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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 03

Date of first publication: 1878

Editor: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: Aug. 25, 2014

Date last updated: Aug. 25, 2014

Faded Page eBook #20140882

This eBook was produced by: Marcia Brooks, David Edwards & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

The Canadian Horticulturist.

The Canadian Horticulturist

The Canadian Horticulturist

Table of Contents added for convenience

VOL. I.]MARCH, 1878.[NO. 3.

[Pg 33]


Apple cut in half showing core. Apple cut in half showing core.

At the Winter meeting some specimens of this apple were exhibited by P. C. Dempsey, Albury, Ont. Such was the attractive appearance of the fruit, and so many its apparent good qualities, that we have obtained from Mr. Dempsey all that he was able to learn of its history, and procured an outline of the apple for the information of the members. The outline was taken from a medium sized specimen, and gives a fair representation of the form of the fruit and average size. The apple originated in the eastern part of the County of Hastings. The tree is a very pretty, rapid and upright grower, the wood is dark brown, the leaves large, and of a dark green color. The fruit is borne on spurs upon the old wood, and the terminal points of the previous[Pg 34] season's growth. The tree produces a good crop every year. Mr. Dempsey states that his tree has been fruiting for five years, and the crop has proportionately increased every year. The apple varies from medium to large; somewhat conical in form; the color is bright red, splashed and mottled with dark red. The stem is long, slender, set in a deep, narrow, funnel-shaped cavity; calix closed, and set in a shallow, strongly ribbed basin, flesh a little coarse grained, white, tender, breaking and juicy, flavor very mild sub-acid, pleasant, and slightly aromatic. The fruit sells readily, commanding the highest rates. We think it is worthy of the attention of those who find it necessary to plant the hardier varieties on account of the severity of their climate.



When should Evergreens be transplanted, is a question which has been very often asked and as frequently answered. There is not a month in the year which has not been, from time to time, advocated as the proper season in which to perform this important work. But I believe the majority of those who have either written or spoken on this subject have stated the preferable time to be, in their judgment, from the middle of May to the middle or end of June in each year. I have known many to go so far as to say that this is the only time that it can be done with anything like safety. To this rule I wish to take exception, because the period named is that of the plant's greatest activity; consequently, a greater shock will be given to it by its removal at this particular period than at any other. It is now admitted by all who have given attention to the subject, and it is in accordance with both theory and practice, that the best time to transplant deciduous trees is when they are dormant, that is, not growing; some time between the falling of the leaf in Autumn and the bursting of the bud in Spring. In this severe climate it is usually done in the Spring of the year, as soon as the ground has become sufficiently dry and settled to work easily. There is nothing in the nature of Evergreens to prevent this rule from applying with equal, or even greater force to them. They, in[Pg 35] common with other trees, have their period of growth and their period of torpidity in each year, although no living tree can be said to be in a state of absolute torpidity at any time; they exhale moisture to some extent from their buds and small branches, and Evergreens from their leaflets also, even in the depth of Winter. In order to supply this waste they must absorb by the roots, so that a circulation, however sluggish, is maintained even at this period of the year. To transplant in the Fall or Winter would be to cut off a great many of the roots that run to the greatest depth into the soil out of the reach of frost, so that the tree would be prevented from obtaining the moisture requisite to maintain life. Therefore I would not recommend Fall or Winter as the season most suitable for transplanting Evergreens. The comparative leisure of the season might induce planters to perform the work in the Fall in milder climates than ours. I have found the first Winter to be a trying time in some years for Evergreens that were transplanted the previous Spring. In May and June the plant is putting forth its utmost efforts to produce the annual growth of wood; absorption, exhalation, and circulation are in their states of greatest activity, and the plant receives a rude shock when these are suddenly interrupted. By transplanting in the early Spring the earth will have time to settle about the roots; young fibrous roots will have commenced to grow, and the plant will not attempt to produce the same amount of annual growth that it would if not removed until June. The sap of Evergreens is resinous, and if the plant be long exposed out of the ground the watery portion of the sap evaporates, allowing the resin to harden, and no amount of water afterwards applied to the roots will soften it, as it is insoluble in water at ordinary temperature, the circulation consequently can never be restored, and the plant of necessity must die. Now this state of affairs is more likely to be brought about in Summer than in the Spring, when we have cooler weather and a greater number of cloudy days. I would recommend early Spring as the best time to transplant Evergreens. It is not contended that Evergreens cannot be transplanted with success at other seasons, but all other things considered, I believe the transplanting of them in early Spring reduces the chances of failure to a minimum. If they are taken up with a large ball of earth adhering to the roots, large trees even may be safely transplanted at any season; this however is too slow and expensive a process[Pg 36] for large plantations. I have planted some hundreds of Evergreens, and my experience agrees with what I have stated above, as to time. The planting of shelter belts by the orchardist is now thought to be necessary before he can be said to have completed his arrangements for the successful growth of fruit, and the planting of two or three rows of Evergreens will have more effect in protecting an orchard from the cold winter winds than many rows of deciduous trees, which have nothing but their naked stems and branches to offer as a resistance; hence the importance of the subject that I have thus briefly discussed. Tree planting is one of unsurpassed importance to the fruit grower of the present day; and the free discussion of such questions in a periodical such as the Canadian Horticulturist, must be mutually instructive and beneficial.

