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Title: Under the Lily and the Rose: A Short History of Canada for Children Volume 2 of 2

Date of first publication: 1931

Author: Arthur G. Doughty

Date first posted: Aug. 13, 2015

Date last updated: Aug. 13, 2015

Faded Page eBook #20150805

This ebook was produced by: Alex White & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net
















Reproduced from the original in possession of Mr. Ward C. Pittfield
Scene of a typical village festival on St. Martin’s or St. Jean Baptiste Day
C. Krieghoff













XVII.Lord Dorchester
XVIII.The Coming of the Loyalists
XIX.Upper Canada
XX.The Red River Settlement
XXI.The War of 1812
XXII.The Anglican and Other Churches
XXIII.A Glimpse of Canada from the Air
XXIV.The Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald
XXV.After the War
XXVI.After Confederation
XXVII.Sir Wilfrid Laurier
XXVIII.Lord Minto and Lord Grey
XXIX.Right Honourable Sir Robert Borden
XXX.The Right Honourable W. L. Mackenzie King
XXXI.The Honourable R. B. Bennett, Prime Minister of Canada
XXXII.The Last Chapter


A Village Festival

The Governor’s Daughter at the Ursulines’

On the Beauport Road

Enlargement of Small Map of Canada, the Gift of Her Majesty the Queen

Sugar making in Quebec, about 1850

Encampment of 71st Regiment, Bytown, 1829

Court House and Jail, York, Upper Canada, August, 1829

A Settler’s Home near Carberry, Assiniboia, 1884

The Landing Place at Montreal, about 1829

Granville Street, Halifax, many years ago

First Church of England, Red River, Winnipeg, 1823

Kingston Church, July 27th, 1829

Brockville, Upper Canada, 1829

Bath, One Hundred Years Ago

Banff Springs Hotel

A Street in Victoria, 1860

Playtime at Village School, about 1850

Pier and Fort, Toronto, 1839

Old Fort Garry, Winnipeg, Manitoba

At the Close of a Winter’s Day




Guy Carleton was appointed Governor-General of Canada for the second time in 1786, under the title of Baron Dorchester. At this time the action of the United States was a cause of anxiety to England. There was a strong party hostile to Great Britain, anxious to include Canada in the new Republic. In addition to this the advent of the Loyalists increased the difficulties of government, and Dorchester was considered the best man to be entrusted with the affairs of the colony. Lady Dorchester accompanied her husband, and with her came their three children, one of whom, Maria, had been born in the Château St. Louis. Lady Dorchester was the daughter of the Earl of Effingham, and having been educated at Versailles was a great favourite in Quebec. In the convent to-day one may see the silver which she presented to the community. The young Lady Maria became a pupil of the Ursulines, and three hours during the day she received instruction in French and embroidery; her mother often accompanied her to converse in French with the nuns. Many of the young girls in Quebec who, like the Dorchesters, were Protestants were educated in the convent, and that is a reason perhaps why there is so much religious tolerance in Quebec.

It would seem strange in our own day to read an official notice like this: “On Sunday next Divine Service according to the use of the Church of England will be held at the Récollet Church and continue for the summer season, beginning soon after eleven. The drum will beat each Sunday shortly after half-past ten, and the Récollets’ bell will ring to give notice of the English service the instant their own is ended.”

After the church was destroyed by fire the Church of England service was held in the Jesuits’ Chapel. Later, when the first Protestant Bishop of Quebec came, the Catholic Bishop met him at the wharf and assured him he had done his best to look after his flock.

An important event in the social world happened soon after Lord Dorchester’s arrival. Prince William Henry, later King William IV, paid an official visit to Quebec. The city was all agog, and the dressmakers were kept busy. There were parties and balls and receptions, for this was the first time a member of the reigning house had come to Canada.

C. W. Simpson, R.C.A.

It was a great time for the military, and a review was held upon the site of the Battle of the Plains. Lady Dorchester was in despair. She had arranged partners for the Prince at her dances, but the young boy chose his own.

The Prince departed for other parts of Canada, and then Bishop Inglis arrived as the guest of the Governor. While in Quebec he held a confirmation service in the Récollet Church.

Many things were still primitive in Canada. The postal service in particular does not seem to have improved, and Dorchester was worried over the rival claims of St. John and Halifax for a quick service. The mails were to arrive from England twelve times a year, and the Quebec letters were to be taken by a walking postman until a road was cut. I do not find any trace of a walking postman reaching Quebec, but two men started out from Halifax in January with a dog team carrying the post bags. After floating about on the ice for a time they came to a clear stretch of water, and they then abandoned the dogs, who no doubt found their way home. The men seem to have landed somewhere and built a canoe, and when they came to the end of the clear water they built a sleigh. Finally, after carrying their sleigh and baggage for twenty miles, they arrived in Quebec on the 24th April. This was the quick Halifax service. The people of St. John smiled, no doubt, for it was agreed that in future the service should be divided between the two, and the people seem to have waited still longer for their letters. To-day if the postman is half an hour late in his daily rounds we wonder what has happened; but if we saw a couple of postmen coming round the corner carrying a sleigh and their baggage we should think they were mad!

What a wonderful thing is the printing press! We have read how the captains of the ships in the early days brought supplies of newspapers from Europe, and what a scramble there was to get them. But after 1764 the people in Quebec had their own newspapers, which contained not only the news from abroad, but an account of what was taking place in their midst. For example, on opening the newspaper on the 19th July, 1764, they would learn that on Sunday morning a servant girl named Catherine Renol ran away; that she was a High Dutcher, short and fat, and that she “wore a short gown either red and white or blue and white striped.” They were funny people in the olden times. They loved speed. The greater the distance Catherine ran, the larger was the reward for the capture. If caught in Quebec, twenty shillings would be paid for her return, but if in Montreal, forty shillings.

But one might be more interested in custards and jellies than in Catherine, and so at the sign of “General Wolfe” Mr. Robert Welch offers “all sorts of pastries, jellies, custards, and will likewise dress dinners or suppers in the house or out, where anything cold may also be had from ten till two.”

The charges for advertisements were probably small, for those anxious to instruct ignorant youth made a liberal use of the “Gazette.” Mr. Belmont Fortin, after paying his most respectful compliments to the inhabitants of Quebec, informs them that he has lately arrived “with a view of improving youth in the Necessary and Ornamental parts of Literature, namely, Writing, Accompts, Grammatical Learning, Reading either Prose or Verse not in the Vulgar Monotony commonly used but in the free and natural Manner the great Mr. Sheridan Teaches, and the method of discovering the finest sentiments in Milton; for the good Economy and direction of Life with a tolerable Knowledge of the Latin Classics.” But I am afraid that he must have frightened the children when he announced that he would attend their own dwellings from eight in the morning until six at night.

During the first years of British rule an extraordinary number of teachers seem to have been determined to instruct the youth of the country, and their fees ranged from half a French dollar a month to two guineas. One came because “The Government of the Province having considered how useful and Ornamental the Proper education of Youth is, and being well informed of the Prudence and Capacity of Mr. Jackson, have Properly Authorized him publicly to teach Reading and Writing and Arithmetic Vulgar and Decimal.” By what new-fangled method he proposed to teach writing and arithmetic he leaves one in the dark, but he evidently intended to enlighten one before paying the fee as to how he intended to wrestle with the subject of Reading. “Mr. J. Teaches Reading, not by using the Common Names of the Alphabet, but by the Sounds which Originally They Were, at Present Are, and in the Future Will Be.” A phonograph record of a class of raw boys practising “Sounds which Originally They Were” might prove amusing if not instructive in a school to-day. Another came because of “the want in this city of a Protestant School Master, and I can now inform my Protestant subjects that the want is no more.” Others opened academies for teaching reading and writing and marking. Some gave lessons to “grown gentlemen only,” while others gave instruction on a “genteel organ” with stops, and, we presume, upon an equally respectable “harpsichord.” Even night schools were opened; but I hope they were not for men. Many, many years ago it was my good fortune to fulfil the duties of a teacher in a night school for men, all over forty years of age. I had not heard of the methods of Mr. Jackson, but the appearance of the letters conveyed no meaning to the men. BAT when written on the blackboard was meaningless, but when I drew a cricket bat they all exclaimed “Bat!” MAT was also unintelligible until given a hint that something on the door-step might help them; then they quickly answered “Mat!” But with CAP I failed, for on the suggestion that it was something placed upon the head, one answered, “Fat!” and another, “Oil!”

McGraw, who opened a school opposite the Bishop’s Palace, was most accommodating. One could pay for instruction, according to selection, on the instalment plan. Then there were schools where silver pens were offered for premiums, so that there was no excuse for ignorance. “Even those young Gentlemen who have arrived at a certain Age, and who for the want of an early Opportunity would wish to spend a few hours in the Study,” were provided for. And then, suddenly, when schools and academies were flourishing, and Mr. Jackson was exercising the vocal cords of his boys in attempts to produce weird sounds, the teachers were brought face to face with the power of the Press. Confronting them in bold type was the announcement of an unchivalrous fellow who offered to teach Ornamental Literature and every other subject for the sum of Nine Pence. One could learn writing, reading, arithmetic, and qualify for business without the assistance of a master. All kinds of trades were simple by the aid of a magic volume, even to the mending of the clocks. Marking of clothes was taught, and one might learn to pickle and preserve, and make divers sorts of wines. A special section taught one how to cure earache, toothache, stomach ache, and every other sort of ache; and plaisters and medicines necessary in all families could be manufactured with ease. And lastly “Prudent Advice” was offered to “Young Tradesmen.” All this and much more could be acquired for the modest sum of Nine Pence. Even the mean French half-dollar fee of some of the teachers seemed exorbitant when compared with this Ninepenny Tutor.

But there was much more to read in the papers than the announcements of teachers. On the 12th July, 1767, the people of Mount Lewis reported that they had seen there at 4 o’clock in the afternoon “A Ball of Fire fall from the Heaven to the Earth. Its course was from East to West. And in its trail they observed a writing which one of the letter writers had painted ‘à la Nature,’ but the characters are such that no printing types can represent or we would have inscribed them.” And the writer begs “the wise men and soothsayers to inform him what this portends.”

Within the first twenty-five years of British rule theatrical performances were given frequently in Quebec and in Montreal. On Thursday the 13th February, 1783, “Venice Preserved” was performed at the Thespian Theatre, Quebec, followed by a comic opera, “The Padlock,” and plays were announced at least every two weeks throughout the winter. “High Life Below Stairs,” “Miss in Her Teens,” “A Bold Stroke for a Wife,” “Polly Honeycombe” and “Love à la Mode” seem to have been the favourites. During the intervals Signor Gaetano Francheschini offered a violin solo. In 1784 the “Jealous Wife,” “Fashionable Lovers,” “Fairy Dance,” “The Mock Doctor,” “Busy Body,” “The Upholsterer,” “Romance of an Hour,” “School for Scandal,” “Beaux Stratagem,” “The Orphans,” “The Lyar,” “The Miller of Mansfield,” “Clandestine Marriage,” “Richard the Third,” “Douglas,” “Bon Ton,” and a piece, often repeated, bore a name that would have delighted our friend Mr. Jackson, “Chrononhotonthologos”—“Being the most tragical tragedy that ever was.” In 1785 “The Miser,” “Cheats,” “Mahomet,” “Carmelite,” “The Irish Widow,” were new pieces, and many plays performed the year before were repeated.

In 1786 performances with the cast of characters were advertised, sometimes under the patronage of the Governor. “The Countess of Salisbury” seems to have been a very elaborate play. Popular plays were “The Drummer,” “The Lying Valet,” “The Haunted House,” “The Wrangling Lovers,” “The Taming of the Shrew,” and “The Humours of Sir John Falstaff.” In July, 1786, a company of comedians, after playing for four months in Montreal, embarked for Quebec.

The theatre in Quebec was supported by subscriptions, but the price of admission was usually one dollar. Tickets were not transferable. “It is requested that no lady in future will dispose of her tickets to servant maids of any class, as the seat occupied by one on Monday night was fitted up for the use of The Commander in Chief.”

The Juvenile Theatre was a success for a time, and performances were given for the relief of orphans. But when the boys were arranging for a performance for the benefit of a hospital some of the mean merchants would not allow the boys to attend, and it fell through. “The Irish Widow” and “The Farmer’s Return” and “Old Maid” were played by the boys, and at one performance they obtained £100 for the orphans. In several of the taverns a concert or musical farce would be given, usually followed by a dance.

Performances were given by French companies. “Le Médecin Malgré Lui” and “La Comtesse D’Escarbagnat” were presented by the Young Canadians at the request of His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, and attended by Lord and Lady Dorchester. Other plays presented by the French in 1791 and 1792 were “Le Barbier de Séville” and “She Stoops to Conquer,” “L’Avare,” “Les Précieuses Ridicules” and “Le Retour Imprévu.”

These are only selections, but it will be seen that there was more amusement of the kind in Quebec then than there is to-day.

Some of the occupations of the inhabitants were peculiar. Thus the keeper of the Quebec jail advertised that he made “chocolate of the best quality, wholesale and retail,” and the coachman of the Governor earned a few dollars by taking care of cows, while another advertised that he “Carried on stay making in all its branches, on the back of the Ramparts.” But as the stays seem to have been made of black tin, I presume they were not corsets.

Sword knots, wine, oatmeal, tobacco, blotting paper, and wash-tubs could be purchased from the same vendor, so that shopping was very simple. These few items indicate what use was made of the Press, but there was always some reference to the Governor and a summary of foreign news. To a people accustomed to wait for a foreign newspaper until the arrival of the ships it must have been quite a boon to receive a weekly paper, for you know how eagerly you look for the comic weekly, and they are often not so amusing as the advertisements of olden days.

This is an illustration of the social life under Lord Dorchester, who sailed from Canada for the last time in 1796. A century and a quarter have passed, and with it the memory of men who played a part in Canadian history. But the name of Dorchester will not perish. He was the man of whom Canada had need at a critical hour, and he proved equal to the task reposed in him. As a soldier, a governor and a man, Canada is jealous of his honour.


In 1783 Great Britain acknowledged the Independence of the United States, and the boundaries of Canada were changed. Canada had to the south of her an Independent Republic composed of men who boasted that they had thrown off the yoke of England, and yet found no better model for their laws than that of the nation they despised. Not all the colonists, however, agreed to acknowledge the new Republic. They preferred to live under the British flag. These Tories, or Loyalists as they were called later, were drawn principally from New York, Pennsylvania, and Georgia, while a few came from Virginia, where the influence of Washington was greatest. Washington, the British officer, who six months before had said “to join in a measure in favour of Independence is wicked,” was now President of the Republic.

Walter Baker

For various motives, therefore, the people left the colonies and took up residence in Canada. Many of them had suffered persecution at the hands of the mob; their homes were broken into, and they were tarred and feathered. In fact there was an organisation under Sullivan for stamping out loyalty. “It is utterly impossible to leave exposed to the violence of the Americans men of character whose only offence has been their attachment to the King’s service,” wrote Carleton, and so they were offered homes in Nova Scotia and Quebec, and a commission was appointed to award compensation for their losses. The Americans thought the treatment of the Loyalists diverting. “Nothing can be more diverting,” wrote a Boston Whig, “than to see the town in its present situation; all is uproar and confusion; carts, trucks, wheelbarrows, coaches, chaises, all driving as if the devil was after them.” Five hundred of these people who had caused such diversion arrived at Annapolis in 1782, and as the population of the place was only about one hundred, it was difficult to accommodate them. In the spring of 1785 seven thousand men reached St. John, and part of them went to Nova Scotia. In St. John no preparation had been made for their reception, so they had to clear away the brush before they could pitch their tent or build a temporary shelter. By the end of the summer, twelve thousand had landed in the province without the necessaries of life, and by December the total had increased to thirty thousand. The Americans were anxious to be rid of the Loyalists, but Carleton assured the Governor that he would not leave New York until the last person claiming his protection was on board a British ship. Then the members of the Congress were angry—they hated the British soldiers. But Carleton told them bluntly that the longer violence existed the longer the evacuation of New York would be delayed.

The presence of thirty thousand destitute people in the province was a serious problem for the authorities, and some of the people were discouraged. “All our golden promises are vanished in smoke,” they said. “It is the most inhospitable clime that ever mortal set foot on. We have only His Majesty’s rotten port and unbaked flour to subsist on.” And so many of them went away and found homes where they could. Shelburne seemed a favourable place for a permanent town, and within a short time a settlement sprang up which flourished for a few years. It was quite unsuitable for farming and grazing, however, and could not support so large a population.

In 1783 New Brunswick became a separate province, and the executive there seem to have been able to cope with the situation better than the authorities of Nova Scotia. The new Governor was Thomas Carleton, brother of Sir Guy Carleton. Friction occurred among the Loyalists themselves from the first. The aristocratic element of the population had chosen a certain part known as the Upper Cove, and the other part was called the Lower Cove. At the election of members of the Assembly it was evident that the Lower Cove was polling a majority of the votes. This would never do, thought Thompson the Sheriff, for there were two government candidates in the Upper Cove. Thompson, therefore, struck off about eighty votes of the Lower Cove and declared the Upper Cove elected. In this Assembly some of the Loyalists had a seat. The conduct of the Sheriff seems disgraceful. But strange things occur at such times, even in our day under responsible government. Ballot boxes have disappeared, and people have been imprisoned for making false returns, and votes are polled at every election which are not legal. About seven thousand English came to Quebec, and the seigneury of Sorel was placed at their disposal. Another group settled near Three Rivers. Here the land had been cleared, and they suffered less. A few chose the shores of the Bay of Fundy, and a large contingent took up their abode in Ontario at Johnstown, near Prescott. In Prince Edward Island they seem to have been the victims of treachery and deceit. Where the Loyalists were dispersed is less important than the fact that the arrival of so large a body of English-speaking people changed entirely the political situation in Canada.

These people, like the pioneers of New France, had to make homes for themselves. A cabin or log-house divided in two was all that they could aspire to in the early years. The roofs were usually constructed of bark. The windows were sometimes covered with oiled paper when glass could not be obtained, and clay and sticks were used in building chimneys. Few articles of furniture were brought by the settlers, and the beds, chairs and tables were made of rough wood. In the course of time they learned to make linen, but the petticoats of women were often of deer-skin. Here and there you might find a man wearing knee breeches, a cocked hat, and shoes with silver buckles. They were the clothes in which he had escaped, and, patched and threadbare, they looked sadly out of place. The mothers did their best to make their daughters presentable, and sometimes by dint of hard work a cotton dress was purchased for high days, or for a wedding garment. Education was not forgotten. Schools were opened for the instruction of children. At least they were taught to read and write, and this is greatly to the credit of those in authority.

In time conditions improved, but like all pioneer effort in Canada courage and patience were required. England had given the Loyalists hundreds of thousands of acres of land and had expended over thirty millions on them in supplies. She has been blamed for not doing more. But it should be remembered that the Home Government was imposed on, for many mean Americans came to Canada claiming to be Loyalists, and, after they had obtained lands and assistance, sold out their property and returned to their country to fight England in the War of 1812.


It is a fortunate circumstance for us that many of the British officers who came to Canada were artists as well as soldiers, for they often made sketches on the spot of events which are of considerable importance to us, and sometimes they kept journals as well. When John Graves Simcoe was appointed Governor of Upper Canada in 1792 he looked about for a home for himself and for buildings for the Assembly, and we know exactly what they were like because young Lieutenant Peachy had made an excellent drawing of them a year or two before.

The Governor, who had been accustomed to a beautiful home in England, did not think much of the first Government House in Upper Canada, because he says, “I am fitting up an old hovel which will look exactly like a carriers’ ale house in England.” But the Governor was only a man, and I do not think he knew much about furnishing a house. But Mrs. Simcoe did, and she brought with her some beautiful tapestry from the home of the Marquess of Buckingham, and some good furniture and ornaments, and so I am sure it was quite a nice place to live in.


But while the Governor was busy making alterations in the “ale house” there was no place to live in, so he had three large tents set up on the lake side which served as his residence.

Navy Hall had been built a few years before by General Haldimand for the use of officers on the lake, and the first Legislature or Parliament of Upper Canada was opened in this building on the 17th September, 1792. A visitor who was staying with the Governor at the time says that “the Governor dressed in silk entered the Hall with his hat on his head attended by an Adjutant and two secretaries.” At this Parliament the old laws of Quebec were abolished, for the new Province was to be English.

The Governor, having established a government, made a tour of inspection and visited some of the Indian villages, returning by way of the present site of London. Some months later he selected the site of Toronto as the seat of government and named it York, in honour of the Duke of York’s victories in Flanders. There were few settlements in this part of Canada at this time. Twenty families had begun to make homes at Niagara, and some of the Loyalists had settled at Cataraqui.

Now that the machinery of government was organised in Upper Canada, speculators in land appeared in numbers. Benedict Arnold, who led the attack on Quebec and was beaten off by Carleton in 1775, was an applicant for a grant of thirty-one square miles. He was a Loyalist, he said, “and no man has made so great a sacrifice as I have in support of Government.” But when Simcoe heard of the application he said “General Arnold is a character extremely obnoxious to the original Loyalists,” and so, for a time at least, Arnold had to abandon his dream of becoming the owner of thirty-one square miles of Canadian territory. A careful watch was kept on the land grants, and as a rule they passed into the hands of men who would develop the country—at least during Simcoe’s administration. The Governor was exceedingly active. Roads were built, grants were given to schools, plans were made of towns, and the Loyalists had been registered, so that in the future one could distinguish those who came to the country because they wished to live under the British flag, from those who, like Arnold, merely wanted land. In the course of time there was less care taken in the granting of land, and consequently much trouble.

One of the most important grants of land in Upper Canada was given to Thomas Talbot, who was born in the Castle of Malahide in 1771. Richard de Talbot was a Baron under William the Conqueror, and when Henry II conquered Ireland a grandson of the Baron received as a gift the Barony of Malahide, nine miles from Dublin.

Thomas Talbot arrived in Quebec in 1790 to join the 24th Regiment as a Lieutenant. He had read Charlevoix’ history and was impressed with his description of the Paradise of the Hurons, and longed for the beautiful forests and streams of Upper Canada. His opportunity came when he was appointed to the staff of General Simcoe and accompanied him on his tours. The district which is now the county of Middlesex particularly appealed to him, and he made up his mind to settle there. Duty called him away and he was summoned to join the 85th Regiment as Major. In 1796 he was gazetted Lieutenant-Colonel and served with the Duke of York in the Netherlands. Then suddenly on Christmas Day, 1800, he sold out his commission, and in the year 1801 went to Canada. Here he found there were many difficulties in the way of obtaining land grants. Fees and settlement dues were demanded, although Peter Russell and the Baby family had secured large tracts without payment.

So he returned to England, and through the influence of Simcoe received a grant of five thousand acres in the township of Yarmouth. As this land was not available he settled at Dunwich. He arrived there on the 21st May, 1803, and climbing a steep bank selected a site for his home; then taking an axe he felled the first tree. In this way began the Talbot Settlement.

The next year he engaged some workmen and built the house in which he lived for the greater part of his life. During the progress of building he cut the wood, baked the bread and cooked the meals for the men. He brought over settlers from Scotland, from the South of England, and some from the United States. Then he began the great Talbot Road. By the year 1836, five hundred and eighteen thousand acres of land had been granted to him and over forty thousand settlers were added to the population of Canada.

Upper Canada is a large country, and this is a very small book. I am afraid, therefore, that we must not dwell much longer on those who were responsible for bringing over the pioneers, as we should say something about the settlers themselves and their homes. We may, however, refer to some of the larger tracts.

We will take the McNab Settlement, because McNab is such a splendid-looking fellow in his kilts. The home of the McNabs was Kennel House in Perthshire, Scotland, and here Archibald McNab was born in 1775.

The McNabs supported the Stuarts, and suffered accordingly. Archibald was an extravagant youth and became involved in debt. His principal creditor was the Earl of Breadalbane, who sent the officers of the Crown after him. Now McNab knew that if they caught him he would be cast into prison. So he consulted his friends, and they recommended him to go to America. He was to start on the morrow, but the officers of the law dogged his steps and with difficulty he escaped, partly dressed, by the back door of the house. Food and clothes were brought to him in the glen where he was hiding, and at night he crept back stealthily to the house. But a spy was watching, who ran off to give the alarm. Archibald had many friends, and four sturdy Highlanders captured the spy and bound and gagged him. Then two of his trusty servants secured a coach and at midnight they drove away in secret to Dundee; and the next day McNab sailed for Quebec.

The Earl sought him in vain, and when he heard that McNab was the guest of honour at a banquet in Montreal he was furious. McNab was safe, and in due course he received a grant of eighty thousand acres, from which he formed the township of McNab. He brought out a number of Scotch settlers from time to time; but they quarrelled with their chief, and finally the Government purchased the estate.

The settlement of Guelph was organised by a most remarkable man, John Galt, a Scotch writer of eminence. He formed a company known as the “Canada Company” with a capital of one million pounds, and brought over a number of sturdy settlers of excellent character.

The Glengarry Settlement began with the arrival of five hundred men from Scotland, with the Reverend Alexander Macdonnell, who became the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Upper Canada.

Other parts of the country were settled by the troops, and some by Quakers and Tunkers. But we shall meet many of these people in their homes.

The settlers in Quebec, as we have seen, were in constant fear of the Iroquois, but they had some advantages which the people of Upper Canada had not. Many of the Quebec settlements are on the banks of the St. Lawrence and the Richelieu, and thus use could be made of the rivers for bringing in supplies. In Upper Canada the grants as a rule were farther inland and the labour of obtaining provisions or materials was greater. There were no shops in those days, and if a wheel or a chain were broken a walk of twenty or thirty miles over the roughest roads might be necessary to have it mended.

The little settlement made by Colonel Talbot was just beginning to feel that its strenuous days of pioneer life were over when the War of 1812 set it back. The villagers had a fine mill in working order, their farms were well stocked, and their homes were comfortably furnished. Then came the American soldiers and burned their mill, stole their horses, and plundered their homes. It was very sad.

