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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist, Volume 4, Issue 10

Date of first publication: 1881

Author: D. W. (Delos White) Beadle

Date first posted: May 25, 2015

Date last updated: May 25, 2015

Faded Page eBook #20150564

This ebook was produced by: Marcia Brooks, David Edwards, Paulina Chin & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

The Canadian Horticulturist.









VOL. IV.] OCTOBER, 1881. [NO. 10.


The Midsummer Meeting of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario was held at Owen Sound on Wednesday and Thursday, the 24th and 25th of August, 1881. There was a very general attendance of the members from that vicinity, and a goodly number from a distance. The display of fruit was much better than was expected, the crop in that section having been nearly destroyed by the untimely frost which visited the place early in the summer.

President Dempsey called the meeting to order, and after a few words of hearty salutation to the members present, called attention to the first subject, namely: To what insects and what diseases are the plum trees liable in this vicinity?

The replies to this question indicated that the depredations from insects were not serious. The tent caterpillar and other leaf-eating insects were to be found occasionally, but they had not been sufficiently numerous to cause any alarm or make it difficult to keep them in check. The Black-knot was mentioned by nearly every speaker as the most troublesome disease with which they had to contend. It seems to have been more than usually prevalent this year, and to have spread with great rapidity, affecting many of the trees so very seriously that there seems to be no hope of saving them. Mr. John Chisholm stated that it had been more serious in his garden than ever before, and that the only adequate amputation in many instances would be the entire removal and burning of the tree. He thought that the disease thus far had been chiefly confined to the blue plums. Mr. D. R. Dobie spoke of it as being frightful this season, and believed it probable that the dry season favored the spread of black-knot. It had attacked his yellow plums, such as the Coe’s Golden Drop and Washington, but was worse on the Jefferson and McLaughlin. Mr. R. J. Doyle thought that trees growing in a wet subsoil were more subject to black-knot than those in well drained ground, and believed that by thorough underdraining and watchful amputation the disease could be kept in subjection. Several speakers stated that the black-knot was very abundant in some sections upon the wild plum and wild cherry trees, and particularly so on the Manitoulin Islands.

The Secretary stated that some twenty years ago he had noticed the black-knot was very abundant on the wild plum and cherry about Orillia, and from there to Coldwater. It was not now so prevalent in the Niagara District as formerly.

Several members brought plums to the meeting having the gum exuding from the fruit, and otherwise defective specimens, some of them showing the marks of insect depredations, in order that they might be examined by those who were familiar with the work of the curculio, but very careful examination failed to discover any evidence of the presence of the curculio. Plum growers at Owen Sound may congratulate themselves that the curculio has not yet found his way to their plum trees. President Dempsey remarked, in this connection, that in Prince Edward County they had found the rotting of fruit on trees before ripening a much worse evil than the curculio. The curculio could be kept in subjection by jarring the trees and catching the insects, but that no method had yet been discovered of preventing the rotting of the fruit.

The subject of the borer in apple trees was next considered, but the discussion revealed the fact that it had not been troublesome at Owen Sound, but one person having ever seen any in his apple trees.

The discussion on the grapes best adapted to this section of country revealed the fact that quite a number of varieties can be grown and ripened. Mr. Brownlie had grown the Eumelan, Delaware, Massasoit, and Concord. He remarked that the Eumelan succeeds well, and that he had not found it subject to mildew; that the Concord in some few seasons had hardly ripened, and that it was not wise to plant varieties which ripened later than the Concord. Other members had also grown the Champion, Creveling, Clinton, Brighton, Burnet, Hartford Prolific, Northern Muscadine, Rogers Nos. 3, 4, 9, 14, and Salem. It was remarked that at Owen Sound the Burnet did not ripen any earlier than the Concord.

Small fruits generally were grown with good success. Members found no difficulty in growing Raspberries, such as Franconia, Brinckle’s Orange, Knevet’s Giant, Pride of Hudson, Cuthbert, Turner, &c. English gooseberries were generally subject to mildew, but Downing and Houghton did well. Strawberries were also grown without difficulty. Mr. T. C. Robinson said that the Wilson was the most reliable sort; no other had yet proved to be as profitable for market. He thinks that the Crescent will outcrop the Wilson. President Dempsey manures his strawberries with ashes and bone-dust, applying ten barrels of unleached hard-wood ashes to the acre, and obtains from the Wilson a yield of six thousand quarts to the acre.

