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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 03, No. 11

Date of first publication: 1880

Author: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Feb. 12, 2015

Date last updated: Feb. 12, 2015

Faded Page eBook #20150222

This ebook was produced by: Marcia Brooks, David Edwards, Elizabeth S. Oscanyan & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

The Canadian Horticulturist.










VOL. III.]NOVEMBER, 1880. [NO. 11.


We have recently received from Wisconsin some new varieties of very hardy apples, which are being grown in that State because of their good qualities and their ability to endure the rigor of the climate. We give the readers of the Canadian Horticulturist a brief description of each sort, in the hope that some of them may be found to be valuable for the colder parts of this Province.

Hicks.—This is a very handsome fruit, of medium size, light yellow in the shade, with a bright crimson cheek in the sun, and sprinkled with numerous russet dots. Flesh white, juicy and fine grained, with a mild sub-acid flavor. The stalk is short, set in a narrow, russeted cavity, and the eye is closed, lying in a very regular moderate basin. The specimens received seem to be quite ripe at the present time, twenty-sixth of October.

Martha.—This apple is quite egg-shaped, nearly red on a deep yellow ground, and striped and splashed with bright red, sparsely sprinkled with minute gray dots. Stalk is stout and short, set in a shallow cavity, basin shallow, somewhat wrinkled, calyx closed. Flesh very light yellow, fine grained, with a very mild, somewhat aromatic flavor. Core quite large, in this respect resembling the Yellow Bell-flower. This is also quite ripe now, but will usually keep well until the holidays.

Wate.—A very pretty apple, of medium size, having the skin prettily marbled with red on a rich yellow ground, splashed and striped with dark purplish red. The stem is inserted in a very deep, regular, russeted cavity, the eye closed and set in a regular basin of moderate depth. The flesh is white, stained with red next the skin, a little coarse in texture, with a very pleasant, mild sub-acid flavor. These specimens are fully ripe.

Northfield Beauty.—This variety originated in Vermont, and well deserves the name of “Beauty,” for it is one of the most attractively colored varieties to be met with anywhere. Dr. Hoskins says it “is first-class. In hardiness it stands at least with St. Lawrence, and is probably hardier. It comes to bearing as early as Fameuse, and bears freely. In size is medium to large. Shape nearly round, regular and smooth. Does not spot or crack. Color yellow overspread with bright carmine. Skin delicate and wax-like. Flavor mild, sub-acid and spicy. Quality best for dessert. Season succeeding the Fameuse, and sometimes keeping all winter. Its fault is its tender skin and flesh, which prevents it from being a good shipping apple.”

Wolf River is a very large and showy apple, sometimes measuring fifteen and three-quarter inches in circumference, and weighing twenty-one ounces. The color is a beautiful bright red, striped with dark red, and sparsely sprinkled with large gray dots. The stem is very short, set in a deep, narrow and russeted cavity; calyx open, in a deep, somewhat irregular basin. Flesh white, fine grained, juicy, rich, and very pleasant sub-acid flavor. It is a late fall and early winter fruit.

Willie, is of medium size, deep, rich red in color, splashed with deeper shades of red, slightly conical in form, stem short and set in a broad but regularly formed cavity; the calyx is closed and set in a very shallow basin. Flesh white, stained with red, fine grained, very mild sub-acid. Late autumn.

Adda, is of medium size, conical in outline, skin light yellow, and very prettily overspread with bright red, dotted and splashed with deep red; stem short, inserted in a shallow russeted cavity; calyx closed, in a broad, shallow, slightly corrugated basin. Flesh nearly white, fine grained, juicy, not rich, acid. Seems not to be a long keeper, probably in season in December.

Hunter, a large, decidedly conical apple, skin deep red, splashed with very dark red, sparsely sprinkled with dark brown dots. Core large, flesh white, very fine grained, with a pleasant, mild sub-acid flavor. These specimens are fully ripe, and its season is November.

Morse’s Sweet appears to be a good keeper. The skin is light green, overspread with brownish red on the sunny side, a large russet patch around the stem, and small patches of russet scattered over the surface, with numerous russet dots. Size large, form roundish, flattened at both ends. Flesh white, very fine grained, sweet and rich.

