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Title: Brock Centenary (1812-1912)

Date of first publication: 1913

Editor: Alexander Fraser (1860-1936)

Date first posted: June 3 2012

Date last updated: June 3 2012

Faded Page eBook #20120608

This eBook was produced by: James Wright & the online Distributed Proofreaders Canada team at http://www.pgdpcanada.net

This book was created from images of public domain material made available by the University of Toronto Libraries (http://link.library.utoronto.ca/booksonline/).

(From miniature painting by J. Hudson.)
Copyrighted in the U. S. A. and Canada.

—From Nursey's "Story of Isaac Brock" (Briggs).

[Pg 1]



ON THE 12th OCTOBER, 1912




[Pg 2]




Copyright, Canada, 1913, by
Alexander Fraser

[Pg 3]


The object of this publication is to preserve an account of the Celebration, at Queenston Heights, of the Brock Centenary, in a more convenient and permanent form than that afforded by the reports (admirable as they are) in the local newspapers.

Celebrations were held in several places in Ontario, notably at St. Thomas, where Dr. J. H. Coyne delivered a fervently patriotic address. Had reports of these been available, extended reference would have been gladly and properly accorded to them in this book. Considerable effort, involving delay in publication, was made to secure the name of every person who attended at Queenston Heights in a representative capacity, and the list is probably complete.

For valuable assistance acknowledgment is due to Colonel Ryerson, Chairman of the General and Executive Committees; to Miss Helen M. Merrill, Honorary Secretary, and to Mr. Angus Claude Macdonell, K.C., M.P., Toronto. Also to Mr. Walter R. Nursey, for the use of the pictures of General Brock, Col. Macdonell, and Brock's Monument, from his interesting work: "The Story of Brock," in the Canadian Heroes Series; and to the Ontario Archives, Toronto, for the use of the picture of the first monument erected to Brock on Queenston Heights.

Alexander Fraser.

[Pg 4]

From a Silhouette in possession of John Alexander Macdonnell, K.C., Alexandria.

Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell.
Provincial Aide-de-Camp to Major-General Sir Isaac Brock; M.P. for Glengarry;
Attorney-General of Upper Canada.

—From Nursey's "Story of Isaac Brock" (Briggs).

[Pg 5]


Prefatory Note 3
Introduction—J. Stewart Carstairs, B.A. 9
Preliminary Steps 21
General Committee Formed 25
Programme Adopted 26
Reports of Committees 29
Celebrating the Day 32
At Queenston Heights—
Representatives Present 34
Floral Decorations 40
A Unique Scene 42
Historic Flags and Relics 43
Letters of Regret for Absence 44
The Speeches—
Colonel G. Sterling Ryerson 45
Mr. Angus Claude Macdonell, M.P. 50
Hon. Dr. R. A. Pyne, M.P.P. 55
Colonel George T. Denison 58
Mr. J. A. Macdonell, K.C. 61
Dr. James L. Hughes 67
Chief A. G. Smith 71
Warrior F. Onondeyoh Loft 74
Mr. Charles R. McCullough 75
Appendix I.—Highland Heroes in the War of 1812-14 —Dr. Alexander Fraser 77
Appendix II.—Programme of Toronto Garrison Service in Massey Hall 82
Appendix III.—Indian Contributions to the Reconstruction of Brock's Monument 88
Appendix IV.—Meetings of the Executive Committee subsequent to the Celebration 91
Appendix V.—Captain Joseph Birney 93

[Pg 7]


Major-General Brock Frontispiece               
Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell, Provincial Aide-de-Camp
to Major-General Sir Isaac Brock
Executive Committee 28
First Monument to General Brock at Queenston Heights 33
Brock's Monument 34
Central section of a panoramic picture of the gathering at Queenston Heights 36
Floral Tribute placed on Cenotaph, where Brock fell, by the Guernsey Society, Toronto 38
Brock Centenary Celebration at Queenston Heights 38
Memorial Wreaths placed on the Tombs, at Queenston Heights,
of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, Kt., and Colonel John
Macdonell, P.A.D.C., Attorney-General of Upper Canada
Wreath placed on Brock's Monument in St. Paul's Cathedral,
London, Eng., by the Government of Canada
Wreath placed on Brock's Monument, Queenston Heights, by
the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire
Conferring Tribal Membership on Miss Helen M. Merrill 43
Six Nation Indians celebrating Brock's Centenary at Queenston Heights 44
Colonel George Sterling Ryerson, Chairman of Committee 45
Angus Claude Macdonell, K.C., M.P., addressing the gathering 51
Hon. R. A. Pyne, M.D., M.P.P., Minister of Education of Ontario 58
James L. Hughes, LL.D., Chief Inspector of Schools, Toronto 58
Colonel George T. Denison, Toronto 58
J. A. Macdonell, K.C., Glengarry, addressing the gathering 61
Chief A. G. Smith, Six Nation Indians, Grand River Reserve 71
Captain Charles R. McCullough, Hamilton, Ont. 71
Warrior F. Onondeyoh Loft, Six Nation Indians, Toronto 71
Members of Committee at Queenston Heights 77
Group of Indians (Grand River Reserve) celebrating Brock's Centenary at Queenston Heights 88
Captain Joseph Birnie 93

[Pg 9]


By John Stewart Carstairs, B.A., Toronto

Brock's fame and Brock's name will never die in our history. The past one hundred years have settled that. And in this glory the craggy heights of Queenston, where in their splendid mausoleum Brock and Macdonell sleep side by side their last sleep, will always have its share. Strangely enough, who ever associates Brock's name with Detroit? Yet, here was a marvellous achievement: the left wing of the enemy's army annihilated, its eloquent and grandiose leader captured and two thousand five hundred men and abundant military stores, with the State of Michigan thrown in!

But Britain in those days was so busy doing things that we a hundred years later can scarcely realize them. However, so much of our historic perspective has been settled during the past hundred years. Perhaps in another hundred years, when other generations come together to commemorate the efforts of these men that with Brock and Macdonell strove to seek and find and do and not to yield, the skirmish at Queenston may be viewed in a different light.

Perhaps then the British Constitution will have bridged the oceans and the "Seven Seas"; perhaps then Canada will be more British than Britain itself—the very core, the centre, the heart of the Empire in territory and population, in wealth and in influence, in spirit and in vital activities. Then Queenston Heights may be regarded[Pg 10] not merely as a victory that encouraged Canadians to fight for their homes but as a far-reaching world-event.