Some of the settlers when they reached their lots squatted down with their bundles and began to build their homes; but until a shelter could be provided they lived and slept in the open. A kettle, a few tools, a bag of flour, some peas and possibly a parcel of tea and a blanket or two would be the sum of their possessions. When the log cabin was complete they could begin life in their new home. For water they had to search for the nearest spring, and often the only light through the long hours of darkness would be the light of the fire.

When their supply of food was exhausted they must walk to the nearest place where it could be replenished, and carry their purchases on their back. What a home-coming! Bread without butter, tea without milk was the fare of hundreds. And yet these people kept up their courage until their lonely hut became the centre of a small cluster; then followed the village with its school and church, and finally the well-ordered town.

What kept up the courage of so many was the thought that the house they were building was their own. The measure of their comfort depended largely upon their own skill. Sometimes a man was particularly clever with the axe and he could make not only a fine log hut but could fashion excellent furniture. You would just love to sleep on one of those early beds. This is how some of the bedsteads were made. Four young sapling trees were cut for the posts and two for the sides and two short ones for the ends. Then they were set up bound with strands from the inner bark of a tree. And for a mattress they made ropes from hemp and stretched them across the bedstead until it resembled somewhat the spring mattress of to-day. Later, when corn was plentiful, they used the inner husks of the corn to fill sacks and made a mattress in this way. When they kept chickens the housewife saved all the feathers until she had enough to make a feather bed. It frequently happened that there were a number of well-built houses in a village, and in the course of a few years life became quite enjoyable. There were many festive occasions, such as sugar making, which all the children enjoyed; and the dance and music for young and old enlivened the evenings.

In the early days the villagers settled their disputes themselves; sometimes with their fists. There is an account of a man who was exceedingly disagreeable to his neighbours. One night he left his wagon loaded ready to go with the other villagers to a distant market. In the morning he found his wagon, fully loaded, astride the top of his barn. Off went the villagers merrily to the market, while the disagreeable fellow spent the rest of the day in lowering his wagon to the ground. That was the way they taught the disagreeable fellow a lesson.

After roads became common the farmers owned wagons, and therefore life was somewhat easier. Intercourse with neighbouring settlements was possible and they were brought into touch with the progress of the country.

With the second generation there was an improvement in the style of the houses and some form of municipal government was established. Then there were the elections, and often a fight, and the fun of public meetings, and schools and teachers and other evidences that pioneer modes of life were disappearing.

The pedlar was an important person and his arrival was anxiously awaited. He carried two large packs strapped across his shoulders, and it is surprising that he seemed to know just what the people wanted. He had dress goods and sheeting, and tapes and threads, and pins and needles and thimbles, and ribbons and combs and scissors, and even jewellery and cough-drops. In fact I do not know how he managed to carry so much in his packs. While he displayed his wares he would dispense the news, and there was generally a little gossip from Montreal that he was able to impart to willing ears.

In some sections the travelling tailor followed the route of the pedlar, but not as frequently. We do not hear of his carrying fashion plates, and the clothes were probably cut on a standard plan both as to style and shape. But as delivery was always long after order, it is probable that the produce of the craftsman was welcome. Even if the sleeves of the coat were too short, who cared, for in this part of the country there was no Château to set the fashion.

C. Krieghoff

Sometimes a band of strolling players would pass through the villages to enliven the monotony, tumblers and clowns, quite clever people, but it depended on the views of the head of the community as to whether they would be allowed to perform or not. By some they were treated as vagabonds and driven off. Then the children were disappointed. The village postmaster was an important man. The reception of a letter was an event. One postmaster in Simcoe county chose the Sabbath for the delivery of the mail. Beaver hats were the fashion for a man of importance, and when starting off to church he placed the letters in his hat and distributed the missives to the congregation. I hope it was at the close of the service.

It was a remarkable sight to see some of the settlers arrive. Occasionally a whole family would come in a covered wagon with their furniture. Perhaps they had travelled over a thousand miles from some place beyond the border, by the only roads available, to Montreal. Then their real troubles began. The few roads in Canada were narrow and in ruts, and the wagon they had travelled in might be too wide. Then there would be the delay while the blacksmith shortened the axle and the carpenter made the wagon narrower. And the whole journey was not possible by road. By some routes it would be necessary to transport their belongings by boat for a distance, and then convey them in the best way they could to their lot. Along the trail one would find an occasional bush tavern, a single apartment, kept by some enterprising woman. The temporary accommodation was of the roughest, but it must have been most welcome to weary travellers. Many a party, after having pulled up their stakes and ventured their all in the hope of finding a home in Canada, turned back when they met with such terrible obstacles; and yet conditions such as these prevailed in some parts of Canada less than a hundred years ago.

Even when steamboats appeared in the rivers the method of travelling was tedious.

James Cockburn

Colonel Grey, the father of Lord Grey, our Governor-General, describes the difficulties of a journey from Montreal to Bytown, the former name of Ottawa. He went from Montreal in Denny’s jaunting car to Lachine with the intention of going up the Ottawa in the steamer “Ottawa,” but finding she had nine heavy barges to tow up the river, and would not reach Carillon before one in the morning, where “we would have to be transferred at that hour to stages to go twelve miles to Grenville, I determined to go round by Kingston and down the Rideau to Bytown, and accordingly took passage in the ‘Chieftain.’ On board there was the Reverend Macdonnell, the Catholic Bishop of Kingston. At the Cascades we were all transferred to stages, five in number, having each nine passengers inside. We got over the sixteen miles to Côteau du Lac tolerably comfortable and embarked on the ‘Neptune’ for Cornwall. Here we were again transferred to stages to travel twelve miles to Dickinson’s Landing. There were nine passengers inside the coach and the road being very dark we did not reach Dickinson’s Landing until half-past eleven. Here we were much excited when we heard that the notorious Bill Johnson had been seen there with five boats containing 50 or 60 armed men and consequently there was much commotion on board.”

Bill Johnson, the leader of a band of desperate outlaws, haunted the Thousand Islands and was encouraged by the Americans along the border. A British vessel, the “Sir Robert Peel,” was in American waters and Bill Johnson and his band boarded the vessel and set it on fire. This almost caused another war between England and the United States, especially after the British fired on the “Telegraph,” an American ship, while she was off Brockville. Although rewards were offered for the capture of the bandit he grew bolder and the mere mention of his name was a terror to children.

“We reached Prescott at half-past nine the next morning where we saw the windmill where Von Schoultz landed with his unfortunate sympathizers. Between Prescott and Brockville we passed Maitland where there is a thriving village owned by a Scotchman named Longley. He came there about twenty years ago and now owns the greater part of the village. He has built a very neat Presbyterian church at his own expense and has a beautiful farm. And finally after five days we arrived at Bytown.” And here I may add a word. Colonel Grey went to New Edinburgh, and in the morning his mother would not have known him, for one eye was closed and his face was swollen. He had been terribly punished by those dreadful little creatures called mosquitoes. While he was at Bytown he thought it would be a splendid site for the capital of Canada. Perhaps he hoped the mosquitoes would bite the politicians who were causing so much trouble. I wonder.

The man who could play a violin in those days was in great demand. It was a favour to have him at a winter’s dance. And sometimes he would travel many miles on foot through snow and storm to keep an appointment. And there was another use for the instrument. The sound of a violin was the surest way to keep off the wolves. And in several parts the wolves were a constant source of danger, and chickens and sheep were never safe.

It was not every village that had a church, and it is surprising to learn what long distances the people travelled to attend a service. And when you realize that the service lasted from eleven in the morning until four o’clock in the afternoon you will agree that the people were very patient. Because children to-day have been known to complain of the length of a service which lasted one hour instead of five. Perhaps they took half an hour for lunch. Let us hope so.

Methods of farming were primitive, and a good story is told by an old farmer of a neighbour and his wife who owned a team of oxen. The man drove the oxen and the woman did most of the work. The seed was scattered by hand and then a drag was drawn over the ground. On one occasion something happened to one of the oxen, and the farmer was yoked up with the other. The ox took a dislike to his companion and started to plunge in a frantic manner and made straight for the bush. Another farmer tried to head them off, but the poor fellow cried out, “Leave us alone, we are running away!” And at last the make-believe ox, quite out of breath, was landed in the bush. What a funny sight it must have been!

From Longford in Ireland to Guelph in Canada is a long journey at any time; but it might now be made in ten days. Let us see how they managed in other times. For there were people in Ireland who had heard wonderful stories of Canada and longed to go there. First there was a long tramp to Dublin and a voyage of two or three days in a small sailing craft to Liverpool. From Liverpool to Quebec they would be tossed on the sea in a very small ship for at least six weeks. Then after three or four days by water to Montreal the really rough journey began. From Montreal to Kingston open boats were used, drawn by horses on the bank when near the rapids. The journey to Hamilton was by water, and from Hamilton to Guelph by stage over the roughest roads. The passengers would here land and make their way the best they could through the mud or over corduroy roads to their lot. And when they had endured all this they began to build their homes. No one can imagine what it was like to travel cramped up in those small ships for a period of six weeks. Surely we owe a debt to the people who opened up this country for us.

As soon as a family could clear a space of ground they would sow enough wheat to provide for their wants, but when the wheat was gathered in there was no place to thresh it but the floor of the cabin. And so we read an account of the method adopted. Two or three sheaves were brought into the cabin and spread on the floor, and beaten with a flail. In the meantime the baby in the cradle had to be covered up with a blanket to prevent it from being choked by the dust. Grain was sometimes crushed with an axe, and until hand mills came into use there was the hominy block. A piece of the trunk of a tree was scooped out by red-hot irons until it resembled a large basin or bowl, and in this the grain was pounded by a piece of hardwood rounded at the end, and the flour was separated from the bran through a fine sieve sometimes made of thread. In the absence of the hominy block or hand mill, the grain was gathered up and taken to the nearest mill, perhaps a two days’ journey. If the settlers were wise they took food with them, for on one occasion the men did not, expecting that food could be obtained at the mill. But the miller had nothing to offer them, and so a raw potato was all they could find until their return home.

In the winter there was not much to be done in the smaller places, and men would leave their families to seek work in districts where labour was required. It was pretty lonely for the wife, who was virtually a prisoner. But the women of old knew how to endure.

The settlers as a rule seem to have been healthy, but they did not escape the epidemics which swept over Canada, and their distress was greater than in the cities. Now we have seen a little of the primitive life of the early settlements in Upper Canada and we will picture how they fared in the Red River district.


Off St. Mary’s Isle at the mouth of the Dee a proud ship with bellying sails dropped anchor in the summer of 1778. On the quarter-deck with measured tread paced that mariner bold, John Paul Jones. Fierce was his glance and mischief was in the air, or Paul Jones would not be there.

The boats are lowered and manned by as savage a looking crew as ever one wished to see. They reach the shore and Paul Jones leads his men, armed to the teeth, towards the vineclad mansion of the Selkirks, determined to capture the owner and carry him off to France. Great was the rage of Paul Jones when he discovered that Dunbar, first Earl of Selkirk, was absent, but he did not know that his young son Thomas, a boy of seven years, had watched the approach of the pirates and made himself scarce. Forward went the men, who terrorized the servants and carried off the silverware in bags to the ship; but they did not carry off young Thomas. The boy grew up and succeeded to the title. He took a keen interest in the welfare of the people, who had been well-nigh ruined by the Napoleonic Wars. He proposed several schemes to place them on lands in Canada, and, having obtained grants in Prince Edward Island, he sent a large party to that picturesque province in the summer of 1803. Here they set up poles, laced them with twigs and covered them with leaves. Under this shelter they lived until more substantial dwellings could be erected.

Lord Selkirk now turned his attention to the Red River Settlement. In 1811 a party under his direction reached York Fort, and as it was too late in the season to proceed to the interior, they wintered there in hastily built log cabins.

Scurvy overtook the men, but liberal doses of the juice of the white spruce seem to have restored them. Perhaps it had not all the virtues of the tree Annedda of the Indians, but there were several cures.

In 1813 several women accompanied the men. In the month of April twenty men and the same number of women started on snowshoes from the winter camp to York Factory, a journey of a hundred miles. The men dragged the sleighs laden with provisions, making a path for the women. On the morrow a halt was made to set up a tent, and bank it with snow. For within that tent on the following morn a Canadian child was born. The others had pressed on, for food was scarce, and it was not until twenty-one days after that the infant with its father and mother reached York Fort, and not until June that the Red River came in sight.

James Cockburn

The Red River was not without its romance. On board one of the Hudson’s Bay boats came a girl from the Orkney Islands disguised as a man. She believed that her lover was amongst the settlers and had followed him. She was possibly the first white woman in the West.

In the year following the settlers began their weary pilgrimage to the Red River. There were about seventy in the party, and it was autumn when they reached their destination. Soon the winter came, and but for the supply of potatoes, barley and oats, which had been brought from England at a great expense, they would have had a terrible time.

A small band of colonists arrived the next year, and suffered for lack of food, which was even more difficult to obtain in summer than in winter. With pluck they set to work with a hoe and sowed a quantity of wheat, which yielded a hundred fold, but the blackbirds and pigeons seemed to think that they had a better right to the grain than the settlers, and carried off nearly all the harvest.

The Prairie Provinces have been called the summer-land of harvests, and their white and golden sheaves are beautiful and wonderful; and then so much of the prosperity of Canada is dependent upon them. But old King Frost sometimes passes over this “summer-land” and nips the golden ears, and then the beautiful grain is spoiled. So that it is quite important to obtain grain that will ripen early like the famous Manitoba wheat known as Red Fife wheat. And how do you think they came to grow this wheat? I will tell you. Many years ago there lived in Canada a family named Fife. And Mr. Fife wrote to some seed growers in Scotland asking them what kind of grain was best to grow in Canada, where the winters were so long and the summers so short. Now the seed growers had been shipping a special grain to the Baltic, where conditions were not unlike those in Canada, and they sent a packet of this seed to Mr. Fife. And at the proper season Mr. Fife planted this seed in his garden, and he was delighted to find that it ripened at least ten days before any other kind. And one fine day he said to his wife: “To-morrow we cut the grain.” But to-morrow never came for that fine crop. In the night when the farmer was asleep a greedy cow broke through the fence and munched up all the luscious ears. In the morning bright and early off went Mr. Fife to his garden to gather in his wheat, and was terribly upset when he beheld the wanton destruction of the greedy cow. I hope the poor cow had made good her escape, for Mr. Fife was more than angry. Then Mrs. Fife came into the garden, and she was very sorry, for she hoped to give some of the seed to her neighbours. But in the corner she espied three ears of wheat which the gluttonous cow had overlooked. And these she carefully put away and the next year planted the seed from them in the garden. And from the crop she obtained quite a nice little packet of grain. This was planted the next year, and so on until she had several bags. In the course of time this grain was sown by some farmers in Ohio, and from there it was introduced into Manitoba, and the province became famous the world over for its wheat. We have now other kinds of wheat, such as the well-known Marquis wheat, but for many years Red Fife was king, and all through the forethought of Mrs. Fife; for I am quite sure Mr. Fife would never have saved those three ears—he was far too angry. It happens so often in this world that a simple act has momentous consequences.

C. Roper

From the first, the North West Company was opposed to the Selkirk Settlement, declaring that the people must be driven out, or they would ruin trade, and at last force was resorted to. From this time the lot of the settlers was precarious, and it seemed that the colony would be extinguished, but it struggled bravely and at length came into its own. On the spot where these colonists fought for existence stands Winnipeg, the foremost city of the plains.


The poor settlers in Canada had many troubles of their own without any interference from the people outside, but there were men in the United States who were ambitious to add Canada to their Republic, even as there are to-day.

One Calhoun, a leader of the war party, was a foolish fellow. He declared that “within four weeks from the time of a declaration of war on our frontier, the whole of Upper Canada and a part of Lower Canada will be in our power.” And the reason why this foolish fellow thought he could conquer Canada so easily was because so many non-Loyalists had been allowed to take up lands on the border separating Canada from the United States.

The settlement of a country is a very important matter, and although it may be desirable to have a large population, it is better to have a small number upon whom reliance can be placed. We should remember in history those men who in public life caused so much trouble, for the purpose of history is to tell the story of our development, so that we may avoid in the future the mistakes of the past.

These non-Loyalists belonged to religious sects whose headquarters were in the United States, and their travelling preachers served as a means of communication between the American settlers in Upper Canada and their friends in America. And so these non-Loyalists in Canada encouraged the war party in the United States to believe that the conquest of Canada was a simple matter. And there were other circumstances which were not making for peace. Napoleon was master of continental Europe, and only the navy of England stood in his way to world empire.

Napoleon knew that Great Britain depended upon the overseas trade, and therefore he prohibited vessels from entering British ports. But England passed orders forbidding vessels to sail into continental ports. Now both France and England required articles from America, and the Americans were angry because they could not sail into foreign ports. Many of the sailors in the British navy had deserted and found employment on American merchant ships. And so the British ships searched the American ships, and if they found any deserters took them off, and sometimes they took American sailors as well, if there seemed to be any doubt. Soon after, the British warship “Leopard” ordered the “Chesapeake,” an American boat, to stop, and when she refused fired on her and captured the vessel.

The Americans were further aggravated by the disclosures made by one, John Henry. Henry had been sent to the United States on a secret mission by Canada, during which he conducted a correspondence with the secretary of Sir James Craig, the Governor, on political feeling in the United States. On his return he expected a large reward, and when it was not forthcoming he appealed to England. Here he met with no success, and he then determined to sell his letters to the United States. On board a vessel bound for America, Henry met a charming gentleman who bore the title of Count de Crillon. And to the Count de Crillon Henry spoke of the ingratitude of the Canadian people and of England. They became fast friends, and de Crillon offered to assist Henry in the disposal of his documents. As Henry would not be able to reside either in Canada or England after the sale of his documents, the Count offered to sell him the beautiful château St. Martine, where he could spend his remaining years in repose. De Crillon was welcomed in Washington, and it did not take him long to persuade Secretary Munroe to hand over fifty thousand dollars to Henry. In due course Henry received a title deed of the historic château St. Martine, and de Crillon was in possession of fifty thousand dollars from the traitor Henry. Soon de Crillon disappeared, and Henry discovered that the château St. Martine was a myth. De Crillon was one of the clever agents of the secret police of Napoleon, and his visit to America was for the purpose of gathering information for the Emperor, who had designs on the United States. These were the principal causes which led to the declaration of war by the United States on the 8th June, 1812.

The situation was critical. The white population of the States was six millions, and the total population of Canada was less than six hundred thousand, and in the province most open to attack there were under one hundred thousand people, and the invading army was composed of men bent on securing the rich lands of Canada. These were the odds, but Canada had Brock.

In that corner of the old Norman land where dwell the little people of the sea—in Guernsey—Isaac Brock was born on the 6th October, 1769. At the age of fifteen he purchased a commission in the army, and after much service he was ordered to Canada in 1802 with the 49th Regiment. For a time he was stationed at Quebec, to which he became much attached. But the Governor, well aware of his genius for administration, had other use for him, and sent him to Upper Canada, where he acquired a rapid knowledge of the country and its needs. It was the preparation made by Brock at this time that saved Canada. Without Brock the Stars and Stripes would be flying over Ottawa.

The total of the British army in Canada was four thousand five hundred men, and even with the splendid volunteer regiments it was only a small force to lead against a country with ten times as great a population. And so Canada in her first great war had reason to honour the memory of Brock.

The promotion of Brock was rapid. In 1808 he was in command of the troops in Montreal, with the rank of Brigadier-General. While in Montreal he occupied the historic Château de Ramezay. One of his troubles was the postal service. Letters from England by way of Halifax took from four to six months to reach Toronto, and a letter between Montreal and Toronto one month. This slow service placed the commanders in a serious position, especially at a crisis, and they were often obliged to act on their own responsibility.

But troubles were brewing in Montreal, and the Governor, Sir James Craig, perhaps owing to postal delays, acted according to his own judgment. Not approving of the acts of several prominent men who were interested in a newspaper, he suppressed the journal and dismissed several officers whom he believed to be interested therein. This did not make for tranquillity at home, and Brock already heard the rumblings of war. He returned to Quebec, and here there were disagreements between the Council and the Assembly. But notwithstanding the quarrels of the Governor, Quebec was very gay. There were horse-racing, parties on the water, and dancing at the Château and on the ships in the harbour. Every one seemed in good humour. Duty again called him to Upper Canada. “I shall leave the most delightful garden with abundance of melons and other good things,” he wrote.

His home in the ancient city was on the Ramparts, the house of Montcalm, and, like the French General, he was soon to find a soldier’s grave in Canada. Brock bought the household furniture of Montcalm, and some of it is in Canada to-day.

In 1811 Brock was promoted to the rank of Major-General and given command at Fort George. It was a great change, and he describes the Fort as “a lonesome place.” It was in Upper Canada, however, that he was needed.

James Cockburn

Sir George Prevost, who succeeded Sir James Craig, won the approval of the Province by appointing Bédard to a Judgeship. Bédard had been imprisoned by Craig for his articles in the “Canadien,” which he had suppressed. Turning his attention to the Upper Province, he appointed Brock president and administrator of the Government in 1811 during the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor. Meanwhile affairs in England were in a bad shape. Trade was at a standstill. The edicts of Napoleon had ruined the shipping, for trading vessels carrying goods rarely escaped capture. The fur trade was affected, and as the Indians could obtain little for their furs while the warehouses were overcrowded, they were inclined to become friendly with the Americans.

On the banks of the Tippecanoe creek, at Vincennes, dwelt at this time Tecumseh, the great Indian chief. Well-cultivated fields surrounded his headquarters, frequented by bands of Indian warriors then numbering over five thousand. While Tecumseh was absent General Harrison, Governor of Indiana, led an expedition to break up the Indian settlement. The troops approached the Tippecanoe and encamped on a hill for the night. But just before dawn nine hundred young Indian braves surrounded the camp and killed several hundred Americans, and returned in silence to the village. In the morning Harrison gathered his depleted forces and marched on the village, but the Indians had retired to the woods. Harrison proceeded to destroy the corn and fruit, and burned the wigwams. He then retired well satisfied, with his “victorious” army. A few months later, Tecumseh returned to find ruin and desolation in his one-time flourishing community. And Tecumseh remembered. War had now been declared. Brock had taken what means were possible in Upper Canada to strengthen his position. Recruiting was going on in Glengarry. The York volunteers and flank companies had been formed, boats were built, others were hired and provisions and arms were stored. In Quebec the famous Voltigeurs had been raised under Colonel de Salaberry, who had command of the Quebec frontier, and all males from 16 years of age were required to enrol. The Militia of Lower Canada was divided into fifty-two districts. The frontier to be guarded was about twelve hundred miles.

Immediately after the declaration of war General Hull began his march to Detroit and moved on to Sandwich with two thousand indifferent men, mere land-grabbers in search of choice lots. In a proclamation addressed to the Canadians, Hull assured them that they would “be emancipated from tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of freemen.” For Canadians, in the opinion of the American General, were slaves. Poor man!

In the meantime a small body of men surprised and captured the American fort at Michilimackinac, while Brock was assembling his army of seven hundred regulars and six hundred Indians under Tecumseh to meet the forces of Hull. The American General had expected to receive the welcome accorded a liberator, but when he heard the war whoop of the Indians he appeared to think that Detroit was a safer place than Sandwich, and, when Brock approached, crossed over the river. Brock at once sent an envoy to Hull demanding the surrender of Detroit, but the American General refused to meet him. Then Brock took a bold step; he decided to invade the stronghold of the enemy. In the night Tecumseh and his Indians crossed the river in silence, prepared to fall upon the flank of the Americans. Soon after, when Brock’s guns were within range of the fort, Hull sent out a flag of truce and surrendered with his army and all his guns and supplies. The Canadians were now in possession of Michigan.

Brock was proud of his Indian ally, Tecumseh. In a letter to the Governor-General, he wrote: “A more sagacious and gallant warrior does not exist. He has the admiration of every one who has conversed with him.” It was owing to the tactics of Tecumseh that General Hull and one thousand of his troops were en route to Montreal as prisoners.

There is an amusing cartoon published at the time of the war which shows the humour of Tecumseh. He captured one of the American officers, stripped him of his uniform and painted his body in various colours. Then Tecumseh put on the officer’s hat and coat and conducted his odd-looking prisoner to General Procter. The General remonstrated, but it was with great difficulty that he made him give up the officer’s sword. Tecumseh remembered the peaceful village which had been destroyed.

News of the capture of Detroit had reached England, and Brock was gazetted a Knight of the Bath, and on the 10th October the honour was announced in London. But Brock was never aware of the distinction.

On the night of 12th October the American troops crossed the river in a blinding storm and landed at Queenston. They were well disciplined men, different from the miserable army of Hull. About four o’clock Brock, who had finished his last despatch two or three hours before, heard firing in the distance, and hurried from Fort George to the Heights, where the Americans were already in an advantageous position. Leading an attack to dislodge them, he received a mortal wound and died on the dawn of victory. Reinforcements arrived and General Roger Sheaffe, who succeeded Brock, drove the Americans from the Heights in the direction of the Niagara River, and many were drowned and over a thousand were taken prisoners. A decisive victory had been gained, owing to the quick action of Brock in raising volunteers and placing the defences of Upper Canada in order. At the beginning of the year 1813 no British territory remained in the hands of the invaders.

At Stoney Creek the Canadians under Colonel John Harvey surprised a large American force and took over one hundred prisoners, including two Brigadier-Generals and several other officers. Soon after this the timely action of a brave Canadian woman prevented the surprise of the Canadian Militia by a body of five hundred American troops at Beaver Dam. The Americans had marched to Queenston, where they spent the night, and their conversation relating to a proposed attack was overheard by Laura Secord. Notwithstanding the fact that she was the mother of five young children who needed care, and that her husband was helpless from wounds received the year before at Queenston, she decided to warn FitzGibbon, who was in command of the Canadians and Indians. Driving a cow, with a milk pail on her arm, she passed the sentinel, and turning into a bush hid her pail and started on her mission. After walking all day she crossed a swollen stream on a log and to her horror found herself amongst a hundred war-painted Indians. With difficulty she persuaded the Indians to accompany her. At daybreak two hundred and fifty savages led by Joseph Brant set out to intercept the Americans, who were led by General Boerstler. The six hundred Americans were caught in a net, and firing began all round. In the interval FitzGibbon had been warned and rode up in advance of his men and demanded the surrender of the Americans; but the fighting continued. Upon a second summons Boerstler surrendered five hundred and forty men, two guns, and the colours of the 14th United States Infantry. In other directions the enemy was more successful. The Americans had a fleet of nine vessels on Lake Erie and the British had only six. After a stubborn fight all the British vessels were compelled to yield, and General Procter withdrew from Detroit, closely followed by the Americans, who overtook Procter’s force at Moraviantown and defeated his army. Procter escaped, but the brave Tecumseh perished on the battlefield.

