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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 04, No. 02

Date of first publication: 1881

Author: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Jan. 21, 2015

Date last updated: Jan. 21, 2015

Faded Page eBook #20150132

This ebook was produced by: Marcia Brooks, David Edwards, Paulina Chin & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

The Canadian Horticulturist.

















VOL. IV.]FEBRUARY, 1881. [NO. 2.


This is one of the seedling grapes raised by Mr. Ricketts, whose seedlings have become celebrated for their great beauty and excellent flavor. Many of his seedlings have been grown by crossing our native varieties with the European grapes, and while these are in many instances most magnificent in bunch and berry and delicious in quality, there yet remains a doubt whether any of these crosses will prove to be of permanent value in this country, owing to the tendency which exists in all of them to be subject to mildew in a greater or less degree.

But this variety to which we now call the attention of our readers has no intermixture of foreign blood, but is a cross between the Concord and Iona, bearing a strong resemblance in both wood and foliage to the Concord, and seemingly as vigorous and hardy as that variety. The fruit is very like that of the Iona in color and quality, and ripens about with the Concord. We have several times seen this variety on exhibition, and have had opportunities of testing it, and do not hesitate to say that it is to our taste of excellent quality. The Committee appointed to examine the new grapes exhibited at the last meeting of the American Pomological Society, of which Committee our ex-President, Rev. R. Burnet, was a member, reported of the Jefferson Grape, that the berry was “of medium size, deep pink, very vinous; quality BEST.”

It is stated of the Jefferson Grape that it has never shown the least sign of rot or mildew, and that it is healthy, hardy and productive, and has stood twelve degrees below zero on the trellis without protection. The fruit is said to keep well, and that the skin is sufficiently tough to enable it to endure transportation without cracking. We notice that Charles Downing, the best American authority in such matters, says of this grape that the bunch is “very large, often double shouldered and very compact; the berries large, roundish oval, light red, with a thin lilac bloom; flesh meaty or solid, tender, juicy, sweet, slightly vinous, spicy; best for market.” Last season the Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded to this grape a first class certificate of merit. The Editor of the Gardener’s Monthly, Thomas Meehan, says of this grape, that it has all the delicious flavor of the Iona. To those who know the flavor of a well ripened Iona this will be quite sufficient praise.

The writer is unable to speak of the growth and hardiness of the vine, or of the time of ripening of the fruit in our climate, not having any of the vines growing in his trial grounds, but from the testimony now presented believes that it is a variety worthy of attention by all lovers of good grapes who find the Concord to ripen its fruit in their locality. We are indebted to Mr. J. G. Burrow, of Fishkill, N. Y., who has taken in hand to cultivate and disseminate the Jefferson, for the cut, showing the form of bunch and berry, which we are now enabled to present to the readers of the Canadian Horticulturist.



Question first.—The Lady Washington apple, or Hoover’s Favorite, is not generally known to nurserymen, as far as I can understand. It is a hardy, productive and valuable winter apple; size from medium to large. I have another delightful seedling apple; color, shining red on the sunny side; good flavored and tart; keeps till March. These two varieties were presented to the fruit committee of the Fruit Growers’ Association at Hamilton last year. In the last Annual Report, page 57, the latter is spoken of thus: “This red apple is akin to the Fameuse, and of almost equal excellence;” but I would call it better, because it neither spots nor turns brown at the core as the Snow apple very often does, and besides keeps much longer than that variety. The tree is old and very hardy, and should be extensively propagated.

Question second.—The Souvenir du Congres pear is a new variety, having been introduced four years, and proves to be a great bearer of large fruit of fair quality, but is not as sweet as was expected when first introduced. It has not been long enough here to be thoroughly tested.

Question fifth.—Clay soil worked fine on top, or cropped with potatoes, with a good coating of barnyard manure, is a good and profitable way to cultivate an apple orchard. Young trees should have a good wash with lye once a year.

Question ninth.—There are two or three kinds of ferns growing in the woods; one variety can be found on low land, the other two on high, sunny soil, generally among hemlocks. They remain green throughout the year, and make very pretty pot plants for the house in winter.