The year of Queenston, let us remember, was the year of Salamanca and of Moscow—the most glorious year in British military annals. But what has Salamanca to do with Canada? Britain was fighting alone, not merely for the freedom of Britons but for the freedom of Europe. Since 1688 she had been for more than one-half of the one hundred and twenty-four years actively in arms against France. Since 1793 there had been peace—and only nominal peace—against France for only the two years following the Treaty of Amiens (1801). The generation approaching maturity in 1812 had been born and had grown up "in wars and rumours of wars." In this struggle against France and later against Napoleon, the Motherland had increased the National Debt by £500,000,000, or nearly twenty-five hundred millions of dollars; she had spent every cent she could gather and taxed her posterity to this extent. That is what Britain had done for her children—and for the world at large!

But ever since Jefferson had purchased (1803) Louisiana from Napoleon the United States had found she was less dependent on Britain. Accordingly, Jefferson grew more and more unfriendly. And now in 1812, the world campaign of Napoleon had spread to America. He had hoped for this, but on different lines. He had planned for it, but those plans had failed.

"The War of 1812-14," as we call it, was merely a phase, a section, of the greatest struggle in the history of mankind—the struggle of Britain against the aggrandisement and cheap ambition of Napoleon to become the Dictator of Europe and the civilized world. Brock, though invited to take a share in the long drawn out contest in Spain, decided—fortunately for us—to remain in Canada.

The year 1812 was the climax of the war with[Pg 11] Napoleon—the most splendid, as we have said, of all years in British military annals. Since 1808, the British forces had been striving to drive the French from Spain. First under Sir John Moore, later under Wellington, inch by inch, year by year, they had beaten them back toward the Pyrenees. Then on July 22, 1812, just as Brock was struggling with all his difficulties here in Canada, there came Wellington's first decisive victory at Salamanca. The news reached Brock in October and a day or two before he died he sent the tidings forward to Proctor—Proctor then struggling with his Forty-first Regiment to do as much damage as he could to the enemy hundreds of miles out from Windsor and Detroit, Proctor who was to be eternally much abused for faults he never was guilty of, and to be blamed for Tecumseh's death next year. With the news of Salamanca went Brock's prophetic comment: "I think the game nearly up in Spain"; and within a year the game, Napoleon's game, was up, not only in Spain but in all Europe. Within a year Leipsic had been fought and won and Napoleon was a wanderer on the face of the earth, to be gathered in and lodged on Elba.

Meanwhile other great events were shaping. Just a month before Salamanca—in fact, four days before the United States declared war—Napoleon had set out on his fatal expedition against Russia. Two days later he crossed the Niemen. More than a million Frenchmen were now in arms in Europe; and Britain was the only active enemy in the field.

What wonder then that Brock, as the civil and military head of the Government of Upper Canada, should view with extreme anxiety the situation in the Province? He had been in Canada for ten years. He knew that the Motherland could not furnish any more men. There were fifteen hundred regular troops in Upper, and two thousand in Lower Canada. Forty years before there had not been a single settlement in what is now Ontario[Pg 12] from the Detroit to the Ottawa, from Lake Ontario to Sault Ste. Marie. Now there were seventy-five thousand inhabitants; and under a wise Militia Act they had imposed yearly military service on themselves; every male inhabitant had to furnish his own gun and appear on parade or be heavily fined. Thus there was a volunteer force more or less trained amounting to about ten thousand men—a militia that under Brock rendered splendid service.

But arms were scarce and supplies had to be brought long distances. The men at Queenston won their victory with guns that were captured two months before at Detroit. Throughout the war, when our mills had been burnt by a ruthless enemy that made war on women and children and old men, supplies were brought up the toilsome course of the St. Lawrence in Durham boats and bateaux. The devoted militia of the river counties guarded the frontier, and only once did they lose a convoy, part of which they afterwards recovered by a raid into the enemy's territory at Waddington, N.Y.

In front of Brock was a nation of eight or nine millions, a nation that believed they could "take the Canadas without soldiers;" as the United States Secretary of War said—"we have only to send officers into the Province and the people, disaffected towards their own Government, will rally round our standard." Yet they placed, during the three years of the war, 527,000 men in the field and were defeated in thirty-two engagements. The odds were twenty-six to one against us. That was Brock's grand bequest to this land—the spirit to fight against odds that were at first sight positively overwhelming.

For years sedition and disloyalty had been gaining ground in Upper Canada. In 1802, Colonel Talbot classified the inhabitants of the western part of the Province as (1) those enticed hither by[Pg 13] the free land grants; (2) those that had fled from the United States for crime; (3) Republicans anticipating that the colony would shake off its allegiance to Britain. Lieutenant-Colonel Ernest Cruikshank, who is justly regarded as the most eminent authority on the War of 1812-14, believes that in a large portion of the Province "the recent immigrants from the United States outnumbered all the other inhabitants at least two to one. Two-thirds of the members of the Assembly and one-third of the magistrates were natives of the United States."

On the 28th of July, 1812, Brock called together the Legislature of Upper Canada. In his speech from the throne he stated that "a few traitors have already joined the enemy, have been suffered to come into the country with impunity, and have been harboured and concealed in the interior." The peroration should be memorized by every young Canadian: "We are engaged in an awful and eventful contest. By unanimity and despatch in our councils and by vigour in our operations we may teach the enemy this lesson, that a country defended by free men, enthusiastically devoted to their king and constitution, can never be conquered." He especially desired the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act and the passing of an Act to compel suspected persons to take an oath abjuring their allegiance to other countries. But Brock, to use his own words, could "get no good of them. They, like the magistrates and others in office, evidently mean to remain passive. The repeal of the Habeas Corpus will not pass, and if I have recourse to the law martial, I am told the whole armed force will disperse. Never was an officer placed in a more awkward predicament."

The very next day he wrote in much the same spirit to Colonel Baynes: "The population, believe me, is essentially bad—a full belief possesses them all that this Province must inevitably succumb.[Pg 14] This prepossession is fatal to every exertion. Legislators, magistrates, militia officers, all have imbibed the idea, and are so sluggish and indifferent in their respective offices that the artful and active scoundrel is allowed to parade the country without interruption and commit all imaginable mischief. . . . Most of the people have lost all confidence. I, however, speak loud and look big."

On the same day, moreover, he reported: "The militia stationed here (at York) volunteered their services to any part of the Province without the least hesitation."

Day after day his Legislature wasted their time. For eight days they discussed a mere party question of changing a clause in the School Bill. Brock prorogued Parliament and took the reins in his own hands. He declared martial law, and soon after three members of the Legislature, Willcocks, Markle, and Mallory, deserted and joined the United States forces.

