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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 08

Date of first publication: 1878

Author: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Jan. 29, 2018

Date last updated: Jan. 29, 2018

Faded Page eBook #20180156

This ebook was produced by: Delphine Lettau, David T. Jones, Cindy Beyer & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net



Table of Contents added for convenience













VOL. I.]AUGUST, 1878.[NO. 8.


The work of raising new varieties of raspberries goes on with considerable vigor. If we do not get one to suit everybody, we are likely to get so many that each one may find a variety that suits him. Since the days when Mr. Arnold began to try his skill on the production of new sorts of raspberries, and gave us his Yellow Canada and Orange King, the number of new sorts of raspberries that have been brought out is something wonderful. Since then we have had the Clark, which continues to be grown by many for market purposes on account of its bright color; the Herstine, which has a peculiar flavor, but is too soft to carry any distance; Mammoth Cluster, one of the most productive of the black-cap family; Brandywine, a rather small, firm berry that will carry well, but the plant suckers awfully; Highland Hardy, valuable because of its earliness; Turner, a vigorous western variety; Ganargua, a firm fruit that will carry well, but of a dull maroon color, and deficient in flavor; Saunders, a large and valuable fruit for the amateur, but the canes are too tender to endure this climate; Golden Thornless, a yellow variety of the black-cap family, very productive, and very lacking in flavor; Pride of the Hudson, too recently sent out to speak of its qualities; Philadelphia, very hardy, very productive, but not bright enough in color, nor firm enough, nor sufficiently high-flavored to give entire satisfaction; Diadem, another of Mr. Arnold’s seedlings which has been very widely distributed throughout Ontario, and of which we expect to hear very favorable accounts; Henrietta, claimed to be the largest, best, and most productive sort in the world, but as yet is in very few hands, and held at one dollar per plant; and others there is not space to name.

But it is not of these that we now propose to speak. We wish merely to make mention of a seedling raspberry growing on the grounds of A. M. Smith, of Drummondville. It cannot claim to be the largest in the world, but only somewhat larger than the Philadelphia, firmer in texture, and therefore likely to carry better, of nearly the same color, and somewhat better in flavor; the canes are very strong, the foliage broad and thick, and the plant apparently as hardy as the Philadelphia. With us hardiness is a very important quality, and we call the attention of our fruit growers to this new seedling, that they may watch its behaviour, and when opportunity offers give it a trial. Should it prove to have all the good qualities of the Philadelphia, with the addition of better flavor, larger size, and ability to endure carriage better, it will prove to be a valuable sort in our climate.



An esteemed member of the Association, resident in the County of Carleton, writes: “I too am in trouble with my grape vines. Vegetation being very forward this spring, on the fifteenth of April, the day on which I received the Burnet grape vine, I uncovered my vines; by the fifteenth of May they had made much progress, when a severe frost cut them down. They were in some measure recovering from this when on the sixth of June another frost has again blackened them. The Salem, Delaware, and Canada appear to have suffered more than the Concord. I would ask, in a locality where such things are liable to occur, is it at all probable that any of the early flowering shrubs mentioned at page 52 would succeed?”

It is probable that the frosts were more severe in the County of Carleton than in the County of Lincoln, but the effect of the frost in the middle of May in these parts was much the same upon the grape vines here as described by our correspondent; the Delaware and the Rogers Hybrid suffering more than the Concord, but the Japan Quince, Plum-leaved Spirea, and Chinese Double-flowering Plum did not suffer at all, though the young shoots of the chestnut trees, and some of the maples and evergreens suffered severely. The young shoots of grape vines are very tender, and therefore very sensitive to frost, yet if the Concord in some degree escaped, we think that these shrubs would endure late frosts much better than any grape vine, and therefore we should not be by any means discouraged from giving them a trial on account of the danger of late spring frosts. It is however quite possible that they might suffer some from the very severe winter frosts, and would therefore advise that for a few winters they should be protected by driving into the ground branches of evergreens, so as to form a circular screen around each of the shrubs, sufficiently dense to afford them some shelter from the wind and sun until the starting of vegetation in the spring. After they have become firmly established they may be found to be sufficiently hardy to endure the winter of that section without any shelter.



It has been the fashion among vine growers to prune their vines severely in the month of July, taking off cart-loads of leaves and branches. The reason given for this barbarous practice is that the grapes need exposure to the sun and air in order to ripen, and that this stripping off of the leaves and cutting away of the branches is necessary in order to let the sun-light fall upon the fruit and the air circulate freely among the clusters.