Question thirteen.—Twenty-five miles north of Toronto the black walnut grows luxuriantly. Farmers should plant them in waste nooks on their farms and in fence corners around the orchards. There is an enormous walnut tree on my neighbor’s farm, the trunk being about three feet in diameter, from which I am told he gathered fourteen bushels of nuts one year. I know of only about a dozen walnut trees in the entire Township of Markham, and most of them are very old, supposed to have been planted by the first settlers. I know of but one sweet chestnut tree this side of Toronto; it is abortive but hardy; I intend trying the chestnut myself. The bitter hickory is a native here. I would like to try the Sweet Shellbark Hickory. I planted about a hundred walnuts last autumn, and have about as many more yet to plant. Hazelnuts grow well on high land. Butternuts grow here.

If people in general knew what the Hydrangea flowering shrub is they would not fail to procure a plant. I have an outdoor Hydrangea Grandiflora shrub, which bore five flower bunches this summer about six inches long and four in diameter; they remained about three months in their beauty. I have a pot Hydrangea, which is the most beautiful flower I have ever seen. It had six flowers which were the size of a man’s fist. The color of the flower varies in color from a fine pink to white and pale green. The flowers remained from last August until a few days ago; I thought best to cut them off and give the plant a rest for a few months. The flower on the outdoor Hydrangea came out on the tips of the new wood, about two or three feet high. I cut away all the old wood, leaving only one bud at the bottom for a new sprout to come forth. This is done in the spring of the year.

I would like to know what time and what way is best to prepare nuts for planting? Is it safe to plant them in the fall; or is it best done in the spring?

Will some of our readers who have had experience in the planting of nuts kindly answer Mr. Hoover’s questions.—Ed.



I see by the December number that the Association propose to give the members a choice from four articles, and amongst them is the Senasqua grape vine. I saw the fruit at the Toronto exhibition, and although it was fine to look at, I was under the impression it was too late to cultivate here, and I think it unwise to attempt growing a grape which ripens after the Concord. Mr. Geo. E. Campbell, of Delaware, Ohio, in a report to the Michigan Pomological Society in 1877, used the following language about this vine: “To Mr. Underhill we are indebted for the Croton and Senasqua, which have been for some years before the public. The Senasqua is a large black grape, with fine, compact bunches, and a very high, rich and sprightly flavor when well ripened. It is hardier than the Croton, and with much better foliage. With me certainly as early as the Catawba, and I should expect this grape to succeed fully as well as the Catawba in vineyard culture, and to be valuable both as a fine table grape and for wine. It ripens a little later than Concord.” In the vicinity of Toronto and east it would be useless to attempt to grow the Catawba.

In Bush and Son & Meisener’s illustrated catalogue this language is used: “A hybrid raised by Stephen Underhill from Concord and Black Prince. The vine is vigorous and productive in rich soil, and moderately hardy. The originator does not recommend it as a profitable grape for market purposes, as it is rather late in ripening, (a few days after Concord), but only as a fine and amateur fruit.” The fruit is also said to crack.

In the December number I also see that a correspondent writes of the Janesville. I have never seen the fruit, but I think it unwise to advocate the propagation of a vine which produces but poor fruit, and whose only excellence is its earliness. Mr. Campbell in the same report speaks of this vine also. He says, “the Janesville is another early black grape, having the merit of being both very early and very hardy; generally healthy and productive. It is only of medium size, and not better than Hartford in quality. It is however earlier, and does not fall easily from the bunch. For northern locations it would have value as a very early ripening hardy grape, notwithstanding its inferior quality.”

T. S. Hubbard thus describes it: “An early hardy grape. In quality, habits and appearance about half between Clinton and Hartford.”

What we want is a grape which will ripen from the middle to the end of September, of good quality, at least as good as the Delaware. The aim should be to obtain a good early wine and table grape, and I believe we shall yet become possessed of them.

During the past year I had fruit from the Wilder, Lindley, Agawam, Elvira, Brighton, Burnet, Champion, Telegraph and Delaware. The Champion is mere trash and not worthy of room. Its only merit is its earliness. I found the Telegraph not much better. The centre was very hard, and it was difficult to separate the flesh from the seed. The berries of the Elvira were so close that they cracked and quickly spoiled, and the flavor was not very good. It is a fine vine to cover sheds, &c., as it is very vigorous and the leaves large and healthy. I am not able to give a very favorable report of the Burnet. It mildewed with me, and the leaves have a habit of scalding. The fruit was irregular and rather late in ripening, some of them not ripening at all. Those that did ripen were very fine and delicious, and I am sorry to report so unfavorably of such a promising grape. The Brighton ripened before the Burnet, and is a very fine and showy grape, and I think should be extensively grown. It should be picked as soon as ripe, for I found some which I had allowed to hang to lose their flavor. The Rogers’ Hybrids mildewed a little but not much, and all ripened. My soil is light and sandy, facing the south and west.