Wate’s Blush, is of medium size and very beautiful appearance; form roundish, flattened at the ends; color bright yellow, with a rich, almost scarlet cheek on the sunny side, stem short and very slender, inserted in a deep, regular cavity; calyx closed, in a very shallow, wrinkled basin. Flesh yellow, very fine grained, juicy, sprightly sub-acid.

Waupaca.—A most magnificent looking apple, of very large size, conical in form, skin yellow and slightly russeted, nearly covered with bright red, and profusely sprinkled with russet dots. Stem very short, stout, and set in a broad deep russeted cavity. Calyx open, segments upright, basin deep, almost perpendicular, regular, and moderately corrugated near the bottom. The whole appearance reminds one strongly of the Blenheim Orange. Flesh yellowish white, not fine grained, with a rich, pleasant, mild sub-acid flavor. Core remarkably small. Season is probably not beyond November.

Hubbard.—This variety is of medium size, somewhat conical in form; skin yellow, overspread with red on the sunny side, sprinkled with numerous small gray dots. Stem slender, medium length, set in a deep regular cavity. Calyx nearly closed, segments erect, basin shallow and regular. Flesh yellowish, very fine grained, juicy, rich, sub-acid, quality very good. Seems to be a good winter sort.

Weyauwega.—A very handsome, large, regularly formed apple. Skin yellow overspread with red, striped and splashed with deep red. Stem short, inserted in a narrow, regular, moderately deep cavity; calyx closed in a broad shallow regular basin. Core small, flesh white, very fine grained, juicy, with a pleasant mild sub-acid flavor. This is a good keeper.

Rich’s Greening is large, nearly conical in outline; skin at this date (1st November,) a clear bright deep green; stem stout and short, inserted in a narrow, regular, not very deep cavity; eye closed, in a very shallow, slightly wrinkled basin. Flesh very fine grained, yellowish, juicy, rich sub-acid. This variety is evidently a long keeper, and it is not possible to say what will be its flavor at maturity.

Editha is also large and very pretty in appearance. Skin light, yellow with a warm rosy cheek, thickly sprinkled with light gray dots. Stem inserted in deep, regular cavity; eye closed, basin shallow, regular and smooth. Flesh white, fine grained, juicy, mild sub-acid, not high flavored.

Evaline.—Large, roundish, somewhat flattened, yellowish-green with a rich shade of yellow on the sunny side. Skin smooth, oily and fragrant, and dotted with numerous white specks. Stem stout, short, inserted in a very narrow russeted shallow cavity; calyx closed in a very shallow broad and slightly wrinkled basin. Flesh yellowish, very fine grained, juicy, exceedingly pleasant.

Bloomfield, is of large size and most attractive appearance, the color being a very deep red, striped and splashed with dark red. Stem very short, in a deep but narrow russeted cavity. Eye closed, in a very shallow irregular basin. Flesh white, fine grained, juicy, pleasant sub-acid.

Fannie.—Very large, deep red, thickly sprinkled with small white dots. Stem very short, inserted in a deep, regular, russeted cavity, calyx open, in a broad regular basin of moderate depth. Flesh very fine grained, yellowish-white, not very juicy, rich, with a very pleasant, almost pearmain flavor. This seems to be a good keeper.

Marietta, is from medium to large, handsome, red on a yellow ground, striped with purplish red; stem very short, inserted in a very narrow regular cavity; calyx closed in broad shallow wrinkled basin. Flesh nearly white, fine grained, exceedingly tender, juicy, mild sub-acid. A winter variety of great promise.

Carrie is of medium size, conical, yellow ground beautifully mottled with red on the shaded side, becoming deep red in the sun, and striped with dark red. Stem long, very slender, in a deep, narrow russeted cavity; calyx closed, in a broad, wrinkled and very shallow basin. Flesh white, stained with red, fine grained, juicy, pleasant sub-acid.

Bennet is somewhat above medium in size, having considerable resemblance to a Baldwin in form and color, and profusely sprinkled with small gray dots. Stem very stout and short, in a very broad shallow cavity; calyx nearly closed, in a smooth, regular basin of moderate depth. Core very small; flesh yellow, very juicy and very fine grained, crisp, rich and very pleasant mild flavor.

