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Title: The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 02

Date of first publication: 1878

Editor: D. W. Beadle

Date first posted: July 30, 2012

Date last updated: July 30, 2012

Faded Page ebook #20120747

This ebook was produced by: Marcia Brooks, David Edwards & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

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The Canadian Horticulturist.

The Canadian Horticulturist

The Canadian Horticulturist

Table of Contents added for convenience

VOL. I.]FEBRUARY, 1878.[NO. 2.

[Pg 17]


Some of the members of the Association who received a tree of this pear in the Spring of 1873, have had the satisfaction of seeing the fruit and testing its quality. Mr. A. Morse, of Smithville, County of Lincoln, in reporting upon the trees received from the Association, speaks of this fruit as being poor. His report, which is extremely laconic, does not explain in what respect he finds it poor, nor give any account of the soil in which the tree is planted, nor the exposure to sun and air in which it is growing. Our own experience with this variety does not, by any means, confirm the opinion given by Mr. Morse. We have found the tree to be a vigorous grower, forming a very handsome head, quite hardy, and no more subject to the pear-blight than its parent, the Flemish Beauty. The trees are growing in a gravelly loam, with a clayey bottom, and sheltered on the west by an apple orchard. The fruit is large, very uniform in size, and evenly distributed through the tree; the appearance, when ripe, is very handsome, the color being a pale lemon yellow, with splashes of crimson on the sunny side, and occasional patches of russet. The flesh is very fine grained, buttery, and juicy, with a very agreeable, sweet, vinous flavor. It ripens before the Bartlett, and like all summer pears, will not last long; indeed to be enjoyed at all, must be quickly consumed. It has the fault of its parent, namely that of decaying at the core, so that while the exterior is very beautiful and firm, giving the impression of soundness and perfection, the interior may be wholly decayed. It is quite possible, that to this peculiarity Mr. Morse may have more especial reference when he pronounces it poor.

It is possible, however, to remedy this fault to a very considerable extent by gathering the fruit before it is fully ripe. The exact time when to gather it can only be ascertained by experiment. In the case of the writer's soil and exposure, it will not do to let the fruit[Pg 18] remain on the tree so long as to change color to any great degree; and after it has been gathered, it should be eaten before the skin has put on all its beauty in crimson and gold, else it will be found to be only the glow of internal decay. We trust that Mr. Morse will have the patience to experiment with this pear yet a little longer, and give the readers of the Horticulturist the results of his further experience. The character given by Mr. Downing, who is acknowledged on all hands to be the best American authority on fruits, is that this is an extremely fine and valuable pear, ranking in quality as “very good,” which means next to “best.” The very hardy character of the tree makes it well worthy of trial in all the colder parts of the Province, where many of our very choice pear trees succumb to the rigor of the climate.


In the second number of the current volume of the Canadian Entomologist is a very interesting account of the discovery of some small creatures that feed on the eggs of the Tent Caterpillars. It is very gratifying indeed to the orchardist, to learn that he has help from any quarter in the work of destroying such pests as these. During the past summer, the Forest Tent Caterpillar swept over large tracts of country in the Counties of Perth and Middlesex, stripping the leaves from the trees in the orchards, as well as from those in the forest, and doing a vast amount of injury. The question was asked at the Summer meeting in Stratford, if this pest was likely to continue in such force in years to come; if so, the out-look for fruit in those parts was gloomy enough. It was bad enough to have to look after the common Tent Caterpillar, and keep that in subjection, but such an invasion of its congener, if likely to be continuous, was fearful to contemplate. The discovery, to which reference is now made, may help to answer the question, and to illustrate the wonderful measures adopted to keep in check all undue multiplication of our insect enemies, and so to preserve the balance of power.

