice collection of grape vines. In two years from planting he will begin to gather grapes, and can have a continuous supply of this most delicious, fruit all through the autumn. We now have varieties ripening in this climate in August, followed by others that keep up a succession until winter, and in fact, some of them can be kept until after the holidays, such as the Salem, Vergennes, and Iona.

There is one bad practice that seems to be adopted by some exhibitors, namely, that of ringing the bearing branches in order to increase the size of the berries. As this practice greatly impairs the flavour of the fruit, producing watery, dropsical berries, it should not be encouraged, and exhibitors should be restricted to naturally grown fruit. Skilled judges will at once detect these abnormal fruits, and societies should instruct them to discard all such in making their awards.

There was also a very creditable display of peaches. The crop was almost cut off by the cold easterly storm that visited us when the trees were in blossom. The early Crawford seems to have escaped, somehow, in many places, and those who have been thus favoured will reap golden harvests. We now have varieties ripening in July, followed by other sorts which keep up a supply until almost winter.

It is gratifying to note how from year to year fruit culture is developing and extending over the province, as appears from the exhibits which are made at our autumnal shows. We believe, however, that far greater things are yet in store, and that Ontario will be the great fruit growing country of this continent.

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The Sharpless Strawberry did as well as ever, being the largest of all as usual, and more productive. It is not particularly heavy soil this variety requires to do well, but exceedingly high culture. The soil must be rich, and well manured also; to have it do its best a good sandy loam is apparently the soil best suited to its wants.—Farm and Garden.

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JOTTINGS BY THE WAY IN THE EASTERN DISTRICT.

In a somewhat busy season, (and tell me the time to the tiller of the soil that isn’t busy), I stole a day in the interests of the Fruit Growers’ Association, and submit the following, which may interest some:—

Apples.—They should be last on our list. Our report of them must be unsatisfactory. In quantity they are a fair crop, but in most cases diseased, the Fameuse so much so as to be almost unsaleable. We try to pare as many as we can, and so used, they are as good as the best, but the process is a slow one.

Heartily we will thank the man who will give us the cause of this black spot or fungus, and more him who will give us a cure.

In the Horticulturist, March, 1882, is a paper from J. B. Merrill, from which we had hopes that sulphur applied as there suggested would effect a cure. We tried the experiment on 100 trees, and found it a failure. It has been suggested to me by one well versed in these matters, that I drove the plug so far into the tree as to prevent the sulphur fumes passing up with the sap: that may be, we will repeat the experiment, using grafting wax to cover the orifice.

Potatoes.—The Early Rose is still the favorite, and buyers ask for it in preference to all other kinds, simply because they know it to be a first-class table potato. So it is, but the Beauty of Hebron is earlier and of better flavor.

The Dempsey is in every respect good, prolific, and good to use the year round. The Peerless I have found among the best for spring use. With fair play it yields abundantly. Although of very large size, I have always found them sound to the heart. Many of my neighbors last year pronounced it to be the best potato they ever ate.

White Elephant—I planted a peck, the return was 4 bushels. As to their quality I can’t speak. Late Rose and Snowflake are both good. I can tell you, however, a big story about the White Star. I had one potato, cut it into 9 eyes, planted in ordinary ground, and had from it 38 lbs. Satis bene I say. I boiled one and found the quality good.

I’ll weary you and your readers, indulge me with a closing word on grapes. I intended visiting the Beaconsfield vineyard, but the day’s time didn’t permit. We know their grapes to be early, quite a consideration in these parts; as to quality, the less said the better.

The only man who has been brave enough to go into the business in our section is Mr. William Rice, of Millroche. Among many discouragements—his neighbors kindly hinting he was spending the time of many men for nought, his own besides—he has made a very successful start. Tell me, readers, what is worth having without labor and discouragements many. Mr. R. has about three acres planted with Concord. Moore’s Early, Brighton, and Champion grapes. They were planted three years ago, trained on trellis six feet apart, seven feet between rows. He finds Brighton and Moore’s Early the most profitable. I recommend to him another acre of Beadle’s Jessica.

Good luck to our enterprising neighbor. He seems to go on the principle, that whatever is worth doing is worth doing well. That he has done.

If readers have had patience to read so far, we’ll forgive them till next time.

John Croil.

Aultsville, Oct., 1882.

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REPORT ON PLANTS RECEIVED FROM THE FRUIT GROWERS’ ASSOCIATION.

Dear Sir,—I send you report on plants received from the Association up to date.

Burnet Grape.—Is growing slowly and steadily. Has sixteen bunches of grapes on it this year, which should be ripe next week.

Moore’s Early Grape.—Growing well, strong and healthy looking. Has every appearance of succeeding in this locality.

Saunders’ Hybrid Raspberry.—I removed the plant to a sandy soil and manured it well, which has caused it to grow rapidly and bear some fruit. It promises well for next year. Planted it along with 100 Lost Rubies, a fine variety, bore fruit on old stocks same year as planted.

Hydrangea Paniculata.—Does not grow well. It is about the same size as the first year, and will have flowers soon. I planted it in a small keg with rich earth, but it grows no better than at first. It is not a success with me.

I mentioned last year that the Ontario Apple died. It is far too tender a kind for this locality, something like King of Tompkins, which was also winter killed.

I expected to have seen some reports of the Wealthy Apple you distributed and how it stood the winter, but have seen none in the Canada Horticulturist as yet. I planted a one year old last fall, and it was winter killed, but fall planting is not suitable here, so I do not consider this a criterion. I have planted this spring 150 one to three year old Wealthys, and expect most of them to come through the winter. I have not lost any trees from the tap root entering the clay soil, as the habitans hereabouts said I would; and have about 200 Fameuse bearing for the first time. I have altogether 1,000 apple trees in good condition.

