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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 05

Date of first publication: 1878

Author: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Jan. 24, 2018

Date last updated: Jan. 24, 2018

Faded Page eBook #20180141

This ebook was produced by: Delphine Lettau, David T. Jones, Cindy Beyer & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net



Table of Contents added for convenience












VOL. I.]MAY, 1878.[NO. 5.



The term horticulture means garden culture, or the art of cultivating gardens, and I notice that English books and Philadelphia magazines seem to confine it to gardens in which flowers and vegetables, or perhaps small fruits are grown. But here, and in Western New York, the word is used in a wider sense, to embrace the culture of fruit in general, as well as of flowers and vegetables; and it seems to me justly, for the successful growth of apples, pears, and peaches implies that careful and rich cultivation, as well as that beauty which belongs to the idea of a garden.

The Northern Spy Apple.—In the month of March of the current year I opened a barrel of this fruit. It was a perfect luxury. So crisp and juicy, so beautiful for dessert, so delicious for cooking, so attractive for market; surely it is destined to hold the first place among our Winter apples. True, the Roxbury Russet keeps longer, but I had rather for a longer interval preserve the remembrance of the superb Spy, than spin out the season a little longer with the dry tough-skinned Roxbury Russet.

Most growers are too eager for the fruit to wait from twelve to fourteen years for the Spy, but I agree with J. J. Thomas, who says “it is worth waiting for;” and when once it begins bearing, it yearly rewards the patient husbandman with loads of beautiful fruit.

There is one class of orchardists, however, whom we would advise not to plant Northern Spy, and that is those who expect abundance of fine fruit with little outlay of cultivation, and still less application of manure. Such persons had better grow some other kind of apple, for the Spy requires the best of cultivation, and abundance of manure, or it will prove a source of vexation and disappointment.

The American Agriculturist for 1862, page 367, has an encomium on the Spy. It is there spoken of as the best and most profitable apple for table and market, as commanding a high price even when other varieties are abundant, and as being hardy because it blossoms late.

I am inclined to think the habit it has of developing its leaves and blossoms late, is useful in more ways than one. The eggs of the Canker worm and of the Tent Caterpillar hatch out almost simultaneously with the leaves and blossoms of other apple trees, but the little worms nearly starve on the Northern Spy, before the leaves are developed.




I was much pleased and interested on reading an article in No. 2 Canadian Horticulturist. Anything tending to the increased cultivation of Asparagus is very desirable, on account of its delicate flavor, its great earliness, the ease with which it is cultivated when once established, and its very valuable dietetic qualities; and with regard to the latter, it may not be generally known that it possesses medical virtues of an undoubted value, especially in the Spring-time, after a long Winter, when in many cases the diet has largely consisted of salt meats and “hard tack.”

This delicious vegetable has been a specialty with me for many years. The writer of the article above alluded to, says it is a marine plant, and requires salt as a manure. Knowing that, and reasoning by analogy, I made many experiments upon the use of saline manures for this plant, and as the result of these, have been in the habit of adding one pound of sulphate of magnesia to each peck of salt, as an annual dressing, with marked increase in size, and especially a heightened color of the rich bronze-green on the tops. This mixture, with plenty of leached ashes, lime in any shape, preferably in the form of gypsum, applied in the Spring, and last year’s hot-bed as a top-dressing in the Fall, has always given me satisfactory results. One year, after a long sickness, there was a large quantity of “Tidman’s sea salt” left over, which had been purchased to use for sea water baths; this went on to the Asparagus bed, and I honestly believe it did the plants more good than the baths did to my patient. If iodine could be got in a cheap form, I should like to try a dressing of that, being well assured it would be of benefit in a land so far removed from the sea. They who live in the maritime provinces might manure with sea-weed.

I find the safest time for forking over the bed is generally, in this locality, about the end of April, when the frost has left the upper four or five inches of the ground, and yet remains lower down; there is no fear of injuring the roots at this period, and you can dig straight away without trembling for the crowns.