I wish to say, before closing, that I was much surprised and highly gratified on receiving, one day this week, the first number of the Canadian Horticulturist. It will supply a long felt want, it being the first publication of the kind in Canada, so far as I know. The one mysterious thing to me is, how the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario can supply so much, for the member's annual fee of one dollar. The Directors are entitled to the lasting gratitude of the members; and I trust their laudable efforts to promote the interests of fruit growing in Ontario may be crowned with unbounded success.


A member of the Association writing from Garafraxa, wishes us “to give some information as to the best way of getting rid of the green cabbage worm; it is a great pest in this quarter.” We have much pleasure in referring him to the entomological part of the Report for 1877, at page 7, where it is stated by P. C. Dempsey, of Albury, that hot water had been successfully used to destroy the worms; that the cabbage would bear an application of water heated to 200° of Fahrenheit without injury, while even at a somewhat lower temperature it would kill the worms. The hot water can be applied through the rose of a common garden watering-pot. He also stated that a cold infusion of Quassia, in the proportion of three pounds to a barrel of water, had been[Pg 37] found to be effectual in killing the worms, and more conveniently applied than hot water. The Quassia might give a slightly bitter taste to the cabbage unless thoroughly washed before cooking, but it is perfectly harmless to the human system.

At page 5 of the same Report, he will find that the President of the Entomological Society gives him the cheering information that the little parasite, Pteromalus puparum, is on the increase here, hence there is a good time coming, when the ravages of this pest to our cabbages will be very much lessened. And this hope was previously held out to us at page 40, of the entomological part of the Report for 1876. Some methods of lessening the numbers of this butterfly are suggested at page 32 of the entomological part of the Report for 1875, and a full description of the insect, with engravings of male and female butterfly, of the worm and of the chrysalis, are also given.



Among other useful magazines of the month, I wish to greet in terms of welcome that particular one which the Directors of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario have put forth, not unlike what Noah did when he loosed the dove from the ark, to secure for the lovers of fruits and flowers so desirable a medium for exchanging horticultural thoughts and experiences. May the Canadian Horticulturist prove a welcome visitor each month to those who seek the festive regions of Pomona and Flora. I take its humble beginning as a pledge of future greatness, and am convinced that the numbers of the F. G. A. will make it a credit to our Province by frequent contributions of useful matter.