The resident members spared no pains to make the visit one of great pleasure to those who came from a distance, kindly taking them to several places of interest in the immediate vicinity. Under their hospitable escort we visited Ingle’s Falls, a most picturesque spot of great natural beauty; the gardens of Judge Macpherson, Doctor Cameron, and Mr. Trotter; and the rural homes of Messrs. Glen-Airston, William Roy and J. R. Doyle, at all of which we were most hospitably entertained and found much to interest every lover of horticulture.

At Mr. Doyle’s we found most extensive plum orchards, some in full bearing and some more recently planted, the number of plum trees running into the thousands; indeed the largest plum orchard we have ever had the pleasure of seeing. The trees were all vigorous and healthy in their appearance, and many of them well filled with fruit. Although they have no curculio to trouble them at Owen Sound, they are not wholly exempt from the ills to which the horticulturist is heir, for the frost had so interfered with fruit culture there this season that but few of the plum trees were yielding a crop. Mr. Doyle also shewed the members a barrel, having the staves so arranged as to admit of ventilation of the fruit packed in it. This barrel is specially adapted to the shipping of early ripening apples and pears, which require to be forwarded in hot weather.

After a two days’ meeting, in which much very valuable information was elicited, and much enjoyment experienced through the very kind attentions of the horticulturists of Owen Sound, the members from abroad returned homeward, carrying with them most a gratifying appreciation of the pleasure of their visit, and hoping that it may not be long before they may have the opportunity of again enjoying a meeting with such kind friends.


We have received from Mr. James Dougall of Windsor some interesting samples of seedling fruits raised by him. Among them is a sample of his new seedling cherry, which has been already noticed in the last volume of the Canadian Horticulturist, and is named by him the


The specimens received are above medium size, nearly black, flesh very firm, juicy, very agreeable flavor, having that mingling of saccharine and acid which is so refreshing. The stone of the fruit is very small. Mr. Dougall says of it: “Enormously productive; very hardy, being the only Biggareau or heart cherry that had not its fruit buds winter-killed last winter on my grounds; even Dukes were killed.”

The remaining samples were of seedling gooseberries which Mr. Dougall has raised.


was raised from seed of an English gooseberry fertilized with the Houghton. The berries sent average larger than those of the Houghton, oblong or oval in shape, color a deep rich green with light veins; flavor is excellent.


is another variety from the same parentage as the foregoing. The berries of this are of about the same size as the Houghton, nearly round in form, and yellowish green in color, and of a rich, pleasant flavor.


was raised from seed of the Houghton fertilized with an English gooseberry. It is oblong or oval in shape, nearly as large as the Downing, and of the same light-green color; flavor very good.


is descended from the wild prickly-fruited crossed with an English gooseberry. It is the second remove from the wild. The berries are oval in form, thinly sprinkled with fine hairs, shewing its descent from the prickly. About the same size as the Houghton; the ground color is a very light straw color, almost white, sprinkled with minute red dots. The flavor is very pleasant.


is also descended from the wild prickly fruited crossed with an English variety, and is also the second remove from the wild. These berries are oval in shape, about the size of Smith’s Improved. Well covered with short prickly hairs; color dark purplish red; flavor very good.

Mr. Dougall says of the Hybrid Seedlings No’s 2 and 7, “I think these will be the parents of a variety that will probably displace all others. They are strong, upright growers. I measured a shoot that grew from the bottom of one of these varieties, it is now four feet nine inches high, (branched) covered with bright brown prickles. It will no doubt reach nearly six feet by the end of the season, though they are not getting fair play, being grown under fruit trees. None of these seedling gooseberries have ever mildewed, though planted in different localities. I have several others, both of the hybrids and crosses between the English and Houghton, but being transplanted last fall, they have but little fruit on them, and that not fully grown. I have a No. 9 hybrid of the same strain as No’s 2 and 7; the fruit is much larger than either, smooth, and of a pale red, but not ripe yet, and only four berries left on the bush. The catbird, robin, and Baltimore oriole are very bad on gooseberries here, more especially the oriole. I had to remove my bushes to a place near my house, and cannot save them there.”