group of 4 drawings

The distinguished editor of the Entomologist was devoting an evening to the microscopic examination of some cluster of eggs of both the American and the Forest Tent Caterpillar, when he noticed that[Pg 19] in many instances the gummy covering of the clusters was imperfect; that, here and there, a piece had disappeared, leaving the eggs bare, and in some cases the exposed eggs were empty. This circumstance induced him to cut into the affected clusters, which were found to be colonized by mites. They had evidently eaten into the eggs and devoured the young larvæ, and also consumed the missing patches of the glutinous covering. In some of the eggs the larvæ were found uninjured, while out of others would proceed several active little mites. Sometimes these mites were so small that five or more were found in a single egg-shell, with plenty of room and to spare. These, which he noticed were very active and nearly transparent, were doubtless young mites, not fully grown. The full grown mites were much larger, one of them nearly filling the egg-shell; these were of a pale-red color, with bright red eyes, and sluggish in their movements. On the outside of some of these egg-clusters, he found tiny pale-red eggs, which proved to be the eggs of these mites. On nearly every cluster that he examined, he found more or less of these mites. It is to be hoped that they are generally distributed over those parts of the country that have been infested by these Tent Caterpillars, if they are, they will help vastly in checking their undue multiplication.

As some of our readers may feel desirous of examining the egg-clusters of these Tent Caterpillars for themselves, we give an engraving, shewing the cluster as it will now be found, fastened around the twigs of the apple trees. They will be more easily seen in a cloudy day, and will be found near the ends of the shoots, not often more than a foot from the tip, and frequently but an inch or two. The gummy covering will prevent the individual eggs from being seen quite as distinctly as they are shewn in the engraving, it having been removed to shew the regularity of their position. This engraving represents the moth and egg-cluster of the Forest Tent Caterpillar. Fig. a shews a twig with the bracelet of eggs upon it, and b represents the moth with the wings expanded.[Pg 20]



In the report of the Fruit Growers' Association, the planting of timber belts as screens and wind-breaks for the protection of orchards was very properly mentioned as an important condition of success in fruit growing. In addition to the trees mentioned for this purpose, I would name the American arbor-vitæ for a low, dense growing and very effectual wind-break. It is very hardy, and can be obtained in almost any locality, it being found in all the Northern portion of the continent as far South as Pennsylvania. I approve of President Burnet's advice to plant the trees intended to form the timber belt in triple rows, but in the row of maple, or other deciduous trees, would plant an arbor-vitæ between every two deciduous trees, so as to fill the space between the trunks of the trees from the ground to where the branches commence. In this way a dense, low growth will be secured which will preserve a complete wind-break near the ground, when the other trees have lost their lower limbs and the larches have been taken for timber.


The second part of the Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has been received, through the politeness of Robert Manning, Esq., Secretary, from which we glean some very interesting information concerning several of the fruits that have recently been brought to the attention of cultivators. It is hardly necessary to state that the officers of that Society are gentlemen who are well informed on the subject of fruits of all kinds, and that the opinions expressed by them with regard to their excellencies or faults are entitled to the highest consideration.

At the strawberry show, which was held in the city of Boston, on the 27th of June, 1877, the first prize for the best four quarts of any variety was awarded to the Belle; the same variety took also the second prize, and likewise the first prize for the best fifty berries. This is one of the seedling strawberries raised by Mr. John B. Moore, who seems to have been more than usually successful in this field of[Pg 21] experiment; inasmuch as three of his seedling strawberries are mentioned in these transactions, the General Sherman, Hervey Davis, and Belle. The Belle is stated to be the largest of his seedlings, indeed the largest strawberry ever exhibited before the society, and the quality good. The General Sherman is spoken of as an early fruit, very large and handsome, and of “good” quality. The Hervey Davis is considered by Mr. Moore to be the most valuable seedling he has raised, it being very hardy, prolific, and early; fruit very large, quality very good to “best.” The fruit committee considered either of these seedlings to be in all respects superior to the Monarch of the West, or the Great American.