I wonder the Association have not endeavored to obtain and disseminate Mr. Read’s (of Port Dalhousie) white grape. It is early and apparently hardy, and the only fault is that the bunch is small, but it far exceeds many of the favorite grapes now in cultivation. Mr. Read has also, I understand, a very fine seedling gooseberry, which it would be wise for the Association to endeavor to obtain and disseminate.

The raspberry sent last year by the Association has succeeded well with me. It made four strong canes about five feet in length, and I believe will fruit next year. I have several of the new grapes in cultivation, and hope at some future time to be able to give you a report of them.


BY MRS. JAS. DAVIDSON, in Iowa State Horticultural Society’s Report.

The pansy (Viola tricolor) was imported from Europe, and originally called heartsease. The French called it pensee, from which comes the name pansy. It seems to be a law in this busy world that nothing desirable is attained without labor. This is especially true of pansy culture; it is equally true that they amply repay our care and attention.

They will grow and bloom when indifferently cared for; but if fine, large flowers are desired, certain conditions must be complied with. Several years experience, as an amateur, have taught me, that the plant requires a certain location, treatment and soil to bring it to perfection.

Good plants can be procured from the florist, or grown from seeds. My own method has been, to sow seeds, about the first of April, in a shallow box of fine, mellow soil; sprinkle a little soil on the seeds, barely covering them. Place upon the top a couple of thicknesses of newspaper, the exact size of the box; keep the paper wet till the seeds sprout, then uncover and gradually give sun and air.

It is necessary to have strong, vigorous plants, and much care must be exercised at this period to keep the young plants strong and healthy. Sun and air must be freely given. If kept too damp and warm, they will grow slender and sickly.

As soon as danger from frost is over, remove to the open ground; water freely, and blossoms will soon follow, which will grow larger as the weather grows cooler. Seeds sown in the open ground in June will bloom late in the fall.

In the location and preparation of the soil lies the secret of success in pansy culture.

First, the location should be on the north side of the house; allow no shrub, tree, or other obstacle, to obstruct the sun’s rays; the object being to get the full benefit of the morning sun, and at the same time be protected from its mid-day heat.

Secondly, the soil. Mark out the required dimensions of the pansy bed; dig down eighteen inches; remove the dirt and replace it with leaf mould, sand, and well rotted manure. If leaf mould is unattainable, get as light and porous a soil as possible; the earth immediately under a turf that has been undisturbed for years, is excellent.

The pansy likes plenty of water, but it must not be allowed to stand on the bed. If the soil is light and porous, as it should be, there will be little danger. Liquid manure should be used once a week. The soil can hardly be too rich for pansies.

If flowers are the chief object, do not let the seeds ripen. If, however, you desire to save seeds, select a few plants for that purpose, and keep the pods picked off from the others, the same plants not producing as large flowers, if permitted to ripen seed. After blossoming freely, pinch back, and more buds will soon follow.

The pansy endures over winter, if properly protected. This is done by throwing coarse litter and straw over the plants; care should be taken not to smother the plants, while covering sufficiently to protect them. In the spring, uncover them, and your plants will be green and bright, ready to respond to your care and attention.

They will blossom early, and have a profusion of flowers. New ones should be started by again planting seeds in April. Plants are not satisfactory after the second season; young plants producing the largest and finest flowers.

There is no recreation more invigorating and interesting than flower culture. Three promoters of health: exercise, pure air, and pleasant emotions, are most happily blended. And among the many beautiful flowers that should be cultivated, few will give more pleasure than the lovely, saucy, charming pansy.