At once he set out on his expedition to Detroit. Through the wilds of Upper Canada, by lake and field, he led his small band of men two hundred miles. In nineteen days he was back again in his capital. He had annihilated the left wing of the enemy's army; he had captured two thousand five hundred men, thirty-seven cannon and immense military stores. The State of Michigan practically remained in our possession till the close of the war.

A hundred years ago Brock spent the last week in August and the first part of October in strengthening the defences on the Niagara frontier. He needed one thousand more regulars, but Sir George Prevost could not spare another man. He mounted new batteries with the Detroit cannon. He established a system of communication and the use of beacon lights from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, with a spur line inland to Pelham Heights. He refitted his men from the stores captured at Detroit. Ceaseless activity and eternal vigilance were the very[Pg 15] laws of his life. The motto on his seal is said to have been "He who guards never sleeps." The legend may not be correct, but it is so appropriate that one likes to perpetuate the tradition.

The United States army as a whole was attacking Canada at three points: its right wing was trying to force its way up the valley of the Richelieu; its left wing had been disposed of by Brock at Detroit; its centre was being strengthened every day along the Niagara frontier. From the old French fort at the mouth of the Niagara River to the village of Buffalo there was on both sides of the Niagara an uninterrupted scene of fearful and warlike activity. The heights of Lewiston and the red beach below were white with the tents of nearly four thousand soldiers.

From Queenston a small body of British and Canadian soldiers were watching and waiting. Then—a hundred years ago—it was much the same straggling village as to-day. Here the eddying, foaming, turbulent waters of the Niagara issue from the narrow, rocky gorge to spread out into a gentle stream and wind their way to Lake Ontario, seven miles distant. At the foot of the Canadian cliff nestles Queenston; at the foot of the sister cliff opposite is Lewiston in New York State. A hundred years ago, from the "Heights" a spectator would have seen the same glorious panorama of fertile fields and autumn tints; but since June the whole line of the Niagara River had resounded with din of preparations to resist a ruthless and aggressive invader.

But while Brock was absent at Detroit, about the middle of August, Sir George Prevost, the British commander-in-chief, had very unwisely concluded an armistice with General Dearborn, the terms of which extended only to the right wing of the United States army. Accordingly, this gave Major-General Van Rensselaer, who was in command of the enemy on the Niagara, a splendid[Pg 16] opportunity to array still larger forces against Brock. Artillery and stores were brought up from Oswego; thousands of additional troops had been hurried forward to the enemy; scows and boats were built for the purpose of crossing the Niagara.

"Major-General Stephen Van Rensselaer," says Colonel Ernest Cruikshank, the careful historian of the war, "who held chief command by virtue of his rank as major-general of the New York State troops, was an entire novice in all military affairs, and could scarcely even be termed an amateur soldier. The last patroon of the manor of Rensselaer-Wyck and the leading Federalist in the State, his appointment was a sharp stroke of party tactics on the part of the Governor, who discovered in him a prospective and dangerous opponent. The recent congressional elections had seemed to indicate that the Federalists had regained the confidence of the people of New York, and most of their leaders were uncompromising in their hostility to the war. If Van Rensselaer accepted the command his immediate following would be committed to its prosecution; if he refused his conduct could be denounced as unpatriotic.

"Stephen was an amiable and benevolent, but rather dull man of about fifty years of age. On all strictly military subjects he was compelled to rely upon the advice of his adjutant-general and cousin, Colonel Solomon Van Rensselaer, who had been bred a soldier, had served in the United States army for ten years, and had held his present appointment for as many more. He had been wounded in Wayne's campaign against the Indians, and possessed the reputation of being a brave and skilful officer."

The close observer who comes up the Niagara River will see just after he leaves the wharf of Niagara-on-the-Lake the far-extending green bastions of Fort George. A hundred years ago there was no barn there which a thrifty Government later[Pg 17] allowed to be built within its lines. But a hundred years ago this morning, on Tuesday, October 13, it was a fort and Brock's headquarters. For weeks there had been persistent rainstorms. In the dull grey foggy chill of the morning, about four o'clock, there came an alarm that the enemy were crossing the river at Queenston. In a few minutes, Brock dashed out of the fort unattended and galloped headlong up the river road. Macdonell, his young and faithful aide-de-camp, soon followed. At Brown's Point, two miles from Queenston, was a battery manned by the militia of York, among them such men as John Beverley Robinson and Archibald Maclean, both afterwards chief justices. As Brock passed he waved his hand to them; and very likely it was then he said, "Push on, brave York Volunteers." And as they advanced to support their leaders there was plenty of evidence that the invaders had made a landing. Troops of the enemy were met under guard—miserable, wounded wretches.

The mouth of the Niagara Gorge is barely two hundred yards wide; and this had been selected as the place at which to cross. Fifteen hundred United States regulars and nearly three thousand militia, it was hoped, could be ferried across in seven trips. At Queenston to oppose them there were merely two companies of the Forty-ninth (Brock's regiment) under Captain Dennis, and three companies of militia. In all, in and about Queenston there were less than two hundred men.

In less than fifteen minutes ten boats had landed three hundred men, exactly as they had planned. When discovered by a sentinel, they were forming up under the command of Colonel Solomon Van Rensselaer.

At once from Brown's Point, from Vrooman's Point, from the gun halfway up Queenston Heights there belched forth an incessant fire. The Lewiston[Pg 18] batteries opened on the village and soon reduced several of the houses to ruins.

Meanwhile, Captain Dennis, with forty-six men, sought out the invaders at the foot of the cliff. Though they soon took to the cover of the trees and brush in disorder, many were killed, and Colonel Van Rensselaer himself received no less than six wounds.

After dawn, however, they observed how few men were working the one-gun battery halfway up Queenston Heights. They ascended by a narrow fisherman's path, under the command of Lieutenant Wool, and gained the Heights unopposed.

It was "at this instant Brock rode into the village, splashed with mud from head to foot. . . . A striking scene presented itself to his gaze. Battalion after battalion of troops in rear of the American batteries in readiness to embark; other detachments entering their boats, some already on the river; their guns throwing round and grape shot into the village, where Dennis still contrived to maintain a foothold" (Cruikshank).

Brock rode up the slope toward the redan halfway up the Heights. From the hillside above him burst a shout and down rushed an overwhelming body of the invaders. With barely time to spike the gun with a ramrod, the three officers and the dozen artillerymen withdrew and left the enemy in possession.