In our experience with new varieties of the strawberry, we have very often found that change of soil and climate make a great change also in the size and quality of the fruit, and the productiveness of the plant. There is not another variety in cultivation that has so universally accommodated itself to all soils and all climates as the Wilson. Many varieties have risen into a short-lived notoriety, a few yet remain that are generally cultivated in order to give variety and extent to the strawberry season, but we are fully persuaded that there are yet thousands of quarts of the Wilson grown and consumed, to every hundred quarts of any other sort. Time will tell whether these seedlings of Mr. Moore's raising, or any of them, will be able to rank in general usefulness equal to or above those we now have; meanwhile we hope that some of the members our Association will procure them, and give their opinion of the value they are likely to possess for us.

In peaches, we notice that the Foster has become exceedingly popular about Boston, for not only did it receive the prize for the best single dish, but that more of this variety was exhibited than of any other. It is a large, yellow fleshed peach, much resembling the Early Crawford, rich and juicy.

The variety of pear which attracted the most attention was the Souvenir du Congres; the specimens exhibited averaged a little over a pound each in weight, and the largest one measured seven inches in length. The fruit committee state that this new pear ranks in quality as “very good.” It originated with M. Morel, of Lyon-Vaise, France. The writer has found the tree to be a vigorous, healthy grower, but it has not yet fruited. He has however seen the fruit on exhibition, and noticed that it was of large size, having much resemblance in form to[Pg 22] the Bartlett, and ripening apparently about the same time, or possibly a little earlier. The color was a very handsome yellow, washed with carmine on the sunny side.

The great sensation in grapes was a seedling raised by Mr. John B. Moore. On the first of September it received the first prize for the best early grape. The committee state that on the fourth of September they visited Mr. Moore's farm and found several hundred vines of this grape, which is called Moore's Early, growing in near proximity to the Concord and Hartford Prolific, and that the Moore's Early was fully ripe, and bearing an abundant crop on all of the vines, while both of the other varieties were yet unripe, and seemed to require two or three weeks yet to bring them to maturity. The soil of the vineyard was a light sandy loam. This grape was first exhibited in 1872, and for the last four years has received each year the first prize for the best early grape. The committee recommended that the prize of sixty dollars be awarded to it for the best seedling grape.

A very good early grape is yet in demand. Most of our earliest grapes are deficient in some respect; the Eumelan is wanting in flavor; Hartford Prolific drops from the bunch; Creveling does not set its fruit well; Massasoit has small bunches, &c. We shall be most happy to receive from any member the result of his trial of Moore's Early, and to give it a place in these pages for the benefit of all.


Inquiry is made by Thomas E. Turnbull, Hall's Corners, Ontario Co., N. Y., as to the cause of the disease in the young apple trees known as “black fungi,” its description and remedy. It is a matter for congratulation indeed, if there be a disease to which any of our fruit trees are liable, and they have so entirely escaped it as to leave us in ignorance of its existence. The editor is very happy in being able to say that he does not know what that disease is. Young apple trees sometimes become what is termed black hearted, from improper fall pruning, and the equally improper attempt to grow them in undrained soil. If this be the subject of our correspondent's enquiry, we have given him the cause and cure.

He also asks “the cause of trees casting the bark to the height of[Pg 23] eight or ten inches from the ground; under the bark the wood looks dead, and the bark scales off in time. No sign of borers. Two trees stand in a garden and are well cultivated, another outside of the garden in sod. The trees are of the Spitzenburg variety, and twenty years old.” “Also on other trees of the same variety the bark dies in streaks on the body and limbs. Is it caused by borers?”

The reason why the bark scales off, is because the wood beneath is dead, but why the wood has died is a question not easily answered by one who is ignorant of all the peculiar conditions in which these trees are placed, save the information given in this inquiry. Also it is impossible, for the same reason, to say what is the cause of the death of the bark in streaks on the bodies and limbs of the other trees. Our correspondent should be able to ascertain by examination whether it is probably caused by borers.