One word about cutting low, or cutting high. My practice is to cut an inch or so below the surface, for if you cut only the green, eatable part, the underground stem goes on growing above the surface, and there is gradually produced a lot of hard unsightly stubs all over the bed, which are greatly in the way of subsequent cuttings. There is practically no risk of dividing unseen heads by this method, if the stems are cut with brains and a common jack-knife. Another thing, however indecorous it may be, a good many really do like to take hold of the white piece in their fingers to eat it by; very shocking, but it is true. And again, there can be no manner of doubt that it sells better bunched up white and green. Lastly, if you have to cook it yourself you will find the benefit of a piece of hard stock at the bottom, “me crede experto.”




On the mornings of the 13th, 14th, and 15th of May we were visited by extraordinary keen frosts, which did much damage to our fruit and to our grain, and somewhat changed the aspect of our whole fruit condition for the season, which at one time promised to be a very unusual and abundant general fruit crop. That cold snap fell most seriously upon our grapes and strawberries, damaging both these very valuable fruits to the extent of fully two-thirds of the entire crop. Both these fruits were at the time just in the condition to be most seriously and generally injured by a frost. In the case of the grapes, the young shoots were out from six to twelve inches long, fully exposing the young tendrils covered with fruit germs, and of course very tender and most easily affected. In the case of the strawberries, the corolla and calyx were still pointing upwards, placing the young and tender germs in the condition to be most seriously affected by frost. In consequence, we shall suffer in both these crops; and there is considerable complaining throughout the country. Currants and gooseberries too, whose fruit was nearly grown to full size, were severely injured also by the frost, I think fully to the extent of one-third the entire crop, raspberries and blackberries not being quite forward enough to be so easily injured, escaped the effects of the frost. Apples, pears, cherries, plums, and peaches, although each of them was slightly affected by the frost, yet in the case of each, the promise at the present is for a most abundant and unusual crop. Every tree nearing maturity was literally covered with blossoms, most of the germs being fertilized and setting very thickly over the trees. But this is not true of those trees that were defoliated by the Tent Caterpillars last season; no blossoms whatever appeared upon them. I might mention also that the effects of the frost were so severe as to totally kill young Tent Caterpillars on the leaves of our young trees; also the young and tender growths of Norway spruce and balsam fir were seriously frozen and killed; so of black and white walnuts, chestnuts, hickory, &c. Our grains, and our grasses, in their young growths, have also suffered, and are severely injured in their leaves, and the stems of clover were frozen. This is a very unusual occurrence, but then this whole season has been a very unusual and remarkable one from the beginning.

With respect to insects, allow me to report that they are at the present time very abundant, and very industrious and exceedingly destructive in their effects upon our young foliage. The Winter and Spring has been the most favorable for the preservation and development of insect life.

I wish to report that the Currant Worm, (Nematus Ventricosus,) is unusually abundant this season, and even now many gooseberry and currant bushes are totally denuded. We first observed them working April 25th, and most abundantly on the gooseberry leaves; and by May 1st, the numbers were so so great that many of the bushes were stripped, and they threatened the entire destruction of the foliage in the whole plantation, but not appearing to fancy currant leaves. I think I never saw such large numbers gathered together; the bushes were literally alive with them, and the foliage disappeared in a remarkably short time. To check this wide-spread destruction, we applied powdered white hellebore in pretty strong doses, say a heaped table-spoonful to one pail of water, and sprinkled it over the bushes by means of a rose sprinkler; but this appeared to have little perceptible effect upon the insects. We then applied a second dose, stronger than before, which had the effect of rendering them inactive, and finally brought the most of them to mother earth. We also found that by shaking the bushes we could bring them to the ground, and then by means of our broad feet crush them to dust. I am sorry to say, however, that many allowed them to work away unmolested, and effect a total defoliation of their bushes; people of this type are to be found in almost every neighborhood. Present indications are, that the Forest Tent Caterpillars, (Clissiocampa Sylvatica,) are not so numerous or so destructive as they were last season, but they may still come out in large forces. The beautiful warm and summer-like weather we have had for the most part has had the effect of bringing into activity a large and varied force of active and devouring insects. What our developments may still be we are positively unable at present to foretell, but we have every assurance that we will have enough and to spare, for we have never yet seen a season when the Divine promise has not literally been abundantly fulfilled, “Seed time and harvest shall not fail.”