Every season has something peculiar to itself, and the peculiarities of this season have had a marked effect upon the ripening of grapes. The cool, moist weather of June had the effect of retarding the period of the opening of the blossoms, especially as compared with the season of 1880, and caused the setting fruit to grow very slowly. Hence all of the early ripening varieties came to maturity some ten days, or more, later than they did last year. But the cool and showery weather of June and first part of July was followed by the extreme heat of the latter part of August and the first days of September, and this had the effect of hastening the ripening of the later varieties of grapes, so that the interval between the earliest and later sorts has been very much shortened, and we have the Concords following in quick succession upon the heels of the Hartford Prolific. The varieties first to ripen in the writer’s grounds were the Champion and Moore’s Early. There seemed to be no difference in the time of ripening of these two grapes; but there is a great difference in quality and flavor. The Champion is much inferior in this respect to Moore’s early, and we predict that in time it will be superseded as an early market sort by the Moore’s Early. The Champion possesses the advantage of being a more vigorous grower, and at three years of age the vine will be fully twice as large as that of Moore’s Early, and at that age is capable of yielding a much larger quantity of fruit. The two vines, however, appear to be equally hardy and capable of resisting any amount of cold, both ripening their wood early and perfectly. We believe they can both be grown anywhere that any grape will grow, and will both ripen their fruit every year. The Champion has been fruited at Winnipeg, in Manitoba, with complete success, and in a year or so more the Moore’s Early will have been tried there also.

Next to these, and with less interval of time than last year between their periods of ripening, came the Massasoit (Rogers No. 3). This is a large red grape, having the flavor that is noticeable in all the Rogers varieties, and while large in berry is usually small in bunch, a good-sized, well-formed bunch being the exception. It is nevertheless a good variety to have in one’s garden on account of its time of ripening and the large size of the berries, but is not likely to prove to be a popular market sort on account of its defective clusters.

Hartford Prolific comes next in time of ripening. In the writer’s estimation this is a poor grape, but little better than the Champion in quality; yet, hitherto, on account of its early ripening, it has been found to be a profitable market sort. The vine is not as hardy as either of those previously mentioned, and will not be likely to withstand the cold of our severe latitudes. Better grapes, ripening as early, will soon crowd out the Hartford Prolific.

The Hartford Prolific was but fairly ripe when it was discovered that the extreme heat had brought on all at once a host of other sorts that usually continue to come in one after the other. Wilder, Salem, Agawam, Martha, Brighton and Concord were all in eating condition, and bunches were easily found on all these that were quite ripe. Yet the extreme heat and drought seem to have unfavorably affected the flavor of most of them, the distinguishing characteristics of each variety being less marked than usual. In such a peculiar season it is not easy to assign to each variety its proper position, nor to feel satisfied that the opinions formed at this time will be sustained next year.

The Burnet did not ripen any earlier than the Concord or Salem this year at St. Catharines, and we must wait and note its behavior in coming seasons before we can feel sure where its place really is.

The Vergennes, which is claimed to be an early variety, was not ripe as soon as the Concord, but next season may show a greater difference.

The Delaware is usually ripe some ten days before the Concord, but this season it is not as ripe on this 15th day of September, but will probably come in before the Concord is all gone.

These notes will serve to show the peculiar effect of the season upon the ripening of some of our varieties of grapes, and to put us on our guard against hasty conclusions based merely upon the experience of this season.



Some suggestions on the subject of tree planting in streets may not be out of place. In drawing attention to this subject, we do so for the ornamentation of any city, town or village that may wish to put on a perpetual robe of evergreens, or by planting deciduous trees, that they may, with the annual return of spring, break forth with the cooling shade, which refreshes the pedestrian, gladdens the eye, and ornaments the street.