In a previous number mention was made of this pretty flower, and of the satisfaction it gave to every one who had tried to grow it. We are now able, through the kindness of Mr. James Vick, of Rochester, N. Y., to present our readers with a neat illustration which will enable those not already acquainted with it, to form a very accurate conception of the appearance of the plant and flower.

potted plant in blossom.

It is one of those free, bright, cheery looking things, with something of a saucy air about it, that is ever reminding you of wildwood haunts and shady banks, where the fresh breezes toss the leaves, and toy with the flowers; and while you are enjoying their freshness and beauty, there steals into your mind the long forgotten melody of those witching words:

“I know a bank where the wild thime blows,
Where ox-lips, and the nodding violet grows.”

Such is their naturalness and air of vivacity that one never tires of them. You enjoy them to-day, and to-morrow they greet you with[Pg 24] such a look of welcome, and hold up their pretty faces to you with such a winning grace that you linger longer than yesterday. You cannot tell which to admire the most, the modest bashfulness of that double white which peeps out to you from under the leaves, or the challenging boldness of that single pink, whose laughing eye meets your gaze so roguishly. Double or single, white, pink, magenta or carnation, they have each their beauty, both of flower and leaf.

You can either purchase the plants at the florists, already in bloom; or, if you enjoy the pleasure of raising them yourself, you can procure the seed from your seedsman. If you undertake to grow them from seed, it will be necessary to provide some light fibrous loam, well mixed with fine sand. Fill a small flower pot nearly half full of potsherds broken quite small, place over these a thin layer of moss to keep the soil from choking the drainage, and finish with your mixture of loam and sand. Now immerse your pot to the rim in water, until the moisture appears at the surface, then let the surplus water drain out, and sow the seed thinly over the surface of the soil. Now sift a very little of the very finest sand over the seeds, or what is better for the beginner, gently press the seed into the soil with some very smooth surface, such as a piece of glass, cover the pot with a light of glass, and set it in the north window of a warm room. In a couple of weeks the young plants will appear, and should be exposed to the light as much as possible, but not to the direct rays of the sun. When they need watering, it is safer to give it by immersing the pot in tepid water, until the soil is sufficiently moistened, than to apply it with a watering pot, unless you have one with a very fine rose. When the plants have become large enough to handle, transplant them separately into thumb-pots, well drained at the bottom, and filled with the same sort of soil that you used before, place them in a window where the sun will not strike them, give them plenty of air, and do not allow the temperature of the room to rise above sixty-five degrees. As fast as the roots fill the pots, shift into other pots a little larger in size, and do not check their growth by neglect. During the summer plunge them into a frame on the north side of some building, and when the nights begin to get chilly in the early part of September, return them to the window where you wish them to bloom. As soon as the flower buds form, be careful not to wet them when watering, lest they should rot.

[Pg 25]

If your seed was sown early, say in February, and your plants have grown well, they will begin to bloom before Christmas, and continue to yield a succession of flowers until June. When they have done blooming give them a rest of about six weeks, then pot them off into larger pots with fresh soil, and keep them growing, shifting to larger sizes as fast as they fill the pots with roots, if you wish to produce large, showy plants. If you do not wish to have large plants you can cut off the shoots and use them as cuttings, if you prefer this course, for any reason, to raising a fresh lot from seed.


This distinguished man of science died at his home, near Cleveland, Ohio, on the 11th of December, 1877, at the advanced age of eighty-four years. To those who are now passing the meridian of life, he was well known as a most earnest student of nature, working diligently in several fields, with the fidelity and pains-taking of an enthusiastic admirer. His labors in the cultivation of fruits, and especially his experiments in the hybridization of cherries, have made his name familiar to every fruit grower. It is to him that we are indebted for that beautiful early cherry, the Governor Wood, which has been extensively disseminated throughout the sweet-cherry region of Ontario. Over twenty varieties of sweet-cherries, originated by him, are now in cultivation, conspicuous among which, besides the one already named, are his Black Hawk, Kirkland's Mary, and Rockport Bigarreau.