Yesterday, the 19th inst., a delightful, warm, steady, and refreshing rain visited us, and has seemed to cheer the whole aspect of nature, and give a bright appearance and renewed vigor to our needy vegetation.



More than thirty years ago the late A. J. Downing said, “among Autumn pears, the Beurre Bosc proves, year after year, equally deserving of praise. Its branches are regularly laden with large, fair, and beautiful specimens, of a fine yellow, touched with a little cinnamon russet, which ripens gradually, and always attains a delicious flavor. With many sorts of pears it is unfortunately the case that only one fruit in ten is really a fine specimen; with the Beurre Bosc it is just the reverse; scarcely one in ten is blemished in appearance, or defective in flavor. It is, in short, a standard fruit of the highest excellence and worthy of universal cultivation.”

And that which was so well and truly said of it in 1846 remains true of it to-day. The fruit is not borne in clusters as is the case with many varieties, but singly, or at most in pairs, and is very evenly distributed throughout the tree; hence, each fruit is fully developed in form, size, and flavor. It is recommended for general cultivation in twenty-two states and territories; and in Massachusetts and New York is put down as being a fruit of great superiority and value. Nurserymen have never taken it in hand to make a run on it, hence it has not been as widely disseminated as many sorts of more recent introduction. When young, the tree has a very ungainly habit of growth, and requires much attention and no little skill in pruning to bring it into a saleable shape; for this reason it costs the nurserymen more to bring into market a thousand trees of this variety than two thousand of Bartlett or Beurre d’Anjou, and as a consequence it is not extensively cultivated. In the Report of the Fruit Growers’ Association for 1869 it is put down as being unable to bear the cold Winters of Frontenac, Addington, Lennox, Hastings, Prince Edward, Northumberland, Durham, Ontario, and York; but in Peel, south part of Halton, and in Wentworth it is mentioned as being a desirable variety to plant, also in Lincoln, Welland, Haldimand, Elgin, Norfolk, Oxford, south of the Great Western Railway, Middlesex, south of the same line, Kent and Essex. On the other hand we notice that in the Report of the American Pomological Society for 1877, it is recommended for general cultivation in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. With these facts for the guidance of Canadian planters before them, it would be well to experiment cautiously with this variety where hardy pear trees are necessary, but in the milder sections where pear trees of most sorts thrive well, the Beurre Bosc will give great satisfaction, both to the amateur and market orchardist, for the fruit will command the highest price in our city markets, and those who have once become acquainted with its rich, aromatic flavor will purchase again.




When my apple orchard came into bearing some years ago, I found that I had more Summer and Fall varieties than I needed for my own use. On trying to dispose of them, I found they were a perfect drug, the market being completely glutted with them. I grafted them with good Winter varieties, which have done well, and are now coming into a bearing state. I think this is a better plan than rooting them out and planting young trees in their stead. Of course if the grafting is done in an improper manner the trees cannot be expected to do well; and in the case of very old trees, probably the best way would be to root them out, and plant young trees in their stead. But in the case of young healthy trees, say from ten to fifteen, or even twenty years old, if they are properly grafted they will soon form large well-formed heads, which will bear a considerable quantity of fruit, while small trees just taken from the nursery would only be making wood growth. All through the country there are many vigorous, healthy trees, bearing only poor or unsaleable fruit, which, if they were grafted with profitable varieties, would in the course of a few years be a source of profit to their owners.




The following method of raising Colossal Asparagus was written in 1846, but is just as true and to the point to-day as then. We copy it for the benefit of our readers who wish to raise an extra fine article, and because his remarks upon cutting the shoots so fully corroborate the suggestions we ventured to give on this point at page 40. Our author says:

