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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 03, No. 05

Date of first publication: 1880

Author: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Jan. 20, 2015

Date last updated: Jan. 20, 2015

Faded Page eBook #20150127

This ebook was produced by: Marcia Brooks, David Edwards, Elizabeth S. Oscanyan & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

The Canadian Horticulturist.









VOL. III.]MAY, 1880. [NO. 5.



Mr. Beadle was very glad that this subject had been introduced, and thought that it was time that it received the thorough consideration which it deserved. He believed that if our roadside fences were taken away and in their place trees were planted, so that our highways would present the appearance of long avenues, not only would our farmers be saved a very considerable item of expense, but the value of their farms would be increased by the attractiveness and beauty of such a country. He hoped that a committee would be appointed to make a thorough investigation of this matter, inquire into the amount of land taken up and made worse than useless by these snake fences, and the annual average cost to each farmer of keeping them up.

Mr. Quinn, Port Dover, thought it was useless to look to our municipal councils for action on this subject; Provincial legislation alone could put an end to this nuisance of cattle running upon our roads and breaking into our fields.

Mr. Croil, Aultsville, spoke of the roadways blocked with snow by reason of these roadside fences, and would gladly hail the day when they could be abandoned. If a law were passed prohibiting cattle from running at large this could be soon attained.

It was resolved that in the opinion of this meeting every man should be compelled to look after his own animals, and that the President appoint a committee to investigate and report on the subject of fences at the next winter meeting.

The President appointed Messrs. Beall, Bucke, and Dr. Watt.


A. M. Smith, Drummondville, read a paper on raspberries, speaking of the fine quality of the cultivated varieties, and expressing surprise that so many of our farmers will content themselves with the wild raspberries of the fence corners, when fruit so much better and more easily and cheaply procured can be raised in the garden.

Of the Philadelphia, he says it would be the berry for the million on account of its hardiness and great productiveness, were it not that its dull mouldy color gives it the appearance of having been picked a long time, for which reason it does not sell as readily nor command as good a price as berries of a brighter color; and besides it has not so high a flavor as some other sorts. Yet its productiveness is very great, yielding, he thinks, a third more than any other variety he has tested.

The Highland Hardy is hardy, very productive, and the fruit of good color but small, yet with good cultivation it pays well on account of its earliness.

The Clarke combines as many good qualities as any berry with which he is acquainted, and is one of his favorites. It is hardy and productive, and the berries large, bright colored, and fine flavored. Its most serious defect is that it is too soft to ship long distances, but an excellent variety for a home market.

The Brandywine is the best for shipping to a distant market on account of the firmness of the fruit, but the berries are small, and the plants sucker badly.

Of the new varieties, he says that the Pride of the Hudson, which was introduced with such a flourish of trumpets, (see Vol. 1, p. 135), has not done well with him. He also was not fortunate with the Delaware. The Amazon is a second edition of the old Belle de Fontenay, yielding berries in the fall. Arnold’s Diadem seemed to him when he first saw it to be the berry he had been long looking for, light colored, hardy, and of the character and quality of the Brinkle’s Orange, but it disappointed him by yielding one-third of the crop red berries, and the balance nothing like what he saw on Mr. Arnold’s grounds. However, he proposes to give it further trial, and see if he can fathom this singular freakishness. Saunders’ Hybrid he had an opportunity of testing through the kindness of Mr. Saunders, and found it enormously productive and very hardy, also very fine for cooking, and canning in particular, but does not think it will ever become a popular market fruit on account of its peculiar purplish maroon color.

Of the black-cap sorts, he cultivates for market the Davison’s Thornless and the Mammoth Cluster, the former for its earliness, and the latter for its productiveness and lateness. The white-caps, such as the Golden Thornless, are not worth growing.

The paper closes with some excellent hints on cultivation and soil, which our members will have an opportunity of studying when they have the paper in full in the Report of this year’s transactions.

Some discussion followed, chiefly on the singular and interesting variations in fruits and flowers known as ”sports.”