Dr. Kirkland was born at Wallingford, in the State of Connecticut, on the 10th of November, 1793. His love of nature manifested itself in his early boyhood; the habits of all living things that had their haunts near his childhood's home were familiar to him, and at the early age of twelve years he was trying experiments in the raising of silkworms. His grandfather bequeathed to him his medical library, and sufficient means to enable him to obtain a medical education. He entered the medical department of Yale College at its opening, and was the first student on its matriculation roll. After pursuing the practice of his profession for several years in his native State, he accepted the chair of theory and practice of medicine in the Ohio Medical College,[Pg 26] at Cincinnati, which he filled for five years with great ability and acceptance. In 1837 he purchased a farm, situate five miles west of Cleveland, where he made his home for the rest of his life. Here he pursued his favourite experiments in fruit culture and hybridization, and here he raised those hybrid cherries that have added so much to the pleasure and comfort of many a lover of fruit. During the period of his residence here he superintended the natural history department of the first geological survey of Ohio, and prepared a series of reports, which have been esteemed most valuable contributions to natural history. His large collection of specimens he donated to the Cleveland Society of Natural Sciences, where they are now jealously treasured. His was a busy life, down to its very close; for his temperate habits and genial spirits had preserved his vigor even to old age. May his mantle fall upon some of our young men who shall, with like tireless energy, take up the work of scientific fruit culture, and carry it on to yet fuller and richer results.


The Turnip-rooted Beets are usually grown for summer use, because they mature early. For many years the variety known as the Early Blood Turnip-Beet has been held in high estimation, both on account of its rich color, and good flavor. Then came the Early Bassano, not so dark in color, yet presenting a beautiful alternation of white and rose when cut into slices, and maturing a little earlier than the Blood Turnip-Beet. Within a few years a variety known as the Egyptian Blood Turnip-Beet has been gaining a place in our gardens. It is rich in color, tender and sweet, and comes to maturity the earliest of them all. On this account it is a favorite with market-gardeners, who often find it to their advantage to be able to supply their customers early in the season.

Beets delight in a rich and mellow soil. In cold and damp soils they are apt to be coarse and of poor flavor. The seed may be sown as early in the season as the ground can be worked. It should be planted in drills, eighteen inches apart, and two inches apart in the drill, and at a depth of an inch and a half. The seed will germinate[Pg 27] more certainly and quickly if it be first soaked for a few hours in warm water, just before planting. When the young plants have grown to a height of about three inches they will require to be thinned out so as to stand from four to five inches apart. The young Beets that are pulled up in thinning out make most excellent greens, cooked tops and all. By taking out only a part at a time, the table can be supplied with these greens for some days.

In growing beets for table use it is not wise to endeavor to have them as large as it is possible to grow them. Overgrown beets are usually coarse, and lacking in flavor. A good beet is close and compact, fine grained, free from fibre, and smooth. For winter use the writer is in the habit of making a second sowing of the Early Blood Turnip-Beet about the end of June; these will keep sweet and good until June, if stored in a cold cellar—if kept in a warm cellar they lose their freshness and flavor.



After considerable experience in grafting old orchards on different farms, I have come to the decided conviction that it is better to plant out young, grafted trees of the sorts desired, than to graft over an orchard of old trees. I wished to change an orchard of Northern Spy, which had just begun to bear, into Baldwins; and thinking that the grafting of these thrifty young trees could be done to as good advantage as it ever could in any case, I put in from four to six grafts into each tree, which cost me about the same as new trees. Now I am not at all pleased with my work. The symmetry and beauty of the tree-top is destroyed, and after the best has been done that can be done to develop well-balanced tops from these grafts, they will have the appearance of having been bungled. In the case of old trees it is worse yet; it is more expensive, because more grafts must be set, more trimming done, and the work performed at great disadvantage. It is not, in my opinion, profitable to make such an orchard as satisfactory in appearance or as profitable in the end, as an orchard newly planted with young trees. The old trees will pay for the new trees if dug up[Pg 28] by the roots in early Spring and cut up into stove-wood. I had a large orchard of old apple trees which I had dug up for twelve and a half cents each, and produced nearly an average of a cord of wood to a tree. The wood was worth enough, and more than enough, to pay for my new orchard of young trees, and when grown they will be far better than I could possibly have made the old trees by grafting them over.