In the first place, every town should have set apart in its infancy some place for rural recreation, such as a park or square. In some well fenced, well cultivated part of one of these, various forest trees should be sown, say from one-half to one acre of trees in nursery rows. By this means a sufficient number of trees would thus be obtained for planting many acres, or many miles of trees along the roadside. These rows would of course require to be thinned by removing the trees and replanting them from time to time, but this rather than being a drawback would be an advantage, as the oftener a tree is transplanted the easier and better it grows, and the less danger there is of its dying. The plot of seedlings should be so grown that a cultivator or gang plow could be run between the rows, which should be from three to four feet apart. The rows themselves should be carefully hand-weeded until the trees cast so deep a shade that nothing would grow under them. A nursery of this kind would have many advantages. The town trees obtained from it would be pretty much of a uniform size. They could be easily come at, and handy for planting. They could be put in charge of some elderly residenter, who by selling them to individuals at 10 cents per tree for street planting, and 25 cents for other purposes, (the purchaser to remove them,) they would be made to defray all cost and yield a money revenue to the town, besides making it an attractive place to reside in.

The best varieties of deciduous trees for town decoration would be the horse chestnut, hard and soft maples, black walnut, butternut and the elm. The acer negundo, known as the box elder, Manitoba maple, &c., are also very rapid growers, and make pretty ornamental trees.

Some municipal regulations would be required so as to order the planting. Certain streets should be set with certain varieties of trees or combinations of them, such as two maples and an elm alternately, but as a rule different trees for different streets are preferable. The streets might be named after the variety of tree planted in them. The municipality should also regulate the distance apart for planting, and the distance to plant from the centre of the roadbed. Many Canadian towns have the trees set at all distances apart and on any line the resident may choose; thus grown the tree line has the appearance of an ill-set saw. Trees are always beautiful, but planted as indicated they present a very bad effect.

As the plan suggested for raising the trees in a nursery has not been followed in many places, it is still not too late to commence, and it should be borne in mind that all seeds must be sown in well pulverized, rich ground so soon as they ripen; on no account should they be allowed to dry; it is absolutely necessary therefore that the soil should be kept in a continual state of preparation. A hoeing crop should be taken off the ground the previous season if the land has been lying in sod. Some maples, elms and other trees ripen their seed during the early and middle part of summer, and these should be at once committed to the soil as soon as ripe, and will make a foot of growth the first season. The evergreens are more difficult to manage from seed, and should consequently be obtained from professional nurserymen who make a business of raising them. They should be purchased at not less than two years old, and may be planted out at from one to three feet high. No evergreen should be planted in the autumn, nor should any tree be obtained that has been dug in the fall and heeled-in all winter. They should be dug from the rows in the spring as early as practicable, and immediately planted. No manure should be used about the roots, but a mulch of straw or long coarse manure could be used with good advantage to cover the roots, and this would assist in keeping the weeds from growing. The soil should not be dug with a spade after the trees are planted, but should be kept light and friable on the top with a hooked fork, sometimes called a potato digger.

The preference should be given to home nurseries for young evergreen trees to set in the town plot for future use, and it should be seen that the roots are kept moist from the time the trees are taken up until they are replanted. If they have to be carried far the roots should be puddled in a batter made of clay, and if moved to any considerable distance a further precaution should be taken by covering with old carpet bagging or some such material.

Advantage should be taken of cloudy or drizzling days, and better success will be secured. Evergreens should never be procured from a long distance unless the party ordering is previously satisfied that the man they are to be obtained from is very reliable. Transient tree peddlers should be scrupulously avoided in this matter, as they will try to dispose of trees heeled in all winter, and will care very little as to the moistened state of the roots.

We have heard it stated by practical nurserymen that in some cities it is difficult to get trees to grow in the streets, but we think if a little extra precaution is taken there will not be much difficulty in making anything like good stock to flourish. If the trees require watering, as they will if the weather is very dry after they are set, care should be taken not to put on too much moisture, but the rule is to err in the other direction. We need hardly say that the Norway spruce, and Austrian and Canadian pines are the trees best adapted to our soil and climate.

One of the greatest difficulties the tree planter has to contend with is the highway cow and the Sunday horse; that is, horses which after working all the week are allowed to rove at large during the day of rest. Canadian stock laws, as a rule, are defective, and there is a general difficulty to getting parties to act in the matter of impounding stray cattle, but no tree is safe while these depredators are at large; and constables should be required to carry out the laws respecting injurious animals in the same way they do to individuals who make themselves a public nuisance.