Mr. P. C. Dempsey, Albury, presented an interesting paper on the varieties of apple found to be most desirable for cultivation in Prince Edward County. He stated that the Early Harvest when given good garden culture on a loamy soil would produce good crops, and considered it one of the best amateur varieties. The Red Astracan grew well on almost any soil. The fruit was large, pretty, and the best of its season for market. The Duchess of Oldenburg succeeds in almost every soil, and the fruit is one of the best of its season for marketing, on account of its attractive appearance. The Gravenstein is tender in that County, except when grown on a well drained gravel or sandy soil, but the fruit was one of the best both for home use and for market. The St. Lawrence is always healthy, and produces an abundant crop each alternate year of large, conical, striped apples, that attract the attention of every one. The Fameuse or Snow Apple tree he says is always good in every variety of soil in which he has ever seen it growing, and the fruit is very attractive when fair, but liable to spot in every variety of soil. The Beauty of Kent he thinks has been overlooked; the fruit is very large, yellow-striped with red, and one of the best for cooking and market; while the tree makes a rapid growth, thrives in every soil, and produces large crops. The Baldwin is very tender, succeeding in only a few favored spots. Rhode Island Greening not always hardy. Golden Russet one of the best and most hardy trees in that County, but productive only in favored spots. Talman Sweet succeeds where an apple tree of any variety can be grown at all. Ben Davis is a hardy apple, good grower; commences to bear when three or four years from the graft or bud; succeeds best on a strong and deep loamy or gravelly soil. The fruit keeps well until July with ordinary care, and commands a better price than Golden Russet. Mr. R. H. Potter, of Napanee, places this variety at the head of his list, yet Mr. Dempsey advises that planters experiment cautiously with this variety, because in some localities the fruit is small and almost worthless. Other varieties are mentioned, and their value for planting in that County fully discussed, but sufficient has been given to show that the paper is a most valuable contribution to our knowledge of the varieties of apple most extensively cultivated and tested in the County of Prince Edward.

The meeting was continued for two days with marked interest. There was an exhibition of some choice winter fruits, many of which are recent importations from Great Britain, fruiting for the first time in this Province.

There will be a mid-summer meeting of the Association at the Ontario School of Agriculture, Guelph, early in July.



Having observed an article in the Canadian Horticulturist headed as above, I beg to say that in the winter of 1878-'79 I made a similar discovery to that made by your correspondent, Mr. Newhall, of Toronto. I happened to be looking out of a window in the direction of some dwarf pear trees and gooseberry bushes, and saw a number of sparrows picking busily at something, and at the moment concluded those trees must be infested with some sort of insects, and went at once to examine, but failing to see anything of the kind I began to scrutinize more closely, and soon discovered that they had been picking off the buds, the outer scales of which I found under the trees in quite conspicuous quantities. I mentioned the circumstance at the time to some of my horticultural friends, and expressed a doubt as to whether this importation was going to prove a boon to the Canadian fruit grower. A large flock of those birds visited my orchard and garden that winter, but since then they appear to have decreased in number in this locality, for although I occasionally see a few on the streets, I have not witnessed a visit from them during the present winter. It has occurred to me that possibly there may be a reason for these birds not attacking the buds of my trees the present winter from the fact of its being a very mild open season, affording the sparrows an opportunity to find food on the bare ground; and consequently it may be only in extremely severe winters that they are driven to the necessity of picking buds from the trees.