It is true that a grape vine may be allowed to produce too many branches and leaves for the fullest development of the fruit, and the proper time to guard against this is when the buds are starting into growth, by rubbing out all superfluous eyes or buds as they begin to push forth. But it is not true that the clusters of grapes require to be exposed to the sun’s rays in order that the fruit may be ripened. The following remarks by Dr. Lindley have a very direct bearing on this subject. He says, “If all the leaves which a tree will naturally form are exposed to favorable influences, and receive the light of a brilliant sun, all the fruit which such a plant may produce will ripen perfectly in a summer that is long enough. But if all the fruit which a healthy tree will show is allowed to set, and a large part of the leaves is abstracted, such fruit, be the summer what it may, will never ripen. The period of ripening in fruit will be accelerated by an abundant foliage, and retarded by a scanty foliage.” These general propositions he considered applicable to all cases, and particularly to the vine. If correct, then the severe summer pruning of the grape vine is wrong. “It is a mistake,” he adds, “to imagine that the sun must shine on the bunches of grapes in order to ripen them. Nature intended no such thing. On the contrary, it is evident that vines naturally bear their fruit in such a way as to screen it from the sun; and man is most unwise when he rashly interferes with this intention. What is wanted is the full exposure of the leaves to the sun; they will prepare the nutriment for the grape; they will feed it, and nurse it, and eventually rear it up into succulence and lusciousness.”

The truth is this, that the leaves prepare the nourishment for the grapes, without which they will never ripen, and unless there are sufficient leaves so situated as to their exposure to the sun and air that they can properly and abundantly supply this nourishment to the fruit, it will never perfectly ripen. What is required then is not to cut away the leaves and branches to let the sun-light in upon the grapes, but to so thin out the shoots in the spring that the foliage shall be well exposed to the full light of the sun, and if the whole crop of leaves is allowed to remain that is thus exposed to the sun, the preparation of the matter for the nutrition of the fruit will be more rapid, and hence the ripening of the fruit accelerated. Hence if the winter and spring pruning has been properly done there will be no necessity for any summer pruning whatever.

But there is a pruning or rather stopping of the shoots in September that is of benefit. On this subject Doctor Lindley says, “When, however, in autumn the branches are beginning to slacken in their power of lengthening, it is then right to stop the shoots by pinching off their ends, because after that season newly formed leaves have little time to do more than organize themselves, which must take place at the expense of matter forming in the other leaves. Autumn-stopping of the vine shoots is therefore not only unobjectionable, but advantageous, for the leaves which remain after that operation will then direct all their energy to the perfection of the grapes.”



This is a favorite pear, of medium size, but of great excellence, ripening early in September. The tree is certainly as hardy as the Bartlett, and may be grown wherever that variety succeeds. It has an upright habit of growth, and is thrifty and healthy. It does not begin to bear fruit while young, but when it has reached maturity it bears large crops. The pears are hardly of medium size, of a rich deep-yellow color, with a very handsome crimson cheek, the flesh is melting, juicy, very sweet, with a very agreeable aromatic flavor, ranking in quality almost if not quite “best.” It is grown in the counties of Brant, Lambton, Lincoln, Middlesex, Ontario, Oxford, Waterloo, Wellington, Wentworth, and York, and very probably in some other counties that have not named it in their lists of pears.

This fruit is of American origin, having grown up in a hedge on the grounds of Jonathan Tyson, of Jenkintown, near Philadelphia, Penn. In 1794 Mr. Tyson removed it from the hedge and set it out, at which time it was about an inch in diameter. His son proposed to graft the tree with a variety known by the name of Catharine, but the father suggested that it might be a better kind, and in compliance with his wishes the tree remained untouched until it bore fruit, which proved to be so fine that in 1800 a number of trees were grafted with scions taken from this tree. The original tree was still standing within the village of Jenkintown in 1847, and then measured, at two feet from the ground, fully six feet in circumference.

We commend this variety to the attention of our readers, believing they will be pleased with its flavor, and find that anything that may be lacking in the size of the fruit is fully made up in the quality and flavor. We have noticed that the fruit does not drop easily from the tree, but will often hang until it decays on the branches, hence it will do to plant it in situations exposed to the sweep of strong winds. It is not sufficiently large and showy to be planted for market, it is for the grower’s own use, for those who value quality above size that it is recommended.