Fresh troops were now landing to assist the invaders; and Brock was fully convinced that the lost position must be recovered at once. He sent Captain Williams with about seventy men by a round-about way to attack Wool's left. Seeing Wool's force driven in, Brock mustered a hundred and ninety men, including the militia flank companies. Waving his sword, he led his men up the steep ascent toward the battery they had lost. As he moved toward the right of the mountain, a bullet struck his sword wrist. Within fifty yards of him,[Pg 19] an Ohio rifleman stepped out from a thicket, took deliberate aim and fired. Shot through the left breast, he fell. "My fall," he murmured, "must not be noticed, nor impede my brave companions from advancing to victory." Mindful of duty, mindful of others, thus died Sir Isaac Brock, the hero of Upper Canada.

Three days before, a grateful sovereign had created him a Knight of the Order of the Bath. Subsequent generations of Canadians placed over his remains the noble shaft, that from its commanding position is the most notable landmark of the historic battleground he made famous. But he lives in the hearts of the people whose country he saved, whose fathers he inspired to resist the invader. He had found them a panic-stricken people, he left them vigorous, united, aggressive.

The remaining incidents of that day at Queenston Heights are well known. Two hours later, Macdonell, Brock's military secretary and aide, tried to regain the one-gun battery. A fierce fight ensued: Macdonell, Dennis and Williams were all wounded; and the next day the bright young Scotsman, attorney-general at the age of twenty-seven, passed away. In life he was united with Brock, and in death he was not separated. The bodies of the two heroes rest together under the Queenston Monument, where the river has been singing their requiem for a hundred years.

The third stage of the battle was reached at two o'clock in the afternoon. Then Major-General Roger Hale Sheaffe advanced from Fort George along the river road. Turning to the right down the little Queenston Creek, he led his forces across the Dr. Hamilton property. On the left he flung out his Indians under Norton and Brant, and they moved forward and made trouble.

Ascending the escarpment west of the invading troops, Sheaffe came upon the terrified invaders, drawn up near the site of the present monument.[Pg 20] Their left rested on the river verge of the cliff. A volley or two—and the Canadians found themselves embarrassed with prisoners. Within a few days, 958, including stragglers, had surrendered as prisoners of war. Among these were General Wadsworth, who had been in command, and Lieutenant-Colonel Winfield Scott, later to become commander-in-chief of the United States army and conqueror of Mexico.

[Pg 21]


The desire to commemorate the centenary of Brock's death-day—October 13th, 1912—took form at a meeting of the United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada, held at Toronto on April 11th, 1912, when, on the motion of Mr. John Stewart Carstairs, B.A., a committee, consisting of Colonel Ryerson, Lieut.-Colonel W. Hamilton Merritt, Mr. J. S. Carstairs, and Mr. C. E. MacDonald, barrister, was appointed to draft a suitable programme for the celebration of "Brock's Day."

This committee submitted the following report at a meeting of the Association held on September 17th, 1912, Colonel Ryerson presiding:

"Your Committee begs leave to report that as, within their knowledge, no action has been taken by either the Federal or Provincial Government to celebrate the Centenary of the death of Sir Isaac Brock on Sunday, October 13th, 1912, they recommend as follows:

"(1) That recommendations be made to both the Federal Government and to the Provincial Government of Ontario, that in view of the fact that General Brock in June, 1812, found himself at the head of a panic-stricken people in the presence of a powerful invader, and that a few months later, when he fell at Queenston Heights, he left that people united, fearless and invincible, it is believed that there should be a national demonstration that will be in effect only less impressive on the public mind than was the passing away of the man himself at Queenston Heights a hundred years ago.

[Pg 22]

"(2) That the demonstration might take the form of a royal salute from every cannon in the land on Sunday, October 13th. This would be a matter to be arranged by the Minister of Militia.

"(3) Every church in Canada might be requested to hold some sort of a memorial service on Sunday, October 13th.

"(4) On Friday, October 11th, every school in Canada might appeal to the intellect and imagination of the coming generation of men and women by appropriate commemorative exercises.

"(5) Monday, October 14th, could be proclaimed a national holiday.

"There is, in the corridor of the Parliament Buildings at Toronto, the copy of a splendid portrait of Brock, full of life and action. By some arrangement with the Minister of Education in every Province, or even without it, perhaps a copy of this picture could be placed in every school in the land.

"(6) As the city of Toronto is very likely to expropriate the Knox College property, it might be well to suggest to the city authorities that this new park should be opened in October with proper ceremonies and named Brock Park. In this connection, it might be well to recall that the lower portion of Spadina Avenue was, until recently, known as Brock Street.

"(7) It is recommended that these suggestions shall be brought to the attention of the Federal and Provincial Governments, and every means should be taken to convince the authorities that on October 13th, 1912, our people should hang some votive offering on the shrine of the hero of Upper Canada.

"(8) That copies of this report be sent to the National Council of Women and to the Secretary of the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire inviting their concurrence.

"J. S. Carstairs, Chairman."

[Pg 23]

This Report was adopted tentatively, and in order to secure as wide as possible a co-operation from other patriotic Associations, it was agreed, on the motion of Colonel Denison, seconded by Mr. C. E. Macdonald, that the Centenary of Sir Isaac Brock's death, Sunday, October 13th, 1912, be commemorated by an excursion to Queenston Heights on the 12th, and that patriotic and historical societies, clubs and regiments, etc., be asked to send not more than three delegates to a meeting to be held on Wednesday, September 25th, at 4.30 o'clock, in the Canadian Foresters' Building, to discuss a plan of commemoration.

In accordance with this resolution the following societies were circularized, and asked to co-operate in the celebration:

Societies: British Empire League; Caledonian Society; Canadian Club; Canadian Defence League; Daughters of the Empire, Niagara Falls, Ont.; Daughters of the Empire, St. Catharines; Empire Club; Historical Society, Niagara Falls, Ont.; Historical Society, Niagara-on-the-Lake; Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire; Irish Protestant and Benevolent Society, Toronto; Lundy's Lane Historical Society, Niagara Falls, Ont.; Ontario Historical Society; St. Andrew's Society, Toronto; St. Catharines' Historical Society; St. George's Society, Toronto; Sons of England, Toronto; Sons of Scotland Benevolent Association, Toronto; Women's Canadian Historical Society, Toronto; Women's Canadian Club, Toronto; Women's Historical Society, Hamilton; Women's Institute, Queenston; Women's Institute, Stamford; York Pioneers' Association.

Military: Brig.-General W. H. Cotton, Officer Commanding 2nd Division; Canadian Army Medical Corps, Permanent Army Medical Corps, Permanent Army Service Corps, Royal Canadian Dragoons, Royal Canadian Engineers, Royal Canadian Regiment.