I notice in the Canadian Horticulturist for March an article by Mr. J. Newhall, of Toronto, in regard to the English Sparrow destroying the fruit buds on his bushes and trees. I do not doubt for a moment but that his bushes are denuded, because he says so, but it is strange nevertheless. I have been acquainted with the habits of the sparrow in their native home, where they were very plentiful, and where there were large crops of small fruits grown—currants, and especially gooseberries—and never knew them to interfere with fruit buds of any kind. The only crime laid to their charge was helping themselves to a little grain close to the hedges, and for this when a boy I have been furnished a gun, and have shot them, which I very much regret. We did not know much about the trouble experienced with insects, and did not stop to consider what the consequence might be if deprived of our feathered friends. It is said that emigrants from the old country are honest when they first come here, but soon become apt scholars in roguery; and I was wondering if it could be so with the sparrows. I shall be very sorry if we have to dispense with them, as they seem to cheer the monotony of our long winters. Perhaps our Toronto friend feeds them too highly. I would suggest that they be left to forage for themselves. They can get plenty along the streets and roads, which might suit them better than dainties from his table; and they might not then require a mixture of fruit buds to aid digestion. I might add that we have had them here two winters, and they do not seem to pay any attention to our bushes.



On the morning of the fourth of October last I started in company with my friend Mr. Ramsay, of Mount Barker, South Australia, to see what we could learn of the creameries, cheese and Sorgum manufactories situated in the County of Oxford. Arriving at Ingersoll by train at an early hour, we found an old acquaintance, Mr. E. Caswell, ready to forward our views by placing his team at our disposal, and putting us under the direction of Mr. Finlay, an able and willing cicerone. The day was all that could be desired in point of weather, and seven or eight cheese factories were speedily visited, and notes taken of the utensils and methods employed in cheese making. When a person has seen one of these factories, especially if it be on a large scale, like that of Mr. Hopkins’, at Brownsville, he has really seen almost all that’s worth knowing. In the absence of the master, Mrs. Hopkins entertained us right royally, and set before us a sumptuous repast.

From Brownsville to Mr. Butler’s place, near Mount Elgin, is but a short drive, and we accomplished the distance almost too shortly. Mr. Butler is one of the oldest residents of this part of Oxford. If my memory serves me rightly, he has been settled there for nearly sixty years. A most enterprising farmer is the said Mr. John Butler. In carrying out his farming plans he uses quite a number of strings to his bow, and apparently almost all equally well. He is second to none in the neighborhood as a fruit grower, and if I may judge from the sample and quality set before us, he is no mean horticulturist. Then he makes capital cheese—famed all over for the excellence of their quality. Being a Devonshire man, it might be expected that he knew somewhat of apples, pears and cream. However that may be, he makes good cider, and is handy in compounding generally. Mr. Butler’s Sorgum factory was, however, the great attraction to us. Under the head of “Sugar Cane,” on page 11 of the Canadian Horticulturist for January, 1880, will be found an interesting paper on Sorgum by a prominent member of the Board of Directors of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario, P. E. Bucke, Ottawa. Should any of our readers have overlooked this paper, they will perhaps permit us to call their attention to it. There they will learn the distinction between Sorgo, the Chinese Sugar Cane, and the Imphees, or African Sugar Cane; and also the origin of the Early Amber, the best variety, which originated in Minnesota. We found the manufacture of various varieties of the Sorgum in full blast. There was a sample of the Early Amber, from which great and good results were expected. The prominent object was the pressing mill, for grinding or pressing the cane. This machine was in every respect like a mill for thrashing corn. Two cylinders, separated from one another by a certain limited space, received the cane, a trough or pan caught the juice, and the bagasse or refuse stalks which have passed through the mill were removed to a short distance for feeding purposes. Two evaporators were at work, one a fire evaporator and the other a steam one; on enquiry we found Mr. Butler gave the preference to the steam evaporator.

Syrup is the staple production, though sugar can be readily obtained by continuing the process of evaporation. Mr. Butler informed us that the charge for a gallon of his “Golden Amber Syrup” was sixty cents, and that an acre would yield at least 150 gallons. A rough estimate could only be made of the expense per gallon for making the syrup, it was thought from fifteen to twenty cents per gallon. Quite a number of farmers in the neighborhood had grown quantities of the Sorgum cane, and samples were lying about belonging to A., B. and C. waiting for their turn to be passed through the mill and evaporated to the syrup point.

Having been courteously entertained, and every desirable information imparted, we reluctantly bid Mr. Butler and assistants a kindly “good bye.”