These varieties are worthy of the attention of those who reside in the very cold parts of Canada; and coming, as they do, from a State where only the most hardy sorts, such as Alexander, St. Lawrence, and Duchess of Oldenburg will succeed, there will no doubt be some among them that will prove to be of great value in those sections.


The production of this staple fruit has now increased so much that it has become an article of commerce of sufficient magnitude to command the attention of commercial men. Apples are now being shipped from Montreal by the tens of thousands of barrels, and are commanding in the home market from nine to thirty shillings sterling per barrel, according to the kind and quality of sample.

Circulars received from Mr. Geo. A. Cochrane, Liverpool, shew that on the sixteenth of October Baldwins were bringing from eleven to fifteen shillings sterling, notwithstanding the fact stated by him in his circular, that “most of the Baldwins that have arrived so far lack color, showing their having been picked too green; those of good color have sold fairly well.” Colverts, Gravensteins and Northern Spys are quoted at the same figures, from eleven to fifteen shillings sterling per barrel. Fameuse or Snow Apples and Pomme Grise were bringing from fifteen to seventeen shillings, Twenty-Ounce Apples from thirteen to nineteen, Ribston Pippins from fourteen to thirty shillings. Those that brought from twenty-five to thirty shillings were extra fine Ribstons. The apple that brings the highest price is the Newtown Pippin, this variety ranging from twenty-five to thirty-five shillings sterling per barrel. The R. I. Greening does not seem to be in demand in that market, the price varying from nine to fourteen shillings, and Mr. Cochrane remarks that “Greenings are far too plentiful, and the finest have sold at from twelve to fourteen shillings.” The Swaar also rules low, being quoted at from nine to twelve shillings, and on the other hand the King of Tompkins County stands at from twelve to seventeen shillings.

The receipts at Liverpool for the week ending on the sixteenth of October were sixty thousand and sixty-seven barrels, being the heaviest ever known, and yet notwithstanding such unprecedentedly heavy receipts, and advices of equally large shipments to arrive, the market had given way only about two shillings per barrel on the average run of fruit, while extra good conditioned fruit maintained last week’s values and in some cases exceeded them.

That the apple trade has become an important industry of this Province is quite apparent, and it is destined to assume yet larger proportions if properly managed. Some very sensible suggestions on this subject were made by the St. Catharines Journal in its issue of the eighth of October, which are well worthy of the earnest and the careful attention of fruit growers of Canada. We take the liberty of quoting some of them and of calling attention to them, for they are replete with sound wisdom. The writer says that “none but the very best varieties should be cultivated, and they are all comprised within a dozen sorts.” We desire most particularly to emphasize the latter part of this remark, within a dozen sorts; yes, and within half a dozen sorts would have been yet more wisely said. There is no error more common, especially among orchard planters, than that of planting too many sorts. Why plant trees whose fruit will bring but ten shillings per barrel, when there are other sorts equally as productive, healthy and vigorous whose fruit will bring fifteen, eighteen and twenty shillings per barrel? A survey of sorts and prices will show at once that in planting an orchard with an eye to the European market it would be very unwise to plant Greenings or Swaars, which will bring only nine to fourteen shillings per barrel. If the soil and aspect be favorable to the production of Ribston Pippins this variety should be one of the half dozen, for the tree is very hardy, healthy and vigorous, an early and abundant bearer, the fruit uniform in size, free from blemishes, always in demand in the English market, and bringing, as we have seen, from fourteen to thirty shillings sterling per barrel, which is about equivalent to the handsome figure of from three dollars and a half to seven dollars and a half per barrel. This variety in the climate of the County of Lincoln ripens in advance of the winter sorts, and therefore in such places should be harvested earlier and sent forward by steamer.

Another of our half dozen sorts is the Golden Russet, which is also a very hardy, healthy and vigorous tree, comes soon into bearing, yields large crops of very uniform, medium sized apples, and sell now in the Liverpool market for from sixteen to twenty-three shillings sterling per barrel. The third sort is the Pomme Grise, which is also hardy and productive, the fruit being never very large, but of a very even size. It may be of value to some of our intending planters if we pause just here to say that large apples are not as highly esteemed in the English market as small. The contrary seems to be the rule in many of the markets on this continent. Mr. Cochrane remarks in his apple circular of October ninth, “small, handsome fruit is preferred to large, and meets the want of a better class of buyers.” Speaking of Pomme Grise, we usually rank this variety as a small apple, yet it brings from eighteen to twenty shillings sterling per barrel in the Liverpool markets, while the King of Tompkins, which is three or four times the size of the Pomme Grise, brings only from twelve to seventeen shillings.