The Americans now decided to cut off Kingston from Montreal. They sent two expeditions, one under Hampton by way of Lake Champlain and another under Wilkinson by way of the St. Lawrence. General Hampton crossed into Canada without opposition and entered the Chateauguay River. Here he found his passage blocked by a small force of French Canadians under de Salaberry, supported by a few men under Macdonnell, who had marched in haste from Kingston. After a stubborn fight the Canadians defeated an army ten times the size of their own. The American General Wilkinson had crossed over to Canada and landed his army at Prescott, where he was attacked by Morrison at Chrysler’s Farm. In a plucky fight the Americans lost four hundred men and the Canadians less than a hundred. Wilkinson, hearing of the retreat of Hampton, decided to abandon his attack on Montreal. In the interval Fort George had been recaptured by the Canadians, but the retreating Americans burned all the villages in their path. In the following year the two armies came into conflict at Lundy’s Lane, round which waged the fiercest battle of the war. It was a splendid fight; the odds were two to one, and then four to one. It was a fight to exhaustion. One-third of the British and Canadian forces had fallen and one-quarter of the American force. All through the day the fight had been kept up. The brave Riall had been wounded and taken prisoner and Drummond was exhausted and worn out, and at midnight the American army withdrew. Through the long night naught was heard save the groans of the dying and the wounded soldiers who gave their lives for us. Some day you should read the story of the war. You will be thrilled with the bravery of the Canadians of Upper and Lower Canada who, with the British troops, kept the Stars and Stripes out of Canada.

The Americans were tired of the war. They had met with some success and with defeat, and they now realised that the capture of Canada was not a matter of four hours or weeks. And England and Canada desired peace, and although the treaty of the 24th December, 1814, left matters much as they were before, it was welcome. Canada honours the memory of her brave sons who, side by side with the British troops, put up such a splendid fight in defence of their homes and liberty.


You will remember that in the early part of our story an account is given of the Church and the missionaries. This was under the French régime, and we must now learn something about the churches under British rule.

Protestant services were conducted in Canada, at least on the ships, even in Champlain’s time, as we have already described, and I am sure the Scotch settlers must have met for worship in Nova Scotia in the days of Sir William Alexander. In the Château, no doubt, or on the ships, the chaplains of the Kirks held services between 1628 and 1632. When Port Royal passed into the hands of the English in 1710 the Rev. Mr. Watts, chaplain of the forces, conducted a service on the 11th October, and he opened a school at Canso for the instruction of the children of soldiers and fishermen.

Immediately after the foundation of Halifax in 1749 there was an open-air service; and until the Church of St. Paul was completed in September, 1750, the drawing-room of the Governor was used for public worship. At this time there were about six thousand inhabitants, half of which number belonged to the Church of England. There were at least one thousand Jews in Halifax, and the remainder were Germans and other nationalities. The Germans seem to have attended St. Paul’s.

In the winter foot-warmers were provided for members of the congregation, as they had no stove or furnace. The foot-warmers were iron boxes filled with charcoal, and wooden boxes containing hot bricks were used. The caretaker must have had a busy time with the bricks, and if the congregation was small he was no doubt better pleased than the Rector. Lord William Campbell presented two stoves to the church in 1773, but as workmen do not appear to have been very speedy, the pipes were not set up until five years later, and then the congregation was nearly choked by smoke. Twenty years later they borrowed two old stoves from the garrison, and thereafter the congregation was warm, but it was not so comfortable as our churches to-day.


The inhabitants of Annapolis were poor. Nevertheless they subscribed $600 for a church, but it was ten years before it was complete. The fees of the clergyman in those days were small. Sometimes he was paid in cordwood. For a marriage service from seventy-five cents to two dollars and a half was paid, but somehow these poor men managed to live. The second Anglican Church in Nova Scotia was built in Lunenburg in 1754. The German settlers had no church, and so they cast in their lot with the English. The parish church of Windsor was completed in 1790 as a University Church. Pews were rented, and the owners were expected to attend. Indeed rules were very strict, and one was liable to a fine as “an evil example” if public worship was neglected.

When Ile St. Jean, now Prince Edward Island, became a part of Canada in 1763, no provision was made for religious services. A clergyman paid a visit to the Island in 1773, and when the Rev. Theophilus de Brisay was appointed resident minister he found that there was no church, no food and no stipend. He was a man of action, for he succeeded in having a church built within a year or two. The church began to take shape when a bishop of Nova Scotia was consecrated in 1781, but the diocese included nearly all of British North America, and there were still but few clergy.

It was a long time before New Brunswick had a permanent church. In the summer of 1769 the Rev. Thomas Wood, vicar of Annapolis, paid a visit to the settlements on the St. John River, and on Sunday preached three times—in the morning in English, in the afternoon in the Indian language of the country and in the evening in French. A clergyman in those days had to possess many qualifications, and there were long journeys before him. At Maugerville his congregation was composed of dissenters, and at Georgetown he was called upon to perform an interesting ceremony when he baptized the twins Joseph and Mary Kendricks, who had been born in an open boat on the river two leagues from any house. When money could not be obtained to build a church, a house was sometimes fitted up for the purpose. But in the course of time the British Government made grants towards the building of churches, and the religious societies in England supported missionaries.

Where there was no ordained minister, the civil officials sometimes conducted a service. The magistrate of St. Andrew’s, for example, read sermons to the people on Sunday, until a church was built there in 1788. Trinity Church, in St. John, a fine specimen of architecture, was opened in 1778, and thereafter churches were built in many places in the Maritime Provinces.

When the British troops entered Quebec on the 18th September, 1759, there was not an English-speaking resident in Quebec or in that part known as the Province of Ontario. The first English settlers in Quebec were a motley band, such as usually follow an army. Some sold rum and other things and some were looking for plunder. Services were held on board the ships during the siege of Quebec, and in the camp at Lévis and on the Island of Orleans.

Amongst the chaplains of the navy was a former Catholic priest of Quebec who had been admitted to the communion of the Church of England in 1747. It is said that his knowledge of Quebec was of considerable assistance to Admiral Saunders, who was in command of the British fleet at the siege of Quebec in 1759. Dr. Brooks came out as a chaplain to the forces in 1760. It was he who recommended the Protestant teacher who came “to fill a want long felt.” His wife wrote that interesting novel, “Emily Montagu,” which was published in four small volumes.

In Three Rivers a former Catholic priest was the English minister, but the Bishop wrote: “He seems to have done no more credit to the Church of England than he did to the Church of Rome.” Religious services were held in a house at Sorel which had been purchased for the sum of seventy-five dollars.

The first Anglican Bishop of Quebec, Dr. Mountain, was a man of great distinction. He was consecrated in 1793, and obtained through the bounty of the King sufficient money to build the Cathedral in 1804. The diocese of the Bishop extended to the far west, and he travelled upon eight different occasions a distance of over three thousand miles in visiting his flock. For it was not until 1839 that the see of Toronto was created and the Church spread out in all directions. In the meantime the Church Societies sent out missionaries who penetrated into lonely centres of civilization, and endured hardships equalled only by the pioneers themselves. When the British troops captured Fort Niagara in 1759, a service was held daily by the chaplain of the forces. At the beginning of the American War the Indians, under Joseph Brant, left Fort Hunter and settled at Niagara, and those under Captain de la Durantye went to Lachine. Brant’s Indians removed to the Grand River near Brantford and the next year they erected the first Protestant church in Upper Canada. In 1785 the Rev. Dr. John Stuart, ancestor of the Canadian branch of the Stuart family, was missionary priest at Kingston. He lived in Montreal in 1781 and was the first English schoolmaster there. Sir Campbell Stuart is a descendant. The Rev. John Watt was sent out as a missionary to the Red River Settlement, through the efforts of the Hudson’s Bay Company and the Church Missionary Society. He opened a small wooden church on the site of St. John’s Cathedral, Winnipeg, in 1820. One of the Indian boys baptized by Mr. Watt became the first native clergyman, and another became a missionary in the West. The Right Rev. David Anderson was consecrated the first Bishop of Rupert’s Land in 1849. There were many missionaries sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel over a long period. They endured many hardships, especially during the winter months. Sometimes they travelled with dog teams on the snow and often their only shelter was a snow hut. Wrapped in buffalo robes they would sleep on the ground unless they were fortunate enough to find branches of a spruce tree for a bed. And often when they found a temporary church they were well-nigh frozen, for there were no foot-warmers in the West. The diocese of Saskatchewan was formed in 1874 under Bishop McLean and the diocese of Athabasca in the same year under Bishop Bompas.

W. H. Sadd

The early missionaries of the Church of England did not develop the art of letter writing and very little account of the people is to be gleaned from them. The Bishop of Quebec laments this. He says: “We would gladly have heard something of the manner of life half a century back of the French habitant and the English settler. We would welcome an account of the mode of living, the state of the roads, the terrors of the forests and the want of all accommodation for man and beast. But the letters of the missionaries offer no relief of this. They are little better than a register of baptisms, marriages and deaths, which is necessary, but which go but a very little way towards conveying a just idea of the condition of the infant Church in the colonies as it struggled into life and shape.”

The Moravians, who began their work on the Labrador coast quite early, had missions no doubt along the coast to the Pacific, and probably visited New Caledonia. When British Columbia, as it is now called, became the chief trading post of the Hudson’s Bay Company, the Rev. Mr. Cridge was appointed one of its chaplains in Victoria.

In 1859, through the generosity of the Baroness Angela Burdett-Coutts, a cathedral was built and endowed. The Baroness spent her fortune on good works and she was often called the A.B.C. of charity. The Rev. Dr. Hill was consecrated first Bishop in 1860. Three years later an English church was built in Esquimalt.

The Huguenots, as we know, were at Port Royal in 1604, and Champlain had disagreements with them in 1608, and there were some with the Kirkes in 1629, but it was not until a much later time that they had a church.

The first Presbyterian minister in Canada, the Rev. James Lyon, came from New Jersey to Nova Scotia in 1764. Two years later the Rev. James Murdoch of Scotland was appointed minister of the Protestant Dissenters congregation in Halifax. The permanent Presbyterian Church in Nova Scotia was established by members of the Dutch Reformed Church at Lunenburg. These Dutch Reformers proceeded to create a Presbytery which was opened by Lord William Campbell on the 3rd July, 1770, and the first minister to be ordained was Bruin Comingoe, a member of the Dutch Church. In 1786 several Scotch ministers formed a Presbytery at Truro, and this became the permanent Presbytery in Nova Scotia.

In Quebec the Presbyterian congregation seems to have been organized in 1765 and, like the Church of England service, was held in the Recollet Church. There was a Presbyterian congregation in Montreal in 1786, and a Presbytery was organized in 1793. St. Gabriel Street Church was for a long time their principal church, and it was no doubt the earliest to be built in Montreal.

A study of the sermons of John Wesley led to the conversion of William Black and he became the first Methodist minister and apostle of that denomination in the Maritime Provinces. In 1791 he was set apart as Superintendent of the Methodist Church in Nova Scotia. To the labours of a local preacher named Tuffey, in 1780, may be traced the beginning of Methodism in Lower Canada.

The first settlement of Methodists in Upper Canada was at Augusta, near Prescott, in 1778. Two years after, William Lossee of New York visited the United Empire Loyalists in Upper Canada, and in 1791 Methodism was properly organized at Hay Bay, near Napanee, on Sunday, the 20th February.

The Baptists were in Nova Scotia as early as 1752; but the honour of founding the first church seems to belong to the Rev. Ebenezer Moulton, who came from Massachusetts in 1761. For some years “New Light” preachers worked in sympathy with the Baptists and built “New Light” churches, and after the organization of the Nova Scotia Baptist Association in 1800 some of these churches accepted Baptist views. The Baptists had churches in Upper and Lower Canada in 1794 and 1796 and gradually spread all over Canada. The church is now the fourth in strength amongst the Protestant churches in Canada.

Known as St. George’s Church
James Cockburn

The Jews built the first synagogue in Montreal in 1777, and a Reform synagogue was constructed in 1882. Synagogues are now found in all the large cities of Canada.

There was a Quaker settlement at York in 1800, where they received a grant of one thousand acres. They formed a group for worship known as the Yonge Street Meeting.

Christian Science, which was first introduced into Canada in 1887, has now a large number of churches and reading rooms in Canada, and its excellent paper, the Christian Science Monitor, is under the direction of a committee of the church.

The Salvation Army began its work in Canada at London, Ontario, in 1883, and its activities extend throughout the Dominion.

The Unitarians were established in Toronto and Montreal in 1845, and there were several other smaller denominations in Canada. Of all Christian denominations the Catholics remain the most numerous, and although their bulwark is Quebec, they are not confined to it, but extend throughout the length and breadth of the land.

These few descriptions are sufficient for the purpose of this book. The history of each denomination fills volumes.


What a change has come over the face of Canada! I think we shall do well to jump into our make-believe plane again and see for ourselves what has taken place. And as we are in Upper Canada we may as well start from Kingston. The War of 1812-14 had forced upon Great Britain the fact that Canada was an easy place to attack. And so tremendous works were undertaken to strengthen its defences. On the fortifications of Quebec about thirty-five millions were to be expended, and canals and locks and roads were to be built. This work is well on, and so we will follow the course of the Rideau Canal. But first we notice what changes there are in Kingston. It has the appearance of an old world town with its soldiers on parade, and its carriages and horses and churches and large public buildings. Surely this is not the place which Denonville half destroyed. It is true. It has now been incorporated for some years and has its police force, its markets and its schools. Its system of government is to form a model for other towns in Canada, and soon it is to become famous all over the world for its University and its Royal Military College. Canada must have grown, for we find people on the roads everywhere and post-chaises and stage-coaches. Yes, the population of Upper Canada is now over four hundred thousand, and in Lower Canada it is over six hundred thousand. Here we see the sappers and men at work. They are building a chain of locks all the way to Ottawa or Bytown. The officer looking on is Colonel By himself.

We will now come round to the Rideau again. It is a wonderful work that is being done. Its main purpose is to provide a means of transporting men and supplies to the Upper country to avoid using the St. Lawrence, which is too much exposed to attack by the United States. It is a beautiful country through which we are passing and yet comparatively few people see it even to-day. I think we should pass to the right a little and take a look at Gananoque which was attacked by the Americans. It is growing into quite an important place. The Prince of Wales will stop there some day and the people will be lined up on the water front as his boat draws near and he will speak to them from the deck. Then a soldier who has painted a portrait of the Prince will ask him to sign it, and the Prince will be much flurried but will do his best with a fountain pen, a strange invention which will become popular. Perhaps there will never be a prettier sight on the water than when the Prince will be guarded by the American River Police while he is the guest of Senator Hardy. And here is Brockville, which has its “President and Board of Police of the town of Brockville,” before most of the other places were thus dignified. And now we leave the St. Lawrence with its really beautiful scenery and pass on through the county of Carleton to Bytown. Here we see a number of barracks and a substantial stone house, the home of Colonel By, and you will notice that here and there houses are being built which are the beginning of the city of Ottawa. Barracks Hill is the site of the future Parliament Buildings. They will be destroyed by fire by enemy hands during the Great War and in their place will arise stately buildings with a famous Peace Tower, of which we shall hear more. And there is already a row of stone houses on Wellington Street. Here is Nepean Point overlooking the river and the fields leading to the Sapper’s Bridge across the canal. The famous Château Laurier will be built on the corner of Wellington Street some day. And farther on is Rockcliffe, the future home of the Southams, Flemings, Kingsmills, Fauquiers, Germans and Kennys. Yonder is McKay’s new house, later to be the residence of the Governor-General of Canada. Near-by will be Ashbury College, the Eton or Winchester of Canada, and almost opposite will be Elmwood, an ideal school for girls. Ottawa will be the most important city in Canada, for from the Atlantic to the Pacific members of Parliament will come there to legislate for the good of all.

James Cockburn

We have still a few hours to spare before it is dark, and as the speed of our plane is not dependent upon petrol, we can travel at a rate which the aviators of the twentieth century will never attain. We will therefore see a little more of Ottawa in a perfectly safe way. This is Sandy Hill. Here is the first Protestant General Hospital and Stadacona Hall, where Sir John A. Macdonald lived in the eighties. It is now the home of Mrs. Rowley. This part will become a residential section: Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Sir Robert Borden, Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, Mr. Booth, Mrs. Fleck, Bishop Hamilton, Mr. MacLaren, Lady Schreiber, Mr. Smellie, Judge Anglin, Mr. Major, Senator Belcourt, Mr. P. D. Ross, Mr. Leduc, Dr. Shortt, Mr. Norman Smith, and other well-known people will live here. Here we cross into the Province of Quebec and see the fine farms of Mr. Wright who owns most of the place. He came in a wagon at the end of the last century from across the border and now is a very wealthy man. Hull will become famous for many things. And this is the Gatineau. We must look at the Chaudière Falls. How different from Champlain’s time! It was here the Indians used to stop on their passage, and throw tobacco into the flowing waters to appease the angry spirits. There is the first bridge built by Colonel By. Great bridges will span the river, and the active mills of the Booths and the Eddys will make the place famous. It is here that the trees now growing in the forests will be turned into paper and pulp, and matches by the million will be turned out every day. It will not look picturesque as it does now, but it will serve a most useful purpose, and give employment to thousands. Mr. Booth is already known as the Lumber King, and his granddaughter will become the Princess Eric of Denmark. Is it not nice to know what is going to happen? Near-by will be Earnscliffe, the home of Sir John A. Macdonald, and in still later years of Sir William and Lady Clarke. Here we pass over Kingsmere, the home of the future Prime Minister of Canada, Mr. Mackenzie King. Some day you will find him amongst his sheep and cattle, for he will have a fine estate there.

A typical road house of the period
James Cockburn

Here we are already at Belleville while we have been talking. This is Port Hope. It resembles an English town, and its school will be one of the best in Canada. One notes the transformation which has come over the place we are approaching. When last we saw it York was its name. It is now Toronto. It will grow and grow, and be unlike most other cities, because there will be no wooden buildings or fences or out-buildings. All will be built of brick or stone. And the broad open space near the Bay will be covered with buildings which will be thronged by a million people during exhibition week. In fact no place on the continent will have such a marvellous exhibition. Its University buildings and Upper Canada College will make the city famous, and in time it will become the second city of Canada. Here we skim over Woodstock, which I fancy was named after Woodstock near Oxford. It is a flourishing place with quite an old-world setting. We look in vain in all this country for evidence of pioneer days. And this is London, which Simcoe thought would be the best site for the capital of Upper Canada. The names of the streets remind one everywhere of the Mother Country. Here is something we have not met with in Canada before, a steeplechase. Look at the fine horses and the hounds as they flash across the fields and over the streams. Perhaps they will swim the Thames. It is not all the settlers who come from England who declare they are happy. But one English settler in Middlesex county is, for he says: “There is little grumbling here. Even the frogs sing instead of croaking as they do in England.”

Now we are passing over the Georgian Bay, over which there will be much controversy in relation to our canal system, and here we fly over Sudbury, a place of great activity as a railway junction before long. Now we pass Winnipeg and on to Jasper House. This old building will be replaced by a fine lodge and thousands of people will come in the early part of the twentieth century to its famous eighteen hole golf club. I am sure if we told this to the old keeper who is standing at the door he would not believe us.

Agnes Gardner King

O dear! What is that huge black-looking mass in the distance? It looks like a sand storm. I hope it is not coming this way, for sand storms are very unpleasant. Let us see. No. It is something worse, it is a forest fire, a dreadful thing. No doubt it was started by some careless fellow who left the camp fire burning. Sometimes when the wind is blowing at a high speed clouds of burning ash are carried for miles and flaming branches of trees are hurled an incredible distance. Let us hope that there are no unfortunate people in its path. We must glance at Edmonton, for it is one of the oldest places in the West, and then look down at Lake Louise and Banff, where thousands in the future will flock to its comfortable hotel. Now we will go back to the foothills. This is Calgary. How different it will soon become! But we shall know what it will be like a few years hence, when it is visited by the Marquess of Lorne and Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise. During the journey the Princess will make clever water-colour drawings of the places through which the train passes. Now we are passing over the Divide, where the waters of the rivers flow towards the Pacific Ocean instead of towards the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Now all this would have sorely puzzled the learned men of the days of Columbus. Indeed if the wise men of those days had read this book how angry they would have been! And these are the wonderful Rocky Mountains which no man passed for two centuries after the discovery of Canada. Soon a railway will make it quite easy to cross. But what a task! The first engineer to trace out this path must be a bold adventurous man, for it makes one giddy to look down from our plane. Then there will be nothing but a twig to hold to.

There is the route followed by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the first white man to reach the Pacific by an overland route. Difficult was his path, but great was his reward. And here we are in the beautiful country of New Caledonia, now known to us as British Columbia. Until the railway, the only way to reach Caledonia will be by the Pacific Ocean, a very long and tedious journey, and so this enchanting land is practically cut off from us. What a delightful country it will become! In the place of the golden wheat fields of the Prairie Provinces which we may then pass on every side for days, we shall behold orchards laden with fruit which will find its way all over the continent and to Europe. And its climate is ever temperate and there are only fitful falls of snow. What infinite variety of scenery there is in Canada!

Clayton & Company

And this beautiful country was nearly lost to us. It was the timely visit of Sir George Simpson to Fort James in September, 1828, that prevented this rich land from passing into the hands of the United States, and Canada would have had no outlet to the sea. On the 17th September, 1928, there will be a great celebration at the ancient post of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Mr. Charles Vincent Sale, the Governor, will preside, and with him will be Mr. French, wearing a beaver hat of the fashion of Sir George Simpson’s time and the distinctive uniform of the Company, and Mr. Sale will recall the adventures of the governor of a hundred years ago.

The city below us is Victoria, named after the young Queen, and yonder is Vancouver, one day to be known as the most progressive city of Canada. Esquimalt is the next place, with its great ships. What will it become in the future? Now we will take a peep at the Yukon, where there will be a mad rush for gold. British Columbia too has its gold fields and the first gold coins of Canada will be struck here. I wonder whether the air force of the twentieth century will ever travel as fast as we do. I do not think so, because it is not yet dark and we shall have time to fly right across Canada in a straight line to Ottawa, and we shall be there in a few minutes without feeling the least fatigue.

Reproduced from the original in possession of Mr. Ward C. Pittfield
C. Krieghoff

We will leave the future capital and pass Hawkesbury, the centre of the great lumbering industry in the years to come. Here we are again in the vicinity of Montreal. The winding stream is the Back River. It was the haunt of the Indians in the days of Maisonneuve. It will be dotted over with the homes of the wealthy in days to come. And there in the midst of the woods will be the Sacred Heart Convent of Sault au Récollet, famous all over the continent as a school for girls. A few miles off will be the country seat of Mr. Ward C. Pittfield. I hope some of the children will have a picnic in the lovely grounds and a ride on the polo ponies. Perhaps they may have a peep at the pictures in the house. Leaving Montreal on the left, we pass by the famous Fort St. Louis at Chambly, and those interesting places we read about under the French régime. There is St. John’s, where we encountered the Americans in the days of Carleton, and on the other side is Iberville. The picturesque country we are passing over is known as the Eastern Townships, so well dotted over with fertile farms. It is here that some of the best maple sugar is made, but we cannot stop to buy some, for we must observe the country on the south shore of Quebec, for during a hundred years there has not been much change. It is quite different to the region of Lake St. John with its salmon pools, which we are approaching. Is it not strange that this place we are nearing was named after General Monckton, who was Governor of Annapolis and of Nova Scotia, and yet the people persist in calling it Moncton. Monckton surely would not think it a compliment. Perhaps the people were like Mr. Jackson and had no respect for letters, only for sounds. Some day a famous surgeon named Webster and Sir Frederick Williams Taylor will try to alter the spelling, but in vain. The influence of Mr. Jackson was far-reaching. One can hardly imagine this wild-looking spot will become one of the most delightful places in New Brunswick, the home of Dr. Webster who, after a successful career as a surgeon, will devote his life to the history of Canada, and he will have a very fine collection of prints that will be the envy of many, and I expect that the Governor-General when he pays a visit there will covet them. We are passing over Hopewell Cape. In that pretty little house owned by Captain David Stiles a future Prime Minister will be born. He will be the fourth to come from the Maritime Provinces. This picturesque place over which we skim is Yarmouth. It is truly a peaceful spot. It was here De Monts passed, no doubt, in the days of Champlain. Then it was a dense forest. And this is Halifax. I never saw so many ships here before. It is the North American Squadron which makes it look so gay. These are the ships which protect our commerce, and if it were not for them very little of our merchandise would reach Europe. Pirates found it a very profitable business in the past to capture merchant vessels. In the years to come there will be far more ships, and over half a million of the brave sons of Canada will sail from this port to keep the flag of England flying over the Empire. Once more we are at Louisbourg, the strongest fort on the American continent. What struggles there were over this place, and now it is only a memory! Before us are the famous mines of Sydney which produce so much wealth. You will notice it has several excellent houses already, but before long its commercial importance will render it famous. The point jutting out into the sea is Margaree; it was so named from a Frenchman who lived there more than two centuries ago. It is now the abode of a race of hardy Scotchmen. Now I wish we could rest for a time at Prince Edward Island. Black foxes, the finest in the world, will be bred here, and whenever an exceptionally fine skin is seen in a fur store of the future, no doubt it will have come from this little garden province. We must return quickly and pass Gaspé, with its Government House, the home of the little Cox, of Carleton’s time. Gaspé is a lovely place in summer, but so cold in the winter. Here is Métis, famous some day as the home of Lord Mount Stephen, who will support Sir John A. Macdonald in building the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Later it will be the summer residence of Mr. and Mrs. Reford. Yonder is Rivière du Loup, where the Frasers settled, now it is frequented as a summer resort. And as we pass up the river we behold on either side peaceful towns and villages inhabited by a contented people. These are the houses which we saw in the making, when danger lurked behind every tree and the tomahawk of the Iroquois put an end to many a promising career. This is Three Rivers. In 1662 two men, who were sawing planks to build their cottages, had accumulated a large pile of sawdust just near the mill. When they resumed work after their noon-day rest, two Iroquois emerged from the pile of sawdust and carried the sawyers into captivity. But in that way only the forests, first seen by Jacques Cartier and his adventurous crew in the summer of 1535, were rescued for civilization.


