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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 04

Date of first publication: 1878

Author: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Jan. 21, 2018

Date last updated: Jan. 21, 2018

Faded Page eBook #20180136

This ebook was produced by: Delphine Lettau, David T. Jones, Cindy Beyer & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net



Table of Contents added for convenience








VOL. I.]APRIL, 1878.[NO. 4.


We are under obligations to Mr. T. C. Robinson, of Owen Sound, for calling our attention to an article written for the Rural New Yorker, by Dr. S. H. Hoskins, in which he describes some apples recently discovered through the exertions of the Montreal Horticultural Society, and which are as yet mostly unpropagated, although many of them have been long known among the French population of the Province of Quebec. Several of these apples are regarded by Dr. Hoskins as belonging to the Fameuse or Snow Apple class, and seem to be descendants of that well known and highly esteemed apple. The descriptions given are those of Dr. Hoskins as they appear in the extract sent by Mr. Robinson.

Fameuse Sucre.—This is an inviting blackish-red little dessert apple, it is of the same size as Fameuse, but much darker in color than the reddest of that very variable variety in respect of color; form roundish, or slightly oblate; flesh white, deeply stained with red; and very crisp, yet tender, at once mildly sub-acid and sugary, with an aroma of the most peculiar, penetrating, and enduring quality, more like that of some spicy foreign grape than of an apple. I am bold to say that no known apple equals Fameuse Sucre in delicacy and piquancy of taste. It is a true revelation, in apples, of a capacity for flavor which we might look for in some rare tropical fruit, than in an apple from the extreme north. It is not a sweet apple, it is a deliciously sugared apple, as its name indicates, with a distinct aromatic acidity beneath the saccharine, like, yet unlike, the highest flavored strawberry. The season of Fameuse Sucre is from the middle of September until the last of October, or later. The tree seems as hardy as Fameuse; it is upright in growth, it spreads but gradually, its branches bear the bright gloss of health. Like Fameuse, it bears light and heavy crops alternately; those who have it say it equals Fameuse in yield.

Roseau.—This is not the Roseau of any of the books. The fruit is of even, medium size, oblate, basin wrinkled; color, a very dark red; flesh white, stained with red, crisp, juicy, sub-acid, high flavored. Season, September. Tree hardy and long lived, a moderate grower, with an upright close head; an early, yearly, moderate bearer.

Mountain Beet.—This is, in some respects, the most singular apple I ever saw. It is of medium size, roundish-conical, very dark-red, almost black, yet with the clear red shining through. But the curious thing about it is its flesh, as deeply red to the core as a blood-beet, with a red juice, staining the fingers like that of a strawberry. The fruit has the aroma, but not the sugared quality of the Fameuse Sucre—a sort of “country cousin” of that variety. This tree is in the hands of at least one nurseryman, is regarded as productive and hardy, and is being set for profit in the well-known fruit growing town of Abbotsford, P. Q. It is the only variety in this list of which I have yet been able to procure cions. Season of fruit, October and November.

Canada Baldwin.—Fruit, size of Fameuse; roundish-oblate, overspread with streaks and splashes of dark, over light red, with many distinct grey specks. Flesh white, often much stained with red, tender, crisp, juicy, mildly sub-acid. Keeps till May or June. The tree is a vigorous grower, with a somewhat upright though gradually spreading head. It has fruit spurs distributed evenly along its branches, and bears as young as the Fameuse, in alternately heavy and light crops. This variety has got out of the hands of the French, and is propagated and planted to some extent. It has the fault, on light soils, of sunscalding upon the bark, but is otherwise hardy. Would probably do well top-grafted.