[Pg 24]

Artillery: 2nd Brigade Canadian Field Artillery, 9th Battery Canadian Field Artillery.

Cavalry: Governor-General's Body Guard, 9th Mississauga Horse.

Infantry: "Queen's Own" Rifles, 10th Regiment Royal Grenadiers, 12th Regiment York Rangers, 48th Battalion Highlanders.

Military Associations, Etc.: Canadian Military Institute, Her Majesty's Army and Navy Veterans, Imperial South African Service Association, Veterans of '66 Association, Veterans of '85 Association, Wolseley Red River Expedition Association, 1870.

[Pg 25]


In response to the invitation above referred to, societies and regiments appointed the following delegates to represent them on the General Committee:—

United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada: Colonel G. Sterling Ryerson, President; Colonel G. T. Denison, Lieut.-Colonel George A. Shaw, Mr. R. E. A. Land, Vice-Presidents; Mr. J. Stewart Carstairs, Honorary Secretary; Miss Helen M. Merrill, Honorary Assistant Secretary; Mr. A. R. Davis, Honorary Treasurer; Mr. C. E. Macdonald, Miss Catharine Merritt, Mr. R. S. Neville, K.C., Captain Victor Hall, Miss O. V. Widner, Mrs. F. O. Loft, Mrs. Edmund Phillips, Mrs. Dignam, Toronto.

Six Nations Indians (United Empire Loyalists): Warrior F. O. Loft, Mr. Allen W. Johnson.

British Empire League: Colonel G. T. Denison, Toronto.

Canadian Club: Dr. A. H. U. Colquhoun, President; Mr. F. D. L. Smith, Toronto.

Canadian Defence League: Colonel Fotheringham, Dr. J. L. Hughes, Mr. R. E. Kingsford, Toronto.

Empire Club: Mr. J. Castell Hopkins, Dr. E. K. Richardson, Toronto.

Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire: Mrs. A. E. Gooderham, Mrs. E. F. B. Johnstone, Mrs. John Bruce, Miss Constance Boulton, Toronto.

Sons of Scotland: Dr. Alexander Fraser, Dr. John Ferguson, Toronto.

[Pg 26]

St. George's Society, Toronto: John W. Gamble Boyd.

Lundy's Lane Historical Association: Mr. J. Jackson, Superintendent Queen Victoria Park, Secretary, Niagara Falls, Ont.

Niagara Historical Society: Miss Janet Carnochan, Niagara-on-the-Lake; Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, Mrs. Charles Lewis Shaw, Toronto.

Ontario Historical Society: Dr. Alexander Fraser, Secretary, Toronto.

Women's Canadian Historical Society, Toronto: Miss M. Agnes FitzGibbon, Toronto.

Women's Wentworth Historical Society: Mrs. John Calder, Hamilton, President.

Governor-General's Body Guard: Lieut.-Colonel Frank A. Fleming, W. E. L. Coleman, Toronto.

12th Regiment: Major Curran, Toronto.

48th Highlanders: Captain Darling, Adjutant.

'66 Veterans' Association: Captain Geo. Musson, P. E. Noverre, David Creighton, Lieut.-Colonel A. E. Belcher, Lieut.-Colonel Geo. A. Shaw, Toronto.

'85 Veterans' Association: Sergeant A. G. Scovell, Toronto.


The first meeting of the General Committee thus formed was held on September 25th, 1912, in the Canadian Foresters' Building, College Street, Toronto. There was a large attendance of members.

Colonel Ryerson was appointed Chairman, and Miss Helen M. Merrill Secretary, of the Committee. The report from the United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada, as given above, having been read to the meeting, resolutions to the following effect were passed:

(1) That Brock's Day be celebrated by a public gathering at Queenston Heights.

[Pg 27]

(2) That the various patriotic and historical societies, local as well as those within easy reach of Queenston, be invited to send as large delegations as possible to Brock's Monument on Saturday, October 12th, 1912, in commemoration of his death.

(3) That the various patriotic and historical societies be asked to send wreaths for the purpose of decorating Brock's Monument on October 12th.

(4) That a special invitation be sent to Mr. J. A. Macdonell, K.C., Alexandria, Ont., to attend the celebration as the direct representative of Colonel John Macdonell, the Attorney-General of Upper Canada, and Brock's Provincial A.D.C., who fell with his leader, and whose remains rest beneath the monument on Queenston Heights.

(5) That the Honourable the Minister of Militia be asked to order that salutes be fired on October 12th from all saluting points in Canada.

(6) That the churches be asked to arrange that memorial sermons be preached throughout Canada on Sunday, October 13th.

(7) That suitable exercises relating to Brock and 1812 should be held in every school in Canada; and that this suggestion be not only given publicity through the newspapers, but that the attention of the various Ministers of Education in the Dominion be specially drawn to it.

(8) That the Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs at Ottawa be asked to take measures to have the history of Brock and the events of the 1812 war brought specially before the children in all Indian Schools under the charge of the Dominion Government.

(9) That a wreath be placed on the picture of Brock in the Parliament Buildings, Toronto.

(10) That it be suggested to the Dominion Government to place a wreath on Brock's Monument in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England.

[Pg 28]

An Executive Committee was appointed to further these resolutions, consisting of the members of the following special committees:—

Travelling Arrangements, etc.: Colonel Ryerson, Dr. James L. Hughes, Mr. J. S. Carstairs and Mr. C. E. Macdonald.

Press: Mr. J. Castell Hopkins, Dr. Alexander Fraser, Mr. F. D. L. Smith, Miss Helen M. Merrill.

Chairman and Secretary of the Executive Committee: Colonel Ryerson and Miss Helen M. Merrill.

Miss Helen M. Merrill, Honorary Secretary. Colonel George S. Ryerson, Chairman.
James L Hughes. LL.D. J. Castell Hopkins. J. Stewart Carstairs, B.A.
Charles E. Macdonald, Esq. Alexander Fraser, LL.D. F. D. L. Smith, Esq.


[Pg 29]


The General Committee met on October 2nd, 1912, Colonel Ryerson presiding. The reports of the special committees regarding the arrangements were very satisfactory, and it was made abundantly clear that the proposed celebration had touched a tender chord of public feeling. Travelling arrangements by train to Niagara Falls and by electric car thence to Queenston Heights were approved of. The co-operation of the Women's Institute, Queenston, was promised in connection with the decoration of the grounds there; the Ontario Government consented to police the grounds, and the Victoria Park Commission to reopen the restaurant at the Heights for the day. It was agreed to advise the hotels at Niagara Falls, Ont., that luncheon would be taken at that town on arrival of the train, and to arrange with the electric railway for the conveyance of the visitors to the Monument. The publicity so generously afforded by the press was gratefully acknowledged. A letter from Mr. J. A. Macdonell, K.C., Alexandria, accepting the Committee's invitation, was read; and a motion by Mr. F. D. L. Smith that a bronze tablet to mark the centenary celebration be placed on Brock's Monument was deferred for consideration at the next meeting to be held on the week following.