The Chairman of the Committee on new fruits, appointed by the Michigan State Horticultural Society, reports:—

“The Cuthbert Raspberry has for some months past attracted much attention as the coming market red raspberry. Experience with it in our State cannot, of course, have yet been very extensive, but so far it would seem to be favorable. J. D. Baldwin, of Ann Arbor, has doubtless been as thoroughly acquainted with it as any other person, and so far as we have understood, his impressions respecting its desirability are favorable. It seems to quite hardy, of fine size, firm texture and rich color. Queen of the market is considered as identical with it.


is a recent seedling of Mr. E. Williams, of Montclair, New Jersey. We think it is not yet in the market, but plants sent us for trial have now fruited two seasons, and prove to be of fine size, great firmness of texture and excellent quality—qualities essential to a good market berry. It proves abundantly hardy at the lake shore. It purports to be a seedling of the Philadelphia, and, like its supposed parent, produces suckers but sparingly.


was heralded with so great a flourish of trumpets that there seemed occasion to fear that it might fail to realize all that we might be led to expect of it. It seems now clear, however, that it is really a step in advance of the old and popular Mammoth Cluster, at least so far as size is concerned, while it is at least its equal in quality and productiveness. It seems pretty sure to become, among black caps, the leading market variety, although we already hear of varieties with the ability to outdo and supersede it.”


This new variety was raised by the President of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario, P. C. Dempsey, Esq., and through his kindness it is offered to all the subscribers to the Horticulturist who prefer to give it a trial instead of the grape vine, flowering shrub or apple tree. In giving the history of this potato Mr. Dempsey says:—

“About the year 1861 I planted a hill of the Early Rose potato in a patch of Early Goodrich, carefully removing the stamens from all the flowers of the former, and depended upon natural causes to fertilize them. No other variety being near them, there must be a cross or no seed balls would have been produced. The Early Rose is not apt to produce seeds on account of its ripening before the seeds mature. In order to overcome this difficulty I employed water and stimulated it occasionally until the seeds had matured. The seeds were planted the following spring, and each plant grown for a time in a thumb pot, then transferred to the open ground, giving each plant about two by three feet, they were carefully cultivated. The result was that many of the tubers attained full size the first year. I had about two hundred varieties giving more or less promise of excellence. Many of the varieties had very tender foliage, were liable to sun-scald and lose their foliage before the tubers had matured. I commenced rejecting any that did not come up as I thought to the then standard, which included hardiness of plant, full medium sized tubers, and to contain very few if any small ones, to cook dry and mealy, not gummy, and to be good in flavor.

“In 1872 I had thinned them down to about one hundred varieties, which I showed that fall in Hamilton. I was nearly two days contending for space to exhibit them, and received very little encouragement for the enterprise. I have continued to reject, until I have but the one variety left.

“The Dempsey is a good strong grower, and seems to do well on every soil, but does best on heavy soils. It is a good cropper, not being excelled by any table variety with me in that respect. The tops stand up well, rendering cultivation easy. It does not readily yield to drouth; maintains its foliage green usually until frost, and usually continues to grow until then. If planted early it does very well as an early potato, but is not the earliest variety.”

The writer has had an opportunity of testing this potato both boiled and baked, and has found it to be of excellent quality, mealy and dry. In form it is oblong, usually tapering towards the seed end. The color is a purplish red, sometimes staining the flesh when cooked, and the skin is often quite covered with russet.


We take great pleasure in calling the attention of the readers of the Canadian Horticulturist to the colored plate which adorns this number of our monthly. It is a beautiful representation of some of the autumn berries which are to be found on several of our native or cultivated shrubs, and we trust that it will serve to awaken the attention of those who are planting ornamental shrubs about their dwellings, to the beauty of some of these when laden with their variously colored fruits. We plant so as to have as far as possible a succession of flowers, and prize as especially valuable any which flower late, so as to extend our season of bloom as far into the autumn as we can. But there comes a time in our Canadian climate when the flowers cease and the leaves fall, and the snow covers the ground with its mantle of white. What can we do to give beauty to our lawns, and relieve the dull monotony of leafless twigs in the chilly autumn days, and when the wintry winds are driving the snow before them in circling eddys?

Dame nature, ever bounteous and mindful of that which shall give beauty and variety to her works, has given into our hand many a tree and shrub that we can plant, if we would only use a little forethought, so that our lawns shall be by no means devoid of beauty, nay, rather shall possess a charm in these bleak days when the flowers of summer are gone, that can only be brought out in its fulness at such a season.

In the leafy month of June we pass by the evergreens without thought perhaps, but when the boughs are bare with what pleasure does the eye rest upon the evergreen trees noticing variety of shape and foliage, now admiring the sturdy form and sombre hue of the Austrian pine, or the towering spire of the Norway spruce, or the graceful outlines of our Canadian hemlock. It is then that we fully appreciate the value of the evergreen trees, as they stand out in the fulness of their beauty in the winter landscape. So, too, we now notice the beautiful effect of those trees having colored bark, and pause to admire the group of white bark birches intermingled with the golden bark willow, the red bark dogwood and the striped bark maple.