Pomme de Fer.—This is the late keeper of the Province of Quebec. There is a tradition that it was brought from Philadelphia over a hundred years ago, by the Seigneur of Chambly; but this is improbable, as it is not recognized as much resembling any American apple, while its seedling, the Canadian Baldwin described above, is of the distinct Canadian type. Tree fairly hardy, a moderate bearer. Fruit, above medium, roundish to a roundish-oblong, dull-red, with many very distinct grey dots, somewhat like the Flushing Spitzenburg. Flesh yellow, very firm, moderately juicy, mildly sub-acid, somewhat aromatic. This apple keeps till June or July, but is not highly recommended by the Montreal Society.

Strawberry of Montreal.—This is none of the “Strawberry” apples of the books. The tree is extra hardy, and its stout and vigorous growth, and clean, glossy bark, show it to be especially adapted to the cold north. It is erect in growth, without having a dense head. Fruit above medium in size, sometimes large, roundish-conic, yellowish, mostly splashed with red. Flesh yellowish, tender, moderately juicy, mildly sub-acid. It ripens with the Duchess of Oldenburg, but is a better dessert apple. Placed by many growers among the best five for profit, and I recommend it to the attention of your readers in the cold north-west.

Decarie.—Regarding this apple tree, I make the following extract from the invaluable report of the Fruit Committee of the Montreal Horticultural Society for 1876:—“The original tree, producing this noble apple, stood in Jeremie Decarie’s orchard in Coteau St. Pierre, east of the Cote St. Luke road, which orchard is now owned by his grandson of the same name. It was cut down a few years ago. It was then about a hundred years old, had a butt as large as a flour barrel, and was of a height so remarkable as to be compared to an elm. The tree is a vigorous grower, and forms an erect head, which spreads but very gradually, so that though it attains great size, yet it may be planted fairly close. We have seen eighty, if not one hundred of these trees, planted fifteen years ago on the Coteau, and growing in sandy loam, and from these we judge the tree to be hardy and healthy. It bears light and heavy crops alternately. We once saw seven barrels under one tree which had been fifteen years planted. Mr. Lortie, after marketing them for many years, says they are very profitable. Fruit, on trees grown in grass, even when they have suffered from want of drainage, large; but when the soil was cultivated, very large, and commanding marked attention. Form, roundish-conic to oblong-conic, often deeply ribbed, with a deep, narrow, russety cavity, and a basin which, though medium in depth, is wrinkled and obscurely ribbed. Color, light or dark red, sometimes very dark all over, and covered with a beautiful bluish-white bloom, with many medium sized gray dots. Flesh whitish, rather firm, juicy, with, says Downing, a slight peculiar quince-like flavor. Season, September fifteen to October first.”

With regard to the Fameuse Sucre, the Fruit Committee of the Montreal Horticultural Society say that it is “an inviting, blackish-red, little dessert apple. There are about a dozen trees of it in the orchard of the Hon. E. Prud’homme, at Coteau, St. Pierre. They have been planted some seven or eight years, but some of them are twenty years old. It has proved profitable, but is not among the five best kinds for profit. Its chief merit is as a dessert apple, for which purpose it comes in just before the middle of September.” Of the Pomme de Fer, the Committee say that it is not likely to be planted in future except in limited quantities for home use. They say of the Strawberry of Montreal that they know nothing of its origin, the oldest tree known to them is a grafted tree, planted by the late Charles Bowman, at Forden, Cote St. Luke, about the year 1835. Of late years, Messrs. Lacombe, Bigarreau, and Desmarchais, of Cote des Neiges, have propagated it largely. On the whole, they think it deserves more extensive cultivation as a hardy tree, whose fruit, ripening at the same time as the Duchess of Oldenburg, is yet superior to it in quality, and commands a ready sale in the market. The Committee say of Decarie, that amateurs should grow this handsome fruit; but though it is hardy, saleable, and a heavy bearer, yet commercial orchardists name five other apples to be preferred before it. They do not mention the Mountain Beet, which is a singular fact, in-as-much as one of the members resides at Abbotsford, where Dr. Hoskins says it is planted for profit.