We have only further to add, that on page 14 of the same publication, and on the cover of the March number, will be found the prices for which, and the place where the Early Amber seed can be had.



Mr. John J. Jarvis, Ingersoll, writes:—

“I have been a member for the last five years. I think it is the best dollar laid out through the year.”

R. Baijent, Toronto, says:—

“I have felt much interest and gained valuable knowledge in the many excellent essays and notices on fruit matters in that most excellent monthly, the Canadian Horticulturist.”


W. Warnock, Blind River, says:—

“Almost any of the hardy apples do well on St. Joseph’s Island and on the main Manitoulin, and some pears are doing well, but I have not learned what variety. No tree of any of the improved varieties has been planted on the north shore of the Georgian Bay until within two or three years. I have made enquiries of the settlers along the shore from Bruce Mines to the mouth of the Mississiga, a distance of over forty miles, and no one has seen a tree bearing yet, except one at the Bruce Mines, and that is a seedling. I made it my business when there to visit it, and found it growing in sod, and was told that it had borne regularly for five or six years, and that it had never been winter-killed in the least. I think when we consider that the sod has remained unbroken all these years, and that the tree is exposed to the winter winds of Lake Huron, and yet presents a healthy appearance, it is good evidence that our prospects of fruit in the future are encouraging. Two miles from the mouth of the Mississiga River is a Frenchman who has a plot of seedling apple trees coming on finely; they are now three years old, and not one of them has ever been injured by winter frosts. We have a greater degree of cold here than in Huron County, but the growth is checked earlier in the fall, and the tree has time to ripen its new wood before the severe frosts come. When I came here last fall, the first of October, the Maples had shed their leaves, and I have learned that this is a peculiarity of the season here. I am satisfied that all the hardy varieties of apple trees and some pears will do well. We have here in the valley of the Mississiga a soil the most perfectly adapted to fruit growing that I have ever seen, and if the climate will prove favorable we shall in a few years produce the highest flavored apple on the east side of this continent.”


Richard Baijent, Toronto, says:—

“My Burnet Vine has done famously. It was allowed to ripen six bunches which it did to perfection. I felt sorry that I had not exhibited them at the Industrial Exhibition. The vine would have carried more bunches but I had regard to the summer of 1880. I left one bunch on the vine to see how far it would ripen, or gain in flavor or otherwise by being kept on to the latest, but having had some coal delivered that bunch disappeared. There were scores of bunches on other vines equally accessible, but they were not touched. Even my loss was a compliment to my Burnet. I suppose the look of it was too great a temptation. Mr. Marriott had also five or six bunches on his Burnet; when about ripe they were spirited away by boys who raided his garden, taking those alone.”


The School of Agriculture, in a country whose prosperity depends so completely as does ours upon the judicious cultivation of the soil, is an institution in which every citizen has a deep interest. What is done and taught there will tell with tremendous power upon the future condition of this Province. The day has passed that held it to be quite immaterial whether the tiller of the soil was a man of intelligence or the reverse. We are now alive to the fact that the well informed cultivator has an immense advantage over the uninformed, and have created this School of Agriculture in order that those who till the soil, whether they be denominated agriculturists or horticulturists, may become well informed men in those things which bear directly upon their calling. This then is our apology for calling the attention of our readers to the Report of this institution now before us. From an examination of this Report it appears that the instruction given at the School of Agriculture is eminently of a practical character, having always a bearing upon the business of the student’s future life. And this instruction is given not only in lectures and class-room recitations, but by actual participation in the operations of the farm, where the principles and theories of the class-room are brought to the test of actual experiment. This is just the instruction needed. It strikes at the root of all unintelligent operations, and demonstrates to the student the value of a clear and comprehensive understanding of the principles upon which successful cultivation must proceed.