“About the first of November, or as soon as the frost has well blackened the Asparagus tops, I take a scythe and mow them close down to the surface of the bed, let it lie a day or two, then set fire to the heap of stalks, burn it to ashes and spread the ashes over the surface of the bed. I then go to my barn-yard, take a load of clean, fresh stable manure, and add thereto half a bushel of hen-dung, turning over and mixing the whole together throughout. I apply one such load to every twenty feet in length of my Asparagus beds, which are six feet wide. With a strong three-pronged spade or fork, I dig this dressing under. In the Spring, as early as possible, I turn the top of the bed over lightly once more, and cover the surface about a quarter of an inch thick with fine packing salt; it is not too much. As the Spring rains come down it gradually dissolves. Not a weed will appear during the whole season, but it would do your eyes good to see the strong, stout, tender stalks of the vegetable itself, pushing through the surface. I do not at all stretch a point when I say that they are often as large round as my hoe handle, and as tender and succulent as any I ever tasted. The same round of treatment is given to my bed every year.

“I have a word to say about cutting Asparagus and then I am done. Market gardeners, and I believe a good many other people, cut Asparagus as soon as the point of the shoot pushes an inch or two through the ground. They have then about two inches of what grows above ground and from four to six inches of what grows below. The latter looks white and tempting; I suppose people think that because the white part of celery is tender the white part of Asparagus must be too. But it is as tough as a stick, and this is the reason why people, when it is boiled, always are forced to eat only the tops, and leave the bottom of the shoots on their plates. My way is never to cut any of the shoots below the surface of the ground. Cut it as soon as it has grown to proper height, say five or six inches above ground. The whole is then green, but it is all tender, it will melt in your mouth.”


THE PLUM CURCULIO, Conotrachelus Nenuphar.


The season when the “little Turk” begins his destructive work on our plum crop is at hand, and it behooves all growers of this fruit, henceforward for several weeks, to make a vigorous onslaught on this stealthy foe. Although the Plum Curculio has been so often described, and is so well-known to the majority of our readers; still we find many beginners in fruit growing who have not yet made its acquaintance, and for their benefit we insert the accompanying figure, and give a brief description of the insect. In figure 8, a represents the larvæ; b, the chrysalis, and c the perfect insect, all magnified, the lines alongside of the figures showing the actual size of these objects; while d represents a small plum, with the well-known crescent mark of the insect, and the little beetle of natural size, crawling on the fruit. The Plum Curculio is a little, dark-gray or blackish beetle, about one-fifth of an inch long, with a rough, rugged surface, and having on the middle of each wing-case a black shining hump, bordered behind with a broad band of yellowish white; it is also furnished with a short snout. When this little creature is alarmed, the snout as well as the six short legs are drawn in close to the body, and the insect falls suddenly to the ground, where it lies motionless, much resembling a bit of dirt or a little dried up bud. In consequence of its peculiar inanimate appearance when thus “playing possum,” it frequently escapes detection; but when taken up between the fingers and placed on the hand, it quickly manifests symptoms of activity, and endeavors to escape, either by running or by flight.

Fig. 8.

The beetle deposits its eggs, one at a time, just under the skin of the plum, which is cut with a crescent shaped incision, deepened in the centre, where the egg is deposited. Here the young larvæ hatches, and eats its way into the fruit, burrowing about towards the middle, and so affecting the vitality of the plum that it falls prematurely to the ground, where the worm as soon as it is full grown escapes, and burrowing under the surface shortly becomes a chrysalis, from which in due time the perfect beetle emerges.

When a tree on which these beetles are working is suddenly jarred they become alarmed, and fall to the ground, where they feign death in the manner described, and by taking advantage of this peculiarity, and jarring our trees in the proper season, the great bulk of these enemies may be captured and destroyed, and a crop of plums secured. The proper method is to begin early, that is, soon after the plums have set, and repeat the operation daily for a week or more, and after that every second day for two or three weeks longer, or as long as the insect appears to be prevalent. Small trees should be jarred with the hand, larger ones may have one of their lower limbs cut off, leaving a few inches of stump, the end of which may be struck with a mallet; or a hole may be bored in the tree and an iron bolt inserted with a large flat head, which latter may be struck with a hammer or mallet. A suitable sheet must be provided to be spread under the tree; one made according to the following directions will answer the purpose well. Take nine yards of cotton, cut it into three lengths of three yards each and stitch them together, then take two strips of pine, an inch square and nine feet long, and tack the two outer edges of the sheet to these strips. Now tear the cotton sheet down the middle, half way, and it is ready for use. By means of the strips this sheet can be readily spread while the rent admits the trunk of the tree to the centre. Shaking the tree will not do, it must be jarred with a sudden blow, and the insects which fall on the sheet be picked up and destroyed. Morning and evening will be found the most favorable times for this work, as the insect is then less active than in the middle of the day.