Farmers' wives and daughters, among whom, I am happy to say, is growing up a most worthy and refined taste for flowers and fruits, will find it to their advantage to ask questions through this convenient medium, as to the finest, best, and most suitable flowers with which to deck their lawns and ornament the garden-plot attached to their rural homes. What can add more to the charms of these quiet homes than nicely kept borders of blooming flowers, unless indeed it be the ruddy[Pg 38] glow of health on the cheeks of the maidens who tend and care for these lovely pets of Summer. They are the true Canadian daughters who thus labor to make home attractive, and secure the love of father, the approval of mother, the affection of brother, and finally gain for themselves, as a just reward, the deep and lasting love of the appreciative man, who has been watching and waiting to take as his wife to his own home, the girl who knows so well how to strew life's thorny path with beautiful flowers. He knows, without further instruction, that she will make that home an Eden.

Many a time, weary with the day's hard digging, have the pains of my own toils vanished when looking over and admiring the well-kept borders of petunia, phlox, pansy, heliotrope, and asters, placed in front of my humble cottage by the loving hands of those who know so well the attractive force of flowers; there have I sat, in the quiet glow of golden sunset, enjoying to the full their brilliant tints and grateful fragrance; the hard lines of life's toil for the time quite forgotten, in delightful communion with these smiling daughters of Flora. Let us then cultivate flowers, and have all the talk we can touching these pledges of love from the full hand of nature.


Cyclamen plant in blossom. Cyclamen plant in blossom.

We wish to call attention to this beautiful and easily grown flower, both on account of the ease with which it can be cultivated, especially as a window plant in a cool room, and the abundance of flowers which it will yield in the months of January and February, when flowers are greatly appreciated. Probably many of our readers are not familiar with it, and therefore in order that they may have a better idea of its general appearance than can be given by any description, we have obtained, through the courtesy of Mr. Jas. Vick, of Rochester, N. Y., the accompanying[Pg 39] engraving, which is a very accurate representation of the plant in flower.

The Cyclamen can be propagated successfully only from seed, but as that is a somewhat tedious process, requiring two, and sometimes three years to produce corms of sufficient size to flower, the process of raising them will not now he dwelt upon. The corms, already grown to sufficient size for flowering, can be purchased of the nurserymen and florists for fifty cents apiece, and when once procured, with proper treatment, will last many years. They are called corms because they are solid and not formed, as bulbs are, of imbricated scales.

Most persons will purchase their Cyclamens when in flower, and therefore we commence our hints on their culture at this point. When you have brought them home, place them in the window, as close to the glass as possible, where they will have abundance of light; they do not require much heat, even when in flower; indeed they flourish better and hold their flowers longer where the temperature is not raised higher than sixty-five. They should be watered with care, not allowing the soil to become dry, nor, on the other hand, to be kept soaked with water. When they have finished flowering, they should be slowly ripened off, withholding water gradually, and exposing them fully to the sun and air. After they are thoroughly ripened, it is the writers practice to plunge the pots into a bed on the north side of a building or tight board fence, where they will be sheltered from the full power of the sun. The pots are plunged deep enough to cover the corms with soil to the depth of a couple of inches. Here they can be safely left until September, unless mice find them, if they do they will surely devour them. About the first of September they should be taken up, knocked out of the pots, and repotted in fresh soil. Do not use large pots, one that will receive the corm nicely is large enough, the same pot often answering for two or more years. A soil composed of well-rotted turf, decayed leaves, and sand, in about equal parts, will be found well adapted to them. The addition of a little pounded charcoal, or soot from the chimney, is thought to add to the depth of color of both leaves and flowers. In potting, put plenty of broken crock or bits of charcoal in the bottom of the pot, so as to give it good drainage, then fill with soil and plant the corm so that the top of it will be level with the rim of the pot, and one third of it above the surface of the soil;[Pg 40] now water sufficiently to settle the soil, place them in a cool, shady place, where they can be protected from frosts, if frosty nights should come, and water very sparingly, only giving sufficient to keep the soil damp. When the weather becomes so cool that it is prudent to take them in, put them in the window where they can have plenty of air and light, but where the thermometer will not indicate a temperature above fifty degrees, and continue to water them sparingly. In watering do not pour the water over the corm, but on to the soil below. Some place the pots in saucers, and give water when needed by pouring it into the saucers. The great secret of success lies in keeping the plants in a cool temperature until they begin to bloom, and not allowing the soil to become overcharged with water. When they begin to bloom they may be allowed a temperature as high as sixty-five°, and will require to be watered more freely.