But it is to the experimental portion of this Report to which we wish to call particular attention. In this every cultivator in the Province will find much food for reflection, and many finger-posts to guide him in the way to success. Here is set forth the results of experiments conducted with accuracy, carefully watched and recorded, in the light of which we may the more confidently walk. As an illustration, we turn to the comparison of breeds of cattle during an experience of four years, on page 8 of the report of the Professor of Agriculture. We may seem to be not quite in keeping with a journal devoted to horticulture to treat of breeds of cattle, but those of our readers who can enjoy the luxury of a dish of nice strawberries “smothered in cream,” and who think that the berries are all the more enjoyable because of the cream, will pardon the seeming incongruity, if indeed they do not maintain that there is after all a most beautiful harmony. Turning then to this comparison, we find that of the six breeds under trial, comprising the Short Horn, Hereford, Devon, Ayrshire, Aberdeen Poll and Short Horn cross, that the last named stands highest in prolificness, only second to the Ayrshire in quantity of milk, and second only to the Devon, the richest of all milkers, in the quality of the milk, enduring changes of climate best of them all; slightly less expensive to keep than the pure Short Horn, fattening even more rapidly, and coming to maturity only a little less early. Who then, that can keep only an animal or two, will longer hesitate where to look for one that he may expect will supply the needed milk for his household and cream for his berries? Interested sellers will praise the great milking qualities of the Ayrshire, but say nothing of the quality of the milk; or the richness of the milk of the Devon, and low cost of keep, but will be silent as to the quantity. But here every one who has need to buy a cow, has information to guide him unbiassed by fear or favor, and upon which he can confidently rely.

We cannot forbear calling attention also to the experiments made with different fertilizers upon turnips, given at page 35 of the same portion of the Report, in as much as the results of these experiments have a very practical bearing upon the management of the garden. We have not the space in which to lay before our readers the history of these experiments, but must content ourselves with giving a few of the results, referring to the Report itself for fuller information. It appears that the value of the crop per acre, after deducting the cost of the fertilizer used, was in the case of bone dust, $11.29; bone superphosphate, $15.00; mineral superphosphate, $18.07; salt, $10.54; bone dust and salt together, $24.10; farm yard manure alone, $24.12. In this case the farm yard manure was valued at $1.00 per load, the quantity applied being equivalent to fifteen farmer’s loads per acre. Now the value of the bone dust and salt in its lasting effects upon the soil for the next year’s crop is estimated at $2.67, while that of farm yard manure is estimated at $12.00. Thus we see that farm yard manure alone gave as good a crop of roots as the bone dust and salt combined, while its value per acre for the coming year is $9.33 greater. Surely horticulturists may profit by this lesson, for although this experiment was upon turnips only, yet it teaches an unmistakeable lesson of the value of farm yard manure in the production of vegetables.

The experiment with twelve varieties of potatoes is also interesting to the horticulturists, from which it appears that under the conditions then and there existing, the yield of the Snowflake was the greatest in bushels, but the tubers were small; the Peerless gave no small tubers, though in quantity it fell behind the Snowflake at the rate of twenty bushels per acre, while the Late Rose fell behind at the rate of forty-eight bushels per acre.

There is another part of this Report which deserves the careful study of every land owner, we mean that relating to the planting and cultivation of trees, not fruit trees merely nor so much, as trees for shelter, ornament and timber. This subject has not yet received attention at all commensurate with its importance. But few persons are at all aware that there is any need of our planting what may be termed forest trees. We have been busy, very busy indeed, trying to get rid of our forests. We have looked upon them as an impediment to the thorough cultivation of our farms, as an enemy to our progress, and we have waged against them a relentless war of extermination. To plant anew is to us like strengthening an enemy; nay, like bringing into life an enemy we have but just put under our feet, at the cost of many a weary blow and many a toilsome day. We are slow to believe that the destruction of our forests has been a mistake, and more slow to believe, even if it has been a mistake, that we shall reap any benefit from any planting that we can do to remedy that mistake. Yes, we do ask, of what benefit can such planting possibly be to me? Oh! for shame. Is there nothing better than to live for self? Has every noble sentiment so died within us that we can feel the constraining power of no other motive than self-interest? Do unselfish actions waken within us no response? Is there no pleasure to us in doing that which will be a blessing to those who shall come after?