Various other remedies have been suggested, many of them worthless, but among the best of them, air slaked lime or sifted wood ashes thrown up into the tree in the morning while the dew is on the foliage, or thoroughly smoking the tree by burning coal tar under it. By any of these methods the leaves and fruit are more or less coated with material offensive to the insect, but we doubt whether the use of either of them is so effectual as jarring, and since they require to be repeatedly applied, we question whether they would not be more troublesome to carry out than the jarring process.




Among the chief of the many improvements which this our dingy metropolis has received within the last few years, must be classed the attention given to flowers and window gardens. The very rich have their conservatories and plantations, the well-to-do in London their greenhouse and their parterre, the humbler lovers of all green things their fern-case and flower-stands; but the dwellers in the one back room, the weary city clerk with his limited salary, his many mouths to feed, and his circumscribed house-room, have only their window garden—their long wooden box, enriched it may be with gaudy tiles—wherein to plant their childhood’s favorites and keep the color of God’s carpet green in their memories.

Flowers and music make the poetry of life, and the more the toilers in this city of brick and mortar are made familiar with them, the better for their mental and moral health. This conviction has spread rapidly during the last few years, the rich having set the example by festooning their town houses with hardy climbers, while their balconies are filled in Summer with flowers.

The subtle influence of flowers on mankind is so thoroughly admitted, that it seems as though the remembrance of the ‘garden the Lord planted’ has never died out of the perception of the human race; the love and cultivation of plants has always had an elevating tendency—a drawing near to those far-off days of innocence when the trees and flowers and song of the wild bird were man’s delight, as he ‘walked with God.’

The Dean of Westminster, other dignitaries of the Church, highborn ladies, and people of wealth and leisure, have done much lately towards fostering this growing feeling among all classes by giving prizes for the best plants grown in dingy back yards and smoky garret-rooms; and it is as astonishing as it is touching to find how, like a human being, the little plant adapts itself to its surroundings, and throws out its beauty and fragrance in return for a little patience and tender care.

Annual exhibitions of workmen’s flowers take place patronised by the highest in the land; in all directions efforts are being made to spread the growing taste, and, above all, to give the toiling man and woman a home interest, a something to tend and watch, which is nature’s only safeguard against selfishness.

Few who have visited the sick, whether poor or otherwise, have not seen the flush of pleasure that tints their pale cheeks at an offering of flowers.

After those plant shows, where children exhibit, if the little window gardeners were encouraged to give their prize blossoms to the old and sick of their acquaintance, a feeling of kindliness and generosity in the young would be sown that would bear the fruits of charity hereafter.

I believe that flower sermons are given now and then by those good clergymen who have a special interest in the young. Each child brings a flower, and he tells them all he knows of the flowers that Christ hallowed by name; so God’s living gems become sacred in the child’s memory, not to be plucked and cast away at a moment’s whim.

The culture of plants in our crowded back slums and alleys would be most beneficial to the health, plants living on certain gases we exhale; and it seems impossible to conceive that a lover of flowers can be quite hardened in heart—there must be a soft spot where the arrow of religious conviction may penetrate if aimed by a skilful archer. The ministers of religion might do worse than foster window gardening in districts where they visit.

Many have doubtless heard of the ‘Flower Mission.’ Little bunches of flowers are made up by ladies’ fingers and sent to hospitals, and I hope workhouses, and to many a leaflet is attached on which a short sentence of Scripture is written. I am told that the happiest results have ensued. Men and women whom the word of chaplain failed to soften, at the sight of a flower have ‘given in’ and wept! Days of past innocence and happiness crowded into their memories by the ministration of a homely wallflower, and the wandering soul has returned to the Father of all created things.