But it is to the effect which may be produced by planting those trees and shrubs which in autumn and through a large part of the winter are ornamented with beautifully colored berries, that we wish particularly to call attention. In our plate, for which we are indebted to the politeness of Mr. Jas. Vick, the enterprising publisher of Vick’s Monthly, will be found excellent representations of several berry-bearing shrubs which can be planted in our climate, by means of which a very pleasing appearance can be given to our grounds during the autumn and winter months. The berries at figure 6 represent those of the Euonymus or Spindle tree. There are several varieties of Spindle trees, the particular one at number six in our plate is the European, having orange-scarlet berries, which appear as the capsules burst, and when the shrub is covered with these it is a very beautiful and showy object. It is a native of Europe, and is found abundantly in Great Britain. When growing wild in hedge-rows and thickets it does not attain to any great size, but when planted singly in a favorable spot it will grow to the height of twenty or thirty feet. The most handsome species is found in the south of Europe, and is known as Euonymus latifolius, or broad-leaved Euonymus. It has broad, shining leaves, and large red pendulous fruits with orange-colored seeds, which are suspended in the air when the capsules open, thus giving to the tree a very attractive appearance. Whether it will endure our climate is very doubtful; we are not aware that the experiment has ever been tried. We have a native variety which is very pretty, and of course perfectly hardy. It prefers moist soils, and is found from Canada to Florida; it is known as the American Euonymus. The capsules are of a deep crimson; the seeds are white, and nearly covered with a scarlet integument. They are very showy when laden with their fruits, and are often called the Burning Bush on account of their ruddy appearance.

At the top of our plate, and designated by the figure 2, is the Whorled Winterberry, (Prinos verticillatus,) or, as it is called in some places, the Black Alder. The flowers of this species are white, and the berries of a bright crimson red. It is found growing from Canada to Virginia, in damp sandy soils or on the borders of swamps. There is another variety, the Prinos glaber, which has black fruit, and hence is called Ink-berry. These berries remain all winter.

At the right hand corner, and designated by the figure 4, are the scarlet berries of the Berberry, which also continue to hang all winter. This shrub is too well known to need any particular description. The variety here represented is the European Berberry, (B. vulgaris); which fruits more profusely than our native, B. Canadensis. The writer was struck with the beauty of one of these shrubs laden with scarlet berries shining through their partial covering of newly fallen snow; when passing a neighbor’s grounds this morning.

The cluster of small white berries to the left of the Berberries is the fruit of a native Dogwood or Wild Cornel Tree, Cornus Stolonifera. The bark of this species is red, like that of C. Sanguinea, and contrasts beautifully with surrounding objects, particularly towards the end of winter, when the bark seems to assume a brighter hue.

At the bottom of the plate, figure 5, is seen the fruit of one of our Thorns, the Cratægus lucida odorata, whose leaves are bright and shining, hence the specific name lucida, and whose flowers are fragrant, hence the further specific name of odorata. The fruit is a deep dark red, shaded with black.

The berries designated by the figure 7, on the left hand side of the plate, are those of the American Holly, (Ilex opaca). This species has not been found in Canada to the writer’s knowledge, nor indeed north of the State of New Jersey. It abounds on the eastern shore of Maryland, and near Richmond in Virginia. It bears a striking resemblance to the European Holly in its shining evergreen leaves and numerous red berries.

The large white berries just above the centre are those of the Snowberry, (Symphoricarpus racemosus). This is a very hardy native shrub, found in Ontario and on the north-west coast at Nootka Sound. Its large white berries form a very pleasing contrast when interspersed with the red fruits of the Berberry and Scarlet Winterberry.

The two remaining fruits are those of climbing shrubs. Those at figure 1 are the berries of the Staff Tree or Climbing Bitter-sweet, (Celastrus scandens). This is a native twining shrub, found growing in many parts of Ontario. When the orange-colored capsules open at the approach of winter, the scarlet seeds are disclosed, giving to the plant a very attractive appearance. The berries continue to hang for a long time after the leaves are fallen.

The dark purplish berries at figure 3 are those of the Virginia Creeper, often known by the name of American Ivy, (Ampelopsis quinquefolia). The leaves of this climber change in autumn to crimson and scarlet and purplish red, and for a short time it is gay indeed with its gorgeous crimson leaves and purple berries on scarlet fruit-stalks.