The varieties which this Committee name as the best for profit in that section of the country are, first the Fameuse, which holds the first place without a rival, especially on account of its adaptability to various soils, and being their heaviest cropper, selling at $5 per barrel; second, the St. Lawrence, which brings, in the city market, thirty per cent. more than the Fameuse, in this way compensating for its smaller crop, which is from one-half to three-fourths that of the Fameuse; third, the Alexander, which bears about two-thirds as much as the Fameuse, and sells for $5 per barrel; fourth, the Red Astracan, which sells at $2 per bushel; and fifth, the Duchess of Oldenburg, which bears very nearly as well as the Fameuse, and sells in the city at from $1.50 to $2 per bushel.



When the Winter is past, and the snow wreaths are gone, and the soft south wind comes in the place of him of the icy breath; when the time of the singing of birds is come, as they return from their long visit to the lands of the south, how the eye lights up with gladness at the sight of the first opening flower, and the heart prizes the first heralds of returning verdure and beauty. These early flowers, what a charm they have; what pleasing thoughts they waken, touching alike the chords of memory and hope. The homestead that has none of these to feast the eye and cheer the heart, must be to its inmates the very castle of giant despair, whence hope has fled, and where memory is weaving garlands of withered leaves.

There is a goodly number of these early blossoming shrubs which can be planted about the home, some of them sufficiently hardy to endure the rigors of our colder sections, while others of them, especially those of the Almond family, can only be grown successfully in our milder districts. One of the most showy and hardy of these is the Japan Quince, Cydonia Japonica. It has been called by some the burning bush, for the scarlet variety when covered with its bright glowing flowers, is indeed an apt reminder of that which burned but was not consumed. It is a shrub of great beauty, putting forth its large blossoms in great profusion early in the spring, before the leaves are grown. Standing alone, or when used as a dividing garden hedge it presents a most charming appearance. When the flowers are faded, the neat, glossy green leaves are pretty, and as Autumn approaches the golden fruits shine brightly beautiful among the foliage. There is a variety which produces delicate pink flowers, or light salmon color, shading to white; but the flowers are not so profusely abundant as those of the scarlet. There is also another variety with very brilliant rosy red flowers, which are produced in great abundance, and whose fruit is larger and more showy than that of the scarlet. In striking contrast to the crimson and scarlet of the Japan Quince stands the beautiful snow white Plum-leaved Spirea, Spirea prunifolia flore pleno. This is the most attractive of all the Spireas; graceful in outline, abundant in flowering, every branch a bridal wreath, each flower a perfect rosette; in the purity of its whiteness; and elegance of its grace it is the acknowledged queen of the race. Nor is it beautiful only when the slender branches are wreathed throughout with white roses in miniature; all through the Summer bright glossy leaves clothe its graceful form, which change when Autumn comes on to yellow and orange, and red and scarlet, with such a variety of coloring, and tints so glowing and yet so harmoniously blended, that now it seems to have become the burning bush, the eye rests upon it with a new pleasure, and the heart wishes that it might remain thus forever. A fitting companion for these is a shrub of more recent introduction, a native of Northern China, which has proved quite hardy, and may be called the Chinese Double-flowering Plum, Prunus Triloba. It is a great acquisition, and well worthy of a place in the most select collection. The flowers are large, nearly double, of a clear pink, thus forming a sort of intermediate color between the Japan Quince and the Plum-leaved Spirea. The flowers are produced in great profusion, literally wreathing the branches before the leaves appear. Its habit seems to be more dwarf-like than that of the others that have been mentioned, hence it should be planted in the foreground where its beautiful peach-blow tints may be fully presented to view.

Grouped with these flowering shrubs should be planted another, having no showy flowers, but presenting by the peculiar color of its leaves a pleasing feature on the lawn; it is the Purple-leaved Filbert, Corylus Americana, var. purpurea. Coming into leaf while the other shrubs just described are in flower, its dark purplish-red leaves seems to bring out and heighten the beauty of their several colors; and when the flowers upon the others have passed away, the rich purplish coloring of these leaves remains, contrasting pleasingly with the glossy green foliage of its neighbors. All the Summer long the leaves retain this purple hue, making it one of the most showy of our colored leaved shrubs, giving beauty and richness to the grounds as a shrub that is ever in flower.