To those with gardens full of flowering shrubs and conservatories radiant with scented beauty, to the more homely garden-lover with borders full of wallflowers and lily of the valley, with walls burdened with monthly roses and honeysuckle, I say, give of your abundance to the sick in mind and body. Once a week during the bounteous flower season send to some hospital, workhouse, or infirmary a hamper of God’s living gems. Be a member of the ‘Flower Mission’ in all its branches, in the window, the sick room, and to the aged pauper; nay, if, with the Bible, into the felon’s cell a flower now and then finds its way, the strictest disciplinarian will surely not object.



BY WM. SAUNDERS, LONDON. From the Free Press.

The Forest Tent Caterpillar (clissiocampa sylvatica), which was so very destructive to our gardens, orchards, and forests last year, seems likely to be almost as numerous and injurious again this season. The worms are now about an inch or more in length, and during the next ten days or fortnight will eat most voraciously, and their efforts, owing to their increased size, will be painfully apparent. There are many painstaking cultivators who are attentive to their trees, and destroy from time to time all the caterpillars they can find on them, but who are perplexed and discouraged by the continued invasions they are subject to from the hosts of these hungry larvæ which swarm in neglected orchards and among the forests trees. This particular caterpillar is very fond of travelling, and its powers of locomotion are not to be despised, for in a few hours it can travel a very considerable distance, and, if it does not meet with suitable food, can maintain its activity on an empty stomach for several days. In consequence of this peculiarity, trees that are free from them to-day may be swarming to-morrow. To meet such cases I would suggest the following simple and inexpensive remedy, which has been tried and found to work admirably:—Take a roll of cotton batting, open it out and cut it into strips about three inches wide, and tie one of these strips tightly about the middle to any part of the trunk of the tree, so as to completely encircle it. In attempting to cross this barrier, the multitude of minute, horny hooks which fringe the extremities of the thick, fleshy feet of the caterpillar become so entangled among the fibres of the cotton that further progress is impossible, and the hungry worm wishing to ascend, will be found walking disconsolately around and around the tree, looking in vain for some way over the difficult pass. As they have no other means of getting into the tree than that of crawling up it, when once the trees are cleaned, this harmless remedy is most effectual in keeping them so, and its use will result in a great saving of time and labor; even heavy rains do not impair the efficiency of this barrier.

When large trees are swarming with the caterpillars, as is the case in many orchards, such trees should be visited every morning, and the larvæ, which are then congregated in masses on the trunks, destroyed, which may be readily done by the vigorous use of a common broom.



The flowering Hawthorns are the attractive feature of the lawn after the early blooming shrubs have doffed their gay attire, and settled down to the more quiet hues that they will keep through the Summer. They are attractive indeed, arresting the attention of every passer-by, and drawing from all expressions of admiration and delight; not only because of their beauty, but on account also of the delicious fragrance which fills the air, and is carried for some distance by the winds.

The Single Scarlet variety is exceedingly showy and very fragrant, producing its flowers in great profusion, so that they quite hide the foliage. Early in the morning, and again just at evening, when the rays of the sun fall aslant, the trees of this variety are lit up with a peculiar glow that must be seen to be appreciated, words have no power to express the exceeding charm of their beauty.

In striking contrast, and yet blending harmoniously, heightening the beauty of the scene, is the Single White Thorn, the thorn of the English hedge-rows. Those who have been familiar with it in the days of their early home will need no description of it, the mere mention will bring visions of beauty and loveliness, and tender memories. The fragrant blossoms, wreathing the graceful branches as for a bridal, fill the air with sweet odours, and add new charms to the deepening hues of the other sisters.

With yet another beauty, not the free, fresh, unrestrained gracefulness of the single varieties, but in more stately style and with matronly air, the Double Flowering Thorns add their charm to the lovely group. These are of several shades, white, rich rose color, deep crimson, and bright carmine, each flower like a tiny rosette, and then grouped in clusters, set with a bordering of glossy emerald. These double flowers continue longer on the trees than the single, so that they retain their attractiveness for some time after the others have dropped their petals.