I see that your attention has been called to the Janesville Grape by Mr. Farncombe, and that you wish to hear the experience of others. I agree with your Newcastle correspondent in many points, but if he cannot ripen them before September he had better leave for some more favorable clime. I had them ripe here (Brampton) this season 20th August, which is no uncommon thing. I don’t consider them superior or even equal in quality to the Concord; about equal to the Beaconsfield or Champion. But then it is the earliest grape I am acquainted with; (the Burnet has not fruited with me yet,) and is perfectly hardy; it is said to stand forty degrees of cold without injury. I think it is the most profitable grape we have, considering its hardiness, early maturity; and it being a free grower and good bearer. It comes on before the market is glutted, and consequently brings a good price—much better than finer varieties ripening later in the season.


In the last agricultural report for this State, says the New England Farmer, we have the testimony of Mr. Kinney, of Worcester, that from seventy-five hens he made in one year $250 worth of American guano. His main object in keeping hens was for the purpose of dressing his land. Formerly he bought many cords of manure to dress two acres of land. He now cultivates eleven acres without buying a cent’s worth of manure. He keeps his hens confined the year round; he is very careful to give them clean, wholesome food, and to keep their house clean and sweet. The floor is covered with three or four inches of gravel, and the droppings carefully and frequently removed, and kept dry. At the end of the year he had one hundred and fifty bushels of droppings, making about one ton in weight, which he pulverized and mixed with three and one-half tons of poor loam and a little plaster of Paris. He then had four and one-half tons of guano, which he testifies is better than any imported article he has tried. He sows it on the ground, uses it in a solid or liquid form; in the hill, and everywhere it is a success. The experience of Mr. Kinney is certainly worthy of thought. If the excrements of birds on the coast of Africa and South America are of sufficient value to import to this country, we cannot see why we may not use with profit the droppings of fowls raised in our own land.

Hens properly fed and cared for will return one hundred per cent. profit above their cost of keeping in eggs alone, and when we add their meat producing power, and lastly their fertilizing capacity, who will say that they are not profitable to keep?—Florida Dispatch.



I received two trees of the Ontario Apple last spring in good order, which I planted directly on their arrival, and they took kindly to the soil and treatment, and are now looking healthy and thrifty. The Saunders Raspberry was likewise received in good order, and promises prosperity in its new location. The Arnold Hybrid I turned over the fence as being an incumbrance to the ground. The Salem Grape gave about a peck of grapes last year, and the past season set abundance of fruit, which dropped off as the season advanced until there was none left to ripen; still I shall give it another chance, and if it fails the coming season it will be cast out. The Flemish Beauty pear has never fruited yet, although I have two fine trees grafted from it, one of which gave me a bushel and a half fine pears—luscious fruit. I had almost forgotten to say that the Burnet Grape has not yet fruited with me, but is in a healthy condition, and promises to fruit next year.



If any of the members of the Association have knowledge or experience in wine making from the Brant Grape, I should be glad to hear the result through the medium of your valuable periodical, and I should also feel obliged for information from any of the readers of your journal who may have experimented in making wine from the mixed juices of different varieties of grapes, and if so the varieties so mixed that have proved satisfactory. And, Mr. Secretary, I would beg to suggest that a subject of this nature might be included amongst others for discussion at some of the society’s meetings, if not considered out of place for horticulturists to examine questions relating to the manufacture of wine.

I planted in the spring of 1879 about an acre of grape vines with sixty varieties, intending to plant more when these have been fairly tested. I hope to be enabled to report on at least half the number of these varieties next autumn.

Nearly all the trees that I have got through the first three or four years distribution of the Association failed—apples, pears, grape vines, plums, &c. My Glass’ Seedling Plum is still progressing, but very slowly, and I have one branch of the MacLaughlin living, which bore this year for the first time, and from which I gathered forty-four very fine specimens, and from which I shall be able to get a few good scions for grafting next spring. Gooseberries, viz., Houghton’s, Smith’s, and Downing’s Seedlings, have succeeded admirably with me, but I found the last named most profitable. The raspberry which I got from the Association last spring made a growth of about fifteen inches. I may add that I have been very successful in growing the Lima Bean, which I prize for its nutritious qualities as well as for its agreeable flavor.