At the meeting of the General Committee held on October 9th in the Canadian Foresters' Hall, Toronto, Colonel Ryerson presiding, the following report of the Executive Committee was received and adopted:—

[Pg 30]

"The Executive Committee met on October 7th and received satisfactory reports of the progress made in carrying out the proposals of the General Committee. A programme for the celebration at Queenston Heights was drafted, and the President was requested to arrange with the Department of Militia that the permanent forces be sent from Toronto to Queenston Heights to take part in the proceedings. It was also resolved to publish an account of the proceedings in connection with the celebration as an interesting record of a notable event."

The Executive also reported that all arrangements had been completed for the journey to Queenston Heights; that the Militia Department had ordered that salutes be fired from all saluting points in Canada on the 12th inst.; that commemorative church services would be extensively held on the 13th inst.; that special exercises would be observed in the public schools in accordance with letters received from the Honourable R. A. Pyne, M.P.P., Minister of Education for Ontario, Mr. Augustus W. Ball, Deputy Minister of Education, Saskatchewan, Mr. Alexander Robinson, Superintendent of Education, British Columbia, and from Mr. R. Fletcher, Deputy Minister of Education, Manitoba; that a detachment from the permanent infantry force at Toronto would proceed to Queenston Heights on the 12th inst.; that the Toronto, Hamilton and other corps of militia would be represented, and that large delegations from patriotic, national and historical societies would take part; that many wreaths would be sent to the monument; that the Dominion Government had ordered its representative in London, England, to place a wreath on Brock's Memorial in St. Paul's Cathedral; and that letters from prominent public men had been received, either regretting their inability to take part or accepting the invitations to be present.

[Pg 31]

This being the last meeting of the General Committee, it was agreed to refer the suggestion that a bronze centennial tablet be placed on Brock's Monument, the striking of a Centennial medal, and all business connected with the celebration ceremonies, or arising therefrom, to the Executive Committee, with full power to dispose of the same.

The meeting then adjourned sine die.

[Pg 32]


It had been decided to travel by the Grand Trunk Railway train leaving Toronto at nine o'clock a.m. (a few only going by steamer from Yonge Street wharf). The unsettled, rainy weather of the two previous days had caused some misgiving as to the number of people who might venture on an open air demonstration on a cold October day, and the grey looming skies at dawn on Saturday, the 12th, held no hidden hope of a silver lining. The enthusiasm awakened by the name of Brock, however, was resistless, and betimes the seats in the waiting train were crowded. The Union Station witnessed a lively scene—the soldiers in bright colours, the ladies and gentlemen in gay humour, and the stirring music of the bagpipes, combining to enliven and mark the unusual character of the occasion.

At Hamilton a number of friends joined the party, and others who could not do so came to the railway station to express their good wishes. St. Catharines also gave its contingent. Niagara Falls was safely reached at 11.45 o'clock.

Shortly afterwards Major Gordon J. Smith, Brantford, Superintendent of the Six Nation Indians, and a fine delegation arrived, and luncheon was served at several of the hotels.

The journey was resumed by electric cars, the large company arriving at Queenston Heights in the course of an hour.

During the forenoon the sky had cleared, and now the sun shone out brightly for a space on a[Pg 33] landscape unsurpassed anywhere for spacious magnificence and scenic beauty. And crowning the domed escarpment the stately column spoke forth a people's patriotism and love, a memorial to the brave, the scene harmonizing with the feelings of the great gathering.

—Ontario Archives.

[Pg 34]


—From Nursey's "Story of Isaac Brock" (Briggs).

About two thousand people gathered at the foot of the Monument. Colonel G. Sterling Ryerson, President of the General Committee and of the U. E. L. Association, presided. Among those present were the Hon. R. A. Pyne, M.P.P., Minister of Education for Ontario, and Mrs. Pyne; A. Claude Macdonell, M.P., Toronto; W. M. German, M.P., Welland; Colonel George T. Denison (U. E. L. and British Empire League); J. A. Macdonell, K.C., Glengarry; A. MacLean Macdonell, K.C. (representatives of Colonel the Hon. John Macdonell, Provincial A.D.C. to General Brock); Dr. Alexander Dame (a relative of Hon. Colonel John Macdonell); James L. Hughes, LL.D. (Canadian Defence League); Doctor Jessop, M.P.P., St. Catharines; Mr. Evan Fraser, M.P.P., Niagara Falls, Ont.; Alexander Fraser, LL.D. (Ontario Historical Society, St. Andrew's Society, and S.O.S. Association); Mr. F. D. W. Smith (Canadian Club, Toronto); J. Castell Hopkins (Empire Club, Toronto); Miss Helen M. Merrill (Honorary Secretary, Brock Centenary, and U. E. L.); Miss C. Macdonell; Miss Kate Fraser, Toronto; Mr. John Stewart Carstairs, B.A. (Honorary Secretary, U. E. L. Association of Canada); Mr. Charles E. Macdonald, barrister, Toronto (Honorary Counsellor, U. E. L. Association of Canada); Chas. R. McCullough, Hamilton (Union of Canadian Clubs).

Royal Canadian College, Kingston: Colonel J. H. V. Crowe, Commandant.

Royal Canadian Regiment: Captain J. F. Brown (in command), Lieutenant J. W. Cox, and sixty-eight non-coms. and men.

[Pg 35]

Governor-General's Body Guard: Lieut.-Colonel Prank A. Fleming, officer commanding; Lieutenant A. D. Kirkpatrick; A. M. Stretton, Sergt.-Major, W. O.; S.Q.M.S. W. E. Borlace, Sergeant E. Pelletier, Mr. W. E. L. Coleman, Robt. D. Cox, Q.M. Sgt., 1st Cavalry Brigade; Corporal Worsick, Corporal Douglas; Troopers G. L. Collins, E. Lightbody, Sewell, Thos. Preston, G. W. C. Clarke, John S. Kilpatrick, W. Lennox, W. Hill, S. Norse.

9th Mississauga Horse.

St. Catharines Field Battery: Colonel F. King, Lieut.-Colonel Campbell.