After many years trial of the Hawthorns the writer can only say that each returning year has left a deeper impression of the beauty and value of these large shrubs or small trees as ornaments for the lawn. They will certainly thrive well in a large part of Western Ontario, and deserve to be planted around every home in the land. What a charm they would give to our country in Spring-time, filling the air with fragrance, and the landscape with indescribable beauty.



It becomes our painful duty to announce the death of one of the Directors of the Association. Mr. Hora died at his residence Glen Lawrence, near Kingston, on Saturday, May 4th, 1878, of valvular disease of the heart. He was born at Harwich, Essex, England, 31st January, 1820.

His father was a surgeon in extensive practice in Bayswater, London, who intended his son for his own profession, and was greatly disappointed in finding him very much averse to it, his tastes and talent qualifying him, he felt, more for an artist’s life. He was for some months in the studio of the late Daniel Webster, R.A., but an appointment being offered him in the Commissariat department of the Indian Navy, he gave up his favorite study and sailed for India, passing his 16th birthday at the Cape of Good Hope. When in India his pencil was not idle. His talent as a draughtsman was soon known, and he was transferred by the late Sir C. Malcolm, Superintendant, I. N., who took a great interest in him, to the surveying branch of the service. This life he enjoyed exceedingly. For three years he was employed in the active duties of the survey of the islands of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, &c., &c. He was highly spoken of as a draughtsman, his charts were considered beautifully finished and were preserved in the East India House, London. While on this service he was able to cultivate his taste for natural history, and made a very fine collection of shells.

In 1841 he held an appointment in the civil branch of the service. Having to live in the dockyard at Bombay, he was attacked with fever, and after battling against it for 12 months, (from which time he dated the commencement of the heart disease of which he died,) he had to go to England on sick certificate. He returned to India for three years, but his health again broke down, and he was sent to Europe on medical furlough. On his return to London, 1849, he spent a great part of his time in the British Museum among its hidden treasures, enjoying the society of its curators Messrs. Grey, Doubleday, &c. Dr. Baird, the conchologist, assisting him in classifying his fine collection of shells. He returned to India in 1851 and served through the Burmese war, which commenced soon after his arrival. Boat work in the rivers soon laid him up with fever; he had to leave his ship and live on shore. While an invalid at Rangrove he made a large collection of moths and butterflies. His health was so thoroughly shaken by the climate that he was not fit for active service, and in 1854 he returned to England and retired on half pay. His wife and family were then living in Wales. Here he was a most devoted and successful salmon fisher; with rod and sketch-book he spent days enjoying the lovely scenery of the beautiful Welsh rivers. His garden was a great delight, and with the enthusiasm of a true florist, he raised flowers of great beauty and perfection.

In 1866 he decided to emigrate to Canada, thinking there would there be a better opening in life for his sons. After he bought Glen Lawrence he turned his attention to fruit growing, and entered into it with all his constitutional enthusiasm, it became a perfect passion. He never was so happy as among his fruit trees and vines. When almost dying he spoke of them with tenderness, leaving them to the special care of his son.

To the Fruit Growers’ Association, of which he was a member in 1871, he attributed much of his success in fruit growing. He always spoke of his connection with the society with great satisfaction and earnestness, for he thought that the information imparted by means of its reports would prove a blessing to those settling in Canada, and save them from the disappointments he had suffered in starting.

At the annual meeting, in London, in 1877, he was chosen to represent the third Agricultural Division on the board of Directors of the Fruit Growers’ Association, which position he filled with great acceptance, constantly seeking to present to his constituents the advantages it afforded to its members. Before his term had expired his seat has become vacant, but he leaves the memory of an unblemished character, both in public service and in private life. Thus we pass on, one after another, in the hope “that the culture, training and sorrows of earth shall culminate in the purity, perfection, and bliss of heaven,

“Where Gilead’s balm in its freshness shall flow,

O’er the wounds which the pruning knife gave us below.”


Misspelled words and printer errors have been corrected. Where multiple spellings occur, majority use has been employed.

Punctuation has been maintained except where obvious printer errors occur.


pg. 68 trees that were defoliated by the tent caterpillars ==> trees that were defoliated by the Tent Caterpillars


[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 05 edited by D. W. Beadle]