These few are mentioned, not that they are all the wealth of our early flowering shrubs, but that our readers may not be embarrassed in their selections by the profusion of over riches, and that they may be guided to those that will give variety within small compass. Besides it shows that it is possible that our rural homes should be made attractive with very small expenditure of means and labor. Much has been done in this direction, but there is also much that remains undone. Passing the homes of our thriving farmers, the tidy lawn, or if you please, door-yard, bright with blossoming shrubs and trees of beauty, is yet the exception. There is a reason for this, and that reason pays no compliment to our taste or refinement. Away with the thought that refinement is to be found only in the city, that country cousin means something wanting in the appreciation or expression of grace and beauty. If it be so, why is it? Where are forms of grace and beauty set forth with hand so lavish as in the country? Where are models so fresh and pure, just sprung from the hand of Him whose every creation is but the expression of grace, to be found as here? With these before us continually are we to grow rude and coarse? Nay, let it not be; let us open the eye to the beautiful things the bountiful Father has given us, let us cluster them around our dwellings, let us educate our love of the bright, and beautiful, and graceful, until our country homes in their surroundings shall be the expression of the refined and lovely spirit that reigns within them. We make our lives weary with heavy toil, and think we have neither time nor strength for these mere adornments. In the days of pioneer life, when the battle for subsistence is stern and unremitting, perhaps there may be a necessity in neglecting the finer instincts of our nature. Yes, perhaps; for how many a pioneer’s cabin have we seen garlanded with flowers; but let that be accepted; the pioneer days of our readers have long since passed. We forget that the mere adornments, as we like to call these things, both tell what we are, and have to do with making us what we are. For the children’s sake then let the influence of home within and without be loving and lovely, that their early appreciation of the beautiful may expand and grow with their growth, and that in their communion with grace and refinement, as expressed in these refined and graceful creations, they may drink in the true spirit of gentleness with manliness.




The Peach.—I do not see why the scientific names of our fruits should not sometimes be used in our horticultural journals. Students of botany and entomology in their journals are very particular to speak of the different species by their scientific names, and it seems to me that if we were occasionally to do the same in practical horticulture it might advance a scientific knowledge among growers of fruit. Had I headed this paragraph Amygdalus Persica, or Persica Vulgaris, I wonder how many would have at once known that the peach was referred to.

In point of hardiness there appears quite a difference among the varieties of the peach. The late unusually mild Winter very much developed the fruit buds, and the cold of March 24th, when the thermometer registered 11° above zero, tried them severely. The most valuable variety seems also to be one of the most tender, viz, the Early Crawford; it has suffered much, at least three-fourths of the fruit buds being frozen. The Early Purple, a peach almost unsaleable in seasons of great abundance, is proving itself valuable for its hardiness, its fruit buds being perfectly intact; nor is this the first time this variety has escaped when the Crawford has succumbed to a Canadian Winter. Next in hardiness comes the Early Beatrice, and after it, perhaps, the Hale’s Early. The old Mixon is quite as tender as the Crawford, and indeed I think more so.

Peach Crates.—The bushel crate usually accepted in Grimsby has the ends 8×14 inches, and the sides 24 inches long; while the three-peck crate is of course 6 inches wide, instead of 8 inches, or just ¾ of the bushel size. Complete uniformity in measure of all fruit packages is very much to be desired. Certainly packages holding short measure never brought permanent profit to the shipper using them, while more frequently they bring him well merited disgrace.