Canadian Engineers.

2nd Regt. Q.O.R., Toronto: Sergeant-Major Geo. Creighton, Sergeants J. I. Matthews, A. G. Scovell, R. F. Reed, W. F. Meaforth, Forsyth, Scott; George Sanderson, E. R. Fitzgerald, retired, New Westminster, B.C., and others.

10th Regt., "Royal Grenadiers," Toronto: Edward Johnston, Geo. H. Briggs, Robert Hazelton, and seventeen men under Captain Campbell.

12th Regt., "York Rangers": Major Curran.

13th Regt., Hamilton: Lieut.-Colonel Moore, Bt. Lieut.-Colonel Ross, C.O., Major Lester.

19th Regt., St. Catharines: Lieut.-Colonel W. W. Burleigh and others.

22nd Regt., "Oxford Rifles."

36th "Peel" Regt.: Royal Grafton, Ensign.

48th Regt., "Highlanders," Toronto: Lieut.-Colonel W. Hendrie, Major J. A. Currie, and thirty-two non-com. officers and men in charge of Sergeant Cameron.

91st Regt., Canadian Highlanders, Hamilton: Lieut.-Colonel John J. Maclaren and others.

York and Simcoe Battalion, Toronto: Corporal Thos. Laird, N.W.F.F., 1885.

North-West Mounted Police: J. W. Scott.

[Pg 36]

Ridley College Cadets and Bugle Band.

'66 Veterans' Association: P. E. Noverre, President; Captain John A. Macdonald, '70; Colonel Belcher; Major J. Beck, 33rd Huron Regt.; Captain Geo. Musson, John Robinson, Walter R. Nursey; Captain John Ford (Chicago Volunteers), Past-President; Andrew K. Lauder, Captain F. H. McCallum, A. E. Wheeler.

Niagara District Veteran Volunteers' Association, St. Catharines: Jamieson Black, President; C. Chapman, Past-President; Robt. J. Black, Vice-President; W. H. Drysdale, Treasurer; J. Albert Mills, Secretary; George Wilson.

His Majesty's Army and Navy Veterans' Association: Mr. C. H. Robertson.

Canadian Militia Veterans: Captain W. Fahey, President.

Canadian Baden-Powell Boy Scouts: Ed. Nix, J. Gordon Rosser, Toronto.

United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada: Major W. Napier Keefer, Past-President; Mr. R. E. A. Land, Vice-President; Rev. Canon Alex. W. Macnab, Honorary Chaplain, and Mrs. Macnab; Mr. E. M. Chadwick, K.C., Honorary Genealogist; Mr. A. R. Davis, Honorary Treasurer; Mrs. Edwards Merrill, Miss Emily Merritt, Miss Catharine Merritt, Miss Laura Clarke, Captain G. S. Ryerson, Miss Laura Ryerson, Miss Flora Powel, Miss J. J. MacCallum (descendant of Laura Secord), Miss Henrietta Loft, Miss Affa Loft, Major J. G. Beam (retired, 44th Batt.), Captain M. S. Boehm (30th Regt.), Mrs. Birdsall (descendant of Laura Secord), Niagara Falls.


Council of the Six Nations Indians, Oshwegan, Brant County (United Empire Loyalists): Mr. Gordon J. Smith (Honorary Chief, De-ha-ka-res, Bear Clan, Mohawk Tribe), Superintendent, Brantford; Chief Josiah Hill (Sa-ko-ka-ryes, Wolf Clan), Secretary; Chief William Smith, Interpreter;[Pg 37] Chief J. C. Martin, Speaker; Chief J. S. Johnson (Ka-nen-kwe-yah), Deputy Speaker; Chief J. W. M. Elliott (Mohawk); Chief A. G. Smith (De-ka-nen-ra-neh, Bear Clan, Mohawk); Chief Elias Lewis (De-ka-ri-ho-gen, Turtle Clan, Mohawk); Chief Abraham Lewis (Ah-yon-wah-ehs, Turtle Clan, Mohawk); Chief John A. Gibson (Seneca); Chief Peter Isaac (Mudturtle Clan, Seneca); Chief Alexander Hill (Ot-go-taw-yen-toun, Deer Clan, Onondaga), Fire Keeper; Chief Lawrence Jonathan (Sha-ko-ken-he, Eel Clan, Onondaga), Fire Keeper; Chief David Jamieson (Cayuga); Chief Jacob Isaac (Hon-wa-sha-de-hon, Oneida); Chief Joseph Powless (Ha-dva-dho-nen-ta, Wolf Clan, Oneida); Chief Richard Hill (Ra-rih-whi-tyen-tah, Wolf Clan, Tuscarora); Chief Elias Carrier (Tuscarora); Warrior Frederick O. Loft and Mr. Allen W. Johnson, Toronto, Delegates to Brock Centenary Committee; Chief Isaiah Sickles (Da-Da-hon-den-wen, Bear Clan, Oneida); Warrior George Aaron; Daniel McNughton (Ha-don-da-he-ha); Dennis Palmerston (Tuscarora, American Indian).

Canadian Club, Toronto: Mr. James M. Sinclair, Mr. W. J. Clarke, G. Frank Beer, P. H. Jennings, J. R. Collins.

Empire Club, Toronto: Mr. Fred B. Fetherstonhaugh, K.C., President; Mr. Richard A. Stapells, First Vice-President.

British Empire League, Toronto Branch: James P. Murray.

Sons of Scotland, Toronto: Dr. John Ferguson, Mr. Evan Hugh Fraser, representing Camp Alexander Fraser, S.O.S., Toronto.

St. Andrew's Society, Toronto: Captain Herbert M. Mowat, K.C., U.E.L., Vice-President; Mr. James Murray, Manager; Mr. T. C. Irving, Manager; Mr. J. P. Martin, Robert Farquharson.

[Pg 38]

St. George's Society, Toronto: Mr. John W. Gamble Boyd.

Centre and South Toronto Liberal Conservative Association: Mr. Arthur VanKoughnet; Women's Branch, Mrs. Arthur VanKoughnet.

York Pioneers' Historical Society, Toronto: Daniel Lamb, President; John W. Millar, Secretary; John Harvie, J. G. Hughes, Wm. Crocker, J. C. Moor, J. Hawley, E. Gegg, Josiah Rogers, John F. Ellis, A. E. Wheeler, W. D. McIntosh, W. J. Adams.

Knights of Malta and the Grand Chapter of Ladies of Justice, Toronto: Mr. R. E. A. Land, Mr. A. G. Horwood, Mrs. A. G. Horwood.