The fourth sort in our half dozen would be the Baldwin were we planting in those parts of the Province where that variety does well, for although it brings only from eleven to fifteen shillings per barrel, yet such is the universal popularity of this variety in the world’s markets, and such the great productiveness of the tree, that it is nevertheless a very profitable variety. Mr. Cochrane in his circular of the eighth and sixteenth of October calls the attention of shippers to the fact that in their anxiety to send their winter fruit forward they have picked their Baldwins too early, in consequence of which they have lacked color, which has had an injurious effect upon the price obtained for them.

Could we grow the Fameuse or Snow Apple free from those black spots which so mar the appearance and quality of the fruit, we should take that for our fifth variety, for the tree is hardy, vigorous and productive, and the fruit sells readily at from fifteen to seventeen shillings per barrel; but alas, we can not rely upon securing fair fruit, nay, it is often so badly spotted as to be worthless. If there be places where it can be grown free from blemish, there it will be well worthy of the planter’s attention.

Very probably some of our readers have been wondering why we have not enumerated the Newtown Pippin in our list of varieties long before this, seeing that it commands such a high price, from twenty-five to thirty-five shillings, or from six dollars and a quarter to eight dollars and three quarters per barrel. It is because, like the Snow Apple, it can not be depended upon to yield fair fruit, but that on the contrary the fruit may be so badly spotted as to be worthless. If there be any place in Canada where it can be grown free from blemish year after year, there it should stand at the head of the list of the half dozen. But the region where this variety can be grown without spotting is very circumscribed. In all the State of New York there is but a very small territory on the bank of the Hudson River, near Poughkeepsie, where it can be successfully grown, and no place has yet been found in all the Western States where it is to be depended upon. Hence there is not likely ever to be a very large supply, and prices of this variety will always rule high. The truth is we are at a loss which varieties to take for our fifth and sixth. The Northern Spy will be chosen by some. It is an excellent apple, and is now selling in Liverpool at from eleven to fourteen and sixpence. But it is a long time in coming into bearing, and the skin is so very delicate that it needs extra care in handling lest it become bruised, and have a battered appearance when the barrels are opened.

Some will name the King of Tompkins County, but the fruit of this variety is so large that it does not meet the wants of the best class of buyers in England, and because of its size is very apt to drop or be blown off the tree, so that a large part of the crop is often unfit for shipping. Perhaps the Wagner, which brings from fourteen to seventeen shillings per barrel, would be a good sort to place as fifth in the list. The tree is very healthy and vigorous, bears young and abundantly; and yet after all would it not be as well to plant a few more of the Golden Russet and so fill up the orchard as to multiply the kinds?

The writer in the St. Catharines Journal also says that “the greatest care and cleanliness should be exercised in packing and shipment, so that the fruit will reach its destination in good condition.” These are words we would commend to the most careful consideration of every shipper of fruit. In no point do our shippers need reformation more than in the selection and packing of their fruit for market. Hear what Mr. Cochrane says: “Thousands of barrels have been shipped to this market of a quality that should never have been sent. If shippers had forwarded half the quantity and confined themselves to the finest fruit, the result would have been more satisfactory. An opinion seems to prevail that anything will sell in this country; this is true in a sense, but the results must be woefully disappointing to shippers.” It pays to exercise the utmost care—care that to men used to the rough and ready style so common amongst us seems like a waste of time. It will pay to examine each apple carefully, and if any blemish be found, any imperfection, any appearance of a worm within or any mark of a worm without, to reject it. It will pay to wrap each apple found to be perfect in one or two wrappings of tissue paper, or other thin soft paper. It will pay to put each apple when so wrapped carefully into the barrel by hand and pack them in one by one snugly and securely. It will pay to put a few folds of soft paper in each end of the barrel and press the contents carefully but firmly together, so that not an apple can move, no matter how the barrel is shaken about. It will pay to neatly line the inside of the barrel as it is being filled up with some thin nicely tinted paper. And when the head has been put in and all firmly secured, it will pay to have a trade mark of your own with which you brand each barrel of fruit thus put up. Does some one say, “Nonsense, this will cost you too much in time and fussing.” Let us see. Take the Baldwins; put up in rough and ready style they will bring eleven shillings; put up in this careful way they will bring fifteen shillings, which is one dollar more per barrel. This will pay for a whole day’s work. Surely a man can put up more than one barrel in the most careful manner in a day. And it costs no more for the barrel and the transportation when put up in this way than when put up hastily. Now try this on a barrel of Ribston Pippins. Still quoting from Mr. Cochrane’s circular, we find that a barrel of the rough and ready sort sells for fourteen shillings, but put up with care brings thirty shillings, a difference of sixteen shillings or four dollars per barrel. Will not that pay? Or is that difference perhaps exceptional? Let us try the Golden Russets and see whether a difference of seven shillings per barrel, say a dollar and seventy-five cents per barrel, will not pay.