I shall confine myself at present to the notice of those fruits of most promising utility that more immediately come under my direct observation, and of their behaviour with us in the present season. I may be excused in adding that small fruit culture, by which is meant the early summer fruits, is becoming more and more deeply interesting and engrossing to a still greater number of our industrious people. Owing to the indefatigable efforts of the Fruit Growers’ Association in this direction, and the fine, well-adapted locations and soils of our country, this praise-worthy industry is rapidly spreading amongst us on every side. Some growers are reaping—or rather picking—golden harvests in this promising field. There is little doubt that much of this flattering condition of things among us is very largely due to the well disseminated knowledge of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario. Their efforts in this respect are laudable, and command the well-informed throughout the country. May this good influence very largely increase in every county.

As the most popular and acceptable, not to forget the most profitable, of all the small fruits of this climate, I shall beg first to introduce the strawberry, because the public are most anxiously concerned about them, and at the present time anything relating to this savory fruit is most intensely acceptable. I may be excused in omitting a notice of cranberries, as the culture of these has not so much as been attempted in our county, although we have not very far from our homes very fruitful natural plantations of cranberries, from which has been gathered large quantities of very fine fruit. Next after my notice of strawberries shall follow that of raspberries and blackberries, as being closely related in interest on the list of small fruits in this country. There may follow brief notices of gooseberries and currants, being of considerable interest to our people and also in our markets.


may be mentioned in the following order, as being those of greatest importance: Sharpless, Captain Jack, Duncan, Glendale, Arnold’s Maggie and Bright Ida, Marvin, Col. Cheney and New Dominion. These are all good varieties, and were I not afraid of provoking your smiles, I should like to have added to the list Wilson’s Albany and Charles Downing, as still the leading and most profitable varieties.

Crescent Seedling is undoubtedly the coming market and family strawberry, having characteristics to fit it for extended and general cultivation. It is hardy in plant, large and uniform in fruit, of fine flavor, bright, tempting color, and possessed of considerable solidity for transportation. It takes well in the market.

Cumberland Triumph is also a very promising sort, in many points resembling Crescent, but by some thought to be of far finer flavor. It is characterized by great productiveness and uniformity of berry, and well deserves a place.

Windsor Chief is a new, early and fine fruit; large size, good color and fine flavor, but unfortunately too soft for distant shipping.

Sharpless is a very highly puffed up variety—puffed up, probably, more for the purpose of money making than to promote the interests of fruit culture. It has not, in our experience, fulfilled the promises made for it, though we believe it has proved very satisfactory in some localities. With the exceptions of its large size and solidity of berry it has no points to fit it for general favoritism, or to recommend it to the public as either a profitable family or market sort.

Captain Jack is a comparatively new but very promising strawberry of the Wilson type. The plant is hardy, and a good grower and bearer, and the fruit is solid and of fine color and flavor. Would be profitable for market.

Glendale, for a late sort, is the most promising coming strawberry for family and market purposes. It is considered far in advance of Kentucky, and will very likely supersede it for late market purposes.

Duncan is a very promising fruit, possessing very high internal qualities, as its flavor is the highest and most distinct of any sort. It is not very solid, however, and the plant is a poor bearer.

Arnold’s Maggie and Bright Ida are new Canadian fruits, originated by Charles Arnold, Paris, Ont., the well known champion of new fruits. Where tested they are found to possess some considerable promise, and are firm in color and flavor; conical and prepossessing.

Marvin is a new American sort that may yet become distinguished among our Canadian lists of fruits. It has not been very widely disseminated as yet, nor can much be said of it.

Col. Cheney is not among the new sorts, strictly speaking, but it is a fine, profitable variety, and worthy of more general introduction. It is of the Sharpless type, but is far ahead of that variety in productiveness. It is increasing in favor as a profitable market sort.

New Dominion is a promising new Canadian strawberry of recent introduction. We have fruited it for one or two years, and think that for family and market purposes it is a decided acquisition. It is hardy in plant and fine in fruit, of the Crescent Seedling type, and of good flavor.


This fruit is very promising, and is rapidly growing in popular favor; the planting and growing of it is at present occupying much of our attention. I shall proceed to notice it in the following condensed order: Highland Hardy, Brandywine, Turner, Herstine, Naomi, Clarke, Cuthbert, Queen of the Market, Thwack, Ganargua, Saunders No. 56, Mammoth Cluster and Gregg, as the best that have come under my notice.