The first Prime Minister of Canada under Confederation was Sir John A. Macdonald, one of the most remarkable men of his time and our greatest statesman. It is nearly forty years since he passed on, but his fame is undiminished.

John A. Macdonald was born in Scotland in 1815, but as he came to Canada when only five years of age he may be regarded as a Canadian. For five years he attended the Kingston Grammar School and we may assume that he was an apt pupil, because at the age of fifteen he became a law student. Four years later we find him acting as a poll clerk at the open elections, and that no doubt was his earliest association with the politics of the country. He had now to face the world without means or influence and to depend upon his own resources. At the age of twenty-one he was called to the Bar and commenced the practice of his profession. Upon one occasion while conducting a case he became involved in an argument which grew more angry until a free fight took place in the Court. This would never do, and so the Judge ordered the Crier to enforce order. Now the Crier liked Sir John but he did not like the other man. And so in a loud voice he called “Order in the Court! Order in the Court!” But as he passed Macdonald he whispered “Hit him, John.” This shows that Sir John was popular and that he was a fighter. When the Rebellion broke out in Upper Canada in 1837 Macdonald shouldered his musket and no doubt he remembered the words of the Crier, “Hit him, John.”

Sir John came into prominence at a time when Canada was exceedingly difficult to govern. The Union of the Provinces had not proved satisfactory, for it had created an impossible combination of racial forces. Larger representation was demanded by Upper Canada, which was opposed by the Lower Province. The Federation of the Provinces seemed to offer solution. Party politics at this time were unfortunately on a low plane, and it was difficult to find men willing to discuss any project unless it had the approval of their party, and thus much time was wasted. A strong man was needed to deal with the situation. And so while party politicians were quarrelling like washerwomen over a tub Sir John proposed a Union which would include the whole of Canada, and had the power to carry his measure through Parliament. It was a hard task, but he had energy and perseverance and was really the Father of Confederation.

It was Sir John who drew up the first draft of the British North America Act and paved the way for extending the Dominion from sea to sea. In this draft he proposed to call the Dominion the Kingdom of Canada. How much nicer it would be now if his suggestion had prevailed! As early as the year 1858 the idea of building a railroad across the continent was in his mind. Some means must be found to bring the people within easy access of the new capital. When British Columbia agreed to enter the Federal Union, Sir John promised to build the road, and his promise was fulfilled when the line reached British Columbia in 1885. The line was owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Its construction was a triumph of engineering skill, carried out under the direction of Sir Sandford Fleming, explorer and engineer-in-chief of the Dominion Government. Later the direction was under Sir Collingwood Schreiber, another famous engineer. The journey to British Columbia in early days was a serious undertaking which only the most hardy would risk. And now, whether in the spring time, at harvest or when the land is ice-bound, the journey may be accomplished in a few days with all the comfort found in a modern hotel.

It was a bold venture. Sir John was at the head, and behind were men of courage who dared to do. These men were able to look into the future. They saw the possibilities of the country and were eager to take its risks. The man foremost in this gigantic task was once a poor Scotch boy who spent the first five shillings he earned to buy a book. This poor boy became a peer of England under the title of Lord Mount Stephen. One of his principal associates was another poor boy from Scotland. He also became famous in history as Donald A. Smith, and later as Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal. These men, like Sir John, had faith and vision, and without such men Canada would be nowhere. When the beautiful Parliament Buildings were constructed in Ottawa, a man prominent in Upper Canada bewailed the wanton expenditure and declared that the buildings were large enough for the needs of Canada for five hundred years! In less than twenty-five years the buildings were all too small—even as the present enormous buildings will be too small in less than fifty years. How different from Sir George Etienne Cartier, whose faith in the future was unbounded. He supported with energy all Sir John’s projects of expansion and saw only a great Canada. This was likewise true of that stout-hearted Nova Scotian, Sir Charles Tupper, whose resolute faith overcame the hesitation of the House of Commons and induced that body to see the great scheme through to completion.

It is men of vision and perseverance that Canada will always need more than others, for her future must and will be great.

One of the supporters of Sir John was Thomas D’Arcy McGee. He was a man of unusual ability, a great orator and a staunch upholder of British institutions. He had the gift of swaying an audience by his eloquence and had he lived would have been a tower of strength to his party. But it was not to be. On the 7th April, 1868, as he was returning to his home after a late session of the House, he was killed by an assassin, perhaps the hand which threatened Sir John.

McGee had enriched Canadian history and literature by his writings, and he holds a distinct place in our national life. Some day we may know more about McGee, for, notwithstanding the excellent book by Mrs. Skelton, material is still being gathered by the Hon. Charles Murphy which should be published.

Sir John had a fund of humour at his command. For him there was a humorous side to every act, even when danger threatened.

One day a reckless butcher boy, driving down Sussex Street, charged full tilt into the side of Sir John’s carriage, and one of the shafts of the cart barely missed the head of the Prime Minister. The coachman wished to punish the lad, but Sir John seemed amused and said “Let him alone. It is merely the etiquette of his profession.” Perhaps Sir John was wondering whether that abandoned butcher boy would be more skilful in dealing with an ox than with a Prime Minister.

It is pleasing to turn from the busy statesman to the kindly man who had a warm spot in his heart for children. One day, when Sir John was over seventy-five years of age, a little girl of ten wrote to remind him that her birthday was on the same day as his. Her pen evidently wobbled a bit and her spelling was delightful. She informed Sir John that she hoped to have a birthday party, if her mother would allow it, and that a nice boy named Charles was coming to her party. But what concerned her most was the fact that long, long ago she had written to a boy who had not answered her. This she thought was mean, adding, “If you get it don’t forget to write if you git it.”

Sir John wrote such a nice answer, and I am sure you will like to read it.

My dear little friend,

“I am glad to get your letter and to know that next Sunday you and I will be of the same age. I hope and believe however that you will see many more birthdays than I shall, and that each birthday may see you strong in health and prosperous and happy.

“I think it was mean of that young fellow not to answer your letter. You see I have been longer in the world than he and know more than he does of what is due to young ladies.

“I send you a dollar note with which pray buy some small keepsake to remember me by.

“Believe me,

“Yours sincerely,

John A. Macdonald.”

Sir John did not have another birthday. He died a few months later.


At the close of the War of 1812 the Americans on the border realized that the British flag flew over Canada and not the Stars and Stripes. Those who had assisted the Americans thought it prudent to withdraw to their own country, and those who remained were content to throw in their lot with the Canadians.

The War was disastrous for Canada and there followed a long period of depression and unrest. The merchants who had reaped large profits from the sale of supplies for the army suffered heavy losses owing to the fall in prices, and speculators in land were ruined. There was general discontent in the country and the Government was blamed for the condition of affairs. The people as a whole were not satisfied with the form of government and it was not a simple task to suggest a remedy. In the province of Quebec there was a natural desire to preserve its religion, its laws and customs. In Upper Canada the people were English and were satisfied with English institutions. In Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island the people were in accord with the views of Upper Canada and at the same time it was evident that the majority of Canadians wished to take a larger share in the management of their domestic concerns. It was a difficult question not only for the Canadians but also for the Home Government.

Each province drew up a memorandum of its grievances and the reformers were active in demanding redress. The large areas of unoccupied lands which had been granted to favourites of the Government was one grievance. Another was the land reserved for the maintenance of a Protestant clergy, which had hitherto been interpreted to mean the clergy of the Church of England. But now that there were Baptists and Presbyterians and Methodists in the country, these denominations claimed that they were entitled to a share. A third grievance was the method of appointing members to the Council.

In Nova Scotia the reformers gained their end by constitutional means, but in Upper and Lower Canada they were less tactful and did not accomplish their purpose without rebellion, and consequently at a great cost and the disturbance of the country for many years.


The leader of the Upper Canada rebellion was William Lyon Mackenzie, an enthusiastic Scotchman. Many years before he outlined a measure of reform which would have met the situation, but he lacked one important quality needed in a reformer—patience. He was elected a member of the Assembly, but because of his attacks upon a group known as the Compact he was expelled from the House, and a number of young bloods wrecked his office and threw his printing press and type into Toronto Bay. This mob rule gained for Mackenzie many adherents, and he proposed to take the Lieutenant-Governor prisoner and set up a Provisional Government for Upper Canada.

He had gathered a small army, and one fine day he assembled his forces at Montgomery’s Tavern and led an attack on Toronto. But on the way his army encountered the regular troops, and Mackenzie made good his escape to Buffalo, and did not return to Canada until 1849.

In Lower Canada the leader of the rebellion was Louis Joseph Papineau, who was a remarkable orator. And he, like Mackenzie, resorted to arms when his demands were not complied with. Riots occurred in Montreal, and the bands of Patriots, as they were called, came into contact with the troops at St. Denis, and the village was burned. And a skirmish took place at St. Charles, where the Patriots were defeated, and a third rising at St. Eustache resulted in the burning of the church and loss for the Patriots. It is singular that both Mackenzie and Papineau lacked the qualities necessary in a leader. They had the force which swayed the mob, but not the power to restrain, and in the end both were urged to violence by a force of their own creation. A reward was offered for the capture of Mackenzie and Papineau and other prominent leaders who had escaped. Some of the rebels were imprisoned and others were afterwards banished to Bermuda.

The squabbles of the Reformers in Upper and Lower Canada was a cause of disappointment to England. The War of 1812 had drawn attention to the defenceless state of Canada and enormous sums had been expended in strengthening the country. The sum of thirty-seven million dollars had been spent on the fortifications of Quebec. Then there were forts to be built in other places, and roads and canals to be opened, for it was necessary to convince the Americans that Canada was not an easy place to invade. And now when all this had been done there were these internal squabbles. And so Lord Durham was sent out with special authority as Governor-in-Chief to find out what all the fuss was about and to suggest a remedy.

I am sure most of you have seen the picture of that bright curly-headed boy “Master Lambton,” for it is one of the well-known pictures in England and copies are to be found in any good print shop. Now that boy when he grew up became Lord Durham. In the spring of 1838 Lord Durham and his wife sailed for Canada. The voyage, which lasted six weeks, was an eventful one. In a terrific gale the waves beat high over the ship and the cabins were filled with water, so that the boxes floated about the room. The maids were washed out of their beds, and they all presented a miserable appearance. But when the storm was over they turned their attention to amusement, and fitted up one of the rooms as a theatre. They must have had great fun, for they made sketches of the costumes which are most amusing.

The Earl and Countess of Durham took up their residence in the Château St. Louis, and the staff occupied the Haldimand House. Durham began his régime by giving a series of entertainments in order to meet the people. He also visited Montreal and Upper Canada, and invited the inhabitants to make known their complaints and to suggest a remedy.

The Americans were giving a great deal of trouble, and the authorities at Washington were slow in taking measures to prevent the raids of the rebels. Colonel Grey was sent by Lord Durham with a message for the President: “In all circumstances and at all hazards I must offer them protection, and it would afford me the sincerest pleasure to find that my task is rendered easier by the co-operation of the American Government.” Three days after the American Secretary of War gave instructions to the Commander of the American forces to co-operate with the Canadians in suppressing the rebels on the border.

One question concerned the Governor greatly. A number of men were in prison who had not been brought to trial. If he brought them before a jury and tried them for treason, they might be acquitted or they might be condemned. And so he decided to banish them to Bermuda. But the Governor’s action did not please some of the members of the British Government, and Lord Durham resigned. And on his return to England he wrote the famous Durham Report. This Report is a most important document, and many of its provisions were carried out by his successors.

Lord Sydenham succeeded Durham, and immediately set about carrying out the recommendations of the Report for the union of Upper and Lower Canada. After much discussion in England this became effective in 1841. The Governor was instrumental in establishing a general system of municipal government throughout the country, which gave the people a voice in local affairs. But Sydenham did not live to carry out all his plans, for he was thrown from his horse and died of his injuries. Sir Charles Bagot followed Sydenham as Governor, and formed a ministry under Lafontaine and Baldwin, thus bringing together the French and English in the administration of the country. Bagot was unfortunately taken ill and died at Kingston in 1843. During his short régime he proved to be a most able Governor, and the correspondence which he left forms a valuable page of history. Sir Charles Metcalfe was the next Governor, but in less than two years he was obliged to return on account of ill-health.

In 1847 Lord Elgin was made Governor, and stirring times followed. He brought in a Bill to indemnify the people for losses sustained in the Rebellion. This caused riots and mob rule, during which the Parliament Buildings in Montreal were wrecked. The Governor became a target for the rioters, and he was pelted with stones and eggs. He refused, however, to call out the soldiers to suppress the disturbance, and finally decided to pay a visit to Upper Canada without a guard. This gave the people an example of courage which they admired. The Bill which was passed by the House was the will of the people, strange though it seems. The Governor had accepted the advice of his Ministers, and the principle of Responsible Government was admitted.

Since the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal it was evident that the seat of government must be changed, and for a time the Parliament was held alternately in Toronto and Quebec.

Canada was passing through a terrible time. The famine in Ireland sent thousands of famished refugees to our shores, and typhus fever and cholera, which were prevalent in Europe, found many victims amongst the emigrants crossing the Atlantic. Not only did thousands of these poor people perish from disease, but it spread amongst the inhabitants, and in many districts ordinary business was paralysed.

The story of the sufferings of these poor people is one of the most doleful in Canadian history, and it brings out in high relief the devotion and sacrifice of those who without hesitation volunteered to attend the sick and dying, often at the cost of their own lives.

After the disease had been stamped out there was a notable expansion in the industrial conditions of Canada. Saw-mills, grist mills and woollen mills were established, and foundries for the manufacture of agricultural implements. New methods were adopted by the farmer, and there was a marked difference in the standard of living. Better homes were in demand, and more expensive articles of clothing were worn. To meet the requirements mills produced articles which heretofore had been imported from Europe or the United States.

The excellence of Canadian flour was appreciated in Europe, and to supply the markets more ample facilities for transporting grain were required. This led to the enlargement of the canal system. But the United States was eager to capture the shipping of grain to England, and could transport it at a lower rate than Canada. The merchants in Montreal were alarmed, and over a thousand of them signed a manifesto setting forth the advantages of a federation of the North American States, thinking they would be better off under the American flag. For silver to them was more precious than patriotism. But the Montreal merchants found few sympathisers. The people recognised, however, that better facilities for transportation were urgent, and so short lines connecting with Montreal were built. In 1837 an engine was imported from England and the first railway train in Canada was set in motion. Soon railroads connected the Maritime Provinces with Montreal, and Montreal with Toronto, Hamilton, London and Windsor.

With all this evidence of progress, education was not overlooked. Primary schools, and normal schools and colleges and private schools were found in the provinces.

A new Parliament building was needed in Canada. But where should it be? Montreal could no longer be considered since the riots, and Quebec, Toronto and Kingston were claimants. No decision seemed possible, and the choice was left to Queen Victoria. The choice of Her Majesty was Ottawa. At this time the Government was advised to surround the Parliament building with a large park. If this had been done how much money would have been saved the poor taxpayers for a hundred years to come! At that time Ottawa was fairly in the centre of Canada, although it is not now. But the building of the great railways across the continent from sea to sea has made it comparatively easy for the people of all parts of the country to come to the capital.

Soon after Confederation other provinces joined the union—Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Manitoba, and later Alberta and Saskatchewan—so that now all the provinces are represented in the Federal Parliament. But this did not do away with the Provincial Parliaments. Each province has a Lieutenant-Governor and an Assembly and a Prime Minister, and some provinces a Legislative Council, so that the total cost of governing so small a number of people is enormous, but this is the will of the people. Some day, no doubt, when the country is much larger the government will be much smaller.

One would have thought that after a great railway crossed the continent the lot of the settler would be easy. But it was not so. For hundreds of miles inland, to the right of the line and to the left of the line, villages and towns sprang up to which access was exceedingly difficult until branch lines were constructed. And therefore, until quite recent years, the pioneers of the West followed the trail and endured hardships equal to those of the pioneers of old. And while the settlements in Quebec and Ontario were necessarily slow, those of the prairie provinces seem to have appeared by magic. In 1883 the first settlers arrived in Saskatoon. It was then an unbroken wilderness, and yet twenty-seven years after Sir Wilfrid Laurier laid the foundation-stone of its great University!

For years the great prairie province known as Rupert’s Land was administered by the Hudson’s Bay Company. It was a tremendous territory. The traders of the Company journeyed from fort to fort securing the furs of the friendly Indians, and over this boundless stretch roamed the buffalo at will. Then when the territory passed into the hands of the Government the red coats of a splendid body of men, the North-West Mounted Police, were to be seen, and to these men was confided the task of preserving law and order.

The construction of the Canadian Northern Railway gave an impetus to the settlement of the West, and in 1905 the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created. But one should bear in mind that it was the Hudson’s Bay Company that prevented the provinces from being exploited by American traders.

A. Mortimer, Lith.


We have already heard how the great Company of Adventurers trading into Hudson’s Bay were lords of the fertile land which was some day to become separate provinces. Soon after Confederation, Manitoba was formed into a province. At this time Winnipeg could boast of nothing more than a straggling street with a few wooden huts and wigwams, save only the strong post of the Company called Fort Garry. Then the Dominion Government acquired the land and made a settlement with the Indians.

Law and order were established under the direction of the North-West Mounted Police, who soon earned for themselves a splendid name. The American freebooters were driven out; settlers began to arrive from foreign countries, especially Germans, Quakers, and the next year there was a large number from Iceland, so that in a very short time the population of the province had increased to sixty thousand.

The extension of the St. Paul and Pacific Railway to the Red River altered the mode of travel, and the famous Red River cart gave place to the steam engine. Not long after, the province became involved in a serious question of schools. The English settler did not want to have French taught in the schools, and the French language was, perhaps injudiciously, abolished as an official language in the West. For in a country like ours, where the chief elements are English and French, a knowledge of both languages is desirable and is decidedly an asset. The growth of the province was rapid, and by the end of the year 1900 its population had grown to two hundred and fifty thousand, and there were more than forty thousand in the city of Winnipeg.

But perhaps the most remarkable example of rapid growth was in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, which include that vast stretch from Manitoba to the Rocky Mountains. At the time of the Confederation this was the haunt of the buffalo, and now over a million and a half souls inhabit the land. This territory was acquired from the Hudson’s Bay Company and by treaties with the Indians. First the settlement was along the line of railway, and large groups of people were attracted from Europe, and by the year 1897 one hundred and ten thousand had found homes. There were great problems for the governments to deal with. The lands were the best in the world for agriculture, and production was enormous. But this was useless without a market. The grain could not be left in the open, and so it was necessary to build huge elevators for the storage of the wheat until it could be sold. The growing of wheat was quite simple. The marketing of wheat was quite difficult. Soon over these vast plains well-ordered towns and cities sprang up, and schools, colleges and universities were established in each province. The development of the West was quite different from the settlement of the East, and its progress in every walk of life has been more rapid. The West stands apart in the story of the Dominion, and its romance is as yet only dimly realised. Its cities have been planned from the outset by men of broad outlook, and the extravagant expenditures of other provinces through want of vision in the past will be unnecessary in the West. There are many other lessons which our legislators might learn from these provinces in dealing with public questions, for petty economy usually leads to a huge burden for the taxpayer.

Beyond the Rocky Mountains we enter a new world, with wonderful scenery, temperate climate and old-world characteristics. In place of the wheat fields of the prairies, we behold beautiful orchards and gardens. It is a province perhaps richer than any other in natural resources, although nature seems to have made them difficult of access. The problem of reaching this land by rail was one which taxed the resources of engineers, for the lofty mountains challenged the advance of civilisation.

The progress of the last ten years in Vancouver has been remarkable, and it bids fair to become a most influential city in the Dominion.

What a change has come over the face of the Dominion since we first skimmed over its face in 1608! Then the only habitation was the little fort at the foot of Cape Diamond. Less than thirty white men could be found from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and now the number is nine million.

The trails and rough roads which seemed luxurious to the early pioneers have long disappeared, and in their place we may see broad state highways and thousands of other roads leading from city to city and from province to province. And right across stretch bands of steel, branching in every direction, carrying well-appointed trains owned by the Canadian people and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.

On the water there is also a startling change. The birch-bark canoes of Frontenac, the Governor-General, where are they? Palatial steamboats and yachts ply the river in their place, passing under gigantic bridges connecting either shore. And the little palisaded forts along the Richelieu and the St. Lawrence, harassed by bands of ferocious Indians, have all disappeared, and from one end of Canada to the other there has been a complete transformation. Now it is not only in the physical appearance of the country that we notice a difference. Arts and manufactures which we saw in their rude beginnings have developed to such a state of perfection that we compete successfully with countries which were already old at the time of our birth. From the little settlement at Quebec has emerged a nation, and the making of that nation is the story of Canada. If fifty large books were written they would contain only a brief account of this wonderful country of ours, so that you cannot expect much of a story in this one very small book. But if it helps you to form some idea of what the people have accomplished in building up the nation, then I shall be quite satisfied.


On the 17th February, 1919, all Canada mourned the death of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. Everyone loved Sir Wilfrid, even quite small children. For many years he had been Prime Minister, so that when he became leader of the Opposition people still regarded him as the most prominent man in Canada. He had a remarkable personality; wherever he went he made a favourable impression; and his speeches were models of good English or of good French. As the representative of Canada at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria he received a tremendous ovation, and all eyes were turned towards the Dominion. You are not interested in politics just now, but some day you will read of the measures which were passed by his Government; there are some things, however, which you will like to hear. It was under Sir Wilfrid that the great celebration at Quebec was carried out. Something was to be done to mark the passing of the three-hundredth anniversary of the foundation of Quebec by Samuel de Champlain, and Lord Grey and Sir Wilfrid had many talks with Sir Louis Jetté, with Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, with Mgr. Mathieu, with Mr. Lemieux, and with Mr. Chapais. And at last it was decided to prepare a splendid pageant of history, such as had never been seen before in Canada. And it was to cost very much money, not only for the celebration, but for the creation of a national park. Where was all this money to come from? Sir Wilfrid, ever kind, said that he would find it. But the Province of Ontario wished to bear a part of the expense and voted a large sum for the purpose. Many distinguished people were invited to attend the celebration, the Prince of Wales, who is now our King, the Duke of Norfolk, and Lord Roberts, the famous general, and representatives of Champlain and of Wolfe and of Montcalm and Lévis and Murray and Carleton and others we have met in this book. The British navy promised to send some big ships, and there were ships from France and other countries. Then for many weeks there was much ado in Quebec. All the characters in history, from Cartier and Champlain and Talon and Frontenac, Montcalm, Lévis, Wolfe and Murray, with soldiers and peasants, were to be there. And uniforms and costumes had to be made for these thousands of people. And as the day approached one might see the little ship of Champlain, the “Don de Dieu,” anchored before Quebec. And on the shore a fort was built just like the “Abitation de Québec” of 1608. And when at last the costumes were ready there was a grand parade through the streets to the Plains of Abraham, and the story of Canada for three centuries was presented. First there was a scene in France with Jacques Cartier telling the story of his discovery to Francis I. And there you would meet Donnacona and Dom Agaya again. Or you could watch Champlain and his crew on the St. Lawrence, or witness the arrival of Madame Champlain in the ox-cart, or the landing of the Ursulines. In fact there was a representation of many of the scenes we have spoken of. And in the evening one would meet these people in the streets and in the Château, and it seemed as if one were living in the days of long ago. And no one was more delighted than Sir Wilfrid. In the Château or at the citadel one would find him talking to Wolfe or Montcalm, or Frontenac or Talon; but, wherever he was, you would notice him.

These pageants took place more than twenty years ago, but the government park begun by Sir Wilfrid Laurier is not finished yet. This great task is being carried out by the National Battlefields Commission under Sir George Garneau. Then Sir Wilfrid began to improve the city of Ottawa and to build driveways which are still being extended by Mr. Mackenzie King and his successor Mr. Bennett. Sir Wilfrid was much attached to Lord Grey and was always eager to carry out his plans. If this were not such a small book I could tell you so many pleasing things about Sir Wilfrid and Lady Laurier, but I think you will agree that he must have been a very nice man.


There are two names that should be inscribed on the roll of the Makers of Canada—Lord Minto and Lord Grey. And some day, far distant perhaps, they will be.

When quite a young man Lord Melgund, as he was then called, served as a soldier in the North-West, and in 1883 he was appointed Military Secretary to Lord Lansdowne, the Governor-General. Now all the time he was in Canada with his young wife, the daughter of the Honourable Charles Grey, he was much interested in the history of this country, and was very much liked. When he was leaving Canada in 1885 Sir John Macdonald said to him, “I shall not live to see it, but the day will come when we shall welcome you as Governor-General of Canada.”

A long time passed and then one fine day, just as Sir John Macdonald had said, Lord Minto was given a hearty welcome when he landed at Quebec as Governor-General.

Now it is not surprising to find that Lord Minto loved the history of this country, and that Lady Minto took as much interest in Canadian affairs as her husband did, for both of them knew the country well. But Lord Minto, like many others, proved that the real story of Canada was not to be found in books. And in those days few people had regard for history, or at least were content with what they had. They seemed for the most part to think that statistics of our economic progress was the one thing desirable for the outside world and our own people to know. But we know that this is not true. Great railways and great wheat-fields and great mining centres will never make the character of a people known, and until the character of our people is known we cannot be fully respected as a nation or take our proper place as a nation. And there is only one way in which our character can be known, and that is through our history. And people are now beginning to realise that the great development of this country will be through its history.