“And, departing, leave behind us

  Footprints on the sands of time;

Footprints, that perhaps another,

  Sailing o’er life’s solemn main,

A forlorn and shipwrecked brother

  Seeing, shall take heart again.”

But put this matter on the ground of self-interest alone, and it may be shown that the judicious planting and care of suitable forest trees in a proper manner is as surely remunerative here now, in this wooded Canada of ours, as any other investment. Professor Brown states that “it is no over-calculation to say that where the influence of trees is needed, the gain, after fifteen years, will amount annually to two hundred dollars on a hundred acre farm.” Of the value of the trees after they have been growing for fifteen years, or of such of them as may be profitably spared from the plantation, we have not now space to speak.

We conclude this most imperfect notice of this Report by expressing the hope that our agriculturists throughout the Province will give it a careful perusal, and avail themselves of the opportunity, which the instruction and experiments of this farm afford, of improving and perfecting their own practice. These laborious and expensive experiments are undertaken and conducted for our benefit, that we may spade and plow, plant and sow, and gather into cellar and barn, more intelligently and skillfully, and consequently the more profitably.



A special meeting of the Grimsby Fruit Growers’ Association was held in the Town Hall, on Wednesday, March 31st, 1880, at 10 o’clock A.M., for the purpose of discussing (1) “The most profitable varieties of fruits for planting in this section,” (2) “The Yellows, its nature and remedy,” and (3) “The most desirable flowers for indoor cultivation.” The attendance was very large and enthusiastic.

After the President, Mr. A. H. Pettit, had appointed a committee on fruit, consisting of Messrs. C. P. Carpenter, Dennis Vanduzer and E. Moyer, the first question was taken up, viz: “The most profitable varieties of apples for cultivation in this section.”

It was ably introduced by Mr. E. J. Woolverton, who read an interesting paper, in which he embraced the origin of the apple, its great importance as a staple fruit, and its longevity. It was on account of this quality of the tree that a most careful selection of varieties was so important to the planter. He thought very few varieties best for profit. He named five varieties as his choice, in the order of merit, for profit alone, viz: Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy, Roxbury Russet and Swaar.

Mr. Dennis Vanduzer gave a list of about forty varieties he was testing. Among others he mentioned the Red Astracan as first for profit in his estimation. He picks over his trees nine or ten times, as fast as they color, and ships them by express. The Baldwin is the most profitable winter apple. The Swaar is a poor bearer and a miserable grower. The Wagner has too many mis-shapen specimens. Grimes’ Golden, sent by the Ontario Association, is a slow grower; it bore twelve apples in 1879; fine dessert; good keeper, but he did not consider them profitable. His choice was, for summer, Red Astracan and Duchess of Oldenburgh; fall, Gravenstein and Colvert; winter, Baldwin, Greening, Northern Spy and Golden Russet.

Mr. L. Woolverton would only plant six varieties for profit, viz: in order of merit, Baldwin, Northern Spy, King of Tompkins County, Roxbury Russet, Red Astracan and Gravenstein. He valued the Spy and King because they yield yearly crops.

Mr. J. Carpenter would class the Lady Apple in a list of five varieties for profit. He had taken two barrels from one tree, and the price was very high.

Mr. J. R. Pettit counted the English Russet one of the most profitable apples he had tried.

Mr. E. Moyer finds too many culls in the Roxbury Russet. He would include the Colvert, Blenheim, Pippin and Twenty Ounce.

Mr. C. P. Carpenter would not advise planting fall apples for profit.

Adjourned till 2 P.M.

In the afternoon session the second question was taken up, viz: “The most profitable varieties of peaches, new and old, for planting in the Grimsby section.”

The subject was introduced by a paper written by Mr. L. Woolverton, which will be published in the next number.