This popular market apple has been in cultivation for at least a century. It originated in what was then known as Wilmington, in the county of Middlesex, State of Massachusetts, on the farm of Mr. Butters, who gave it the name of the Woodpecker apple, because it seemed to be a favorite with those birds, who used to frequent the tree and peck the fruit. From this tree grafts were taken, and the variety became known in that vicinity by the name given it by Mr. Butters, which, however, soon became shortened into Pecker Apple, under which name it was planted by the Vice President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, B. V. French, at Braintree, Mass., in 1818. At an early period of its history, about 1771, it came to the notice of Col. Baldwin, of Woburn, Mass., who introduced it to public attention, whence it received its present name of Baldwin. From this it has been extensively cultivated and widely diffused, so that to-day it is probably better known and more sought after by dealers in apples than any other variety. In the report of the American Pomological Society for 1877, it is double starred in more States than any other, and within the zone, where its profitable cultivation is possible, there are probably more trees planted of the Baldwin than of any two other kinds.

It cannot be successfully grown in all parts of Ontario, the severe cold of our higher latitudes being too great for the health of the tree. It is reported as doing well in the counties of Brant, Elgin, Haldimand, Halton, Lambton, Lincoln, Middlesex, Norfolk, Oxford, Peel, Waterloo, Welland, Wentworth, and York, and in parts of Grey, Huron, and Wellington.

The tree is naturally vigorous and productive, coming soon into bearing, and yielding every alternate year large crops of good sized, well-shaped, high colored fruit, which keeps well, and bears handling and carriage in a remarkable degree. In most markets, and especially in the European, high colored apples sell best, hence this variety has a preference over light colored sorts. It is ranked as “very good” in quality, and in this climate is in use from January to May.

We are credibly informed that the part of the farm belonging to Mr. Butters upon which the original Baldwin apple tree grew, subsequently passed into the hands of a gentleman eminent as an agriculturist and horticulturist, who took the pains to erect a suitable monument to the memory of this tree, upon the spot where it stood. And surely it is well thus to mark, that coming generations may remember the birth-place of an apple that has had such a history, that having stood the test of a century, is still a most popular and valuable fruit, that is sought after in the markets of the old world as well as the new, that has contributed so much to the comfort of the human race in so many lands and in so many climes, and that promises to continue its beneficent mission for centuries yet to come, gladdening alike the eye and heart of childhood and age.



Good green peas are among the blessings of life to be enjoyed with thankfulness, thankfulness to the Giver of all good, and thankfulness to the man who invented them. From the bottom of the heart they are to be pitied whose only green peas are gathered from the field crop sown by the farmer for his swine, or such as are usually to be found in our markets and on our hotel tables. And he is a benefactor of his race who places it within the power of every owner of a town lot to grow nice, sweet, green peas. In the days when the world was young, and plenty of pea-brush was to be had for the asking, it was matter of little consequence whether our choice marrowfat peas climbed five or fifty feet, but as the world has grown older pea-brush has become scarce, and brushing the peas an operation that requires considerable outlay of time and ingenuity. Indeed so inconvenient has it become that tall growing peas have gone out of cultivation in many places, and men have wished that some good angel of mercy would bring us a wrinkled pea as sweet and rich as the Champion of England, whose aspirations did not reach so far skyward. And because the wish has been gratified, and we have seen with our eyes and tasted with our lips, and the heart has risen up to bless the inventor, we give to our readers the information that a man has been found, not an angel, but what is far better, a man, who by the use of the powers God has given him, has produced a pea which may be grown in any garden without any bushing, fully equalling in its sweetness and richness of flavor any of the tall growing Marrowfats. Not only may we rejoice in the fact that a man, by the exercise of his faculties, has been able to undertake to produce such a pea and succeed, but we have further occasion for rejoicing in the fact that he is one of ourselves, a citizen of our own land, and that this is but one of many benefits that he has conferred upon us and upon his race.