Lord Minto realised this, and he made a collection of the school books of the several provinces and studied them. But he was disappointed, for it was not in them that he could read the true story of Canada. And so he pondered over the subject to find out why a better story had not been written. Now it was quite evident to Lord Minto that there were many people in Canada who were competent to write history, but unfortunately they had not the material necessary for the writing. In Ottawa and Quebec there must be piles of documents. It was true, but no one cared anything about them, and they were not open to the public. So he made a few enquiries, but the papers he required could not be found. Then he wrote: “One thing my researches have made clear is the pitiable neglect of old records.” In a further examination of some of the departments he discovered papers of value in cellars utterly uncared for. His enquiries in Quebec and Montreal were not more satisfactory.

Then he wrote to Sir Wilfrid Laurier: “My researches have aroused in me such interest and concern that I cannot refrain from speaking strongly. Prior to 1882 many papers were committed to the flames; I have heard of large consignments of unwanted documents, some of which were known to be valuable, being removed from the Privy Council Office for the benefit of the paper factories. It is not only in the Government offices that these records exist, but many are scattered throughout the country, entirely neglected, which are of the greatest historical value. It appears to me that the appointment of a Deputy Keeper of Records would be of the greatest value to the history of the Dominion, and would be a great saving on the extravagant system which now exists.”

Now when Sir Wilfrid read this letter he decided at once to erect an Archives building; and Lord Minto obtained important papers for the Archives. This was certainly a great work, for thousands of people now obtain copies of documents for the writing of history which it would have been quite impossible for them to obtain before.

And now Lady Minto has presented a portrait of Lord Minto for the Archives, and it is placed in the Minto Room, because Lord Minto did so much towards obtaining this building for Canada. Both Lord and Lady Minto loved winter sports, and sometimes they had very exciting experiences. Once they arrived at Lévis, opposite Quebec, just after midnight. The ice bridge jam had broken the night before, and the banks were piled with rough ice, and fields of icebergs were floating down the river. The ferry boats could not cross, and there was no way to reach Quebec except in canoes, which was dangerous. “It was a most thrilling experience,” wrote Lady Minto; “we got into our canoes on dry land and were pushed and towed partly over the floes of ice and partly in the open river. We had eight men to each canoe, who paddled in the open water and were wonderfully quick in jumping in and out and pushing the canoes over the ice, singing French Canadian songs as they paddled. I would not have missed the passage for anything. At the landing place sleighs had been provided for us, and the Snow Shoe Clubs in their costumes conducted us to the citadel, which we found warm and comfortable.”

Some day when you read the Life of Lord Minto you will understand how much he did for the country. Lord Minto died some years ago, but Lady Minto has always kept up her interest in our history. In 1924 the descendants of former Governors-General met in England and formed a History Society, with Field-Marshal H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught as President. Lady Minto was first Vice-President, and Sir Campbell Stuart was Chairman.

When Lord Minto sailed from Quebec at the end of his term, his ship came to anchor somewhere in the St. Lawrence and awaited the vessel bringing the new Governor, Earl Grey. The two met and discussed the affairs of Canada, and Lord Minto confided the task of developing the Archives to his successor. The new building was opened during the second year of Lord Grey’s administration, and he termed it “Copper Hall.” Lord Grey was almost a daily visitor to the institution, and his large black dog would often come alone and await the arrival of his master. One day the Governor returned to Rideau Hall and missed his dog, and the coachman was sent in search. The coachman knew the habits of the dog and drove to the Archives. When the empty carriage drew up at the entrance the dog seemed to know what was expected, for he jumped at once into the carriage and was driven home. From the moment of Lord Grey’s arrival he assisted in building up the collections in the Archives, and urged his many friends to make donations. The famous Model of Quebec, the delight of every child, was obtained through his influence. And then there is the noble monument to the first girl scout in the New World which he caused to be set up. Some day when you pass through the Archives you will find a room called the Grey Room, because Lord Grey did so much for the history of Canada.

One bleak day in February Lord Grey looked out from a window of the building towards Nepean Point, and was much impressed by its commanding position. Off he went with his daughter and, climbing the rough wooden fence, struggled through the snow until he reached the point where the monument of Champlain now stands. “What a splendid site,” said he, “overlooking the scene of Champlain’s voyage. This should be converted into a park connected by a bridge with Major Hill.” And within a year this barren spot was transformed into the beautiful park of Nepean Point.

But I have already told you something of his great work in the preservation of the Plains of Abraham and the park in memory of Wolfe and Montcalm, which is not yet finished. There are so many memorials of the work of Lord and Lady Grey throughout the Dominion, and as you grow older you will read more about them. For Lord Grey loved children, and every time he passed through a village he would stop at the school-house and ask the teacher to give the children a holiday, and so they were always looking out for his visits.

He loved the Archives because he said it contained the soul of the people, and students of history honour both the name of Lord Minto and of his relative Lord Grey.


In the story of Canada from the days of Champlain there are so many striking figures that cannot even be mentioned in a little book like this. But there is another Prime Minister to whom we must refer—Sir Robert Borden. He was the head of affairs all through the Great War.

In the month of August, 1914, with little warning the leading nations of Europe were involved in war. Germany declared war on Russia, and as France was her ally she was bound to support her. And as Britain had agreed to protect the French coasts, she could not desert France at this moment. And moreover, if the powerful German fleet should enter the Channel, England herself would be in danger. And so at the first signal of war off sailed the British fleet and bottled up the great German vessels so that they were unable to come out. And then on the 4th August, 1914, England declared war against Germany.

Now what would Canada do? Sir Robert called his Cabinet together, and after deliberation for a few hours decided to enter the war. The people were united on the stand taken by Canada, and Sir Wilfrid Laurier pledged the support of the Opposition.

Thenceforth there was activity such as was never seen before in Canada. Under the direction of Sir Sam Hughes, thirty-two thousand of our brave soldiers sailed from Halifax on the 3rd October, less than two months after the declaration of war. These included the famous regiment named in honour of Her Royal Highness Princess Patricia—a regiment which was to bear so much of the brunt of the war. This was only the beginning. In the following year more soldiers were sent over, and before the war ended six hundred thousand Canadians had enlisted in the service of the Empire. But there was much to do besides enlisting men. They must be equipped with arms and ammunition and clothed and fed. It was a gigantic task. Everywhere the factories were turning out shells, and trains were passing day and night laden with provisions. Soon came sad news to many a Canadian home of the death of a brother, a sister, a husband or a father. All through the country the women were busy, under the auspices of local societies of the Daughters of the Empire or of the Red Cross, in making comforts for the soldiers; and one day in September 1916 I saw in France three thousand five hundred boxes which had been sent from Canada. These with hundreds of thousands from other countries were distributed to the camps, and to the soldiers in the trenches. And yet with all this work there was not enough for the poor men.

At the head of the work that was going on was Sir Robert Borden. In 1917 Sir Robert thought it better for the Opposition to share the grave responsibilities of government, and he formed a Union Government in which members of the opposite party became Ministers. In London Sir George Perley represented Canada, and was responsible for the organisation in England.

The men must be supported at the front, and this was the great task for the Government. You all know what a splendid stand was made by the Canadians. The Germans were determined to battle their way through to Calais at any cost, but in their path was Ypres. On came the Germans, aided by the deadly chlorine gas. Hundreds fell choked by the ghastly fumes, but the Canadians held on and Ypres was saved. In the following year Festubert and Givenchy were added to their victories, and then Courcelette and Regina Trench. The valour of Canadian soldiers was acclaimed on every side. In London news-vendors rushed through the streets with placards: “Bravo! Canadians!” “Canadians Victorious!” Turner, Mercier, and Currie and Byng were names on every lip, and the Canadian “Byng Boys” were household words. Then came the great achievement of 1917, the capture of Vimy Ridge, made possible by the tenacity of the sons of Canada which proved the vigour of her manhood. But at what tremendous cost! Amidst the scarlet poppies of Flanders rest the sons and daughters of Canada “who loved not their lives even unto death.” In sorrow and pride we saw them depart for the scene of conflict, and in sorrow and pride we leave them in the silent city of the dead. They made our name illustrious. They did more. They proved that although a young country Canada is worthy to take her place amongst the nations of the world.

Throughout the long period of the war Sir Robert Borden remained at the helm. But it was not only in Canada that he served. There were so many activities of the Government, and some of them were beyond our borders.

In England Lord Beaverbrook was making that magnificent record of the war, the paintings and photographs which give such a graphic story, the only real memorial of what our brave boys endured for us. When the Americans decided to enter the war they wished to do something to arouse the enthusiasm of their people. Agents were sent to Canada to see what we were doing, and they were impressed with our display of war trophies. Sir Robert Borden consented to assist them, and a train-load of trophies (big guns, aeroplanes, parts of zeppelins, machine guns, masks, a tank, posters and pictures, and curious things captured from the Germans) was sent to Baltimore. Now one realised what Lord Beaverbrook had done for Canada.

The Americans engaged an armoury, three hundred and twenty feet in length, two hundred and ten feet wide, with an arched roof ninety feet from the ground. It was a huge place in which a hundred yards race could be run. To this building came five hundred sailors from Annapolis, and with needle and thread they began to sew. Fourteen thousand yards of dark-blue bunting were given to them, and this they were to sew into a great sheet. They had a merry time, but they did not have to mend their clothes like the soldiers of Murray. When the great sheet was ready it was tacked to laths and drawn up to within a few feet of the arched roof. Then clever electricians worked above the bunting and placed thousands of lights between the roof and the blue sky. So that when one looked upwards it was just as if one were gazing at a starlit sky.

This was only the beginning of the elaborate preparations. The scene to be created was a starlight night in France, representing the regions which had been destroyed by the Germans, and those which had remained untouched. It was a bold and ambitious scheme, and cost over sixty-five thousand dollars. Throughout the war many exhibitions were held in the United States, in Canada and elsewhere to arouse the interest of the people, but nothing compared with the beauty and grandeur of this, and it was due to the genius and talent of Mr. Van Lear Black of Baltimore.

To depict the scene a large canvas was stretched across either end of the armoury and prepared for the artists. Upon one canvas they painted the picturesque scenery of France, which was made more realistic by over a hundred trees, thirty feet in height, which had been cut in a distant forest. In the midst of the trees one could see a Canadian ambulance attended by a surgeon and by Canadian nurses in uniform. And there were dug-outs covered with fresh green turf. At the other end of the building a battlefield with trenches was constructed, and beyond it was the canvas painted to represent the villages which had been destroyed by the Germans.

A grand-stand was set up for Sousa’s band, and from the centre arose a colossal statue holding aloft a torch on either side of which was flying the Canadian flag. It was an impressive scene.

When all was in readiness the Honourable Martin Burrell, of Sir Robert Borden’s Government, made an eloquent speech. And President Wilson spoke, and Mary Pickford spent a whole day there much to the delight of the children. On another day His Eminence the Cardinal of Baltimore and His Grace the Archbishop of York made speeches.

Three hundred and fifty thousand people came to the exhibition, and in this building fourteen million dollars were subscribed for the Liberty Loan. The Canadian nurses and the Canadian returned men received a hearty welcome.

So pleased were the people that a rich lady in Baltimore had a room built in the Historical Society as a perpetual memorial of the exhibition. In it you will see a Canadian flag and pictures, paintings and models of the exhibition. And the next year, on the anniversary, they had a celebration in Maryland in honour of Canada, and they called it “Canada Day.”

It was a great day for the Canadians, and you would have been proud of your country. And so the people were very grateful to Sir Robert, and they had reason to be.

Then Sir Robert was a member of the Imperial War Cabinet and helped to direct the course of events in Europe, and he had the honour of being the only Prime Minister who was in office at the outbreak of the War and at its close. His name will always be gratefully remembered by our soldiers.


In this little volume we have tried to picture Canada in the making from the time when the nucleus of a nation was dependent upon the Mother Land for its daily bread until in this, the twentieth century, that nation is acknowledged a world power.

During the interval of three hundred years there was always some form of constituted authority or government, and the evolution of that government is the political history of Canada. On this we have touched lightly in the present volume.

It is two years only since our national status was officially recognized. The announcement caused no shock. Indeed, it was brought about almost imperceptibly. The circumstances which impress the change upon us are the appearance of diplomats in our midst and the appointment of ministers to foreign countries. Nevertheless, the change is momentous. Power, once vested solely in the State, has been transferred completely to the people. The process was gradual, extending over a range of years. The final chapter in that achievement of statecraft brings to our notice an interesting personality, the Right Honourable William Lyon Mackenzie King.

Some people still think that Mr. King was born under a lucky star, because only a few years ago he was a Deputy Minister, and now he is not only Prime Minister of Canada but a figure looming large in world affairs. Perhaps if we were very clever we might discover some kindly influence of the stars in his career. For my own part, I believe that if we could peep into his home life in the early days we should discover the secret there. The lessons that Mr. King learned at home are the foundation upon which rests his success. In life he dearly loved his mother. In death he venerates her memory. If two roads were open to him, the one leading to a kingdom and the sacrifice of early principles and the other leading to his mother, his steps would surely follow the path which led to her. This is the foundation. Having won distinction at his university in Arts and Letters and in Political Science, he began the most important study of his life—the study of mankind. As a young man you would have found him in England living amongst the toilers, seeking to understand their problems, so that he might be able to deal with them intelligently in the future. Then you would find him in the great industrial centres of the United States, intervening in disputes between capital and labour and establishing friendly relations where discord and mistrust had hitherto prevailed.

In India, in China and in Japan, while investigating conditions of international import, he further added to his knowledge of men. There are no short cuts to real success. The unmistakable experience of life is that everything worth having is won at a price. Mr. King has paid the price in years of patient study—in fact in preparation.

His opportunity came when in 1921 he was asked to form a government.

And now, as I am writing these lines, he is signing a treaty in Paris which we all hope will make war impossible.

Some day you will read more about him as the successor of Sir Wilfrid Laurier and leader of the Liberal Party, and you will find that his life is not without inspiration for the youth of Canada.

In 1927, at the instance of the Prime Minister, Canada celebrated the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation. Nothing, perhaps, has done more to awaken national consciousness. Thousands of children from sea to sea realized, perhaps for the first time, that they belonged to a Canada greater than their own town or village. They began to investigate for themselves, they wrote essays. What did Confederation mean? Soon they understood that Confederation meant kinship, fellowship. They themselves were a part of the nation. Each village was a unit, and the total of the units represented the Canadian people. Then they were given a medal, and this medal was evidence that the owner belonged to the great and glorious Canadian nation.

It was the privilege of many children to hear the joyous message of the bells from the Peace Tower when they were set in motion by an electric button pressed by His Majesty the King in England.

It was a happy thought to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, for it was also the birthday of the new Canadian nation. Later on came the Prince of Wales, Prince George and the Prime Minister of England, to take part in the closing ceremonies.


Many of you have been fortunate enough to see the Parliament Buildings at Ottawa, and perchance some of you may have seen the even more stately Houses of Parliament in London. Few children whom I have met were able to tell me why the buildings are there, or what is done in them. In the olden days, eight hundred years ago, or more, the King had “very deep speech with his Witan,” or counsellors. This “very deep speech” was really a meeting between the King and the people, on which occasion he told them what they were to do; and you may be sure that they did what they were told, because sometimes the King “spak sharply.” Now to-day the people of Canada still hold “deep speech” with the King through the members whom they elect to represent them in Parliament. But instead of the King telling the people what to do, they tell the King what they wish to have done in his name. The opening and closing of Parliament are important functions attended with great ceremony. The Governor-General preceded by a troop of Lancers rides in state to the Parliament Buildings, where he is received by the high officials of the Government and conducted to the Senate. After he has taken his seat upon the throne, the members of the House of Commons are summoned to appear at the Bar of the Senate. Thereupon the Governor-General reads a speech outlining the measures that will be brought before the members for their deliberation. Then the members return to the House of Commons to debate these questions. When all the matters before them are passed, the Bills, as they are called, are sent to the Senate for approval, and then the Governor-General comes again to the Senate and gives the King’s Assent to these Bills, and they become law.

Every five years there is a new Parliament, sometimes oftener. Before the election candidates are chosen by the people at a convention to represent every county in the Dominion. There are two hundred and forty-five members. In olden days a strong right arm might be a deciding factor in obtaining a nomination. At one of the conventions half a century ago a burly candidate knocked out eleven of his opponents on account of an offensive remark.

The conventions nowadays are orderly affairs. Two candidates are usually chosen for each district, sometimes three. The reason for choosing two or more candidates for each county is because all the people do not think alike on public questions. For example, supposing that at the time of the elections a large number of people in Canada were in favour of building highways and a number of ships, and another large number of people were opposed to the highways and ships, feeling perhaps that they would cost too much. Here you would have two parties. Now if more candidates in favour of the highways and ships were elected, the highway party would have a majority, the leader of that party would be asked by the Governor-General to form a Government and to become Prime Minister. Under his administration no doubt the highways and the ships would be built.

In days to come the politics of the country will be familiar to you. At the moment I think you will be more interested if I tell you something about the present Prime Minister, the Honourable R. B. Bennett, even of the days when he was a mere child.

On the 3rd July, 1870, a wee babe was born at Hopewell Cape, New Brunswick. We pointed out the spot when we flew over the province in our wonderful aeroplane. Generations before he saw the light of day his ancestors had abandoned their homes and their all in the newly formed United States, in order that they might still live under the ægis of the British Crown. They were called United Empire Loyalists. New Brunswick was not a beautiful province as it is now. Then it was difficult to find even a rude shelter for the people, and food and clothing were scarce. Privation and suffering were common to all; still they knew how to endure. The generations which followed had a happier lot, and Lord Dorchester, mindful of their loyalty and of their suffering, decreed, some time later, that they and their families should place the letters U.E. after their names as a mark of honour.

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Bennett was at Hopewell Hill, where their child was brought up, and was given the names Richard Bedford. Whether his little companions called him Richard or Dick I know not, but for many a year the simple letters “R. B.” have been used to designate Richard Bedford Bennett, and to many he will always be “R. B.”

At an early age he learned to read. His mother helped him with the hard words at first and encouraged him to study. He loved books, and although he may have whittled pieces of wood into boats like the other children, he just loved books, and they were good books, for this was before the advent of the poisonous literature all too common in Canada to-day. He had many advantages, of which he was not unmindful in later years. His mother had been a school-mistress at one time and understood the working of the youthful mind. Under her guidance his little difficulties disappeared and real progress was made. “Encourage us to persevere: applaud us when we run, console us when we fall, cheer us when we recover,” wrote a great man long, long ago. The boy persevered, passed through school to the university and was called to the Bar of his native province. And when success had crowned his efforts he wrote, “All that I am or ever hope to be I owe to you, Mother.” Many of us perhaps owe our success to our mother. Do you always remember? I wonder.

He had made up his mind to succeed when quite young. But there is no royal road to success in any walk of life. Perseverance is necessary, and perseverance is that silent power, ever gathering strength until it becomes irresistible.

I do not know whether it was the call of the West that induced him to seek a wider field for his activities; but he left the province of New Brunswick far behind and settled in Calgary, in the province of Alberta. In his new field he did not forget his own province, neither was the province unmindful of him. The university to which he was a credit elected him as a Governor.

Calgary was not then a place of great importance as it is to-day. It has grown out of all proportion, and Mr. Bennett has contributed to its development. Here he practised his profession, became a Member of the Legislature of Alberta, then a Member of the Dominion House, a Minister of the Crown, and is now Prime Minister of Canada.

There are many grave problems for him to solve, and he has already displayed wonderful energy in his efforts to deal with them. I read lately in a newspaper, and so it must be true, that Mr. Bennett is a bold man. But he is not like Paul Jones and the other bold men with earrings whom you read about in story books. He is a bold man with a warm heart who dares to do that which is right. Before long you will read much more about him, of his work in Canada and in England, and you will learn, for example, of his service during the War and his aid to the Red Cross, that splendid organisation which ministered to thousands of our soldiers who now sleep in Flanders Field. We will now leave him to his task, well knowing that he will cleave to the purpose which seems to him to be best.


The end of our story is drawing near. It is not a neatly woven story; there are tangles in the skein. That is the fault of the weaver. In days of yore the weavers placed small stones on their looms to keep the threads from running crisscross. Then unkind people said that the weavers used witch-stones and they had a horrible time. But I have no witch-stones, only an old goose quill, and you cannot expect much from that.

You will remember that for over a hundred and eighty years the seat of Government was in Quebec. Then later there were Upper and Lower Canada Parliaments, and finally the noble Parliament House at Ottawa which was destroyed by enemy hands in 1915. In its place arose the imposing buildings of which we are so proud, and in the centre is the famous Peace Tower. Just over the entrance is the Chamber in memory of the soldiers and nurses who rest for ever in Flanders. Within all is beautiful, it is sad, it is even sacred, for the one thought in the mind of the artist who created it was: How best can I do honour to the great and illustrious dead?

Then there are the bells in the Tower, and their music is sometimes joyous and sometimes sad. I saw the men before a raging furnace turning the metal into those tuneful things which chime in sympathy with a nation’s joy or a nation’s sorrow, and I remembered the story of an old man who had cast bells all his life. “Each bell I cast,” he said, “goes away from me and I never see it again, but I know that afar off it is ringing in the clouds and I hear it in my dreams.” Perhaps the old bell men in England will hear the chimes of the Peace Tower. Let us hope so, for then they will be well pleased with their work.

And through the Tower you pass to the Library of Parliament, the one part of the old building which was not destroyed. It is more pleasing even than the new buildings. Some day, when you are in Ottawa, I am sure the Honourable Martin Burrell will be pleased to show you some of the treasures he has there.

Ottawa is undergoing a transformation. Its unsightly buildings are disappearing, parks and driveways are adding beauty to the place and it is becoming very attractive.

Not so many years ago the world-renowned artiste, Sarah Bernhardt, visited Ottawa and gave great offence because she had ventured to say that the people were not artistic. And when asked to explain she smiled and said: “Look at your station!” And the station in those days was surely a miserable building for the capital of a great country.

Ottawa will become a pretty place, but it is not destined to be a large city like Toronto or Montreal, or Winnipeg or Vancouver. It will remain the capital for many years. But when Canada has a population of fifty or a hundred millions who shall say where the capital will be?

There are often pretty ceremonies in Ottawa, and there is one taking place just now which I am sure you will like to see. It is the end, or rather the beginning of a real romance, and all girls love romance. Book-tailors and weavers can go anywhere, so we will attend this ceremony, even if we must put on a high hat. Their Excellencies the Governor-General and Lady Willingdon have just alighted at St. Alban’s Church, and there are Sir Robert and Lady Borden. Let us follow the Governor-General because we shall be sure of a good seat. How pretty the flowers look! They are nearly all white. And the Bishop is there clothed in scarlet vestments. So it must be a joyous occasion, for scarlet is the colour of the Church for festivals, such as Easter.

Indeed it is a particularly happy event. It is the wedding of the young grand-daughter of the famous engineer, of whom we have spoken, Sir Sandford Fleming. He loved little children; but he will not be there because a long time ago “God’s finger touched him and he slept.” At the chancel step stands the bridegroom, the young Viscount Hardinge. And I notice that he seems to cast an anxious glance towards the church door. But he has not long to wait; for the bride, tall, stately and looking radiantly happy, has arrived.

Under the French régime we have seen several grand processions and there is a picture in this book of the arrival of the first brides in Talon’s time. Many of them are beautiful, but there is not one more lovely than the bride of to-day.

The simple procession begins. The long, flowing train of the bride is borne by two dear little tots who resemble the fairies of the picture books, followed by six bridesmaids. If I could describe their costumes, I would not, for the charm and beauty of the whole scene is its simplicity. And now the Bishop, wearing his mitre, is giving the benediction, and then the grand-daughter of Sir Sandford Fleming leaves the church a peeress of England. Is not that a pretty romance?

But I am sure you must be growing tired. In a brief space of time we have travelled thousands of miles and have seen many types of people. With a little more leisure at our disposal we might have met others; great lives, some of them, who have passed into silence, awaiting the day when, from forgotten sources, their deeds will be brought to light.

During our travels the map of Canada has been changed. The primeval solitudes have been transfigured. And yet the vast untraversed lakes, the unbroken forests which first met our gaze, must surely have enjoyed a charm and mystery of their own. We almost envy those early explorers the joy of penetrating into the absolutely unknown.

Little by little we have seen this kingdom of ours built up out of atoms of time, of patience, and of self-denial; built up at a cost of bodily labour, just like the pyramids were built, brick by brick, by the toil of unnoticed lives. In this small work we have been able to speak at length of few beyond the master builders. They are like the captains of great ships, like the generals of mighty armies. Very important, it is true. But what could they have accomplished without the thousands of sailors and soldiers, the names of whom we shall never know?

Frank Hennessey

We are fortunate perhaps, for at least we have caught a glimpse of the toilers as well. And we have met them under many conditions. We have seen them at work, at hard work too, and we have seen them at play. We have lingered with the children in the gardens amidst the flowers, the birds and the butterflies, and from many a cot half buried in the snow we have heard the melody of a violin that has filled the silence of a closing day. All this was in the long ago, you will say. I am not quite sure. To memory it seems a moment only since:

“We wandered out of yesterday,

 Went Maying in that ancient May

 Whose fallen flowers are fragrant yet.”

But the bright day on which I am writing is coming to a close. The western sky, gorgeous a moment ago in scarlet and gold, is taking on a sombre hue. Soon the shades of night will fall, and birds and flowers and little children will close their eyes in sleep.

Perhaps in their dreams they will mingle with the children of old, making merry around the maypole or wander with the little ones in the woods; but so long as they do not meet the bears, all will be well.