Yours truly,

J. H. Cumming.

P. S.—I would suggest your distributing the Arctic plum next season.

St. Hilaire, P. Q., Sept. 12, 1882.

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THE GREEN CABBAGE WORM.

Dear Sir,—For some years past the growing of cauliflower and cabbage has been rendered very difficult and unsatisfactory, owing to the large green grub that feeds on the leaves. About a month ago my cauliflowers were rapidly being destroyed, when I made some strong brine, using common salt, and watered the plants lightly, sufficiently to wet the leaves, but not to soak into the ground and scorch the roots. The next day I found every grub dead, and have not seen a living one since. Hoping that this information may be of much value to cabbage growers, I have thought it worth placing in the hands of the public.

Frank Evans.

Orillia, Oct. 3, 1882.

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LETTER FROM HON. M. P. WILDER.

My Dear Sir,—I have just received the report of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association for 1881. I am happy to state that no better appropriation of the Government’s funds could be made than to encourage the development of the fruit resources of the Dominion, whose extent of territory is equal to our own, and much of which is yet to be filled with an enlightened and industrious population. I like the whole book, embracing as it does the “entomological,” so closely connected as it is with the successful cultivation of fruits. It is a grand volume, honourable to your society and to the Government.

Yours as ever,

Marshall P. Wilder.

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THE CABBAGE MAGGOT.

Dear Sir,—On page 235 of the current number of the Horticulturist I see a communication from Prof. Cook, of the Michigan Agricultural College, to the American Agriculturist on the destruction of the Cabbage and Radish Maggot.

I would like to know (and no doubt many others would be equally obliged if you can inform the readers of the Horticulturist) how the bisulphide of carbon is prepared and how applied to the young plants; as the Professor, while giving the formula for the carbolic acid preparation, does not give the formula for the bisulphide of carbon, although he appears to consider it the most efficient for the cabbage fly, as it “destroys the maggot.” If it does this it is undoubtedly the best preparation.

I may add that during last spring I tried the carbolic acid, preparing it and sprinkling the plants according to Prof. Cook’s directions, with the single exception that I applied it twice a week instead of once; but found that, although it did not injure the young plants in the least, it utterly failed to keep the flies from depositing their eggs, or to destroy the maggots; consequently my radishes were totally ruined; and my cabbages only partially saved by my gardener going over the patch every three or four days and carefully removing the soil where the eggs had been deposited from around the young plants, and putting fresh soil in the place; a slow remedy, and as the fly season this year was a very long one, an expensive one; and, worst of all, not by any means a certain one, for it is almost impossible not to miss some of the wee white specks, which are consequently left at the stalk of the cabbage and destroy it.

I would therefore like to try the bisulphide of carbon remedy, and, with the rest of the cabbage growing world, would hail it with rejoicing, if successful in destroying the pests without injuring the plants.

Thos. G. Bright.

Meaford, Oct. 4, 1882.

REPLY BY W. SAUNDERS.

Bisulphide of carbon is made by passing the vapor of sulphur over red hot charcoal in suitable vessels, and consists of one part of carbon united to two parts of sulphur. It is a colourless liquid, with a very offensive odor and very volatile character. It is inflammable, and its vapor mixed with atmospheric air explodes with violence if lighted. It is a powerful solvent, and one of the chief uses it serves in the arts is as a solvent for India rubber and gutta percha. It is usually kept in drug stores. When poured into a hole in the soil, and the orifice closed, the vapour gradually permeates through the spongy earth and destroys insect life. It is, I fear, too expensive to be used as a general remedy for insects, and its inflammability, and the liability of its vapor to explode when mixed with air would deter many from using it.

London, Oct. 10.

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THE ENGLISH SPARROW.

Mr. Editor,—I would respectfully suggest that you have for discussion at the next winter meeting the following subject: “Is the English sparrow a friend or enemy of the fruit grower?”

I would suggest that you announce the subject early and ask for papers on the subject from all who are in a position to give light on the subject, to be sent to the Secretary in time for the winter meeting.

My own opinion is that this question is an important one or will soon become so as these little Britons increase, and I think discussion would bring out a good many points for and against the sparrow.

Yours truly,

Wm. E. Wellington.

Toronto, Aug. 7, 1882.

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EXPLORATIONS IN RUSSIA.

Mr. Editor,—It will perhaps interest some of your readers to know that there are at present in Europe two enterprising and enthusiastic lovers of fruit from America who are exploring the northern portions of Europe and particularly of Russia, for the purpose of ascertaining what varieties of fruit are successfully cultivated in these extremely cold climates, hoping by this means to find new sorts which will be hardy enough to withstand the rigours of the colder portions of the Northern and North-Western United States and Canada, and thus lay under further tribute the countries which have given to us the well-known apples, Red Astrachan, Duchess of Oldenburgh, Alexander, and Tetofsky. The exploring party consists of Prof. Budd, of the State Agricultural College in Iowa, and Mr. Chas. Gibb, of Montreal. The following post cards have been received from Mr. Gibb:—

Vienna, July 22, 1882.—Work interesting, though we have not yet reached the severer climates. Many new apples in England and Germany are in leaf semi-Astrachanic, and some Russian full bloods. Pears in Jardin des Plantes crossed in many cases with northern or southern Chinese forms, cider and cooking pears of Reutlingen, &c. We saw a few thick leaved v. vinifera, two of them as thick as Lindley and one as thick as Concord, from Jura.”

On the Volga, Aug. 30, 1882.—Here we are in a little boat going down the Volga from Kasan visiting the orchards with a kind Russian friend. The apples now in the market are ahead of our August apples, a fine assortme