Bliss’ American Wonder is the name of this new pea, which was raised by Mr. Charles Arnold, of Paris, Ontario. With characteristic modesty the raiser allows the achievement to be ushered into the world by a name that gives no clue to the possessor of the genius and skill which produced this result; content, in quiet retirement, to bless mankind with the fruits of his toil, asking from them no meed of praise. We have found this new pea to be very dwarf in its habit of growth, a very abundant cropper, and possessing a sweetness and richness of flavor that we have not found in any other dwarf pea. Blue Peter, considered a very promising sort, is so much inferior to this in quality as to make comparison impossible. In point of height and productiveness there is not much difference. With such a pea to be had, there is no need of giving up their cultivation because it is too troublesome to bush the tall growing sorts, or because the dwarf varieties are deficient in flavor. If our readers will give this variety a trial, we feel confident that they will not willingly be without it ever after.




The past season has been a very unfavorable one for judging the comparative merits of strawberries, the earlier varieties having been much injured by the frost, and the later ones not entirely escaped. The following is a list of varieties I have fruited this summer, and the time of ripening:

Smith’s Early, (a seedling of my own,) ripened June 1st. Specimens of this variety were nearly half grown when the frost came, which were of course destroyed, and only a few berries that were protected by the foliage escaped and ripened, consequently there was not half a crop. Nicanor, ripe June 3rd, very much injured, about half a crop. Wilson’s Albany ripened June 6th, about half a crop. Cumberland Triumph; this is a variety with very dense, heavy foliage, which protected the blossoms from frost, ripening with Wilson, and was the most productive berry I had; it is a large scarlet fruit, much resembling the New Dominion, only a little lighter in color, of fair quality, though a little too soft for shipping a great distance. Arnold’s No. 40 ripened about with the Wilson, a good sized, light colored, cocks-comb shaped berry, very good flavored, but soft. Charles Downing ripened 8th of June, a very light crop. Green Prolific ripened 10th of June; this being a variety of heavy foliage, it escaped the frost more than some others, was a fair crop. Lennig’s White ripened 10th June, a light crop of soft white berries, of very delicate flavor. Sterling ripened June 10th; this is a new, fair sized, dark, rich looking berry, very fine flavored, but few of them. Monarch of the West was ripe on the 12th of June; this is a large, productive berry, of very good flavor, and would be valuable but for the peculiarity of not ripening, or rather not perfecting its fruit, the tips of the berries being green. Great American ripened about the 12th of June; this I should regard as a very promising variety, berries large, of a dark-red color, good flavored, and productive. Col. Cheney ripened June 12th; this berry on my ground is a failure, it sets full, and I get a few large berries, but the majority are small, ragged things. Jucunda was ripe June 12th, very light crop. Triomph de Gand ripened June 12th, and was about half a crop. Late Cone ripe June 13; this is a beautiful, dark, cone-shaped berry, very fine flavored, and yielded a fair crop. The New Dominion ripened about the 14th of June, and though the blossoms were not apparently much injured by the frost, my crop was not up to its former productiveness on account of a kind of rust which affected both the foliage and fruit, though some parties within a few miles of me had magnificent crops of fine large berries. Kentucky ripened June 15th, as usual with me a light crop, of very good, late berries.



For some reason, or probably without any reason, the quince has been a neglected fruit with us. True, in some parts of the province, indeed in a very large part, the climate is too severe for the successful cultivation of this tree, but there is yet a very considerable portion where it would flourish and bear fruit, and handsomely repay the cultivator. Our fruit growers are awake to the value of the apple, and many orchards have been planted which are yielding a very handsome return to their owners, and the same may be said of most of our fruits, but the quince seems to have been quite overlooked. Perhaps one reason why attention has not been turned to this fruit is the fact that those who have a few trees never give them any care, but leave them to grow as best they may, in some out of the way corner; and because under such circumstances they yield but little fruit, and that not of the best, it is taken for granted that it does not pay to grow them. Now, on the contrary, we believe that an orchard of quince trees, properly cultivated, will prove to be fully as profitable as an apple orchard of the same size, and that at the present time the demand for good quinces is in excess of the supply.