But perhaps some one will say, “ah yes, this is all very well on paper, but if I select my apples in this way, when I have rejected every defective apple and every wormy apple I will have but a few barrels of perfect fruit, and the great bulk will be left on my hands wholly unsaleable; oh no, this will never do, I must make the good apples sell the poor.” Let us look at this, and bring it to the test of figures. Say you would have one hundred barrels of Golden Russets if put up in the rough and ready style; these would bring you sixteen hundred shillings in Liverpool. We believe the cost of shipping apples to Liverpool averages five shillings sterling per barrel. The cost of transportation then of the hundred barrels would be five hundred shillings, which would leave the shipper eleven hundred shillings for his hundred barrels. Say that by this process of careful selection the quantity is reduced to sixty barrels. These would bring, according to Mr. Cochrane’s quotations, thirteen hundred and eighty shillings. Deduct five shillings per barrel for freight, three hundred shillings, and you have ten hundred and eighty shillings for the sixty barrels. But you have saved the purchase of forty packing barrels at not less than one shilling sterling per barrel. Or if you have purchased them you can sell them at home for the shilling sterling apiece. Now add this forty shillings which you get for your unused barrels to the ten hundred and eighty shillings, and you have eleven hundred and twenty shillings for your sixty barrels, whereas you only realized eleven hundred shillings for your hundred barrels. But the forty barrels that you have left are not wholly without value. The drying machines will allow you fifteen cents per bushel for them at the very least, which is fifteen dollars, or sixty shillings more—enough to pay for all the extra labor of selection and care of packing.

But much can be done by proper attention to the orchard to lessen the number of defective specimens. By judicious pruning, by thinning the fruit, by destroying the insects, the number of defective specimens and wormy apples can be very materially reduced. The time is upon us when the man who gives his time and study to the production of first class fruit, and ships only such to market, will reap a rich reward for all his care and painstaking.

There is another matter that the St. Catharines Journal mentions that is well worthy of attention on the part of fruit growers. It is this: The growers fail to realize the value of their fruit because it is made to pass through so many hands before it reaches the consumer, each one of whom must have his profits. The grower usually sells to the apple buyer who goes around buying up the surplus fruit. He ships it to Montreal, where it is bought by the European shipper, who consigns it to a shipper in Liverpool, London or Glasgow. The Journal suggests that the fruit growers combine and send a trusty agent to England or elsewhere, and make arrangements for direct shipments from the producer to the wholesale dealer in the foreign market, and thus save a large part of the profits of these middlemen. The apple growers in each township could easily combine for this purpose, and by a little effort this combination could be extended over the county. By a contribution from each in proportion to the quantity each shipped, a fund could be raised to defray all the expenses incident to the business. While thus united for a common purpose, each grower would have his own brand whereby his fruit would be known, and each receive what his own fruit brought. We believe that the fruit growers about Grimsby have entered into some such arrangement. We trust that some of our readers there will give us an account of its working, and how far it has proved to be profitable to the producer.

The St. Catharines Journal further suggests that the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario should add to its deliberations such questions as “How fruit can be packed to advantage? The best varieties for shipment to foreign countries? How to secure permanent markets? If our readers are not aware that such questions have been very thoroughly discussed at the meetings of the Association, we desire to refer them to the Report for 1875, p. 71 to 80. These are, however, very important questions which will be frequently recurring, and which will need to be discussed often in the light of later experience and further developments of the traffic.