Highland Hardy is a widely disseminated American variety, and is said to be the earliest ripening sort, but of very poor quality. Its remarkable earliness and solid fruit make it a very desirable variety for market.

Brandywine is early and productive; much resembling Highland Hardy. It is very valuable for early market.

Turner is a recently introduced American fruit of the first promise. The plant is hardy and almost thornless, and a very strong grower; the fruit is large, firm, and handsome, juicy, sweet and of fine quality. It is thought by growers that this sort is the most promising of all for general cultivation and market purposes.

Herstine is another exceedingly valuable variety, of foreign origin. The plant is a strong, hardy and thrifty grower, and the fruit is large, oblong, firm, and of a beautiful crimson color, and of a fine sub-acid flavor.

Naomi in quality and general character much resembles Herstine, but with us is of larger size.

Clarke is the best raspberry for family use. It is remarkably productive, and nearly hardy. The fruit is large, bright red, conical, and of a very high flavor. This variety is worthy of very extended culture for family use.

Cuthbert, with us is a real acquisition. It is one of the finest red raspberries yet introduced. The plant is hardy and exceedingly productive, and the fruit is large, conical, deep, rich crimson color, and of excellent flavor. This variety may justly be called the coming red raspberry.

Queen of the Market much resembles Cuthbert, not excepting its late ripening quality, but it is said to be hardly so good in flavor as that variety.

Thwack has slightly been tried here, but not to any great extent, but as far as we have gone it is of considerable promise. It is large and firm but not high flavored.

Ganargua.—This is the best of the purple caps in cultivation, and is worthy of far more extended cultivation. The plant is perfectly hardy, and will endure our climate and produce heavy crops of fine fruit. The fruit is of a deep purple color, large and fine flavored. It is readily propagated by the tips, and will thrive and do well in any well drained soil.

Saunders No. 55 has fruited to some extent with us this season. Many are doubtless acquainted with the origin of this new Canadian fruit, in the hands of our esteemed hybridist and brother, William Saunders, London, Ont. It is almost premature to give an opinion regarding its merits, but it is at present believed that it will not come up to the high standard of its competitor, Ganargua, which it very much resembles.

Mammoth Cluster.—Among the blackcaps this fine fruit has long stood in very high estimation, and to-day it is exceedingly popular. Still it is regarded by some as a little tender in plant, although it stands our cold well.

Gregg.—This is a black competitor of Mammoth cluster, which it very closely resembles; but we notice some points of difference, viz: It is later in ripening, hangs longer on the bushes, is more even in size, a little higher in flavor, and we get a better price for it. These are good points.

You will perceive that there is nothing remarkably new in this list, but all the varieties named are good and worthy of general cultivation.


We had some fine discussion about this fruit last summer at our meeting in Guelph. The cultivators there have given this fine fruit considerable attention, and appear to have been eminently successful with it. But such on the whole has not been the case with us, especially where its culture has been attempted on a larger scale. In the first place we have no varieties that will keep clean from the dreaded mildew excepting the American sorts, which are all small. Secondly, the dreaded ravages of the gooseberry worm in the fruit, and the destructive saw-fly on the leaf, are more than a match for our meagre supply of patience. At present the varieties in cultivation are mostly confined to Houghton’s Seedling, an American sort of great hardiness; Downing’s and Smith’s Seedlings are being attempted, but as yet not to any great extent.


This fine, popular and easily grown fruit is losing nothing in the estimation of our people, and may be fitly termed “The poor man’s fruit,” or “The fruit for the million.” Though the ravages of the gooseberry saw-fly upon the leaves is still very great, yet large crops are grown and matured. There is still much carelessness displayed in the growth and management of so fine a fruit, but still it most abundantly repays every attention bestowed upon it. The varieties generally planted are not numerous, being mostly Red Dutch and Black English: and really the good sense of the people is here shown, for nothing in our experience has yet been introduced to surpass those old friends. Red Cherry, though a fine, large and handsome fruit, is yet a poor, unprofitable bearer, as is also La Versailles. Victoria is considered too small in berry, though a good bearer. White Grape is excellent, perhaps the best white variety grown. Black Naples is good and very profitable, though so late in its ripening. Lee’s Black Prolific is thought to be hardly so good as Black Naples, and as for Prince of Wales and Bang Up, we have not introduced them sufficiently to give an opinion respecting them.