The quince thrives best on a strong clay loam, that is well drained, has been deeply plowed and is in a good state of cultivation. In preparing the soil for a plantation of quinces, it is very desirable that the sub-soil should be thoroughly broken up and loosened by the sub-soil plow, and the surface well pulverized. In this the trees may be planted ten feet apart each way, which will give four hundred and thirty trees to the acre. It surely is not necessary to tell the readers of the Canadian Horticulturist that the planting should be done with care, and after it is completed, each tree should be well mulched with a good thick covering of coarse, strawy manure. The space between the rows may be planted with potatoes, which will perhaps insure the tillage of the ground. In the autumn, fork in the manure that was placed around the trees as a mulch, and replace it with a fresh supply, this will not only protect the roots from severe frosts, but will fill the soil with food for the tree by the time that it starts into growth again. In the spring, plow the ground between the rows, not running so near to the quince trees as to injure the roots, stir the soil lightly around the trees; we say lightly, for the quince roots are comparatively small and fibrous, and might be seriously broken and injured by a too energetic use of the digging fork; and then sow the whole broadcast with salt, at the rate of ten bushels to the acre, which will be sufficient to half conceal the ground under each tree. Do not neglect to apply the salt, it is essential to your fullest success. Not only will the quince tree bear salt, but the tree will be more healthy, and yield more and better fruit than if it be withheld; indeed if any of our readers have quince trees that do not yield fruit, they will bring them at once into bearing if they will give them a dressing of salt and manure.

This treatment should be kept up from year to year, a top-dressing around each tree in the autumn, manure enough on the ground between the rows in spring to make it yield a good crop of potatoes or of some other root, and salt around the quince trees at least, and as they increase in size the salt should be extended over the whole, and it will be found to be beneficial to the root crops as well. When the quince trees have grown to such size that it is no longer profitable to grow roots among them, let not that prevent the quince orchard from receiving an abundant supply of manure and good tillage. A plantation treated in this way will begin to bear in three years, and will continue to yield profitable crops for ten times that length of time.

A word about the pruning. The trees do not require much pruning, but they should have the little they do need regularly every spring. They should not be allowed to grow in bush style, with shoots coming up from the ground, but should be trained as dwarf trees, with a clean stem or trunk. The head will need to be thinned out just sufficiently to give the foliage a good exposure to the sun and air, yet not so much as to leave the branches unshaded by the leaves. The twiggy shoots that have borne fruit the previous summer should be shortened back, so that new fruit-spurs may be produced from them, and thus the fruit be distributed uniformly over the whole tree.

We hope some one of our readers may be induced to undertake the cultivation of an acre of quince trees, and that he will communicate the results, keeping an account of all expenditure for trees, use of ground, fertilizers, cultivation, picking, and marketing the fruit, and of the amount received from sales, so that our readers may see his balance sheet.

As to varieties, we advise that only one be planted, and that the Orange Quince, sometimes called the Apple Quince. It is, when well grown, a large fruit, roundish or apple shaped, with a very short neck, of a beautiful golden yellow color when ripe, and of excellent flavor. If disposed to experiment with any other sort, try a dozen trees of Rea’s Mammoth Quince; it is usually larger than the Orange, but as far as we have tested it, not as productive.

Quinces are easily bruised, and the bruises sadly disfigure the fruit, they should therefore be gathered and handled with care, securely put up in small packages so that they cannot shake about in them, and the packages be easily handled. They are in good demand in all our large cities for culinary purposes, and could they be obtained in sufficient quantities would be much sought after by the large manufacturers of jellies from apples, for flavoring their products.




Mammoth Cluster—for hardiness, size, and productiveness, deserves to be placed at the head of all the black raspberries.

Doolittle—this black variety I fruited for the first time this season, and judging from present prospects think it will be next to Mammoth Cluster, perhaps ahead of it in productiveness; it is some earlier.

Davison’s Thornless—A very good variety, not quite equal to Mammoth Cluster and Doolittle as a cropper, but sufficiently productive to give good satisfaction. If I were to consult my pickers as to which they thought the best variety, they, of course, would say the Thornless. This is also a black variety, ripening earlier than the Mammoth Cluster.

Lunn’s Everbearing—is one of those useless black sorts that I shall plant all I have of it so deep under the ground that they will never come up again.

Philadelphia—comes first among the red varieties for hardiness, productiveness, and profit, where quality is no great object. It is an enormous bearer.

Clarke—for flavor, size and productiveness this is the berry. I would hold on to this to the last.

Highland Hardy—this is the earliest of all raspberries, very hardy and productive, berries not as large as other varieties, quality good.

Read’s Prolific—the largest berry on my grounds. I have not tested it enough to say much about its hardiness and productiveness, although I have seen this variety heavily laden with fruit on the originator’s grounds.

Naomi—is something like the Clarke, no better in my estimation.