(Continued from page 11, No. 1.)

When the little caterpillar of the Cecropia Moth has eaten its way out of the egg, and makes its first meal on the empty egg-shell, it presents itself to us as a little, slim, black creature, with shining black knobs on its body, from which arise hairs of the same color. Being blessed with an excellent appetite, its growth is very rapid; and soon its skin becomes uncomfortably tight, when it is ruptured, and after much labor the little thing wriggles itself out of it; which process is repeated several times before the caterpillar attains its full growth. After each of these changes, or moultings, as they are called, the larvæ appears in an altered as well as an enlarged garment, and finally, when full grown, it attains the size and assumes the appearance presented in[Pg 29] Fig. 3, and a very handsome creature it is.

caterpillar on twig. Fig. 3.
fly Fig. 5.

Its body is of a pale green color, and is ornamented with large warts or tubercles; these are coral red on the third and fourth rings of the body, while all the others are yellow, excepting those on the second and terminal segments, and the smaller tubercles along the sides, which are blue.

Fig. 4. grub. Fig. 4.

During its rapid and enormous growth it consumes an immense amount of vegetable food, and especially as it approaches maturity is its voracious appetite apparent. Where one or two have been placed on a young apple tree, they will often strip it entirely bare before they have done with it, and greatly damage the tree, and sometimes endanger its life by preventing the proper ripening of the wood.

fly Fig. 6.

The natural ratio of increase of this insect being very great, nature has provided means to curtail it. Being a somewhat conspicuous object, the larvæ sometimes serve as a dainty meal for some of the larger insectivorous birds, but is much oftener attacked and destroyed by parasites of several distinct species, all of which, in the larvæ state, live within the body of the caterpillar, and rioting on its substance finally occasion its death. One of these is shown in Fig. 4, a fat, legless grub or maggot, which is the progeny of a handsome four-winged fly, of a yellowish brown color, known as the long-tailed ophion fly, (Ophion Macrurum,) Fig. 5. The female fly deposits her eggs on the skin of her victim, fastening them firmly there; these, when hatched, eat their way through the exterior, and at once begin to feed upon the fatty parts within.

fly Fig. 7.

A two winged fly, known as a Tachina fly, very similar if not identical with the species known as the red-tailed Tachina fly, Exorista Militaris, figure 6, is often found infesting[Pg 30] the Cecropia Caterpillar. The larvæ of this fly are of a translucent yellow color, and when mature, eat their way out of their victim and change to the chrysalis state under the ground. There are also two smaller species of parasites, known as Chalcis flies, which are destructive to this insect; one of these, (Chalcis Maria,) is shown in Fig. 7, much enlarged, the cross lines at the side showing the natural size.



I should be glad if in the next number of the Horticulturist the editor would say whether he has seen or heard of a sort of blight or mildew which here has fallen on the black currants, and which, if it spreads, will put an end to the culture of that fruit. I have some beautiful black Naples bushes from which I have never had any perfect fruit; although a man who knows something about it said the other day, I ought to have half a bushel of currants from each tree. Soon after the foliage is fully developed, I observe here and there that the leaves begin to assume an upright tendency around the edges; underneath I find an almost invisible film, which however is so slight that I can assure myself of its presence only by passing my fingers over the under side of the leaves, after which there is a perceptible “stickiness,” which contact with healthy leaves does not produce. This continues to increase till the film becomes white, and passes over on to the upper side of the leaf in the form of mildew. This subsequently becomes brown, and the leaf, or part of it, will crumble as if scorched with fire. The power of the leaf is evidently destroyed before this stage; the fruit is arrested in its growth, and even that which is tolerably matured is dry[Pg 31] and almost useless. I can detect no trace of insect life, nor could a well-known entomologist, who looked at them last summer, suggest the cause. I treated them with whale-oil soap in strong solution, and though I fancied that it retarded the growth of the evil it had no ultimately good effect. I have cut them back rather closely and propose to try salt on one row and sulphur on another. The land is light and warm, but well enriched; but land equally poor, not far off, had good fruit on it, while mine yielded nothing.