Ladders for Peach Picking.—Of course nothing is so useful in a peach orchard as a good supply of step-ladders, but where these are counted too expensive, a very simple contrivance may prove very serviceable among large trees. It consists of one stout pole morticed into a base made of scantlin, and having rounds for climbing, as is shown in the engraving. A rainy day in Spring-time would suffice for making several of these, and they will prove very light and serviceable when the busy season of picking comes on. They can be used in trees where a two barred ladder would be useless, for the end of the pole will rest in any crotch with perfect safety.



It is both interesting and profitable to take a look at the changes which time makes in the horticultural world, and sweeping the eye over the space of a quarter of a century, gather up some of the lessons which the retrospect may teach. It is now a little more than twenty-five years ago that the late James Wilson, a nurseryman of Albany, in the State of New York, raised several seedling strawberry plants from seed of the Ross Phœnix, Hovey and Black Prince. It is not supposed that he endeavored to combine the qualities of any of them by means of artificial cross-fertilization, but in-as-much as the plants of these varieties were growing in near proximity, trusted to natural means for any impregnation of the one by pollen of the other. Of these seedlings only one gave promise of being valuable. This one he preserved and multiplied, and in the Summer of 1853 exhibited some of the plants in bearing at the exhibition of the Albany Horticultural Society. But his exhibit at that time did not attract much attention. His failure to excite any interest in the minds of others in his new seedling strawberry did not prevent him from bringing it forward again the following Summer. He now showed a number of the plants in pots, laden with fruit, and such was the size and number of the berries upon each plant that people were astonished, curiosity was excited, and public attention fairly aroused to the examination of the claims of this new strawberry. Intelligent and experienced cultivators of fruit clustered around the stand on which the plants were displayed, and many then united in the opinion that for productiveness, size of berry, firmness of flesh and good flavor, it would surpass any then known variety as a valuable market strawberry.

And what were the varieties that were then relied upon for home and market purposes? We find on looking back, that in 1846 the then great American authority in horticulture, A. J. Downing, names Hovey’s Seedling and Black Prince as best adapted for extensive culture for market; and for the two best sorts for family use, one early and one at the middle season, he names Large Early Scarlet as the best of all early sorts, and for the other, Hovey’s Seedling or Black Prince, adding that the two latter are both large fruits, productive and excellent. The varieties then most in cultivation were the Black Prince, Early Scarlet, Hovey, Hudson, Princess Alice, British Queen, Myatt’s Eliza, Ross Phœnix and Swainstone’s Seedling. At this time, Hovey’s Seedling Strawberry had been in cultivation for twelve years, and it was in this year, 1846, that the Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded a piece of plate of the value of fifty dollars to the Messrs. Hovey, of Boston, as a special premium for the strawberry raised by them, Hovey’s Seedling.

In 1847 the Cincinnati Horticultural Society offered a prize of one hundred dollars for a new American strawberry, which after thorough trial should prove to be superior to any then in cultivation. In 1851 the society awarded this prize to Mr. McAvoy, a cultivator of strawberries in the vicinity of Cincinnati, for one of his seedlings which they named McAvoy’s Superior, deciding that it was superior to Hovey’s or any other strawberry that came under the examination of the committee. At this time we find that the varieties were Hovey, Burr’s New Pine, Black Prince, Alice Maud, Early Scarlet, Jenny’s Seedling, Roseberry, Genessee, Monroe, Climax Scarlet, Boston Pine, Crimson Cone, Royal Scarlet, Swainstone’s Seedling, British Queen, Myatt’s Eliza, Buist’s Prize, Willey, Rival Hudson, Myatt’s Pine, Crimson Cone, and some others of less note. It was in this year that Mr. Wilson raised his seedling strawberry plants, among which was his now well-known Wilson’s Albany, and such were the varieties with which it had to compete. What they were may be gathered from R. G. Pardee, who was in those days authority on all matters connected with strawberry culture, a gentleman of sound judgment, extended observation and sterling integrity; one whom it was a privilege even to know, but whose friendship is one of the sunniest remembrances of life. He has passed on now. Will they who found so much delight in talking with each other of the fruits of earth, find a like bond of union in the fruits of that other land? Mr. Pardee, writing in the Summer of 1852 says that Burr’s New Pine “has maintained its high reputation as a family fruit. All my visitors have united with me in giving it the preference in flavor over all others. Monroe Scarlet has this season proved to be the largest bearer on my grounds. Rival Hudson is one of the most productive market fruits. Willey has borne next in quantity to Monroe Scarlet. If I wished to set out a bed for family use I would plant one-fifth each of Burr’s New Pine, Hovey’s Seedling, and Monroe Scarlet, and remainder of Crimson Cone, Large Early Scarlet and Boston Pine. For market I would largely add Rival Hudson and Willey.”