“Abitation de Québec,” built by Champlain, 1608, i. 26;

  replica of, at Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 110

Abraham, Plains of, named after Abraham Martin, i. 132;

  English troops on, i. 146;

  battle on, i. 147;

  soldiers who fought against Wolfe at battle of, fight on side of England in 1775, i. 160;

  Tercentenary pageant on, ii. 110

Acadia, efforts made to colonise, i. 23;

  granted to Sir Wm. Alexander, i. 54;

  restored to France, 1632, i. 54;

  subject of quarrel between Charnisay and de la Tour, i. 55;

  becomes English possession, 1654, i. 56;

  restored to France, 1667, i. 56;

  misfortunes of the people of, in 1757, i. 131

Act, British North America, drafted by Sir John A. Macdonald, ii. 86

“Admiral,” the, i. 40

Agaya, Dom, Indian at Bay de Chaleur, accompanies Cartier to France, i. 13;

  tells Indians of wonders of France, i. 15;

  described as a traitor, i. 16;

  brings Cartier cure for scurvy, i. 18;

  personation of, in Tercentenary pageant, ii. 110

Albanel, Rev. Father, takes possession of James Bay, 1672, i. 77

Albany, proposal to attack, i. 98

Alberta, Province of, enters Confederation, ii. 101;

  growth of, ii. 104

Alexander, Sir Wm., Acadia granted to, i. 54;

  grants land to Claude de la Tour, i. 55;

  Scotch settlers in days of, worship in Nova Scotia, ii. 59

Algonquin Indians, Champlain leads, against the Iroquois, i. 29;

  Champlain averts war between Iroquois and, i. 34;

  address of, at Feast of the Assumption, Quebec, 1646, i. 49;

  girl of, aids French in expedition against Iroquois, i. 66.

Americans, many friends of, in Montreal, i. 158;

  propaganda of rebel, i. 165;

  violence of, towards Loyalists, ii. 15;

  claiming to be Loyalists, obtain lands in Canada, ii. 18

American Colonies, object to Quebec Act of 1774, i. 158

American ships, captured by Carleton on Lake Champlain, i. 160

Amherst, Sir Jeffery, attacks Canada by way of Lake Champlain, i. 141;

  meets General Murray, i. 150

Anderson, Right Rev. David, consecrated first Bishop of Rupert’s Land, 1849, ii. 65

Anglican Church, in Canada, ii. 59;

  open-air service of, conducted in Halifax, 1749, ii. 59;

  members of, in Halifax, 1750, ii. 60

Anglin, Right Honourable F. A., ii. 73

Annapolis, sailors from, assist with preparation of Baltimore Armoury for War Exhibit, ii. 123

Annapolis Royal, named in honour of Queen Anne, i. 130;

  Loyalists settle at, ii. 15;

  inhabitants of, subscribe $600 for a church, ii. 60

“Annedda,” Indian name for tree of which leaves and juices afford a cure for scurvy, i. 18;

  unknown to Champlain, i. 28;

  preparation of white spruce juice compared with remedy derived from, ii. 40

Archives, Lord Minto proposes appointment of Deputy Keeper of Records for, ii. 115;

  erection of building for, determined, ii. 115;

  building for, opened by Lord Grey, ii. 117;

  Lord Grey’s assistance to, ii. 117

Argall, Capt., destroys Jesuit mission at Mont Desert Island and attacks Port Royal, i. 53

Army, British, strength of, in Canada, 1812, ii. 49

Arnold, Benedict, leads an attack on Quebec, i. 158;

  joins forces with Montgomery before Quebec, i. 158;

  soldiers of, driven off by Carleton, i. 160;

  applies for land as a Loyalist, ii. 22

Ashbury College, Ottawa, ii. 73

Asia, Cabot believes that he has reached north-eastern extremity of, i. 4

Assumption, Feast of the, celebration of, at Quebec, 1646, i. 48

Athabasca, Diocese of, created, 1874, ii. 65

Augusta, first settlement of Methodists in Upper Canada at, ii. 68

Auk, i. 11


Baby, family of, obtains grant of land, ii. 24

Back River, once-time haunt of Indians, ii. 80

Bagot, Sir Chas., succeeds Sydenham as Governor-in-Chief; death of, 1843, ii. 97

Baldwin, Rt. Hon. Stanley, Prime Minister of England, visit of, to take part in closing ceremonies of Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, ii. 130

Baldwin-Lafontaine, ministry, ii. 97

Ballot boxes, ii. 17

Baltimore, His Eminence the Cardinal of, speaks at Baltimore War Trophy Exhibit, ii. 125

Baltimore, Md., Canada sends war trophies to, ii. 123;

  War Trophy Exhibit at, ii. 123;

  room built as memorial of Exhibition at, ii. 125

Banff, ii. 77

Baptist Church, development of, in Canada, ii. 68

Barrington, Lord, notifies Wolfe of his appointment to command expedition to America, i. 137

Basque fishermen, attack the “Levrier,” 1608, i. 25

Beauport, English force lands at, 1690, i. 102;

  church at, i. 132

Beauport Road, Montcalm’s army encamps along, i. 139

Beaverbrook, Lord, collects war records, ii. 122

Beaver Dam, American troops at, ii. 55;

  battle of, ii. 56

Beaver hat, serves as post bag, ii. 31

Bédard, Pierre Stanislas, appointed to a judgeship, ii. 51

Beds, manufactured by settlers, ii. 28

Beggar women at Quebec, measures taken against, i. 127

Begon, Intendant, constructs château at Charlesbourg, i. 129

Belcourt, Honourable Senator Napoleon A., ii. 73

Belle Isle, Straits of, Cartier passes through, i. 12

Belleville, ii. 75

Bennett, Honourable Richard Bedford, Prime Minister of Canada, ii. 111, 133;

  early life of, ii. 135;

  personal characteristics and career of, ii. 136

Bermuda, prisoners of rebellion of 1837 banished to, ii. 94;

  Lord Durham banishes rebels without trial to, ii. 96

Bernhardt, Sarah, criticises artistic taste of people of Ottawa, ii. 140

Biencourt, Charles de, Baron de Poutrincourt, successor to lands at Port Royal, i. 52;

  character in drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53;

  abandons Port Royal, i. 53;

  death of, 1623, i. 54

Big Mouth, addresses de la Barre, i. 94

Bigot, Intendant, power and influence of, i. 129;

  evil practices of, i. 136;

  compared with Talon, i. 137

Birds, Cartier’s description of, i. 11

Bjarne, said to have discovered Wineland in 985, preface

Black, Van Lear, directs Exhibit of War Trophies at Baltimore, ii. 124

Black, William, becomes first Methodist minister in the Maritime Provinces, ii. 68

Blackbirds, ravages of, ii. 41

Blankets, exchanged for furs, i. 91

Boerstler, General Charles G., taken prisoner at Beaver Dam, ii. 56

Boisherbert, Charles des Champs de, reports to Montcalm presence of English troops on Heights of Abraham, i. 147

Bompas, W. C., first Bishop of the Diocese of Athabasca, ii. 65

Bonavista, name given to first land sighted by Cartier, i. 11

Booth, Lumber King, ii. 74

Borden, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert L., ii. 73;

  Prime Minister during the Great War, ii. 119;

  Cabinet decides on participation in Great War, ii. 119;

  forms Union Government, ii. 121;

  activities of, outside of Canada, during the Great War, ii. 122;

  people of Maryland grateful to, ii. 125

Boston, merchants of, settle in Montreal, i. 155

Boucher, Pierre, Frontenac’s visit to, at Three Rivers, i. 88

Bougainville, Louis Antoine de, i. 145

Boulé, Hélène, marriage of, to Champlain (q.v.), i. 35

Boulet, Sieur de, character in drama “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53

Bourg-Marie, Seigneury of, granted to Marie-Josephine Fezeret, i. 123

Brandy, exchanged for furs, i. 91

Brant, Joseph, leads Indians against Americans at Beaver Dam, ii. 56;

  Indians under, settle at Niagara, ii. 64

Brantford, Indians erect first Protestant Church in Upper Canada at, ii. 64

Breadalbane, Earl of, pursues McNab, ii. 26

Brébeuf, Jean de, Jesuit, activities of, among Indians, i. 43;

  martyrdom of, 1649, i. 45; i. 133

Breda, Treaty of, restoration of Acadia to France by, 1667, i. 56

Bristol, merchants of, eager to engage in enterprise of profit, i. 2

British Columbia, early churches in, ii. 66;

  extension of railway to, 1885, ii. 86;

  growth and development of, ii. 106

British North America Act, ii. 86

British officers, talents of immigrant, ii. 20

Brock, Sir Isaac, early career of, ii. 48;

  preparation made by, saves Upper Canada, ii. 49;

  anticipates War of 1812, ii. 50;

  resides in Montcalm’s house, ii. 50;

  placed in command at Fort George, ii. 50;

  appointed president and administrator of Upper Canada, ii. 51;

  prepares to defend Upper Canada, ii. 52;

  captures Detroit, ii. 53;

  gazetted Knight of the Bath, ii. 54;

  death of, ii. 55

Brockville, ii. 34

Brooks, Rev. Dr., arrives at Quebec as a chaplain to the forces, 1760, ii. 63

Brooks, Mrs., writes novel, “Emily Montagu,” ii. 63

Brouage, France, early life of Samuel de Champlain at, i. 21

Burdett-Coutts, Baroness Angela, builds and endows cathedral in Victoria, ii. 66

Burrell, Honourable Martin, speaks at Baltimore War Trophy Exhibit, ii. 125

Burton, F., governor of Three Rivers, i. 161

Bush taverns, on trail of settlers, ii. 32

By, Colonel John, ii. 71;

  bridge built by, ii. 74

Byng, Sir Julian, ii. 122

“Byng Boys,” ii. 122

Bytown, description of Colonel Charles Grey’s visit to, ii. 32 seq.;

  renamed Ottawa, ii. 71.

  See Ottawa.


Cabot, John, believed in the roundness of the earth, i. 2;

  views of, scorned by learned men at the Convent of St. Stephen, i. 3;

  receives commission of Henry VII to sail under the banner of England, i. 4;

  sails on first voyage, 1496, i. 4;

  believes that he has reached north-eastern extremity of Asia, i. 4;

  receives ten pounds for finding the new isle, i. 4;

  second voyage of, 1497, i. 5;

  failure and disappointment of, i. 5;

  fate of, unknown, i. 5;

  discovers the mainland of North America, 1497, i. 5;

  failure and achievement of, i. 27

Cahiagué, Champlain welcomed at, i. 31;

  Champlain returns to, i. 34

Calais, road to, blocked by Canadians, ii. 121

Calgary, ii. 77; ii. 136

Calhoun, J. C., considers annexation of Canada a simple matter, ii. 45

Callières, Louis Hector de, succeeds Frontenac as Governor, i. 119

Cambuluc, city of, i. 4

Campbell, Lord William, presents stoves to St. Paul’s Church, Halifax, ii. 60;

  Presbytery opened by, 1770, ii. 67

Canada, Cartier touches mainland of, i. 12;

  first land seen by Cartier described as “land which God gave to Cain,” i. 12;

  threatened invasion of, i. 163;

  boundaries of, changed, ii. 14;

  population of, 1812, ii. 48;

  changes in, during 300 years, ii. 106;

  enters the Great War, ii. 119;

  growth and development of, ii. 142

Canadian Historical Society, Lady Minto becomes first Vice-President of, ii. 116

Canadian Northern Railway, construction of, gives impetus to settlement in the West, ii. 104

Canadian Pacific Railway, construction of, ii. 86

Candiac, Montcalm’s home at, i. 134

Canso, Rev. Mr. Watts opens school at, ii. 59

Cap Rouge, i. 132

Cap Rouge, River, Cartier builds fort at, i. 19

Cape Breton, Cabot touches coast of, i. 4;

  granted to Sir Wm. Alexander, i. 54

Cape Diamond, origin of name, i. 20;

  in 1608, ii. 106

Card money, currency of Canada, i. 155

Carignan Regiment, officers of, escort de Tracy at Quebec, i. 61

Carillon, opened by H.M. the King, ii. 130;

  casting of bells for, ii. 139

Carleton, Sir Guy, later Lord Dorchester, Quartermaster-General under Wolfe, succeeds Murray as Governor-General, i. 157;

  Quebec Act of 1774 passed through the influence of, i. 157;

  barely escapes capture in Montreal, i. 159;

  reaches Quebec and prepares to defend the place, i. 159;

  reappointed Governor-General, ii. 1;

  leaves Canada, 1796, ii. 13;

  appreciation of, ii. 13;

  covers withdrawal of British from New York, ii. 16;

  representative of family attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109;

  confers honour upon descendants of United Empire Loyalists, ii. 134

Carleton, Lady. See Dorchester, Lady.

Carleton, Maria, daughter of Lord Dorchester, born in Quebec, ii. 1;

  attends the Ursuline Convent, Quebec, ii. 1

Carleton, Thomas, Governor of New Brunswick, ii. 17

Carteret, Sir George, interest of, in fur trade, i. 113

Cartier, Sir George Etienne, has faith in future of Canada, ii. 87

Cartier, Jacques, ships of, at St. Malo, i. 7;

  arrives at St. Malo, i. 8;

  sails on first voyage in April, 1534, i. 10;

  adventures of, begin, i. 11;

  names bay “Chaleur,” i. 12;

  takes two Indians with him to France, i. 13;

  map of, i. 13;

  deceives Indians planning to attack him, i. 17;

  crew of, cured of scurvy by Indian remedy, i. 19;

  sails for St. Malo, i. 19;

  finds patron to provide money for second voyage, 1541, i. 19;

  heroism and achievement of, i. 27;

  personation of, in Tercentenary pageant, ii. 110

Cascades, ii. 33

Cataraqui, Ont., Frontenac meets Iroquois at, i. 88;

  Loyalists settle at, ii. 22

Cathay, objective of Cabot’s voyage, i. 4;

  objective of Cartier’s voyage, i. 12

Caughnawaga, Que., descendants of early Iroquois at, i. 45

“Chaleur,” Bay, so named by Cartier and described as very fruitful, i. 12

Chambly, origin of name, i. 63;

  Fort St. Louis at, ii. 80

Champlain, Antoine, relates stories of adventure to his son Samuel, i. 21

Champlain, Samuel de, early life of, i. 21;

  serves in Catholic Army of France, i. 21;

  receives Spanish commission, i. 22;

  created Geographer to the King, i. 22;

  undertakes first expedition, i. 23;

  establishes settlements in New France, i. 24;

  institutes the Order of Good Cheer, i. 24;

  appointed lieutenant in expedition, 1608, i. 25;

  arrives at Quebec, 1608, i. 26;

  explores Lake Champlain, 1609, i. 28;

  leads Algonquins against the Iroquois, i. 29;

  shoots rapids in a canoe, i. 30;

  welcomed at Cahiagué, i. 31;

  wounded, i. 32;

  spends winter with the Indians, i. 32;

  lost in the woods, i. 33;

  urges alliance between Indians and French, i. 34;

  returns to Quebec, i. 34;

  marriage of, i. 35;

  refuses to surrender Quebec, 1629, i. 37;

  death of, 1635, i. 38;

  appreciation of i. 38;

  motives of, i. 40;

  character in drama “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53;

  representative from birthplace of, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109;

  personation of, in Tercentenary pageant, ii. 109

Champlain, Mme. Hélène Boulé, wife of Samuel de, sails for Quebec, 1620, i. 35;

  returns to France, 1624, i. 35;

  cares for children in New France, i. 35;

  St. Helen’s Island named after, i. 133;

  representation of the arrival of, in New France, ii. 110

Champlain, Lake, explored by Samuel de Champlain, i. 28;

  naval engagement on, i. 160

Chapais, Hon. Thomas, discusses Quebec Tercentenary, ii. 109

Charlesbourg, Que., Begon constructs château at, i. 129; i. 131;

  Vaudreuil’s army encamps at, i. 139

Charlevoix, historical work of, ii. 23

Charnisay, Charles de Menou, Sieur d’Aulnay, captures Port Royal, i. 55;

  death of, 1650, i. 55

Chastes, Aymar de, monopoly of fur trade given to, i. 23;

  death of, i. 23

Château de Ramezay, purchased by Haldimand, i. 163

Château de Vaudreuil, residence of last French Governor, i. 163

Château St. Martine, myth of the, ii. 48

Chateauguay, battle of, ii. 57

Chaudière Falls, Indian ceremonies at, ii. 74

“Chesapeake,” the, American ship, ii. 47

“Chieftain,” the, name of steamer, ii. 33

Cholera, sufferings of Irish immigrants from, ii. 98

Chomedy, Paul de, Sieur de Maisonneuve, arrives in Montreal, i. 45;

  activities of, in New France, i. 45;

  first governor of Montreal, i. 53

Christian Science Church, introduction and extension of, in Canada, ii. 69

Chrysler’s Farm, battle of, ii. 57

Church services, length of, ii. 35

Church Societies of England, send out missionaries, ii. 64

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, desires to develop colony on model of Old France, i. 86

Colombo, Don Francisco, Champlain receives commission in Armada of, i. 22

Columbus, triumph of, i. 1;

  triumphal progress of, in Spain, i. 6;

  is accompanied by coloured natives through streets of Spain, i. 6

Comingoe, Rev. Bruin, first ordained minister of Presbyterian Church at Lunenburg, 1770, ii. 67

Commons, House of. See Parliament.

Company of New France, organised by Richelieu, i. 37;

  provision boats of, captured by the English, i. 37

Confederation, first Prime Minister under, ii. 84;

  importance of Diamond Jubilee Celebrations of, in awakening national consciousness, ii. 129

Connaught, Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of, activities of, on behalf of soldiers in the Great War, i. 154

Conventions, nominate candidates for election to Parliament, ii. 132

“Copper Hall,” name given to Archives by Lord Grey, ii. 117

Cornwall, voyage of ship “Neptune” to, ii. 33

Costume of seigneurs and habitants, i. 83

Côteau du Lac, construction of canal at, 1781, i. 163;

  Colonel Grey’s stage-coach journey to, ii. 33

Courcelette, Canadian victory at, ii. 121

Courcelles, Daniel de Remy, Sieur de, arrives at Quebec, i. 61;

  leads expedition against the Iroquois, i. 63;

  fails in expedition against the Iroquois, i. 64;

  assisted by Algonquin girl, i. 66;

  ultimate success of, i. 67

“Coureurs de bois,” origin of, i. 89;

  practices of, i. 90

Cox, young son of Lieutenant-Governor of Gaspé, carries Carleton’s despatches through lines of enemy, i. 159

Craig, Sir James, Governor, ii. 47;

  actions of, arouse bitter feeling in Montreal, ii. 50

Cridge, Rev. Mr., appointed a chaplain of the Hudson’s Bay Company, ii. 66

Crillon, Count de, agent of Napoleon’s secret police, activities of, ii. 47;

  purpose of visit of, to America, ii. 48

Cromwell, Oliver, Acadia falls into hands of, 1656, i. 56

Cross, first set up by Cartier did not bear King’s name, i. 12;

  set up by Cartier at Bay de Chaleur inscribed “Long live the King of France,” i. 13

Cudouagny, Indian god, i. 15

Currie, Sir Arthur, ii. 122


Dablon, Rev. Father Claude, meets Asselin de Ronual, i. 59

Darache, leader of Basque fishermen, i. 25;

  plots to kill Champlain, i. 27

Daughters of the Empire, activities of local societies of, during the Great War, ii. 120

D’Aumont, Jean, Marshal of France, Champlain’s military service under, i. 21

Davis, Sylvanus, surrenders to French, i. 100

De Brisay, Rev. Theophilus, activities of, as resident minister in Prince Edward Island, ii. 61

De Monts. See Monts, Pierre du Guast, Sieur de.

De Mouy, Sir Charles, Lord of Meilleraye, Vice-Admiral of France, i. 8

Denmark, Princess Eric of, grand-daughter of Booth, ii. 74

Denny’s jaunting car, Colonel Grey’s journey in, ii. 32

Denonville, Jacques René de Brisay, Marquis de, appointed Governor of New France, i. 95;

  treacherously imprisons Indian chiefs, i. 95;

  Frontenac displeased with, i. 97;

  orders demolition of Fort Frontenac, i. 97; ii. 70

Deschambault, i. 132;

  English force lands at, i. 143

Desportes, Pierre, pioneer family of, at Quebec, i. 36

Detroit, General Hull marches on, ii. 52;

  capture of, by Brock, ii. 53

Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, celebration of, a stimulus to awakening of national consciousness, ii. 129

D’Iberville. See Le Moyne, Pierre, Sieur d’Iberville

Dickinson’s Landing, Colonel Grey’s stage-coach journey to, ii. 33

Dieskau, Jean Armand, Baron de, wounded and taken prisoner, i. 134

“Discovery,” the, Henry Hudson sets sail in, 1610, i. 110;

  mutiny on board, i. 111;

  reaches Ireland, i. 111

Disputes, methods adopted in settlement of, ii. 29

Dollard, Adam, Sieur des Ormeaux, heroically sustains attack of Iroquois at the Long Sault and saves Montreal, i. 46, 47

Dom Agaya. See Agaya, Dom

“Don de Dieu,” Champlain’s expedition in, 1608, i. 25;

  replica of, at Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 110

Donnacona, Indian chief, lord of Canada, i. 14;

  believed to be a rogue, i. 16;

  complains of weapons carried by French, i. 15;

  proceeds to St. Malo with Cartier, i. 19;

  personation of, at Tercentenary pageant, ii. 110

Dorchester, Lord. See Carleton, Sir Guy

Dorchester, Lady, daughter of Earl of Effingham, resides in Quebec, ii. 1

Drummond, Sir Gordon, at battle of Lundy’s Lane, ii. 58

Duggan, Jeremiah, barber of Quebec, made General in Montgomery’s army, i. 159

Du Lhut, a commendable example of a “coureur des bois,” i. 90

Dunbar, first Earl of Selkirk, escapes abduction, ii. 39

Dunwich, Talbot settles at, ii. 24

Durantal, Indian chief, offers hospitality to Champlain, i. 32;

  seeks Champlain lost in woods, i. 33;

  accompanies Champlain to Quebec, i. 34

Durel, Philip, British Admiral, charts the St. Lawrence, i. 138

Durham, John George Lambton, first Earl of, proceeds to Canada as Governor-in-Chief, ii. 94;

  eventful journey to Canada of, ii. 95;

  takes up residence at the Château St. Louis and plans to meet inhabitants, ii. 95;

  seeks co-operation of the President of the United States in suppression of border rebels, ii. 96;

  summarily banishes rebels to Bermuda, ii. 96;

  resignation of, ii. 96

Duval, conspires to kill Champlain, i. 27


“Eaglet,” the, sails for Hudson Bay, 1668, i. 113

Earnscliffe, site of, ii. 74

Earthquake, in New France, 1663, i. 60

Eastern Townships, fertile farms in district of, ii. 80

Eddy, mills of the industrialist, ii. 74

Edmonton, historical interest of, ii. 77

Education, development of, ii. 19, 100;

  question of, in Manitoba, ii. 104

Edward, H.R.H., Prince of Wales, visit of, to take part in closing ceremonies of Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, ii. 130

Elgin, James Bruce, Earl of, appointed Governor of Canada, 1847, ii. 97;

  attack on, at Montreal, ii. 97;

  eventual popularity of, ii. 98

Elmwood, girls’ school, ii. 73

“Emily Montagu,” novel written by Mrs. Brooks, ii. 63

England, excitement in, over discoveries of Columbus, i. 2;

  jealous of the prestige of Spain, i. 2;

  jealous of the possessions of France in America, i. 95;

  generosity of, towards Loyalists, ii. 19;

  conditions in, 1811, ii. 51;

  enters the Great War, ii. 119;

  studies of W. L. Mackenzie King in, ii. 128

Eric the Red, discovers Wineland or Nova Scotia, preface

English Colonies, French plan attack on, i. 96;

  French move to attack, i. 98

Erie, Lake, American victory at engagement on, ii. 56

Esquimalt, Anglican church built at, ii. 66;

  a shipping place, ii. 79

Europe, condition of, in fifteenth century, i. 1;

  state of mind of, in days of Columbus, i. 6

Exploration, a costly experiment, i. 2


Farming, primitive methods of, ii. 35;

  example of diligence in, ii. 43

Fauquier, Gilbert E., ii. 73

Festubert, Canadian victory at, ii. 121

Fezeret, Marie-Josephine, granted Seigneury of Bourg-Marie, i. 123

Fife, Mrs., diligent farming of, ii. 43

Fire boats, failure of, i. 140

Fitzgibbon, James, warned by Laura Secord of impending attack by Americans on Beaver Dam, ii. 56;

  in command of Canadians and Indians at battle of Beaver Dam, ii. 56

Fitzpatrick, Sir Charles, ii. 73;

  discusses Quebec Tercentenary, ii. 109

Fleming, Hugh W., ii. 73

Fleming, Sir Sandford, construction of Canadian Pacific Railway carried out under, ii. 86;

  disposition of, ii. 141

Fleming, Margot, grand-daughter of Sir Sandford Fleming, wedding of, ii. 141

Flour, Canadian, excellence of, appreciated in Europe, ii. 99

Food, scarcity of, in Red River district, ii. 41

Fort Albany, captured by the French, i. 117

Fort Beausejour, i. 131

Fort Carillon, capture of, 1757, i. 136

Fort Chambly, captured by Montgomery, i. 158

Fort Charles, captured by the French, i. 116

Fort Frontenac, construction of, commenced, i. 88;

  La Barre arrives at, i. 93;

  Indians decline to meet Frontenac at, i. 97;

  demolition of, i. 97;

  rebuilt by Frontenac, i. 98

Fort Garry, post of Hudson’s Bay Company at, ii. 103

Fort George, Brock placed in command at, ii. 50;

  recaptured by Canadians, ii. 57

Fort Hunter, Indians leave, at beginning of American War and settle at Niagara and Lachine, ii. 64

Fort James, Sir George Simpson’s visit to, 1828, ii. 78

Fort La Hève, attack on, i. 56

Fort Lawrence, i. 131

Fort Lomeron, built by de la Tour, i. 54

Fort Munro, captured by the French, i. 116

Fort Niagara, captured by British troops, 1759, religious services held at, ii. 64

Fort Ondaraque, capture of, i. 67

Fort Ste. Anne, French assemble at, for expedition against the Indians, i. 65

Fort Verchères, defence of, i. 103 seq.