Mr. A. H. Pettit said the grower for profit must have a constant succession. If he were planting an orchard of two hundred peach trees, he would plant as follows: Alexander, 10; High’s Early, 10; Early Louise, 6; Early Rivers, 6; Hale’s Early, 15; Early Purple, 5; Early Crawford, 40; Mountain Rose, 10; Early York, 6; Old Mixon, 10; Honest John, 5; Jacques Rareripe, 3; Morris’ White, 5; Late Crawford, 25; Seedling of Late Crawford, (or Late Red Crawford), 10; Smock, 24; Lemon Cling, 10. He would leave out Barnard, but considers Hale’s a most profitable peach; it can be marketed during a period of three weeks at good prices. Of the Old Mixon, he said, “I object to all white fleshed peaches for shipping.” Honest John; “it is as its name imports, an honest, faithful bearer.” Lemon Cling; “I think very highly of it for dessert and for canning whole, but would not plant largely on account of its clinging propensities.”

Mr. George Cline found white peaches very poor for Hamilton market. He had found Early Crawford, Early Purple, Barnard and Smock pay him best there.

Mr. R. Griffith: “Early Rivers were very fine with me last year; they pleased me very much, and sold well.”

Mr. J. W. G. Nelles: “My Orchard is nearly all Lemon Cling by mistake, but they have sold very well at a good price.”

Mr. Murray Pettit, Winona: “I place Smock first in order of profit for our heavy soil. For a period of five years I have received more money for the Smock each year than for any other kind I grow. The Lemon Cling bears heavily, and generally brings a dollar per bushel more than Crawford’s Early. Next to these I place Old Mixon, Hale’s Early and Early Crawford.”

Mr. Samuel Nelles: “I would give the Early Barnard preference over any other for profit. I would not give Hale’s Early room in my orchard. My Beatrice loaded heavily last year; they were of good size, and marketed much better than Hale’s Early.”

Mr. Ransom Smith would condemn Morris’ White and Late Crawford. He would name for profit Hale’s Early, Lemon Cling, Smock, Early Crawford and Early Barnard.

Mr. Wesley Smith found the Hale’s more profitable than any other; on his soil they grew to a fine size. He would also recommend the Early Rivers.

Mr. B. Nelles thought the Early Purple should not be passed over, for it bore crops when others failed. He said the Early Rivers grew to a fine size. Perry’s July was not large, but very early. He counted the Early Barnard best of any for canning, having an excellent flavor.

Mr. Jonathan Carpenter said the Early Barnard was his favorite.

Mr. Orr, of Stoney Creek, said the fruit of Perry’s July was small, and not to be compared with High’s Early. On heavy red clay he had got one peck of Crawfords off a tree three years planted.

Mr. J. H. Grout thought Hale’s Early had received more than its fair share of abuse; it had brought $2.00 per bushel in the village last season without the trouble of marketing. He had seen beautiful specimens of the Alexander shipped from Grimsby during the past season, and he thought them worthy of much attention.

Mr. J. G. Teneycke finds all white fleshed very hard to sell. He said, “I can’t give them away. I have received $3.00 per bushel for Hale’s Early more often than for any other kind. High’s Early clings more than the Hale’s. All those early ones are very small, and only sell well when there are few in the market. I can sell two bushels of Smock to one of Lemon Cling. I would plant Early Purple if I were in the vinegar business; and as for Stump the World, I would stump the world for a poorer one; it is too acid. It does not succeed here as it does in the south.”

Mr. E. J. Woolverton said if he were planting 500 trees he would plant as follows: Alexander, 15; High’s Early, 15; Hale’s Early, 10; Early Purple, 10; Honest John, 5; Mountain Rose, 30; Early Crawford, 300; Foster, 25; Old Mixon Free, 40; Late Crawford, 10; Lemon Cling, 30; Smock, 20.

The next question, viz: “The most profitable varieties of pears for this section,” was introduced by J. G. Teneycke, who said he could not say much about pears for profit, but for fancy he might say a good deal. He would place the Tyson first among the summer varieties, and afterwards the following, in the order named: Bartlett, Beurre Bosc, Belle Lucrative, Beurre Clairgeau, Sheldon, Seckel, Howell, White Doyenne, Beurre d’Anjou, Vicar of Winkfield, Winter Nelis, Souvenir du Congres and Duchess d’Angouleme.