Amazon—flavor extra, plants not as hardy as the Clarke, and the berries are more apt to crumble.

Brandywine—this is the latest and best shipping berry, but is not one of my favorites.

Ganargua—fruited with me for the first time this season, it seems to be very productive, the berries were large, color between red and black, and quite firm. If the color and flavor should suit purchasers, it will no doubt be a profitable berry.

Catawissa—an odd berry and plant; this is about all I can say of it.

Golden Thornless—this was the first season of my fruiting it, and I suppose that I will not be much better off by fruiting it again, although it is exceedingly productive. If the flavor and color will suit the market, it may give good satisfaction. I am sure it will ship or dry well.

Were I to grow only four varieties, I would take the Mammoth Cluster and Doolittle for blacks, and the Philadelphia and Clarke for reds.



In the American Agriculturist for August, E. P. Roe, of Cornwall-on-the-Hudson, New York, reports progress on these two new strawberries. He states that the Crescent Seedling originated with William Parmelee, New Haven, Connecticut, in 1870. Its two marked features as he has seen it in several localities, are a tendency to take entire possession of the ground, crowding out the weeds, and of literally covering the ground it grows on with fruit. Its lack of firmness, he thinks, will prove its chief fault. He saw it growing vigorously, and fruiting enormously on light soils, and in some instances other and leading varieties standing near it had proved utter failures. It has also done remarkably well on damp and heavy soil in his own grounds. In color it is a bright scarlet, and looks well in the basket. Like the Wilson, it is red before it is ripe, and in this immature state the flavor is poor, but greatly improves as the berry ripens. It has the appearance of being a pistillate, though it is claimed that it will bear alone. He noticed, however, that in a field of four acres some Wilson’s were planted at intervals, and advises that some of the perfect flowered varieties be set out near by. He finds it to ripen this season about with the Wilson.

The Forest Rose, he says, is a chance seedling, discovered by J. A. Fetters, of Lancaster, Ohio, in his vineyard, about seven years ago, and that it surpasses the other in flavor, beauty, and particularly in its shipping qualities, but that thus far it has not proved with him to be anything like so productive. In sending some thirty-six varieties to the Queen’s County Fair he found that it suffered the least from transportation of them all. He is growing it on three kinds of soil; the stiffest kind of clay, a light, moist soil, and a gravelly knoll, and it is doing well in each. Thus far with him the foliage has never rusted or burned. He expresses his hopes in regard to it, by saying that he planted it more largely than any other kind last spring. He quotes Dr. J. A. Warder, of Ohio, as saying of it, “here we have elegance of form, brilliancy in color, great size, and firmness to bear transportation, combined with table qualities of a higher order than in Wilson’s Albany, which it surpasses even in field culture.”

Mr. Roe concludes with the following judicious remark, “I may seem an old fogy when I say that while I shall give these plausible strangers plenty of room in which to prove their merits, I shall still stand by my old and tried friends in the strawberry field.”



It is well known to cultivators of the Camellia that the venerable President of the American Pomological Society, the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, achieved great success in the raising of new varieties, yielding double flowers, from seed hybridized by himself, and that many of the flowers raised by him were exquisite models of perfection of form. This marked success he attributes largely to three things, first, that in the selection of the seed-bearing parent he used hybrids, believing that every change effected by cross-fertilization is a remove from the normal form, and therefore more easily susceptible of continued mutations; second, that in the selection of the flower to be impregnated he had special reference to the strength and prominence of the style, the form of the corolla, and the perfection of its petals; and third, that he used only pollen taken from an anther which was supported by a petaloid stamen, that is, a stamen which had taken on the form, more or less, of a petal. He regarded this petaloid form of the stamen as the incipient stage towards a full petalous form, and that when he fertilized such flowers with this petaloid pollen, he was more likely to secure double seedlings, with petals more or less multiplied, and oftentimes perfectly double, than when the pollen was taken from anthers borne upon perfect stamens. And the larger and better developed the petaloid stamen was, that is, the more nearly the stamen had taken on the form of a petal, the better the chance for obtaining finely formed double flowers. His experiments led him to the conclusion that single or semi-double flowers with perfect corollas are more certain to produce flowers of a regular symmetrical formation, than those whose corollas have been irregular, with considerable variation in the size and form of the different petals; and likewise that when the style was feeble, distorted, or imperfectly developed, the results were likely to be very unsatisfactory.