The leaves of Cyclamen Persicum are heart shaped, toothed on the edge, dark green in color with marblings of gray. The flowers are raised above the foliage on long foot stalks, as shown in the engraving, and are either white, with a rosy purple centre, or rosy lilac throughout, with a deepened shade at the centre. They are very free bloomers, the individual blooms continue a long time, and the succession is kept up for months. Mr. Vick says of them, very truly, in his catalogue, “They are particularly adapted for window culture, and will give more flowers with less trouble than almost any plant with which we are acquainted.”


We have not been able to see any marked superiority in the Conover's Colossal Asparagus over that in use long before Conover was born. Some of the best samples of this new sort were sent to the exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society a few years ago, but they were badly beaten by the common sort, which was both larger and heavier, though it laid no claim to being colossal. Cultivation will make colossal buds, neglect will make but pigmies, in this as in everything else.[Pg 41]



The following suggestions by one of the Directors of the Fruit Growers' Association, are taken from the Morrisburg Courier, and deserve careful attention from all fruit growers who have to contend with a climate similarly severe:

To any one of common observation, I think it must be evident that the cultivation of the orchard has not been a success among us. Old orchards, with few exceptions, are comparatively worthless, and their place is not being well supplied. Appearances are that our farmers will soon have to procure from a distance, and at unnecessary expense, their supply of that most healthy and favorite of all fruits, the apple, which they should have in abundance, and at little cost, at home. The fault does not lie in that trees enough have not been planted; nurserymen and tree planters can vouch for that. The natural question comes to be, wherein lies the cause of failure? Many reasons are advanced, such as poor trees, our severe winters, &c. No doubt these have much to do with it, but much can be done to help us out of these difficulties. I suggest first, that we want hardy trees, and if I succeed in naming to your readers trees really hardy for this neighborhood, I think I will have gained one point. Any little knowledge I may have in the matter I have learned from observation, and rather dear bought experience. When I planted my first orchard, I thought I had so well posted myself up in the opinion of good authorities, that success was a certainty, but soon discovered my mistake. As to varieties, Downing names hundreds that will thrive well in his favored climate on the banks of the Hudson, that are of no value to us here. The same may be said of many of our large growers in the West, and other milder climates. Some trees succeed here that are worthless in the Ottawa valley. Many trees are classed in the catalogues as hardy that will not stand our Winters; of these I'll name a few I am convinced will never be profitable with me, nor do I think they will thrive in our neighborhood, viz: Rhode Island Greening, Wagner, Northern Spy, Baldwin, and Spitzenburg. I have tried them all repeatedly, and they will not answer; I wish they would, as they are all first class apples. True, they are all hardy kinds, but not hardy[Pg 42] enough for our locality. Under favorable circumstances some of them might live, but my advice is, leave them alone. Then most catalogues give us long lists of so called hardy apples, (too many to mention), that are worthless here; I'll pass them over, and name some of those I have tried, and have no hesitation in recommending. As to Summer apples I can say little, as, excepting a few for family use, I don't consider them profitable. Red and White Astracan, and Brockville Beauty are good kinds. Tetofsky and Early Harvest are well recommended. Autumn apples; Fameuse or Snow, St. Lawrence, and Duchess of Oldenburg, are quite reliable, and deserve all the praise they get. Seek-no-Further is a good apple, but I have found the tree short lived. Emperor Alexander is well spoken of. Winter apples; here my list will be small, but I think reliable: Talman's Sweet, Pomme Grise, American Golden Russet, and McIntosh Red. Of the latter variety it is said in the Canada Farmer for 1875, p. 125: “The parent tree originated where it now stands, in Matilda, Dundas Co. Ont., some seventy years ago, and has borne every year since the oldest inhabitants can remember, and is still perfectly hardy, the apple also being good in every respect. It has been propagated from, and distributed in the neighborhood, and evidence is given of the most positive character, as to the hardiness, productiveness, and longevity of the tree, and the quality, size and keeping properties of the apple.” I have not had this variety long enough in my orchard to speak positively of its bearing qualities, but the few apples I have had, are equal to the description, and my trees are healthy and hardy. I planted in faith sixty trees last Spring, and ten some years ago. I would be inclined to try a few of the Baxter and Peach Apples, both Winter kinds, and well spoken of.