Fort William Henry, capture of, 1757, i. 136

Fortifications, dilapidated condition of, at Quebec, i. 163;

  at Montreal, i. 163

Fortin, Belmont, advertisements of, ii. 5

Foulon, the, situation of, i. 131;

  Wolfe lands troops at, i. 146

Foxes, black, bred in Prince Edward Island, ii. 82

Fox Indians, Chief of, meets de Callières, i. 121

France, jealous of prestige of Spain, i. 2;

  enters the Great War, ii. 119

Francheschini, Signor Gaetano, violinist at Quebec, 1783, ii. 10

Francis I, commission of, to Jacques Cartier, i. 8;

  representation of incident between Jacques Cartier and, in Tercentenary pageant, ii. 110

Fraser, family of, settled at Rivière du Loup, ii. 83

Fraser, Simon, ready answer of, to French challenge at Sillery, i. 146

Freebooters, American, driven from Manitoba, ii. 103

French language, advantage of knowledge of, i. 146

French theatrical companies, plays produced by, ii. 11

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Comte de, arrives at Quebec, i. 86;

  policy of, i. 86;

  Indian policy of, i. 87;

  visits Montreal, i. 87;

  quarrels with Bishop and Intendant, i. 92;

  recalled to France, i. 92;

  reappointed Governor of New France, i. 95;

  Indian chiefs liberated by, i. 97;

  displeased with Denonville, i. 97;

  rebuilds Fort Frontenac, i. 98;

  defends Quebec, 1690, i. 101;

  character of, i. 107;

  death of, 1698, i. 107

Furniture, made by early settlers, ii. 28

Fur trade, monopoly of, granted to de Chastes, i. 23;

  Indians urged to enter the, and send furs to Montreal, i. 34;

  religious differences affect the, i. 36;

  value of, i. 73;

  attracts “coureurs de bois” and other inhabitants, i. 89;

  quantities of liquor, etc., exchanged for one beaver skin in, i. 91;

  Hudson’s Bay Company granted charter in, i. 113;

  rivalry between English and French adventurers in, i. 116;

  effects of general trade conditions on, 1811, ii. 51


Galt, John, forms “Canada Company”, brings good settlers to Canada, ii. 26

Gananoque, growing importance of, ii. 71

Gaol, lottery authorised for building of, i. 163;

  keeper of, manufactures chocolate, ii. 12

Gaspé, i. 54; ii. 82, 83

Gatineau District, ii. 74

Geography, limited knowledge of, in days of Columbus, i. 3

George, H.R.H. Prince, son of Edward VII, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

George, H.R.H. Prince, son of George V, visit of, to take part in closing ceremonies of Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, ii. 130

Georgian Bay, in relation to canal system, ii. 76

Germany, declares war on Russia, ii. 119

Ghent, Treaty of, 1814, concludes War of 1812, ii. 58

Giffard, Robert, hamlet grouped around seigneury of, i. 38;

  Montcalm’s headquarters in house of, i. 139

Gillam, Zachariah, accompanied by Radisson and Groseilliers to Boston, i. 112;

  in command of the “Nonsuch,” i. 113

Givenchy, Canadian victory at, ii. 121

Glengarry Settlement, beginnings of the, ii. 26

Gloria, Jean, keeps inn at Quebec, i. 59

“Golden Dog,” the, name given to house of Timothée Roussel, surgeon, i. 129

Good Cheer, Order of, instituted by Champlain, i. 24

Grand Khan, residence of, i. 4

Grand Pré, Acadians summoned to church at, to hear of expulsion, i. 131

Great War, 1914-1918, commencement of, ii. 119;

  trophies of, sent by Canada to Baltimore, ii. 123

Greene, Henry, leads mutiny on board the “Discovery,” i. 111

Greenland, Henry Hudson arrives at, i. 110

“Green Mountain Boys,” party of, from Vermont, captures Ticonderoga, 1775, i. 158

Grenville, Que., ii. 33

Grey, Governor-General, Lord, proposes erection of bronze statue to memory of Madeline de Verchères, i. 106;

  discusses Quebec Tercentenary, ii. 109;

  meets Lord Minto, ii. 116;

  assists development of Archives, ii. 117;

  memorials of the work of, and of Lady Grey, ii. 118

Grey, Colonel Charles, description of journey of, to Bytown, ii. 32 seq.;

  conveys message from Lord Durham to the President of the United States, ii. 96

Grey Room, Archives Department, named in honour of Lord Grey, ii. 117

Groseilliers, Medard Chouart, Sieur des, in joint command of fur trading expedition to Hudson Bay, i. 112;

  adventures of, i. 113 seq.

Guelph, Ont., settlement of, organised by John Galt, ii. 26, 36

Gunpowder, exchanged for furs, i. 91


Habitants of New France, i. 78 seq.;

  costume of, i. 83

Haldimand, Sir Frederick, succeeds Guy Carleton; takes possession of Montreal under Amherst; ordinances of, i. 161;

  protects inhabitants against greed of merchants, i. 162;

  generosity of, i. 162;

  curious regulations made by, i. 164;

  voluminous correspondence of, i. 165;

  builds Navy Hall, ii. 21

Haldimand House, built, i. 165;

  Lord Durham’s staff resides at, ii. 95

Halifax, slowness of the “quick postal service” of, ii. 3 seq.;

  public worship conducted at, ii. 59;

  cosmopolitan population of, ii. 60;

  shipping activity of, ii. 81

Hamilton, Ont., ii. 36

Hampton, General, defeat of Americans under, at Chateauguay, ii. 57

Harrison, General Wm. Henry, attacks Indian settlement at Tippecanoe creek, ii. 51

Hawkesbury, centre of lumbering industry, ii. 79

Hazel nuts, found by Cartier, i. 14

Hébert, Louis, pioneer family of, at Quebec, i. 36;

  character in drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53

Hemp, cultivation of, encouraged, i. 72

Henry VII, Court of, i. 2;

  favours project of Cabot, i. 4

Henry, John, secret mission of, ii. 47

Hertel, François, leads French force against New Hampshire, i. 99

Hill, Rev. Dr. George, consecrated first Bishop of British Columbia, 1860, ii. 66

Hochelaga, Cartier decides to go to, i. 15;

  site of, near McGill University, i. 16;

  description of, i. 16

Holidays, observed in New France, i. 83

Homes, skill of settlers in building, ii. 28

Homing block, for milling grain, method of making, ii. 37

“Hopewell,” Henry Hudson sails in the, i. 109

Hopewell Cape, N.B., ii. 81, 133

Hospital, the General, Quebec, Wolfe extends his protection to, i. 142;

  English troops afford protection to, 1759, i. 149

Hudson, Henry, memorial window to, i. 109;

  fails to discover north-west passage, i. 109;

  sails for Hudson Bay in the “Discovery,” 1610, i. 110;

  fate of, i. 111

Hudson Bay, Talon plans extension of French influence to, i. 77;

  discovery of, i. 110;

  claims of England to, i. 112;

  forts at, i. 133

Hudson’s Bay Company, charter granted to, i. 113;

  French capture forts and vessels of, i. 116, 117;

  romantic incident described in connection with boats of the, ii. 41;

  administers Rupert’s Land, ii. 102;

  territory in Alberta and Saskatchewan acquired from, ii. 104

Hughes, Sir Sam, directs mobilisation of Canadian Army, ii. 120

Huguenots, in North America from 1604, ii. 67

Hull, General William, marches on Detroit and Sandwich, ii. 52;

  taken prisoner at Detroit, ii. 53

Hull, city of, ii. 74

Huron Indians, urged to send furs to Montreal, i. 34;

  attacked by Iroquois, i. 45, 57;

  friendly to French, i. 57


Iberville, place of the name of, ii. 80

Iceland, Henry Hudson arrives at, i. 110

Ile aux Coudres (Hazelbush Island), Cartier at, i. 14

Indians, astounded at ships of Cartier, i. 14;

  conduct of, disturbs Cartier, i. 15;

  attempt to frighten Cartier, i. 15;

  Cartier deceives savages planning to attack him, i. 17;

  receive food, clothing and instruction from the Ursulines at Quebec, i. 41, 42;

  missionary efforts among, i. 42;

  harass new settlers, i. 79;

  La Barre’s policy towards, i. 93;

  hold high opinion of certain French leaders, i. 95;

  Denonville treacherously captures and imprisons chiefs of, i. 95;

  chiefs of, returned to their tribes by Frontenac, i. 97;

  decline to meet Frontenac at Fort Frontenac, i. 97;

  funeral of Kondiaronk, chief of, i. 120;

  grateful for the education given to their children, i. 122;

  engage American troops at Tippecanoe, ii. 51;

  settle at Niagara and Lachine, ii. 64;

  erect first Protestant church in Upper Canada, ii. 64.

  See also Iroquois Indians

Inglis, Bishop Charles, holds confirmation service in Recollet church, ii. 3

Inhabitants of early Quebec, curious occupations of, ii. 12

Intemperance, prevalence of, i. 85

Ireland, sufferings of emigrants from, ii. 98

Iroquois Indians, defeated by Algonquins under Champlain, i. 30;

  Champlain averts war between Algonquins and, i. 34;

  attack Hurons and massacre missionaries, 1649, i. 45;

  missionary efforts of Jesuits among, i. 45;

  attack Hurons on Island of Orleans and threaten Quebec, 1656, i. 57;

  expedition against, i. 63;

  fail to make peace with French, i. 65;

  expedition against, i. 65 seq.;

  meet Frontenac at Kingston, i. 88;

  attempt to destroy French trade, i. 103;

  French negotiate treaty of peace with, i. 119 seq.


Jackson, Mr., original methods adopted by, in teaching the youth of Canada, ii. 6, 81

Jacques Cartier, place, i. 132

James Bay, France takes possession of, 1672, i. 77

Jasper House, ii. 76

Jesuits, missionary efforts of, among Indians, i. 42

Jesuit Chapel, services of Anglican church held in, ii. 2

Jetté, Sir Louis, discusses Quebec Tercentenary, ii. 109

Johnson, Bill, daring bandit, ii. 33;

  attack of, upon British vessel almost precipitates war, ii. 34

Joliet, Louis, discovers the Mississippi, i. 77

Jones, John Paul, pirate captain, exploits of, ii. 39, 136

Justice, administration of, suspended during harvest, i. 162

Juvenile Theatre, performances given by, for benefit of orphans, ii. 11


Kellogg Peace Treaty, signed by W. L. Mackenzie King, ii. 129

Kendricks, Joseph and Mary, baptism of the twins, ii. 62

Kennel House, Perthshire, birthplace of McNab, ii. 25

Kennys, family of the, ii. 73

King, Right Honourable W. L. Mackenzie, ii. 75;

  continues improvements of Ottawa begun by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, ii. 111;

  venerates his mother, ii. 128;

  achievements of, in development of national status, ii. 128

Kingsmere, home of W. L. Mackenzie King, ii. 75

Kingsmill, Admiral Sir Charles, ii. 73

Kingston, Champlain camps on borders of lake near, i. 32;

  Frontenac meets Iroquois at, i. 88;

  Colonel Grey travels by, ii. 33;

  growth and development of, ii. 70

Kirke, Sir David and Lewis, in command of English fleets, reduce Quebec, 1629, i. 37;

  take Claude de la Tour prisoner, i. 54

Knives, scarcity of, i. 83

Kondiaronk, Huron chief, death of, i. 120


La Barre, Lefebvre de, appointed Governor of New France, i. 92;

  Indian policy of, i. 93;

  recalled to France, i. 95;

  confiscates cargo of furs, i. 115

La Brosse, Jean Baptiste de, Jesuit, loved by people at Tadoussac, i. 131

Lachine, Indians massacre inhabitants of, i. 95, 133;

  visit of Colonel Grey to, ii. 32;

  Indians under de la Durantye settle at, ii. 64

La Famine, La Barre holds council with Indians at, i. 93

Lafontaine-Baldwin, ministry, ii. 97

Lairet, River, Cartier’s ships anchored in, i. 15

Lalemant, Charles, Jesuit, activities of, among Indians, i. 43;

  martyrdom of, 1649, i. 45, 133

Lalonde, Madame, released in exchange of French and English prisoners, i. 102

Lamberville, Jacques de, trusted by Indians, i. 95

La Mounier, relieves Fort Verchères, i. 105

Land grants, in Upper Canada, further inland than those of Quebec, ii. 27

Lang, Cosmo Gordon, Archbishop of York, speaks at Baltimore War Trophy Exhibit, ii. 125

L’Ange Gardien, i. 132

L’Anse du Fort, arrival of Ursulines at, 1639, i. 40

La Prairie, attack on, by Schuyler, i. 103

La Roche, Troilas du Mesgouez, Marquis de, spends winter at fort at Cap Rouge River, i. 20

La Tour, Charles de, inherits estate of de Poutrincourt, i. 54;

  builds Fort Lomeron, i. 54;

  created baronet of Nova Scotia, i. 54;

  created Lieutenant-General of Acadia, i. 55;

  commissioned by France as Governor of Acadia, i. 55;

  death of, i. 56

La Tour, Madame Charles de, heroic defence of Port Royal by, i. 55

La Tour, Claude de, in the service of de Poutrincourt, i. 53;

  taken prisoner to England, i. 54;

  created baronet of Nova Scotia, i. 54;

  returns to Nova Scotia, i. 55

Laurier, Sir Wilfrid, ii. 73;

  lays foundation-stone of University of Saskatchewan, ii. 102;

  Canada mourns death of, ii. 108;

  represents Canada at Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, ii. 108;

  Tercentenary Celebration at Quebec carried out under, ii. 108;

  discusses Quebec Tercentenary, ii. 109;

  promises financial support for Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109;

  pleased with Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 110;

  improves city of Ottawa, ii. 111;

  decides to erect an Archives Building, ii. 115;

  pledges support of Opposition to war, ii. 120;

  predecessor of W. L. Mackenzie King, ii. 129

Laurier, Lady, ii. 111

Laval, Francis Xavier de Montmorency, appointed Vicar Apostolic and later, Bishop of Quebec, i. 51

Law, applicable in Quebec under Quebec Act, 1874;

  British criminal and French civil codes, i. 157

Le Borgne, turns English garrison out of Fort La Hève, i. 56

“Le Cid,” dramatic performance, at Jesuit College, Quebec, 1646, i. 48

Leduc, Paul, ii. 73

Legislative Assembly, promised under proclamation of 1763, i. 157

Le Jeune, Paul, Jesuit, receives address from Algonquins, 1646, i. 49

Lemieux, Hon. Rodolphe, discusses Quebec Tercentenary Celebrations, ii. 109

Le Moyne, the brothers, trusted by Indians, i. 95, 98

Le Moyne de Bienville, proceeds with troops to attack Albany, i. 98

Le Moyne, Jacques, Sieur de Ste. Hélène, in command of troops against Albany, i. 98;

  attacks English at Hudson Bay, i. 116

Le Moyne, Paul, Sieur de Maricourt, attacks English at Hudson Bay, i. 116

Le Moyne, Pierre, Sieur d’Iberville, proceeds with troops to attack Albany, i. 98;

  attacks English at Hudson Bay, i. 116

“Leopard,” capture of the “Chesapeake” by the, ii. 47

Lescarbot, Marc, produces drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 52

Lévis, François-Gaston, Marquis de, camps near Montmorency Falls, i. 139;

  attempts to recapture Quebec, i. 149;

  representative of family of, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

“Levrier,” the, attacked by Basque fishermen, i. 25

Liverpool, England, Irish emigrants travel via, ii. 36

London, Ont., Simcoe visits site of, ii. 21;

  considered by Simcoe to be the best site for capital of Upper Canada, ii. 75

Longford, Ireland, ii. 36

Longley, a prominent settler in Maitland, ii. 34

Long Sault Rapids, gallant defence of, i. 47

Lorne, Marquess of, visits Calgary, ii. 77

Lossee, William, visits United Empire Loyalists in Upper Canada, ii. 68

Louis XIV, interest of, in New France, i. 60;

  decadence under paternal rule of, i. 85

Louisbourg, importance of, i. 130;

  capture of, 1758, i. 137;

  the strongest fort on the American continent, ii. 82

Louise, H.R.H. Princess, makes sketches of Calgary district, ii. 77

Louise, Lake, ii. 77

Lower Canada, Militia of, divided into districts, ii. 52;

  recruiting in, 1812, ii. 52;

  the Methodist Church in, ii. 68;

  population of, 1827, ii. 71;

  grievances in, ii. 91 seq.;

  union of, with Upper Canada, 1841, ii. 97

Lower Cove, Loyalists at, ii. 17

Lowther, Catherine, Wolfe’s attachment to, i. 144

Loyalists, settle in Canada, ii. 14;

  persecution of, ii. 14, 15;

  hardships of, ii. 15;

  discouragement and discontent of, ii. 16;

  conditions of living attaching to settlement by, ii. 18;

  names of, registered, ii. 22;

  sacrifices of, recognised, ii. 134

Lundy’s Lane, battle of, ii. 57

Lunenburg, Anglican church built at, 1754, ii. 61;

  Presbyterian church established at, ii. 67

Lyon, Rev. James, first Presbyterian minister in Canada, ii. 67


McDonald, Captain Donald, rescues wounded ensign at Montmorency, i. 142

Macdonald, Sir John Alexander, first Prime Minister of Canada under Confederation, ii. 84;

  early life of, ii. 84;

  political career of, ii. 85;

  drafts British North America Act, ii. 86;

  influences construction of Canadian Pacific Railway, ii. 86;

  threatened assassination of, ii. 88;

  humorous and benevolent disposition of, ii. 89;

  death of, ii. 90;

  predicts that Lord Minto will one day become Governor-General, ii. 112

Macdonnell, Rev. Alexander, brings settlers to Canada, ii. 26;

  Roman Catholic Bishop of Kingston, ii. 33

Macdonnell, George, at battle of Chateauguay, ii. 57

McGee, Thomas D’Arcy, supporter of Sir John A. Macdonald, assassinated, 1868, ii. 88

McGraw, an accommodating teacher, ii. 7

MacKay, Hon. Thos., home of, ii. 73

MacKellar, Patrick, reconnoitres Quebec, i. 132;

  presents plan and report to Wolfe, i. 138;

  describes French fire-ships in his report, i. 140

MacKenzie, Sir Alexander, first white man to reach the Pacific by an overland route, ii. 78

MacKenzie, William Lyon, leads Upper Canada rebellion, ii. 93;

  escapes to Buffalo, ii. 93

MacLaren, Brigadier-General C. H., ii. 73

McLean, Colonel Allan, defends the barrier on the lower road to Quebec, i. 159

McLean, John, first Bishop of diocese of Saskatchewan, ii. 65

McNab, Archibald, birthplace of, ii. 25;

  escapes to Canada and obtains grant of lands, ii. 26

McNabs, the, support the house of Stuart, ii. 25

Maitland, Ont., ii. 34

Major, A. J., ii. 73

Malahide, Castle of, seat of the Talbots, ii. 23

Mance, Jeanne, founder of the Hôtel Dieu, Montreal, arrives at Montreal, i. 46

Manitoba, enters Confederation, ii. 101;

  created a province, ii. 103;

  school question in, ii. 104;

  population of, 1900, ii. 104

Manitoba wheat, characteristics of, ii. 42

Margaree Point, origin of name of, ii. 82

Marie de l’Incarnation, Rev. Mother, cares for Indians at Quebec, i. 42

Mariners, fabulous stories told by, i. 6

Marquette, Jacques, Jesuit, discovers the Mississippi, i. 77

Martin, Abraham, pioneer family of, at Quebec, i. 36;

  Plains of Abraham named after, i. 132

Mathieu, Mgr., discusses Quebec Tercentenary, ii. 109

Maugerville, Rev. Thomas Wood preaches to dissenters at, ii. 61

May Day, observed as a holiday in New France, i. 83

Mecca, visit of Cabot to, i. 3;

  silks and spices at, i. 5

Melons, offered by Indians to Cartier, i. 14

Membertou, Indian chief, character in drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53

Mercier, General, ii. 122

Metcalfe, Sir Charles, succeeds Bagot as Governor-in-Chief, ii. 97

Methodist Church, beginnings of, in Canada, ii. 68

Métis, ii. 83

Meulles, Chevalier Jacques de, appointed Intendant of New France, i. 92

Michigan Territory, British forces in possession of, 1812, ii. 53

Michilimackinac, capture of American fort at, 1812, ii. 53

Middlesex, county of, visited by Talbot, ii. 23

Minto, Lord, appointed Governor-General, ii. 112;

  investigates care of public documents, ii. 114;

  proposes appointment of Deputy Keeper of Records, ii. 115;

  portrait of, presented to the Archives, ii. 115;

  experiences of, in crossing the St. Lawrence at Lévis, ii. 115;

  confides development of Archives to Earl Grey, ii. 116

Minto, Lady, presents portrait of Lord Minto to the Archives, ii. 115;

  experiences of, in crossing the St. Lawrence at Lévis, ii. 115;

  maintains her interest in Canadian history, ii. 116

Minto Room, named in honour of Lord Minto, ii. 115

Mississippi, River, discovery of, i. 77;

  Iroquois plan destruction of French posts on, i. 93

Monckton, Brigadier-General Robert, camps at Pointe Lévis, i. 139;

  wounded at Quebec, i. 148

Moncton, N.B., named after General Monckton, ii. 81

Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Marquis de, appointed commander of French forces, i. 134;

  captures Forts William and Carillon, i. 136;

  army of, encamps along Beauport Rd., i. 139;

  informed of English troops on Heights of Abraham, i. 147;

  engages English troops on Heights of Abraham, i. 147;

  surrenders Quebec, i. 148;

  buried in Ursuline Convent, i. 150;

  Brock resides in house of, ii. 50;

  representative of family of, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

Mont Desert Island, Jesuit mission at, destroyed, i. 53

Montgomery, General Richard, leads an expedition against Montreal, i. 158;

  approaches Quebec by lower road and is killed, i. 159

Montgomery’s Tavern, Mackenzie’s force for attack on Toronto assembled at, ii. 93

Montmagny, Charles Huault de, succeeds Champlain as Governor of New France, i. 39

Montmorency Falls, i. 132;

  Wolfe camps near, i. 139;

  failure of English attack at, 1759, i. 141;

  effect of repulse at, on British troops, i. 144

Montmorency-Laval. See Laval

Montreal, Champlain urges Indians to send furs to, i. 34;

  owes its foundation to religious enthusiasm, i. 45;

  arrival of Paul de Chomedy at, i. 45;

  saved by Dollard, i. 47;

  Frontenac pays visit to, i. 88;

  fur trade at, i. 89;

  the centre of anxiety on Frontenac’s return, i. 97;

  growth of, i. 129, 133;

  actions of Sir James Craig arouse bitter feeling in, 1811, ii. 49;

  American attack on, abandoned, ii. 57;

  early Presbyterian congregation in, ii. 67;

  riots in, 1837, ii. 93;

  Parliament Buildings in, wrecked, 1847, ii. 97;

  merchants of, suggest federation of the North American states, ii. 99;

  railway lines built to, ii. 100;

  in comparison with other Canadian cities, ii. 140

Monts, Pierre du Guast, Sieur de, succeeds to monopoly granted to de Chastes, i. 23;

  experiences difficulty over trading rights, i. 25;

  receives second commission, 1608, i. 25;

  de Poutrincourt obtains land at Port Royal from, i. 52

Moravians, missionary enterprises of the, ii. 66

Moraviantown, battle of, ii. 57

Mosquitoes, in New Edinburgh, ii. 34

Moulton, Rev. Ebenezer, founds first Baptist church in Nova Scotia, 1761, ii. 68

Mount Royal, Cartier gives name to, i. 16

Mountain, Jacob, first Anglican Bishop of Quebec, consecrated, 1793, ii. 64;

  activities of, ii. 64

Mount Stephen, Lord George, resides at Métis, ii. 83;

  career of, ii. 87

Municipal government, establishment of a form of, ii. 30

Munroe, Secretary, purchases letters of John Henry, ii. 47

Murdoch, Rev. James, appointed minister of Protestant Dissenters’ congregation in Halifax, ii. 67

Murray, General James, Governor of Quebec, i. 149;

  meets General Amherst, i. 150;

  ragamuffin army of, i. 152;

  difficult problems of, i. 154;

  condemns soldier for raid on convent, i. 155;

  returns to England to answer charges made against him, i. 156;

  memory of, held in honour by people of Quebec, i. 156;

  representative of family of, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

Muscovy Company, bears cost of Hudson expedition, i. 109


Napoleon Bonaparte, master of continental Europe, ii. 46;

  designs of, on United States, ii. 48;

  edicts of, ruin English shipping, ii. 51

Napoleonic Wars, ii. 40

National Battlefields Park, Quebec, creation of, proposed, ii. 109;

  progress made in construction of, ii. 111, 118

Navy Hall, first legislature of Upper Canada opened in, 1792, ii. 21

Nelson, informs English of Frontenac’s plan to attack them, i. 96

Nepean Point, Ottawa, ii. 72;

  park laid out at, at the instance of Lord Grey, ii. 118

“Neptune,” Col. Grey travels on board the, ii. 33

New Brunswick, becomes a province, 1783, ii. 16;

  religious activities in, ii. 61;

  improvements in, ii. 134

New Caledonia, now known as British Columbia, ii. 78

New Edinburgh, Colonel Grey pays visit to, ii. 34

Newfoundland, land first sighted at, by Jacques Cartier, i. 12

New France, Old France as model of, i. 86;

  boundaries of, extended, i. 106;

  the fall of, i. 130

New France, Company of, organised by Richelieu, i. 37

New Hampshire, French invasion of, i. 99

“New Light” churches, co-operate with Baptist churches, ii. 68

Newspapers, absence of, in New France, i. 124;

  from the Old World eagerly awaited in Canada, i. 125;

  first published in Quebec, 1764, i. 160;

  variety of contents of, ii. 12;

  summary of foreign news given in, ii. 12

New York, evacuation of, ii. 16

Niagara, settlement at, ii. 22;

  Indians under Brant settle at, ii. 64

Niagara Falls, i. 133

Nine-penny Tutor, ii. 9

Non-Loyalists, activities of, ii. 15, 46

“Nonsuch,” successful fur trading expedition of the, to Hudson Bay, 1668, i. 113

Norfolk, Duke of, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

North American States, merchants of Montreal suggest federation of, ii. 99

North-West Mounted Police, ii. 102, 103

Notre-Dame de Montreal, Society of, arrive in Montreal, i. 45

Nova Scotia, Loyalists settle in, ii. 15;

  early Scotch settlers conduct worship in, ii. 59;

  first bishop of, consecrated, 1781, ii. 61;

  establishment of Presbyterian Church in, ii. 67;

  Methodist Church in, ii. 68;