Mr. Thos. Orr fears to plant peaches for fear of the yellows, and pears because of the blight.

A good deal of discussion on the subject of the blight here followed.

Mr. Beverly Nelles did not think any variety of pear profitable on account of the blight.

Mr. Ransom Smith would not plant Osband’s Summer, because it is the first to blight. The Duchess he had kept till Christmas.

Mr. L. Woolverton would name as fair profitable varieties of pears the following list: Rostiezer, Bartlett, Louise Bonne de Jersey and Duchess d’Angouleme. Meeting then adjourned.

The evening session opened about seven o’clock, when the subject of “The most profitable varieties of grapes” was introduced by Mr. Murray Pettit. He considered grapes the most important fruit we can cultivate for profit. He placed the Concord and Delaware first; they are among grapes what the Baldwin and Greening are among apples. Next he placed Rogers’ 22, (or Salem), and next the Isabella, Rogers’ 15, (Agawam), Rogers’ 4, (Wilder). He counted the Isabella profitable because of its keeping qualities.

Mr. C. P. Carpenter named the Concord, Delaware, Rogers’ 3, 4, 9, 15, Iona and Rogers’ 22, (Salem).

Mr. Barnes, of Hamilton, condemned the Isabella; it does not ripen with him.

Mr. D. H. Grout said the Isabella was a grape of the past, only ripening about once in twelve years. The Catawba and the Diana both ripened well here.

Mr. S. Woolverton has Isabellas that ripen well on apple trees.

Mr. Ransom Smith placed Salem first for profit; it bears well, and brings the best price in the market.

Mr. Pettit said the Champion was poor in quality, but profitable on account of its earliness.

Mr. C. P. Carpenter thought the three varieties best for profit were the Delaware, Concord and Rogers’ No. 4.

Mr. A. H. Pettit had picked a ton and a quarter of Concords off one hundred vines during the past season, and had received for them the sum of $129.00.

Mr. Barnes gave the following as his list for profit, viz: Delaware, Rogers’ No. 4, a good shipper, and keeps till March 1st in box with chaff; Rogers’ No. 3 sells well in Montreal as a red grape; Rogers’ No. 9 and 22. The last mentioned does not ripen well at Hamilton, but it ripens nicely at St. Catharines. The Concord he would place at the bottom of the list, because it is a poor shipper.

Dr. Read finds Concord injured by too high cultivation. He thought people pruned the grape too much, and would get better crops by longer pruning.

The next question taken up was “The Yellows, its nature and remedy.” Dr. Watt being unable to be present, sent in a paper on the subject, which will appear in the next number.

Mr. Pettit had instances of it, but cut down the trees as fast as it appeared.

Mr. Jonathan Carpenter did not agree with Mr. Downing that Yellows are produced on poor soil; nor by poor cultivation, for it appears under the best cultivation. The U. S. Commissioner appointed to investigate the matter declares it to be a fungous growth, and hence the only remedy is the destruction of the trees.

Mr. Adolphus Pettit thought it spread from pollen. He had set some trees from the south about eight years ago, but the disease did not spread to other trees until blossoms were developed.

Mr. E. J. Woolverton agreed with Mr. Pettit, because a branch only is sometimes diseased; evidently the work of bees about blossoming time. He had cut down about 25 trees in his orchard of about 2,000.

In the absence of Mr. A. M. Smith, who was appointed to introduce the subject of small fruits, the meeting proceeded to take up the last, and to the ladies present the most interesting subject of the evening, viz: “The cultivation of flowers.” Mr. J. H. Grout introduced this subject by reading a paper.

After some further discussion the meeting adjourned.


A table of contents has been added for convenience.

Obvious printer errors including punctuation have been silently corrected.

Inconsistencies in spelling have been preserved.

[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 03, No. 05 edited by D. W. Beadle]