An apology is due to our readers for taking up so much space with the discussion of this subject. Our apology is its importance. It is very discouraging when one has grown fruit for market to find that market not remunerative. If we have been able at this time to show why that market may not have proved to be remunerative, or have given such reasons for more care in the growing, selecting and marketing of fruit that any shall be induced to put our suggestions to the test of thorough trial, we are confident that such will, when the results come to be realized, not feel that too much space has been given to this matter. There is abundant room for first-class fruit, put up in first-class style; such fruit will always command remunerative prices. It is high time Canadian fruit growers dropped the old slip-shod style, and earned for themselves, what they can easily do, the reputation of sending to market the best fruit only, and thereby reaping the pecuniary reward that is sure to follow.


An exceedingly modest man from Washington County, a novice in grape culture, exhibited a beautiful white seedling grape year after year at our Rochester fairs, held usually about Sept. 15th. The cluster and berries were exceedingly large and fine, and the grape was a native beyond question; yet year after year this man returned to his home without finding, among all the shrewd, observing and enterprising nurserymen in the city of flowers and vines, any one to take an interest in it far enough to propagate it. The quality is too poor, said the wise ones, with smirk and sputter. True, it was then little better than the Concord in quality, but it was not taken into account that it had been grown in a section of the State where the seasons are much later than at Rochester, and not suited to bringing out the quality of a grape on the 15th of September. At the third and last trial a propagator was found who condescended to adopt the foundling, when, behold, in its new home it was much better in quality than before, and ripened quite early withal.

I saw the Pocklington repeatedly, growing at Rochester. It was eatable Sept. 1st; was in its glory Sept. 15th; was still good Oct. 1st, when it had assumed a rich amber hue. While not the best, in any one’s opinion, it is a grape the offering of which will give no offense to the most critical authority in the country. It is hardy, healthy, vigorous and productive—a grape that will succeed with the Concord, I should judge from what I have seen, yet time may bring out some weak point that has not thus far been made manifest.

    Monroe County, N. Y.Charles A. Green.  

We clip above from the Country Gentleman.

[Guess you don’t know, friend Green, all about the modesty (?) of that “extremely modest” man. When a man wants thousands of dollars for a little stock of a new seedling grape, in these times of a multiplicity of new sorts and the rapid way of multiplying them, and the easy conscience of some growers to advertise such new kinds and put in something else for them, we don’t wonder that “among all the shrewd, observing and enterprising nurserymen” not one could be found to take hold of it. It is undoubtedly a splendid grape, but the man who paid that “extremely modest” man the price he asked us, will never get his money out of it, and we pity him—that’s all.]—Purdy’s Fruit Recorder.



The raspberry bush received this year from the Association has made a good growth. Last year I received a one-year old tree and scion of the Ontario apple by mail. The tree is growing fine; the scion I grafted on a natural tree, which is also growing. The raspberry received the year previous is too tender for this climate. Last winter was a very mild one, but every one winter killed. I did not give them any winter protection. My Burnet Grape vine bore fruit this year; the fruit I consider the very best; I was afraid they would not ripen, but they ripened a month before the frost came. All fruits ripened this year earlier than usual, on account of the long drouth in the latter part of the season. I have two varieties of common wine grape, (Chippawa and Caroline,) that ripen every year in August; this year they were ripe on the 10th August, and on the 20th they were all ripe and ready to gather. The Downing Gooseberry is a success here; it has borne a heavy crop every year since it has been planted, without mildew. I have several bushes now from the one received from the Fruit Grower’s Association, which have all borne heavy crops yearly. My Flemish Beauty Pear tree is very fine, has never had a limb winter killed; it bore some fruit this year for the first. My Clapp’s Favorite is a beauty, has not winter killed any for four years, has not borne any fruit yet, but is now filled with fruit spurs for fruit next season. My Grimes’ Golden Pippin apple tree is growing fine, bore a little fruit this year for the first. My Swayzie Pomme Grise apple tree is doing well, not borne any fruit yet. The Salem Grape is the only thing that I ever received from the Association that did not grow.


The following article is being very extensively circulated by the agricultural journals. We trust that some of our readers may be able to throw more light upon this subject. Many thousands, if not millions, of bushels of potatoes are grown in Canada, of excellent quality, and there is no reason why the California preserved potatoes should be any better than Canada preserved potatoes.