1.—To be successful in growing small fruits, better attention must be given to the preparation of the soil, constant cultivation while growing, provision against the effects of drought, remedies for ravages of insects, &c.

2.—Planters should be more united in their efforts at growing and marketing small fruits; they should not by any means run against one another.

3.—It would be a great assistance to the markets in every fruit growing section in case of a glut, to provide means for curing, canning and preserving fruits. This could best be done by the establishment of drying houses and canning factories, either on the independent or co-operative plan—something like our cheese factories and creameries.

4.—I would suggest that the subject of canning and preserving fruits be more thoroughly discussed at our next winter meeting, and that the results of the Association’s deliberations be more widely distributed over the country.


We have strongly recommended for many years the practice of turning sheep into apple orchards to destroy the codlin moth. It is true that only a part of the fruit drops and is eaten by the sheep with the worms it contains, and the rest goes with the mature fruit into the market barrel, apple room or cellar. But the dropping apples which the sheep eat include nearly all that are infested which furnish a new brood in the orchard. In other words, what the sheep do not eat are carried off with the gathered apples. This is true to a great extent.

This remedy for the codlin moth has been thoroughly tried of late years by some of our best orchardists with great success. It is best adapted to orchards that are nearly full grown, and in which grass is permitted to grow. It may be applied to younger orchards which are cultivated, provided no crop is planted or sowed, and the sheep are sufficiently fed with grain and mowed grass, or other suitable food, for the fallen apples will not sustain them. The practice of the best orchardists is to seed their orchards to grass when the trees are large enough to shade most of the ground. The sheep are turned in soon after the blossoming season, and as soon as the grass has a fair start, and are continued till nearly the time to gather the apples. The branches of trees which have low heads and are heavily loaded with fruit, will bend down within reach of the sheep before the end of August, and in this case they must be taken out a little sooner. Troughs for feeding them grain are made by nailing two boards together at the ends. They will eat all the grass they want, and keep the surface closely grazed. They will devour every apple that drops, from the small ones early in summer, to those nearly full-grown two months later. If they do not get enough moisture in these, they will be likely to attack the bark of the trees, unless well supplied with water. Enough for them to drink should therefore be always within reach. If the trunks of the younger trees are coated every few weeks as needed, with a mixture of whale oil soap-suds and sheep manure, the sheep will not be likely to attack the bark.

The amount of enriching which the orchard will need will depend altogether on the previous richness of the land. There are very few places, however, where a top-dressing of manure will not be useful or necessary once in two years, in any orchard seeded to grass. The droppings of the sheep will be a valuable addition—the more so as the quantity of grain or meal is increased. The number of sheep to a given number of trees varies with different owners. Some have kept in their orchards half as many sheep as the number of trees, where they have been planted remotely, and orchard grass or other feed gives them a good supply; and they are careful to make up any deficiency with other food. Others find that all the fallen apples are eaten with only one sheep to six trees. The owner must determine this question himself, by observing the amount of feed required, and the number of sheep to pick up promptly all the dropping apples. The uniform voice of those orchardists who have given this remedy a full and fair trial is, that their crops so treated are but little infested with the codling worm, and that if the remedy is faithfully applied in successive years, the fruit continues to become fairer. The trial of a single season may not effect much; the remedy must be continued unremittingly year after year.—Country Gentleman.


I take pleasure in writing a few lines to let you know how we are getting along in this out-of-the-way place. We have had a very cold summer. On the 7th July the growth on all the apple, pear and cherry trees I planted in the spring was badly killed. I am informed by men that have been lumbering here for over twenty years that they have never seen a season like it before, and I am in hopes we will not see one like it again. I intend planting some more trees next spring if spared. We had plenty of strawberries, huckleberries and raspberries, but the cranberries were frozen on the 16th August,—an unusual occurrence for this district.

W. Warnock, Blind River, Muskoka.


A table of contents has been added for convenience.

Obvious printer errors have been silently corrected. Otherwise, most inconsistencies, variations and possible errors in spelling and punctuation have been preserved.


[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist, Volume 4, Issue 10, edited by D. W. Beadle.]