Many of your readers, when they come to the end of my list, will say (and they are right,) the number of Winter apples, the good long-keeping fellows we like to have in the Spring, are reduced to very few. I don't pretend to say the above are all the good Winter apples that will succeed here, but it is all I have found to succeed, and I will feel under obligation to any one in these counties who will name one or more other kinds faithfully tried and found good. Although my list is small, there is in it enough to have a good supply of apples nearly the year round, for home consumption and the market. When speaking[Pg 43] of the very limited number of varieties that will succeed here, an experienced nurserymen gave me the advice which I will pass to your readers: “Buy your Winter apples; grow and sell Fameuse to pay for them.” I believe the advice on the whole to be good; would, however, recommend planting a few of the kinds above recommended. The Fameuse I consider decidedly the most desirable tree to plant, a hardy tree, an early and abundant bearer, and a universal favorite. Last Fall, from two trees of this variety, I gathered 17 barrels of apples, and sold them for $51. “Tall figures,” perhaps some will say, but true.

Charles Downing, the great American Pomologist, says that the McIntosh Red is an apple of medium size or above, skin whitish yellow, very nearly covered with dark rich red or crimson, almost purplish in the sun; flesh white, fine, very tender, juicy, sub-acid, refreshing, with a peculiar, slightly quince-like flavor. In use from November to February.



Some enquiries having been made at the Winter meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association, in February last, regarding phosphates, the following facts may not be without interest.

Deposits of the richest description of this ore are found on the River du Lievre, which flows into the Ottawa river, 18 miles below Ottawa city. Scientific analysis has proved beyond doubt that these beds of phosphates are decidedly the richest ever mined in any quarter of the globe, ranging, as they do, from 85 to 95 per cent. The rocks bearing this mineral are traced through five townships, and though the area is scarcely yet known to a certainty, owing to the country not having yet been cleared up, and the localities being covered with moss, leaves, trees, shrubs, and soil; it is not improbable that it extends over many miles of territory, besides penetrating to a considerable depth into the earth's crust. In many places the deposits are high up in the hills, the country about the section in which the phosphates are found being of a very uneven and broken nature. Already a number of enterprising individuals are engaged in getting out large quantities for shipment[Pg 44] this Spring, and though this industry has been greatly retarded by reason of the small quantity of snow that has fallen during the Winter, yet it is expected that some four thousand tons will be delivered on the banks of the Ottawa or on the navigable waters of the Lievre, ready for shipment in barges, either to New York city or to Montreal, where it will be reshipped to Britain, France, Germany, and Spain. The price realized per ton is about $15, which varies according to the assay, when deposited on the wharf. In Liverpool or New York it is worth, in its crude state, from $28 to $32 per ton; and when manufactured into superphosphate, by treatment with sulphuric acid, it brings $50 per ton on this continent. This manure is principally used, on this side of the Atlantic, in the southern States, where the climate is of a humid nature; further north, or in Canada, it is stated it cannot be used with success, as our atmosphere is not sufficiently moist, and it would therefore lay inactive in the soil; should this apprehension prove to be correct, it can never come largely into use here until some means of irrigation is devised to dissolve it, so that it may be absorbed by the tender rootlets of young and growing plants. This fertilizer is principally used in England for turnips, and is drilled in with the seed. When applied to this crop it produces the most wonderful effects, stimulating the young plants to a rapid growth, thereby overcoming the ravages of the fly so destructive in its early stages.

The great rival to the Canada phosphate beds are those of South Carolina, which were opened ten years ago. I find by the United States, government returns, that in 1870 the sum of six millions of dollars was then invested by capitalists in working them, and the products from these mines have been shipped to Europe in large quantities. These phosphates are not nearly so pure as those on the Ottawa, yielding only 40 per cent., and as ours become better known in the old world, they will be the more sought after.