In 1852 the American Pomological Society considered as worthy of general cultivation the Boston Pine, Hovey, Jenny’s Seedling, and Large Early Scarlet. These varieties continued to stand among the leading sorts for several years. Very little was heard of Wilson’s Albany; no pains being taken to bring it into notice. In 1856 John Sloan, of Albany, fruited a bed of three hundred plants and found them to be more prolific than Early Scarlet or Crimson Cone. In October, 1857, Mr. John Wilson, the son of the raiser, sent some plants to Mr. J. Jay Smith, in Philadelphia, the then Editor of the Horticulturist. In 1858 H. H. Mish, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, reported that he had received some plants of this variety during the previous Autumn, and that it promised to be productive and valuable. Dr. Russell, of Hartford, Connecticut, reported it very productive, berries dark red, firm, juicy and well flavored: at the meeting of the Fruit Growers’ Society of Western New York, held that Summer, Burr’s New Pine and Early Scarlet, received each seven votes for amateur cultivation, Wilson’s Albany and Hovey each four votes, and for market Early Scarlet received eight votes, Crimson Cone and Wilson’s Albany each seven, Hovey four, and Burr’s New Pine only two. The American Pomological Society in that year added it to their list for general cultivation.

Thus we see that five years had elapsed from the time of its first introduction at Albany before it had become sufficiently known to obtain a place in the list of the American Pomological Society. Passing now over a period of a dozen years, we find, on looking at the Report of the American Pomological Society for 1871, that out of fifty States and Provinces, represented in that Society, the Wilson’s Albany has found its way into twenty-six, in all of which it is recommended, and in fourteen of them it is double starred to denote superiority. Meanwhile where are the varieties which stood in the front rank of strawberry culture when Mr. Wilson first placed his new seedling on the table of the Albany Horticultural Society? Only four of them, Boston Pine, Hovey, Early Scarlet and Victoria, can be found at all in this report. Of these, Boston Pine is recommended in five States, Hovey in sixteen, but double starred only in Massachusetts, the State of its birth. Early Scarlet is recommended in ten States, and Victoria in eight. Of those which had since attained a position on the Society’s list, the Triomph de Gand stands next to Wilson’s Albany, being recommended in fifteen States, and double starred in five of them.

Passing on now down the current of time, over a lapse of six more years, we look into the Report of the American Pomological Society for 1877, which has just come to hand. With thirty varieties now on the list, Wilson’s Albany is still in advance, distancing every competitor in the race. Of fifty States, Provinces and Territories yet represented, this strawberry is recommended for cultivation in thirty-six and in twenty-six of them it receives the double star of great superiority and value. These places extend from 28° to 49° north latitude, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. We still find our old friends, Boston Pine, Hovey, Early Scarlet, and Victoria on the list. Boston Pine is now recommended in six States, Hovey in seventeen, with the double star in Massachusetts only, Early Scarlet in ten, and Victoria in seven. Triomph de Gand still holds rank next to Wilson’s Albany, being recommended in twenty-four States and double starred in six of them, while next to that stands the Charles Downing, recommended in twenty-three States and double starred in six.