Not only in my own interest, but in that of others, I should be glad if some of our skilled fruit growers could give their attention to this matter.

[Note.—Not having noticed this mildew, the editor requests any members who have been troubled with it to give their method of treatment.]


There is an increasing inquiry for plants of this most excellent vegetable, which indicates that it is becoming better appreciated, and that our people are increasing the variety of vegetables upon their tables. For a long time the only variety of vegetable enjoyed by the great proportion of our people was the potato. Very little attention was paid to the garden by our farmers, many of them had none at all; the only green peas were the poor, wretched things which were taken from the field—plundered from the swine, to which they properly belonged; and perhaps a few ears of green corn, in their season, from the corn-field. Rich, marrowfat peas, and sweet corn, were things almost unknown. It is very pleasant indeed, to notice a growing inquiry for better vegetables, and more of them.

One of the earliest that we have, much like rich green peas, coming with the sunny days of early spring, glad harbinger of other delights, is the Asparagus. As soon as the snows are gone, and the soil becomes warmed by the sun, the buds of the Asparagus begin to shew themselves above ground, and as soon as they have attained a few inches in height, may be broken off at the surface and cooked for the table. Many use them as they would green peas, cutting the sprouts into small pieces, cooking and serving them in the same manner. Others[Pg 32] boil them whole until they become soft, spread them upon some toasted bread, and pour melted butter over the whole. Others again treat them as greens, dressing them with vinegar.

clump of Asparagus

This little cut, which was obtained from Mr. Vick, of Rochester, shews the root with the buds growing up from it, and will give to many who are not familiar with the plant a good idea of its appearance. These roots can be purchased of nurserymen and market gardeners at very moderate cost, and planted out in a bed in the garden where they will continue for many years. The bed should be prepared by deep spading, and be well enriched and thoroughly pulverized. Trenches may be cut across the bed about six inches deep, and eighteen inches apart, and the plants set in the trenches nine inches from each other, and covered with two or three inches of soil. The best time for setting them out is in the Spring, from, say the middle of April to the middle of May.

Salt is a special manure which may be applied to our Asparagus beds with great benefit in this inland region. It should be spread over the surface of the ground only in the Spring, before the buds appear, at the rate of three pounds of salt to the square yard. Asparagus is a marine plant, hence an application of salt in sufficient quantity to destroy weeds, only supplies that, which in our inland country, is needed for the health and vigor of the plant.

A word about cutting the buds for use. In most of our works on gardening we are directed to cut them two or three inches below the surface, exercising great care not to cut off, in the operation, the buds which are coming up, but yet unseen. But why we should be at so much pains, and run so much risk of injuring the buds that lie hid under ground, merely for the sake of securing a portion of the stalk, which though it looks white and tender, is really tough and useless, is not easily understood. We prefer to cut them off just at the surface, thereby securing all that is eatable, and avoiding all risk of injuring the buds below. A young bed should not be cut over but a few times, after it has been well established the cutting may be continued for several weeks.

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious printer's errors including punctuation have been silently corrected with the exception of those listed below.

Page 22: appearantly corrected to apparently.

Page 26: Cincinatti corrected to Cincinnati.

[The end of The Canadian Horticulturist Volume 01, No. 02 edited by D. W. Beadle]