The Canadian phosphates supplied to the States are principally used there to mix with the poorer class received from South Carolina, which are manufactured into superphosphate at Brooklyn; the sulphuric acid used for treating the ores being that which has already done service in the coal oil refineries of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The margin is so great between the phosphate and the superphosphate, the former being worth $15, and the latter $50 per ton, that the question of[Pg 45] manufacturing an article ready for use ought to be seriously taken into consideration by some of our capitalists. The refuse sulphuric acid could no doubt be very cheaply had from the London and Hamilton oil refineries, and it would only be a question whether it would be better to convey the acid to the phosphate or the phosphate to the acid, as the latter is not a very easy thing to handle. Should it be found necessary to manufacture the acid, it is understood there is any quantity of material for the purpose in the eastern townships, both as regards copper pyrites and sulphur beds; and if our deposits of phosphates turn out anything like what present indications would lead one to expect, at no distant day large manufactories, both of the acid and of the superphosphates will be established, most probably near Montreal, that being the most central point for operations.



The former of these apples has a number of synonyms. From the peculiar tawny color of the skin, the French are in the habit of calling it “Pomme de Cuir.” English people, acquainted with its French name, call it “Gray Apple.” This designation suits its appearance exceedingly well, for it is singularly marked, and once known can never be forgotten. Its excellence in Canada cannot be called in question; unquestionably it is the finest dessert apple we have. It is of French origin, and holds the same relation to apples, as the Seckel does to pears. Its exceedingly marked peary flavor has recommended its cultivation wherever known. Several Summer apples are exquisite in their flavor, and of great beauty, but for modesty of look, and real genuine goodness, commend us to the Pomme Grise. Some find fault with its size; it is easy to find fault, in fact that is the commonest accomplishment of mankind. It bears prolifically, and this may in part account for its diminutive size. Great size and fruitfulness, seldom distinguish one variety of fruit. The tree is a strong grower, and requires no particular extra care. Its home, like that of the Fameuse or Snow Apple, is the isle of Montreal. It has taken kindly to its trans-atlantic location. Nor is this to be wondered at, Hamilton beach[Pg 46] is on the parallel of Cape Finisterre, on the north-west of Spain, and should St. Malo and neighborhood prove to be the country of its birth, it is not to be wondered at that it suits the climate of eastern Canada. It takes kindly to the soil of Ontario, and luxuriates in the western peninsula, succeeding more especially in the neighborhood of Niagara and Grimsby. We have never seen them excelled as grown on the Niagara river. The Messrs. Brown, perhaps, raise as good Pomme Grise as are grown anywhere. Mr. George Leslie, Jr., Toronto, has shown fine samples grown in his grounds, and the same may be said of samples from various parts of Yonge street.

We are led in the same connection to speak of the Swayzie Pomme Grise, so named, we have been told, from Col. Swayzie, an inhabitant of the Niagara District. Beadle's “Canadian Gardener” expresses the opinion that the apple originated on this farm. The original tree was blown down, the author says, during the Summer of 1870, and was standing in an irregular clump of apple trees, having the appearance of being the original seedling nursery, from which were raised the first apple trees planted out in orchard form on the farm. However this may be, we confidently affirm that this variety of apple is not as widely cultivated as it ought to be. To some tastes it is superior to its congener, the Pomme Grise. Certainly its flavor and delicacy go far to recommend it. It, too, might appropriately enough be called leather-skin, only it is of a lighter color than the Pomme Grise; sometimes with a blush on the cheek, and sometimes not, oftener with none. Both varieties are noble keepers, only fit for use about this season of the year. To those who have cultivated the varieties, and have plenty of them, it need not be said that they are as good for cooking as for dessert. Their dessert and cooking qualities are unexceptionable. The best mode, perhaps, to keep them is to store them in barrels, and only open when about to be used. Their long-keeping qualities commend them to dealers in fruit. We are not acquainted with any two other varieties more likely to give satisfaction to fruit growers than these. The F. G. A. of Ontario did well to disseminate the Swayzie Pomme Grise. It will find its way wherever tried, and prove a lasting comfort to the planter. We strongly advise fruit producers, especially the producers of apples, to largely plant winter varieties, as being profitable and satisfactory. Planting many varieties is like reading many books, apt to dissipate the energies.[Pg 47] For Winter use, few varieties can compare with the Pomme Grise, Swayzie Pomme Grise, Golden Russet of western New York, Grimes' Golden, Northern Spy, Esopus Spitzenburg, and Rhode Island Greening.