The San Francisco Commercial Herald says that during the past year or two an important industry has sprung up in that State in the way of preserving potatoes for a foreign market. A machine has been invented for pressing and preserving potatoes in such a manner that they may be dried and kept for a number of years in any climate. No oxidization or fermentation takes place in the process; they retain, to a great extent, their natural taste and original freshness. Shippings made to England during the past year have attracted attention, and the demand for California preserved potatoes in that country already exceeds the supply. The first shipment to Liverpool brought the sum of $100 per ton over all expense of shipment. Last year about twenty tons were shipped from San Francisco, which brought forty-five English shillings per hundred weight, or at the rate of $3 per sack for green potatoes. At Arcata, Humboldt County, a strong company has been organized to preserve potatoes by the new process. Ventura has an apparatus in working order, and will handle a large quantity of potatoes this fall. San Francisco merchants and capitalists evince a lively interest in the enterprise, and are watching results closely. The testimony of English merchants is to the effect that the products are superior and in active demand.


This excellent shrub is considered a tree by many. Twenty years old, and planted singly where it has room to develop, it becomes as much a tree as the ash, to which, indeed, it is related. Grouped in masses with other shrubs or plants of its own kind it assumes the habit of a bush. Singly, also, it looks like a bush during its earlier days, being of slow growth and given to rounded forms. Related to the tree-like ash on the one side, it is as nearly allied, on the other, to the shrub-like lilacs, forsythias and privets.

The white fringe, though not exactly rare, is thoroughly choice in every way. There is not a quality about it from the crown of its head to the sole of its foot that is not rich or very good. The bark of the trunk or stem is smooth and light colored, and the leaves good sized and shining—quite as interesting as those of the lilac, which is saying a good deal. Even the twigs group themselves in picturesque fashion. But the “crown of its head” bears its richest endowment after all. Its flowers are indeed unique. There is nothing at all like them in the great variety of infloresence displayed by a large list of lawn plants. They make up wreaths, and clouds, and piles of lace, snow-white and dazzling. Plucked from the bush they are nothing; crowning the bush they are exquisite.

We recall a specimen that stands on the border of a walk near a picturesque bit of rock-work, with green turf, and great Norway spruces in the background. It would be impossible to describe the charming effect this crown of white fringe produces in such a setting. Looking down the vista and beyond, one could almost fancy for a moment that he saw a mass of cirrous clouds floating near the earth. It is worthy of the most distinguished position, not too near the house or other prominent objects, but out on the farther side of a bay of greensward near a background of contrasting dark evergreens.

Plants of the Chionanthus are readily raised from seed, but are very slow in growing to any size. Perhaps the best plan is to graft wood of the Chionanthus Virginica, or white fringe on the common ash. What do you think of a strong, straight stem of ash crowned by a great mass of white fringe flowers. The very vigor of the stock as well as the effect of grafting will throw the buds of the graft quickly into flower, and tend to sustain a healthy, rapid growth thereafter.

The habit of the white fringe is so regular and rounded that it scarcely ever needs pruning, unless some part of it happens to break or become diseased. If you must prune, prune in winter or early spring. The Chionanthus is a plant that likes good soil and repays good feeding by extra growth and beauty; but forced to occupy spots of moderate fertility and even bleakness, it will do quite as well as most other deciduous shrubs.

There are few shrubs that appear well in so many different places. But the slow growth of the white fringe while young, and its ultimate magnitude of age, fit it alike for the small door-yard or extended lawn, while its unique and beautiful foliage as well as flowers make it distinguished in the choicest assemblage of trees and shrubs.—Rural New Yorker.


An esteemed member from Barrie, Ont., writes:—

When my lawn was laid down last fall it was by mistake sown with orchard grass, and as such grass will never produce a velvety sward, I wish to kill it. Will a deep ploughing of it this fall, leaving it rough till spring, be sufficient? or if you consider this will not be enough, please be so good as to tell me the best way to manage.

It will be more likely to kill it if plowed deep and harrowed so as completely to bury it, and not allow any of it to get a chance to start. We have found that grass sod is more sure to rot and die if plowed about the middle of August.