The history of this strawberry teaches some interesting lessons. Without puffing, nay, in spite of many hard speeches, with even the note at the foot of the list, in the Report of the American Pomological Society now before us that it is of “poor quality,” this fruit has spread in a quarter of a century over more than half a continent, and more thousands of bushels of it are consumed every year than of any other berry. How comes it that a fruit of “poor quality” should be so universally cultivated? May it not be possible that our standards of excellence need some revision? It would be a long list indeed that should contain the names of all the strawberries which have been brought out with great flourish of trumpets, as far better in quality and fully as prolific as Wilson’s Albany, that have had their day and passed into oblivion. The verdict of the public is in favor of the Wilson; it has stood the test of time, and of great variety of soil and climate, and we may as well accept that verdict, for it is doubtless correct.

There is a question, too, that one may easily ask, that is not so easily answered. What quality or peculiarity of constitution is possessed by this plant that it can adapt itself to all soils and climates, and be equally valuable and productive in Nova Scotia and in Florida, in Connecticut and in California?

What, too, shall we say of the skill of our hybridists? Although Mr. Wilson was always confident that his “Albany” was produced by a cross between Black Prince and Hovey’s Seedling, yet we believe he never pretended that he had artificially impregnated the one with the other, but that it was one of those chance cross-fertilizations which may happen under favoring circumstances. That it was certainly a cross between these two sorts cannot be affirmed. But what have the labors of our hybridists, who have taken the strawberry in hand, as yet accomplished? Where is the berry that has been the production of their skill, which has achieved anything approaching to such success? Many indeed have been the champions on the strawberry field who have came out in full panoply to run a tilt against this stripling, friendless and unarmed; but the smooth pebble from the brook has silently done its work; not even was the dull thud heard as it sunk into the brain; and when the champion fell, there was no crash nor jar, for he who came forth with such giant claims, shrunk, as he fell, to his true proportions.

There is a lesson, too, for “committees on new fruits.” McAvoy’s Superior, to which was awarded the prize of one hundred dollars in 1851, in twenty years had disappeared entirely from the list of the American Pomological Society, while the Wilson’s Albany, which first found a place on that list in 1858, has spread itself during these twenty years yet farther and wider, and stands to-day the acknowledged chieftain, despite the cold shoulder of fruit committees and critics. That which is really valuable, which possesses in any large degree the quality of usefulness, will find its own way into public appreciation; nay, will be sought out, and brought into notice without the help of committees, while that which fails in these qualities will go into forgetfulness, the silver cup, medal or prize serving only the purpose of a tombstone.

And last, we take issue with those who say that Wilson’s Albany is of poor quality. To our taste it is richer by far than Triomph de Gand or Jucunda. A false impression has gone out by reason of judgment having been passed upon the fruit when it was unripe; and as some who are supposed to be authority in such matters have given expression to this opinion, it has become the fashion among the “upper ten” of the horticultural world to call the berry “sour.” But when the fruit is allowed to become ripe, which is not when it first turns red, but when the seeds have become dark brown and the berries assume a mahogany color, then will its true richness and flavor be developed, and the fruit be found to possess that commingling of sweet and sour which is sprightly, refreshing and agreeable. For those whose taste demands a greater degree of sweetness, sugar may be added without destroying the flavor, but they will be few who will require much addition of saccharine beyond that which the perfectly ripened berry yields.

With a record such as the one we have now presented, the Wilson’s Albany will commend itself to the planter, whether he purposes merely to furnish his own table or to supply the market.




I am in trouble with my grape-vines. I have a small vineyard of about thirty vines, well trellised, some of them 1½ inches in diameter. They all started their buds properly this Spring, but since then one-half of them have remained in the same state, the buds turning yellow and looking sickly; I found a lot of small dark blue bugs on the buds, they appear to eat into the heart of the bud, and are difficult to catch. I made a solution of soap suds, putting one table spoonful of hellebore into one pailful, and watering the vines with a rose on the watering pot. I apply every Spring around each vine old rotted horse manure, raking in wood ashes, and keep the ground in clean order. Would you be kind enough to advise me what to do? It is very disheartening to lose the vines after so many years of care and labor. The vines are Delaware, Adirondac, Salem, Concord, Hartford, Israella, Martha (white), Eumelan, and Clinton. The Adirondac, Delaware, and Salem are most affected. I am trying to catch the bugs by hand, but find it damages the buds doing so. I intend sprinkling with soap suds until hearing from you.