As some of our readers are making experiments in the production of double flowers, we hope they will give us the results of their labors for publication.




Hood looks over the gate and compliments Mrs. Gardiner, a widow, who has but one idea, and that is her garden, about which she had the habit of talking in a singularly figurative style, upon the beauty of her carnations.

‘Yes, I have a stronger blow than any one in the place, and as to sweetness, nobody can come nigh me.’

Accepting the polite invitation I stepped in through the little wicket, and in another moment was rapturously sniffing at her stocks, and the flower with the sanguinary name. From the walls I turned off to a rose-bush, remarking that there was a very fine show of buds.

‘Yes, but I want sun to make me bust. You should have seen me last June, Sir, when I was in my full bloom. None of your wishy-washy pale sorts, (this was a fling at the white roses at the next door,) none of your Provincials, or pale pinks. There’s no maiden blushes about me; I’m the regular old red cabbage.’

And she was right, for after all that hearty, glowing, fragrant rose is the best of the species; the queen of flowers, with a ruddy em-bon-point, reminding one of the goddesses of Reubens.

‘And there’s my American Creeper. Miss Sharp pretends to creep, but Lor’ bless ye, afore she ever gets up to her first-floor window I shall be running all over the roof of the willa. You see I’m over the portico already.’

While this conversation was going on, a deaf bachelor neighbor, who has a garden of his own, passes by. Mrs. Gardiner hails him in a loud voice, and addresses him in her customary style.

‘Well, and how are you, Mr. Burrel, after them east winds?’

‘Very bad, very bad indeed,’ replied Mr. Burrel, thinking only of his rheumatics.

‘And so am I,’ said Mrs. Gardiner, remembering nothing but her blight; ‘I’m thinking of trying tobacco-water and a squiringe.’

‘Is that good for it?’ asked Mr. B., with a tone of doubt and surprise.

‘So they say; but you must mix it strong, and squirt it as hard as ever you can over your affected parts.’

‘What! my lower limbs?’

‘Yes, and your upper ones too. Wherever you are maggoty.’

‘Oh,’ grunted the old gentleman, ‘you mean vermin.’

‘As for me,’ bawled out Mrs. Gardiner, ‘I’m swarming. And Miss Sharp is wus than I am.’

‘The more’s the pity,’ said the old gentleman, ‘we shall have no apples and pears.’

‘No, not to signify. How’s your peaches?’

‘Why, they set kindly enough ma’am, but they all dropped off in the last frosty nights.’

‘Ah, it ain’t the frost,’ roared Mrs. G., ‘you have got down to the gravel; I know you have, you look so rusty and scrubby.’

‘I wish you good morning, ma’am,’ said the little old bachelor, turning very red in the face, and making rather a precipitate retreat; as who wouldn’t, thus attacked at once in his person and his peach trees?

‘To be sure, he was dreadful unproductive,’ the widow said, ‘but a good sort of body, and ten times pleasanter than the next door neighbor at number ten, who would keep coming over her wall, till she cut off his pumpkin.’

She now led me round the house to ‘her back,’ where she showed me her grass-plot, wishing she was greener, and asking if she ought not to have a roll. She next led me off to her vegetables, halting at last at her peas, some few rows of Blue Prussians, which she had probably obtained from Waterloo, they were so long in coming up.

‘Back’ard, ain’t I?’

‘Yes, rather.’

‘Wery, but Miss Sharp is back’arder than me; she’s hardly out of the ground yet, and please God, in another fortnight I shall want sticking.’

There was something so irresistibly comic in the last equivoque, that I was forced to slur over a laugh as a sneeze, and then continued to ask her if she had no assistance in her labors.

‘What, a gardener? never! I did once have a daily jobber, and he jobbed away all my dahlias; I declare I could have cried. But’s very hard to think you’re a valuable bulb, and when summer comes you’re nothing but a stick and label.’

‘Very provoking, indeed.’

‘Talk of transplanting; they do nothing else but transplant you from one house to another, till you don’t know where you are. There was I, thinking I was safe and sound in my own bed, and all the while I was in Mr. Jones’s. It is scandalous.’


Misspelled words and printer errors have been corrected. Where multiple spellings occur, majority use has been employed.

Punctuation has been maintained except where obvious printer errors occur.


[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 08 edited by D. W. Beadle]