I wish to plant a few pear trees in a sheltered garden with southern aspect, gravelly soil, moderately damp subsoil, and immediately fronting a sheet of water, and tolerably free from late and early frosts. I want to know the names of such tender varieties of the very best kinds that might be grown under such favorable circumstances so far north.

It is impossible without some experiment made at Barrie under similar conditions to speak with confidence to this question. The following varieties are of the very best quality, sufficiently hardy to thrive in the County of Lincoln, namely: Tyson, Beurre Bose, Beurre Hardy, Seckel, Sheldon, Beurre d’Anjou and Doyenne Boussock, and might all or some of them be found to do well. We suggest that our correspondent give them a trial, and report results through the pages of the Canadian Horticulturist for the information of others. His experiment will be worth a thousand guesses.

Why will not common Ivy live out of doors here the year round as it does in Montreal?

Is the Ivy intended by the term “common Ivy” the English Ivy? Canadians and Americans apply that term to a native creeper, Ampelopsis quinquefolia, which is quite hardy, and should thrive without any trouble at Barrie. If the English Ivy is intended, we can only state that we were not aware that it did live out of doors at Montreal, and very much doubt whether it will survive there a single winter above the snow line. Below the snow line at Montreal it will be safe all the winter, for the reason that the snow remains. Possibly (our correspondent will know if it be so) at Barrie the snow melts at times during the winter, leaving the Ivy exposed for some days to severe freezing; if not, then the English Ivy should be able to live below the snow line at Barrie also.

Stephen Cadham, of London East, Ontario, writes:

Would some one advise me as to what fruits would best succeed in the district of Algoma, near Sault Ste Marie, Ont.? Is it probable that grapes will grow there in open air? If so, what kinds, as I have purchased land there, and intend to plant. I have received the Canadian Horticulturist about eight months, and am well pleased with it.


Mr. J. S. Woodward, a correspondent of the N. Y. Tribune, gives the following method of treating an apple orchard: My apple orchard covers thirty-two acres of ground, and in addition to making it a run for some thirty hogs, I have during the past two years kept from 150 to 200 sheep and lambs in it during the summer. I have just bought the sheep, (May 21st,) and turned them in for this season. Of course that amount of land, if it was in good seeding and free from trees, would not pasture so much stock; but in addition to the pasture, I feed enough grain and wheat bran to keep them in such condition that the lambs shall be large enough to wean in July, and the sheep sufficiently thrifty to at once accept the buck after weaning the lambs, and thus drop their next lambs for early winter feeding next winter.

This, I find, costs me less than to hire the same number pastured by the week, and being crowded they eat every spear of grass, every weed and green thing close down, and eat every fallen apple as soon as dropped; for the latter purpose I find sheep much better than hogs, for while the hogs sleep so soundly as not to hear an apple drop if only a few feet away, a sheep never sleeps, so that it is on hand for every apple as soon as it touches the ground.

I let them run here until time to gather winter fruit, and although they will eat a few apples and a few twigs from the ends of the lower limbs as they bend down with the load of fruit, I find my fruit each year growing fairer and fairer, with less and less wormy apples, and my trees, manured with the feeding of so much grain, are looking remarkably healthy and are productive. To prevent their knawing the smaller trees I wash the trunks with a solution of soapsuds, whale oil soap and sheep manure about once each month; and besides, I give the sheep a constant and full supply of fresh water. This is very important, for in hot weather they get very thirsty and will eat the bark from larger trees even, unless they have plenty of water.

I like this manner of treating my orchard very much. What it would cost me to hire the sheep pastured each week will buy at least 600 pounds of bran and 400 pounds of corn, making an aggregate each summer of over ten tons of the very best kind of fertilizer for an orchard. For the money I pay for feed I get my sheep kept in finest condition, have the lambs growing finely all summer, and have the whole amount of feed bought (which is worth all it cost for that purpose,) scattered about the orchard in the best possible condition and manner. Thus, you see, I prove that it is perfectly practicable to “eat my cake and have it too,” or in other words, to get twice value for the money invested, besides having the codling moth successfully trapped.


A table of contents has been added for convenience.

Obvious printer errors including punctuation have been silently corrected.

Inconsistencies in spelling have been preserved.


[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 03, No. 11 edited by D. W. Beadle]