  Baptist Church in, ii. 68;

  success of reformers in, ii. 91

Noyes, de, character in drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53


Ochterlony, Capt. David, wounded at Montmorency, i. 142;

  taken to General Hospital, Quebec, i. 142

Olaf, King, Saga of, preface

Ondaraque, well-furnished Indian stronghold, taken by de Courcelles, i. 67

One Hundred Associates, company of, organised, i. 54

Ontario, Province of, contributes financially towards Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

Organ, lessons on, given by Quebec teacher, ii. 7

Orkney Islands, girl from, in the West, ii. 41

Orleans, Island of, Iroquois attack, i. 57;

  British troops land on, i. 139

Ottawa, building of locks to, ii. 71;

  beginnings of, ii. 72;

  selected as capital, ii. 100;

  Parliament buildings, ii. 101;

  improvement of, ii. 111

Ottawa River, efforts of Indians to destroy French trade on, i. 103

“Ottawa,” the, name of steamer, ii. 33

Ovens, toll paid to seigneurs for use of, i. 80

Ox, curious antics of an, ii. 36


Panama Canal, idea of, conceived by Champlain, i. 22

Panet, dines with Bigot, i. 136

Papineau, Louis Joseph, leads rebellion in Lower Canada, ii. 93

Paradise of the Hurons, ii. 23

Paris, Treaty of, 1763, Canada ceded to England by, i. 150

Parliament, opening of, 1792, ii. 21;

  buildings of, become inadequate, ii. 87;

  analogous to the Anglo-Saxon Witan, ii. 131;

  ceremonial procedure at opening of session of, ii. 132;

  conventions nominate candidates for election to, ii. 132 seq.;

  principles of government by, ii. 133

Parliament, Library of, only extant part of old building, ii. 139

Patoulet, pays tribute of praise to Talon, i. 76

Patriots, rioters in Lower Canada, ii. 93

Peace Tower, ii. 72;

  description of, ii. 138

Pedlar, importance of the, in Upper Canada, ii. 30

Peltrie, Marie Madeleine de la, ii. 34, 35

Perley, Sir George H., represents Canada in London, ii. 121

Perrier Water, mineral springs of, on Montcalm’s estate, i. 134

Peyton, Ensign Henry, wounded at Montmorency, i. 142;

  rescued by Capt. McDonald at Montmorency, i. 142

Phipps, Sir William, attacks Quebec, 1690, i. 101

Pickford, Mary, spends day at Baltimore War Exhibit, ii. 125

Pittfield, Ward C., home of, ii. 80

Pivert, Nicolas, pioneer family of, at Quebec, i. 36

Players, strolling, in Upper Canada, ii. 31

Playing cards, used as currency, i. 155

Pointe aux Trembles, i. 132

Pointe Lévis, General Monckton camps at, i. 139;

  Wolfe moves his headquarters to, i. 145

Pont Gravé, in hands of Indians, i. 25;

  conspirators sent to France in ship commanded by, i. 28

Port Hope, ii. 75

Portneuf, attacks Fort Loyal, i. 100

Port Royal, Champlain establishes settlement at, i. 24;

  de Poutrincourt obtains land at, i. 52;

  English attack, i. 53;

  Scotchmen arrive at, i. 54;

  capture of, by Charnisay, i. 55;

  name changed to Annapolis Royal, i. 130

Portugal, jealous of Spain, i. 2

Postal service, peculiarities of, 1782, i. 164;

  slowness of, 1812, ii. 49

Postmen, allowed to take note of hand in payment of postage, i. 165;

  picnics of, on the ice, ii. 3

Pots and pans, army without money to buy new, i. 153

Poulet, Capt., arrives at Quebec, 1662, i. 58

Poutrincourt, Charles de Biencourt, Baron de. See Biencourt

Poutrincourt, Jean de Biencourt, Baron de, obtains land at Port Royal, i. 52;

  death of, 1615, i. 53

Prairie fire, ii. 77

Prairie Provinces, harvests of, ii. 42, 78

Presbyterian Church, in Canada, ii. 67

Prescott, landing of American army at, ii. 57

Press, power of, ii. 8

Prevost, Sir George, succeeds Sir James Craig, ii. 50

Prince Edward Island, Loyalists settle in, ii. 18;

  Lord Selkirk’s settlers at, ii. 40;

  religious activities in, ii. 61;

  black foxes bred in, ii. 82;

  enters Confederation, ii. 101

Printing press, wonders of, ii. 4

Prisoners of war, experiences of Capt. Ochterlony, Quebec, i. 142;

  French ladies taken, at Deschambault, i. 143

Procter, General Henry, Tecumseh conducts American prisoner to, ii. 54;

  withdraws from Detroit, ii. 56


Quakers, settle in Upper Canada, ii. 26;

  Yonge Street Meeting of, ii. 69

Quebec, Cartier arrives at, i. 14;

  Champlain arrives at, 1608, i. 26;

  “Abitation de Québec,” built by Champlain, 1608, i. 26;

  surrender of, to Kirke, 1629, i. 37;

  activities of New France directed from, i. 39;

  arrival of Ursulines at, 1639, i. 40;

  “Le Cid,” dramatic performance at Jesuit College, 1646, i. 48;

  dependent on France, i. 57;

  Iroquois threaten, 1656, i. 57;

  inhabitants of, encouraged, i. 62;

  Lower Town, destroyed by fire, i. 92;

  conditions in, when Frontenac appointed Governor of, for second time, i. 96;

  attack on, 1690, i. 101;

  fire-fighting equipment in, 17th century, i. 124;

  growth and development of, i. 126;

  attack on, 1711, abandoned, i. 128;

  growth of, i. 128, 131;

  Mackellar presents plan and report on fortifications of, to Wolfe, i. 138;

  disposition of forces about, 1759, i. 139;

  bombardment of, 1759, i. 140;

  Wolfe’s plan of attack on, i. 145;

  surrenders to English forces, 1759, i. 148;

  British flag hoisted at, Sept. 18, 1759, i. 152;

  in grip of ice, i. 152;

  British goods bought by inhabitants of, i. 155;

  first newspaper in, i. 160, ii. 4;

  merchants of, refuse to support Juvenile Theatre, ii. 11;

  gaiety in, 1811, ii. 50;

  religious activities in, 1759, ii. 62, 63;

  Presbyterian church in, 1765, ii. 67;

  expenditure on fortifications of, ii. 94;

  Parliament meets in, ii. 98;

  from small settlement at, a nation emerges, ii. 107;

  model of, secured for the Archives, ii. 117

“Quebec Gazette,” published in Quebec, 1764, i. 160

Quebec Province, inhabitants of, British subjects, i. 154;

  boundaries of, enlarged, i. 157;

  Loyalists settle at, ii. 14;

  actions of Sir James Craig arouse bitter feeling in, ii. 49

Quebec Tercentenary, celebration of, ii. 108 seq.

Queen’s University, ii. 71

Queenston Heights, battle of, ii. 54 seq.


Radisson, Pierre Esprit, in joint command of fur-trading expedition to Hudson Bay, i. 112;

  adventures of, i. 113 seq.

Railways, Sir John A. Macdonald influences extension of, ii. 100;

  introduction and early extension of, in Canada, ii. 100;

  extended to Red River, ii. 103

Ralleau, character in drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53

Ramezay, Claude de, Governor of Quebec, i. 163

Ramezay, Jean Baptiste Nicolas Roch de, refuses to surrender Quebec, i. 148

Ramezay, Madame de, Wolfe addresses letter to, assuring her of his protection, i. 142

Razilly, Isaac de, appointed governor of Acadia, i. 55;

  death of, 1635, i. 55

Rebellion breaks out in Upper Canada, 1837, ii. 85;

  causes of, ii. 92;

  progress of, in Upper and Lower Canada, ii. 93;

  offenders in, banished to Bermuda, ii. 94, 96

Rebellion Losses Bill, introduced by Lord Elgin, ii. 97

Recollet Church, Anglican services held in, ii. 2;

  Presbyterian services held in, ii. 67

Red Cross, activities of, in Canada during Great War, ii. 120, 137

Red Fife wheat, story of, ii. 42

Red River, i. 133;

  extension of railway to, alters mode of travel, ii. 103

Red River Settlement, ii. 40;

  missionary sent to, ii. 65

Redford, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, summer residence of, at Métis, ii. 83

Regiment, 14th U.S. Infantry, colours of, captured at Beaver Dam, ii. 56

Regiment, Princess Patricia, sails from Halifax, ii. 120

Regiment, Voltigeurs, raised for service in War of 1812, ii. 52

Regiment, York Volunteers, raised for service in War of 1812, ii. 52

Regina Trench, Canadian victory at, ii. 121

Renol, Catherine, press notice of the escape of, from service, ii. 4

Repentigny, Marie Madeleine de, kindles votive lamp in convent chapel, i. 126

Riall, General Phineas, wounded and taken prisoner at Lundy’s Lane, ii. 58

Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de, organises company of New France, i. 37;

  motives of, in exploration, i. 39;

  appoints de Razilly governor of Acadia, i. 55;

  aimed to develop colony on model of Old France, i. 86

Richelieu River, forts constructed on, i. 63

Rideau Canal, ii. 70;

  purposes of, ii. 71

Rideau River, Colonel Grey travels on the, ii. 33

Rivière du Loup, ii. 83

Roads, improvement in conditions with extension of, ii. 29

Roberts, Lord Frederick, represents British Army at Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

Rockcliffe, residents of, ii. 73

Rocky Mountains, ii. 77

Roman Catholic Church, activities of, in New France, i. 50;

  predominance of, among Christian denominations in Canada, ii. 69

Ronual, Asselin de, visits New France, i. 59

Ross, P. D., ii. 73

Rouen, France, merchants of, fit out expedition and obtain monopoly of fur trade, i. 23

Rouen, Archbishop of, New France under jurisdiction of, i. 50

Roussel, Timothée, first surgeon to arrive in New France, i. 125;

  occupies house called the “Golden Dog,” i. 128

Royal Military College, Kingston, ii. 71

Rum, exchanged for furs, i. 91

Rupert, Prince, interested in fur-trading expedition to Hudson Bay, i. 112;

  receives Charter constituting the Hudson’s Bay Company, i. 113

Rupert’s Land, administered by the Hudson’s Bay Company, ii. 102

Russell, Peter, grants of land to, ii. 24

Russia, Germany declares war on, ii. 119

Ryswick, Peace of, benefits New France, i. 107


Sailors, British, defection of, ii. 46

St. Andrews, N.B., religious services at, conducted by civil officials, ii. 62;

  church built at, 1778, ii. 62

Ste. Anne, church at, i. 131

St. Augustine, i. 132

St. Catherine’s, Cartier puts into harbour of, i. 11

St. Charles, Patriots defeated in skirmish at, 1837, ii. 94

St. Croix, Island of, Champlain’s settlement on, i. 24

St. Denis, village of, destroyed, ii. 93

St. Ethelburga the Virgin, description of the church of, i. 109

St. Eustache, defeat of Patriots at, 1837, ii. 94

St. Helen’s Island, named after the wife of Champlain, i. 133

St. John, postal service of, ii. 3;

  Loyalists at, ii. 15

St. John’s, Que., capture of, i. 158

St. John’s Cathedral, Winnipeg, wooden church on site of, opened, 1820, ii. 65

St. Lawrence, Gulf of, Cartier crosses the, i. 14

St. Louis, Château, occupied by Champlain, i. 35

St. Malo, ancient harbour of, i. 7;

  strange ships at, i. 7;

  bishop announces appointment of Cartier at close of service in cathedral of, i. 8;

  spies of Spain at, i. 9;

  ceremony at, on departure of Cartier on second voyage, i. 13;

  Cartier returns, bringing Donnacona to, i. 19

St. Martin’s Day, observed as a holiday in New France, i. 83

St. Mary’s Isle, John Paul Jones off, ii. 39

St. Maurice, forges for casting stoves at, i. 133

St. Ours, Pierre, captain of the guard, commands escort at funeral of Indian chief, i. 120

St. Paul, Halifax, church of, completed, 1750, ii. 59

St. Paul and Pacific Railway, extension of, to Red River, ii. 103

St. Stephen, Columbus at convent of, i. 3

Salaberry, Colonel Charles Michael D’Irumberry de, raises Voltigeurs Regiment, ii. 52;

  at battle of Chateauguay, ii. 57

Sale, Charles Vincent, governor of Hudson’s Bay Company, presides at celebration of the Company at Fort James, 1928, ii. 79

Salmon River, destruction of farms near, i. 99

Salvation Army, commencement of activities of, in Canada, ii. 69

Sandwich, General Hull marches towards, ii. 52

Saskatchewan, Diocese of, formed, 1874, ii. 65

Saskatchewan, Province of, enters confederation, ii. 101;

  rapid growth of, ii. 104

Saskatchewan, University of, Sir Wilfrid Laurier lays foundation stone of, ii. 102

Saskatoon, first settlers arrive in, 1883, ii. 102

Sault au Recollet, Sacred Heart Convent of, ii. 80

Saunders, Admiral Sir Charles, fleet under command of, reaches Louisburg, i. 138;

  anchors his fleet near Quebec, i. 139;

  part of fleet passes Quebec, i. 143;

  pretends to land sailors on Beauport shore, i. 145

Schemerhorn, Simon, escapes daring attack on Schenectady, i. 99

Schenectady, N.Y., attack on, i. 99

School, Protestant, the first, in Quebec, ii. 7

Schools, opened by Loyalists, ii. 19;

  established in villages, ii. 30

Schreiber, Lady, ii. 73

Schreiber, Sir Collingwood, succeeds Sir Sandford Fleming in directing construction of Canadian Pacific Railway, ii. 86

Schuyler, Peter, attacks La Prairie, i. 103

Scotland, settlers from, brought out by Talbot, ii. 24

Scurvy, breaks out at Stadacona, i. 17;

  cure for, i. 18;

  rush for Indian medicine to cure, i. 19;

  prevalent in Champlain’s settlement at St. Croix, i. 24;

  Champlain unaware of cure for, i. 28

Secord, Laura, services of, at Beaver Dam, ii. 56

Seigneuries, created by Talon, i. 69

Seigneurs of New France, i. 78 seq.;

  costume of, i. 83

Selkirk, Thomas, Earl of, early adventures of, ii. 39;

  directs settlement at Red River, ii. 40

Servants, desertion of, i. 161

Settlements, obstacles in way of, i. 36;

  efforts of Talon to establish, i. 69;

  home life of, i. 78;

  need of, in New France, i. 106;

  hardships of, in Upper Canada, ii. 27;

  perseverance in, ii. 28;

  manufacture of furniture in, ii. 28;

  importance of, ii. 45;

  progress of, in prairie provinces, ii. 101;

  begun in Manitoba, ii. 103;

  growth of, in Alberta and Saskatchewan, ii. 104;

  privations of, in New Brunswick, ii. 134

Sheaffe, Sir Roger Hale, succeeds Brock in command and drives American forces from Queenston Heights, ii. 55

Shelburne, Loyalist settlement at, ii. 16

Shipbuilding, encouraged by Talon, i. 73

Shops, of the nature of general stores, in early Quebec, ii. 12

Shortt, Dr. Adam, ii. 73

Simcoe, John Graves, Governor of Upper Canada, ii. 20;

  objects to land grant application of Benedict Arnold, ii. 22;

  considers London the best site for capital of Upper Canada, ii. 75

Simcoe, Mrs., brings tapestry from England, ii. 21

Simpson, Sir George, visit of, to Fort James saves British Columbia for Canada, ii. 78

“Sir Robert Peel,” British ship, attacked by Bill Johnson, ii. 33

Smith, Donald A., ii. 87

Smith, Norman, ii. 74

Smyth, Capt. Harvey, bearer of flag of truce at Quebec, i. 143

Snow Shoe Clubs, members of, conduct Lord and Lady Minto to the citadel, ii. 116

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, missionary efforts of the, ii. 65

Sorel, origin of name, i. 63;

  Loyalists settle in seigneury of, ii. 17;

  religious services held in house at, ii. 63

Southam, H. S. and W. M., ii. 73

Spain, discovery of New World claimed by, i. 2;

  picturesque figures in streets of, i. 6;

  jealousy of King of, i. 9

Stadacona, progress made with construction of fort at, i. 16;

  Cartier returns to, from Montreal, i. 16;

  Cartier avoids, 1541, i. 19

Stadacona Hall, ii. 73

Stage-coaches, ii. 33

Stannard, Capt., in command of the “Eaglet” in first fur-trading expedition to Hudson Bay, i. 113

Steamboats, travel by, tedious, ii. 32

Steeplechase, held at London, Ont., ii. 76

Stoney Creek, battle of, ii. 55

Strathcona and Mount Royal, Lord, ii. 87

Stuart, Sir Campbell, ii. 64, 116

Stuart, Rev. Dr. John, first English schoolmaster at Montreal, ii. 64

Sudbury, ii. 76

Sugar making, a festive occasion, ii. 29

Sullivan, persecutes the Loyalists, ii. 15

Sulpicians, arrive in New France, 1657, i. 45

Sydenham, Lord Charles, succeeds Lord Durham as Governor-in-Chief, ii. 96;

  death of, ii. 97

Sydney, famous for its mines, ii. 82

Synagogues, in Canada, ii. 69


Tadoussac, Champlain arrives at, 1608, i. 25;

  the oldest church in Canada at, i. 131

Taignoagny, an Indian at Bay de Chaleur, accompanies Cartier to France, i. 13

Tailor, itinerant, in Upper Canada, ii. 30

Talbot, Richard de, Baron under William the Conqueror, fortunes of the descendants of, ii. 23

Talbot, Thomas, obtains grants of land in Upper Canada, ii. 23;

  settles at Dunwich, ii. 24

Talbot Road, construction of the, ii. 24

Talbot Settlement, beginnings of the, ii. 24

Talon, Jean, Intendant of New France, arrives at Quebec, i. 61;

  proposes military colonisation, i. 68;

  account of the duties of, i. 69;

  visits the Hôtel Dieu, i. 70;

  encourages cultivation of hemp, etc., i. 72;

  asks for wives for settlers, i. 74;

  returns to France, i. 75;

  shipwrecked on way to Quebec, i. 76;

  arrives at Quebec, 1670, i. 77;

  retires to France, 1672, i. 77;

  compared with Bigot, i. 137

Talon villages, description of, i. 71

Taylor, Sir Frederick Williams, tries to alter spelling of name of Moncton, ii. 81

Teachers, remarkable advertisements of, ii. 5 seq.

Tecumseh, Indian chief, ii. 51;

  Americans destroy settlement of, at Tippecanoe creek, ii. 52;

  commands Indian forces at capture of Detroit, ii. 53;

  Brock praises conduct of, ii. 53;

  death of, ii. 57

“Telegraph,” the, an American ship, ii. 34

Theatre, supported by subscriptions, ii. 11

Theatrical performances in Canada under early British rule, ii. 9 seq.;

  under patronage of the Governor, ii. 10

Thespian Theatre, Quebec, plays at, ii. 9

“The Theatre of Neptune,” drama produced by Lescarbot, i. 52

Thompson, Sheriff, reprehensible conduct of, at election, ii. 17

Three Rivers (Trois Rivières), settled, 1634, i. 45;

  visit of Frontenac to, i. 87;

  French leave, for campaign in New Hampshire, i. 99;

  growth of, i. 129, 130;

  made a district or “Government” by Murray, i. 155;

  religious activities in, ii. 63;

  Iroquois carry off two men sawing lumber at, ii. 83

Ticonderoga, Algonquins, led by Champlain, defeat the Iroquois at, i. 29 seq.;

  capture of, by “Green Mountain Boys,” 1775, i. 158

Tippecanoe Creek, battle of, ii. 51

Toronto, See of, created 1839, ii. 64;

  description of, ii. 75;

  attack on, by Mackenzie’s forces, ii. 93;

  Parliament meets in, ii. 98;

  compared with other Canadian cities, ii. 140

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de, arrives at Quebec, i. 61;

  constructs forts on the Richelieu, i. 63;

  nephew of, killed by Indians, i. 64;

  leads expedition against Indians, i. 65;

  accident and rescue of, i. 65, 66;

  returns to France, i. 67

Trade, efforts of Indians to destroy, i. 103;

  conditions of, 1848, ii. 99

Traders, English, complain of their treatment by Murray, i. 154

Travel, hardships of, ii. 36

Trinity Church, St. John, N.B., opened, 1778, ii. 62

Trois Rivières. See Three Rivers

Troyes, Chevalier Pierre de, leads expedition against English at Hudson Bay, i. 116

Truro, Presbytery formed at, 1786, ii. 67

Tunkers, settle in Upper Canada, ii. 26

Tupper, Sir Charles, supports Confederation, ii. 88

Turner, General, ii. 122


Union Government, formed by Sir Robert Borden, 1917, ii. 121

Unitarian Churches, in Canada, ii. 69

United Empire Loyalists, honour conferred upon descendants of, ii. 134

United States, action of, causes anxiety in England, ii. 1;

  Independence of, acknowledged by England, ii. 14;

  friction with, ii. 34;

  designs of certain elements in, ii. 45;

  war declared by, 1812, ii. 48;

  population of, 1812, ii. 48;

  Canada lends war trophies for exhibition in, ii. 123;

  services of W. L. Mackenzie King in, ii. 129

Upper Canada, appearance of land speculators in, ii. 22;

  first Roman Catholic Bishop of, ii. 26;

  primitive character of life in, ii. 38;

  recruiting in, 1812, ii. 66;

  Methodist Church in, ii. 68;

  population of, 1827, ii. 71;

  rebellion in, 1837, ii. 85;

  grievances in, ii. 91 seq.;

  union with Lower Canada, 1841, ii. 97

Upper Cove, Loyalists at, ii. 17

Ursuline Chapel, victory sermon at, i. 152

Ursulines, arrive at Quebec, 1639, i. 40;

  progress made by, in Quebec, i. 48;

  assist in building convent, i. 48;

  decide to remain in New France, i. 58;

  lamp in chapel of, to burn perpetually, i. 126;

  successful plea of, for condemned soldier, i. 155;

  representation of the landing of, in Quebec Tercentenary pageant, ii. 110

Utrecht, Treaty of, terminates French-English warfare at Hudson Bay, i. 118


Vancouver, B.C., ii. 93;

  progress of, ii. 106;

  comparison of, with other Canadian cities, ii. 140

Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de, camps at Charlesbourg, i. 139;

  informed of British on Heights of Abraham, i. 147;

  retreats to Jacques Cartier, i. 148;

  surrenders to English forces, 1760, i. 150

Verchères, Madeleine de, defends Fort Verchères, gallant conduct of, i. 103 seq.;

  memorial to, i. 106, 133

Verchères Point, statue of Madeleine de Verchères erected at, i. 106

Victoria, Queen, determines upon Ottawa as capital, ii. 100;

  Sir Wilfred Laurier represents Canada at Diamond Jubilee of, ii. 108

Victoria, B.C., named after the Queen, ii. 79

Ville Marie (Montreal), settled 1642, i. 45

Vimy Ridge, capture of, by Canadians, ii. 122

Vincennes, Indian settlement on the banks of the Tippecanoe creek at, ii. 51;

  destroyed by Americans, ii. 52

Violins, popularity and use of, in early Canada, ii. 35

Vitré, de, character in drama, “The Theatre of Neptune,” i. 53


Waggons, become common after construction of roads, ii. 29

Walker, Sir Hovenden, abandons attack on Quebec, 1711, i. 128

War of 1812, ii. 45;

  numerous causes of, ii. 45 seq.;

  anticipated by Brock, ii. 50;

  recruiting in the Canadas for, ii. 52;

  effects of, on Canada, ii. 91

Washington, George, President of Republic, ii. 14

Watt, Rev. John, sent as missionary to the Red River Settlement, ii. 65

Watts, Rev. Mr., conducts service at Port Royal, 1710; opens school at Canso, ii. 59

Webster, Dr. J. Clarence, home of, ii. 81

Welch, Robert, tempting advertisements of, ii. 5

Wheat, settlers’ method of threshing, ii. 37

White spruce, juice of, taken as a cure for scurvy, ii. 40

Wilkinson, General James, defeat of Americans under, at Chrysler’s farm, ii. 57

William Henry, Prince, later King William IV, visits Quebec, ii. 2

Wilson, President Woodrow, makes speech at Baltimore War Trophy Exhibit, ii. 125

Windsor, N.S., parish church of, completed, 1790, ii. 61

Winnipeg, site of, ii. 44;

  early appearance of, ii. 103;

  comparison of, with other Canadian cities, ii. 140

Witan, Anglo-Saxon form of Parliament, ii. 131

Wolfe, General James, captures Louisbourg, i. 137;

  appointed to command expedition to America, i. 137;

  camps near Montmorency Falls, i. 139;

  assures Mme. de Ramezay of his protection, i. 142;

  makes his will, i. 144;

  moves his headquarters to Pointe Lévis, i. 145;

  lands troops at the Foulon, i. 146;

  engages French troops on Heights of Abraham, i. 147;

  death of, i. 148;

  soldiers of, clothed in rags, i. 152;

  representative of family of, attends Quebec Tercentenary Celebration, ii. 109

Wolfefield, i. 134

Wolfe’s Cove, i. 146

Wolves, ravages of, ii. 35

Women of Canada, activities of, during European war, i. 153;

  endurance of, ii. 38

Wood, Rev. Thomas, visits settlements on St. John River, 1769, ii. 61

Woodstock, Ont., origin of name, ii. 75

Wright, Philemon, ii. 74


Yarmouth, N.S., ii. 81

York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, Archbishop of, speaks at Baltimore War Trophy Exhibit, ii. 125

York, now Toronto, named in honour of Duke of York, ii. 21

York Fort, ii. 40

Ypres, saved by Canadians, ii. 121

Yukon, ii. 79

Yverdun, birthplace of Haldimand, i. 161

Printed in Great Britain at The Ballantyne Press by

Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co. Ltd.

Colchester, London & Eton.


Mis-spelled words and printer errors have been fixed.

Inconsistency in hyphenation has been retained.

Inconsistency in accents has been retained.

Illustrations have been relocated due to using a non-page layout.

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[The end of Under the Lily and the Rose: A Short History of Canada for Children Volume 2 of 2 by Arthur G. Doughty]