I am glad to report the Burnet vine is coming on well. The monthly pamphlet of the Association is a very great improvement, and sincerely trust it will succeed.



These are so easily grown that there is no reason why they should not find a place in every garden and on every table. The plants are dwarf and bushy, not requiring any support, and will grow in any dry and mellow soil that is in good condition and well-tilled. They do not thrive in cold wet soils, nor in shaded situations. Being very sensitive to frost, they should not be planted until the weather has become warm, and danger from frosts after they are up has passed. It is usual to plant them in the garden in drills, sowing quite thick, so that if the cut-worms attack them there may be some to escape. They may be planted about three inches deep in the drill, and the rows eighteen inches apart. They should not be hoed or handled when wet with rain or dew, as that causes the leaves to turn brown, with a rusty appearance. As soon as the pods have nearly obtained their usual length, and while the beans are yet quite small, they may be gathered for use. They are prepared by breaking off the end and pulling the string down the length of the pod, and then snapping the pods into smaller pieces. Because of the string which is removed from the edges of the pod in preparing them for cooking, they have been called string beans, and for the reason that after the string has been removed they break with a snap, if gathered at the right age, they are also called snap beans. After being broken into suitable pieces they are boiled in water until quite tender, and then served with a little salt and butter.

There are a number of varieties now in cultivation, each having some peculiarity by which it is distinguished, and on account of which it is prized by those who grow it. The Early Rachel is considered a desirable variety because of its hardiness, and coming soon into use. We have found the Early Mohawk to be one of the most hardy sorts, enduring cold winds and chilly weather, and even light frosts. It is very productive, the pods are tender, and if gathered as fast as they become fit for use, will continue to yield a good supply for some time. The Refugee is an abundant cropper, but later, coming into use in about eight weeks after planting. It is much esteemed for pickling, on account of the thick, fleshy character of the pods. The Wax or Butter variety has become very popular in our markets; the pods are thick, fleshy and of a waxy yellow color, and very tender, but to the writer’s taste they are very deficient in sweetness and richness of flavor. Their delicate, almost transparent appearance, and tenderness, will make them sell readily, no matter about the flavor, and they are as prolific as the most enthusiastic market gardener could reasonably ask. The Broad or Windsor Bean, so generally grown in England, is not used as a string bean, but shelled and only the beans used. It does not usually do well in our climate, probably owing to our greater heat and dryness. The White Marrowfat is not as desirable for use as a string bean as the other sorts that have been mentioned; but for use shelled, either green or dry, and particularly as a baking bean, is of the first quality. This is the variety that is extensively grown for market in a dry state, and has become an article of considerable commercial importance, commanding from a dollar to a dollar and a half per bushel.




A hint to amateurs. Having two Snow Apple trees, both bearing the same season, it was desirable to have snow apples every year, so we picked the blossoms from one of the trees in May, 1876. The year following we had snow apples, and the indications now are that the trees will bear alternately.

The boys are operating on the sweet apple trees this season, in hopes of having fruit next year, by changing the bearing year of part of the trees.


Misspelled words and printer errors have been corrected. Where multiple spellings occur, majority use has been employed.

Punctuation has been maintained except where obvious printer errors occur.


pg. 54 Corylus Americana, var purpurea ==> Corylus Americana, var. purpurea

pg. 58 Buists’ Prize ==> Buist’s Prize

pg. 62 Would you . . . me what to do. ==> Would you . . . me what to do?


[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 04 edited by D. W. Beadle]