This white grape does not seem to ripen at Whitby. Mr. J. K. Gordon of that place, writing to the Fruit Recorder says:—

“It is white, of poor quality, without a redeeming feature. It is late in ripening, later than Concord or Delaware, in fact my Isabella ripened this year as soon as it. So sour and acid that the children won’t eat it; and such a wretchedly poor grower as to be quite unworthy of cultivation. I have grown it now for the last four summers, on as fine, rich clay loam as is to be found in Ontario, and though to all appearance in the best of health, and having borne about six or eight bunches last year, and this year, the vine is not over three feet high, and I see no prospect of growing any larger, while the Brighton, the Champion and Worden, which I got from you at the same time, are growing alongside very luxuriantly, and have given me very great satisfaction. I will give this worthless Lady another year of grace, and unless it does better with me than heretofore I shall root it up and fill the place with a better variety. Friends who have received the Lady have had similar experience of it.”


We notice in an American exchange that an advertiser offers for sale no less than five hundred new varieties of potatoes, being the collection which won the grand prize medal and diploma at the Centennial Exhibition, held at Philadelphia, each of which, he claims, has its own peculiar merits. He offers sample tubers of the five hundred varieties, correctly named and labeled, for one hundred dollars. He also offers packages of fertilized potato seed, all ready for the experimenter to plant. Apparently he is determined that we shall have as great a variety in the “Murphy” line as in the apple or anything else.—E. J. Leavenworth.


Robert Douglas, of Wakegan, Illinois, has raised more and a greater variety of Evergreens than any other man in America, hence his opinion of the merits of a variety, from his long experience in growing these trees, is entitled to great weight. He says:—

“We find that our red and white pines compare very favorable with the Scotch and Austrian pines of Europe. Our white spruce is as beautiful and hardy as the Norway spruce, but we need all these kinds for variety. Our balsam fir will not compare favorably with the European silver fir, or the silver firs of the Pacific slope, but we have the Abies sub-alpina of Wyoming, and its variety Falax, and the concolor of Colorado, the former of the habit of Abies Sibirica, and the latter of the habit of the California silver firs. We have the Abies Douglasii, of Colorado, more hardy, and even more beautiful than our hemlock. Among spruces we have the Colorado Menzies, and Engelmanni, and all these with the exception of concolor which have been tested thoroughly in the northwest, will compare in beauty with any of the foreign kinds, and in hardiness with any of our native kinds.”


This variety was imported from St. Petersburg, 1870, by the Department of Agriculture. It has been fruited at a number of points east and west, and we have every reason to believe it will prove a valuable acquisition as a very early variety, of good quality, for either eating or cooking. Doctor Hoskins, of Newport, Vermont, makes the following report:

It is an extremely early bearer, giving fruit the third year from grafting on a seedling root, and is now bearing its third crop, consisting of over one bushel. The tree notwithstanding its productiveness, is a free grower, being now some eight feet high. It is also an erect grower, and bears its fruit on short spurs close to the main branches, so that it can carry a heavy crop when the tree is small without breaking down. Though so full of fruit that there seem to be more apples than leaves, yet the branches are not bent down at all.

In size the Yellow Transparent is full medium, round ovate in form, straw yellow in color, with an extremely melting, juicy flesh of delicate sub-acid, but not very high flavor. It is fair, uniform in size and its chief merit, in our eyes, aside from its perfect hardiness and early and abundant bearing, is that it is the earliest dessert apple we know. It begins to come into eating by the first of August, and the bulk of the crop is just now (August 10) ripening up. It will not keep long, soon becoming mealy and cracking open at full maturity. But for a home apple, or to sell direct to consumers in a near market, it cannot be surpassed; and its waxen beauty and fairness, together with its acceptable flavor, will make it a favorite wherever grown. It is about two weeks earlier than Tetofsky, and if it had been introduced first we doubt if the latter would ever have been heard of.


A table of contents has been added for convenience.

Obvious printer errors including punctuation have been silently corrected, with the following exceptions:

“thorougly” to “thoroughly” on p. 19,

“Deleware” to “Delaware” on p. 21,

“vularis” to “vulgaris” on p. 27,

“specimes” to “specimens” on p. 31, and

“Austrain” to “Austrian” on p. 32.

Inconsistencies and variations in spelling have been preserved.

Unfortunately, the colored plate to which the article “Autumn Berries” refers is not available with this edition.


[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 04, No. 02 edited by D. W. Beadle]