(Late a Director of the Fruit Growers' Association.)


The subject of this sketch was born in the parish of East Sutton, England, on the 13th day of January, 1813; and died in the city of Hamilton, March, 1878, at the age of sixty-five years. Previous to his emigration into Canada, which took place some time in the year 1843, he received his initial taste for fruits and flowers on his father's farm. Thus early and deeply imbued with a love for horticulture, at the age of thirty, Mr. John Freed left his native place and sailed for the United States of America. After remaining there but a few months he came to Canada, and took up his residence in the then town, but now city, of Hamilton, in the County of Wentworth, entering at once upon his loved occupation of gardening, and the production of trees for nursery stock, as affording him the best means of indulging his taste for the creation of new fruits and flowers. As soon as his limited means enabled him to put up a glass structure, the better to give him the requisite conditions and facilities to carry out his objects, he did so; and then commenced a system of cross fertilization, out of which has sprung some remarkable flowers, fruits and vegetables, among which we need only to name in the class Verbena, his “Wentworth,” “Total Eclipse,” “Sea Nymph,” and “Excelsis;” in class Petunia, his “Behemoth,” “Clipper,” “Stipe,” “Velvet Cushion,” “Crimson Glow,” and “Freed's Gem.” In class Geranium, are his “Wax Work,” “Gold Dust,” and many others, among which his “Mrs. Freed” stands unrivalled, half double, of exquisite pink color, and immense truss. Among fruits, his New Canadian Orleans Plum, of fine quality, is worthy of special mention. He also originated that fine crisp Dwarf Celery, so popular in the Hamilton market, and to which he gave his[Pg 48] own name. He, in connection with Dr. Craigie, of horticultural fame, succeeded in establishing in this locality for a time a strong public taste for the cultivation of our native flowers, and under this effort brought out some rare specimens of great beauty. He was connected for years with the Hamilton Horticultural Society, and its success, in a great degree, may be traced to his horticultural skill and perseverance. As one of the Directors of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, he was selected to take charge of our Canadian fruits at the great Centennial Exhibition held at Philadelphia, and performed that duty with great credit to our Province.

He was also an active member of the South Wentworth Agricultural Society, whose enthusiasm and untiring service will not be easily supplied. A good man has passed from out our ranks and gone to his rest,

“No more to walk into the garden,
As the white days lengthen,
To feel the pulse of nature,
And see her young life strengthen.
“And peer into the borders,
Pierced through with bud and sheath,
And fancy all that's doing
In secret underneath.
“Too well he knew she's working
Away from mortal sight,
With loom and still and palette,
Brushes, and colors bright.
“And weaving leaves and branches,
And filling honey cells,
And shaping stems and blossoms,
And fairy-cups and bells.”


In nearly every instance, lies in bringing the soil into close contact with the roots. It is not enough to throw the soil loosely over them, there is danger of hollows or cellars in which the roots, not being in contact with the soil, cannot absorb moisture so as to supply the waste by evaporation; pulverize the ground thoroughly and pack it firmly about the roots.

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious printer's errors including punctuation have been silently corrected with the exception of those listed below.

Page 36—Farenheit corrected to Fahrenheit.

Page 39—witholding corrected to withholding.

Page 43—pecular corrected to peculiar.

Page 44—Pensylvania corrected to Pennsylvania; betwen corrected to between.

[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 03 edited by D. W. Beadle]