British Women's Society: Miss Perkins.

Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, Toronto: Mrs. A. E. Gooderham, Mrs. John Bruce, Mrs. E. F. B. Johnstone, Miss Constance Boulton, Mrs. E. Humphreys, Mrs. Wm. Humphreys, Mrs. E. A. James, Miss Laura Brodigan, Miss Watson, Miss Maud Watson.

Women's Canadian Historical Society, Toronto: Miss M. Agnes FitzGibbon, Miss Mickle, Mrs. Kearn, Mrs. Campbell Meyers, Miss Clara Port, Miss J. J. MacCallum.

Brant Historical Society, Brantford: His Honour Judge Hardy, Honorary President; Mr. S. F. Passmore, President; Miss Isabella Gilkison, Mr. T. W. Standing, Vice-Presidents; Mrs. J. Y. Brown, Secretary; Major H. F. Leonard, Curator; Mr. J. J. Hawkins.

Lundy's Lane Historical Association, Niagara Falls: Mr. J. Jackson, Secretary.

Thorold and Beaver Dams Historical Society: T. H. Thompson, President; Miss Amy Ball.

Niagara Historical Society, Niagara-on-the-Lake: Miss Janet Carnochan, President; Rev. J. C. Garrett, Mrs. J. C. Garrett, Mrs. Ascher, Mrs.[Pg 39] T. F. Best, Miss M. Ball, Mrs. Bottomley, Miss Creed. J. Eckersley, H. Macklem, Mrs. Macklem, Wm. Ryan, J. deW. Randall, Mrs. Randall, E. H. Shepherd, Mrs. Shepherd, Miss C. Waters, F. Winthrop, Mrs. Winthrop, Niagara; R. Field, Miss E. L. Lowery, Mrs. H. Usher, Queenston; Miss Amy Ball, Thorold; Miss S. Crysler, Niagara Falls; J. C. Ball, C. A. Case, St. Catharines; J. S. Carstairs, A. J. Clark, Miss E. Long, Mrs. Charles Lewis Shaw, Miss Annie Clark, Mr. G. J. Clark, Toronto.


G. J. Birney.Sgt. John I. Matthews. Q.O.R.
Dr. Chas. F. Durand.J. L. Birney.Sgt.-Major Geo. Creighton, Q.O.R.


Women's Wentworth Historical Society, Hamilton: Mrs. John Calder, Miss Calder.

Canadian Club, Hamilton: Mr. C. E. Kelly, President; G. D. Cadeaur, Secretary; Mr. Harry D. Petrie.

Women's Canadian Club, Hamilton: Mrs. Harry D. Petrie.

Women's Institute, Queenston: Mrs. A. A. Ramsay.

Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, Hamilton: Mrs. Harry D. Petrie, Miss B. Gaviller.

St. George's Society, London: Mr. N. F. Willmot.

St. George's Society, Guelph: Mr. H. J. B. Leadlay.

Canadian Business Women's Club, Toronto: Miss H. Williamson, Miss Winnifred Macdonald, Miss Effie Telfer, Mrs. Anna Fox.

Others present were: Mrs. (Col.) William Hendrie, Hamilton; D. Macgregor Whyte, artist, Oban, Scotland; Lieutenant-Colonel Fred W. Macqueen, Toronto; Wm. Rea, Mrs. Rea, née Jane Thomas, daughter of Mr. James Thomas, who was one of the contractors for the erection of Brock's Monument, and resided at Queenston during the entire time the Monument was being erected; Rev. S. A. Laidlaw, Ridgeway; Mr. W. H. Banfield, Mr. Benj. P. McKay, Mr. H. E. Wilmot, Mr. Samuel O'Bryen, Miss F. May Simpson, Miss Marjorie[Pg 40] FitzGibbon, Miss Perkins, Miss Lulu Crowther, Mr. William Moss, Miss J. E. Douglas, Mr. H. B. Adams, Miss D. F. Waite, Miss Helen J. Sturrock, Mr. James Young, Mr. John Hawley, Mrs. Rees, Miss Amelia Rees, Gonnie Rees, A.T.C.M., Toronto; Mr. Fred Landon, Press Gallery, Ottawa; Mayor J. deW. Randall, Niagara-on-the-Lake; Mrs. A. Servos, Miss Mary Servos, St. Catharines; Mrs. Redhead, Miss Oliver, Niagara; Wm. Milliken, Toronto, and Dr. Campbell Meyers, Toronto.

The stirring interest taken by the public in the celebration was in no way made more apparent than by the large number of costly and beautiful floral offerings sent to decorate the monument. Immediately on assembling on the Heights, these expressive tributes were formally received, one by one, by Colonel Ryerson. The names of the givers were announced by Mr. Chas. E. Macdonald, who also read out the patriotic mottoes and inscriptions. The wreaths were then carefully placed on the monument, and so numerous were they that they almost covered its huge base. The luxuriant ivy growing on the lower masonry was richly tinted with autumnal bronze, and on the natural background thus unexpectedly provided, the delighted celebrators worked out an effective colour scheme. It has not been possible to obtain a complete list of those who brought wreaths with them, but the following were noted:

A magnificent Cross of St. George, made of oak leaves, from the Guernsey Society of Guernsey Island, Brock's birthplace, was placed on the cenotaph which marks the place where Brock fell, by Mr. J. L. Burney, whose father was a lieutenant under Brock and was by his side when the General was fatally stricken.

J. A. Macdonell, K.C., Glengarry, A. McLean Macdonell, K.C., Toronto, and Angus Claude Macdonell, K.C., M.P., Toronto, as representatives of the family of Colonel the Honourable John[Pg 41] Macdonell, General Brock's aide-de-camp and military secretary, placed on the monument two handsome wreaths of laurel leaves, decorated with white and pink heather and heavily trimmed with purple, one to the memory of Brock, and one, with the motto "From Kith and Kin," to the memory of their kinsman, Colonel Macdonell.


Placed there by Mr. John Macdonell, K.C., Glengarry, Mr. Angus Claude Macdonell. K.C., M.P., Toronto, and Mr. A. McLean
Macdonell. K.C., Toronto (with the motto, "From kith and kin." on that of the latter).

Colonel George T. Denison placed a wreath from the British Empire League (England), he being the President of the Canadian branch.

Mr. J. Murray McCheyne Clark, K.C., LL.B., Toronto, sent a wreath on behalf of the Toronto branch of the British Empire League, of which he is the President.

Wreaths were sent by the Canadian Club, Toronto; the Canadian Club, Hamilton; the Caroline School pupils, Hamilton; Centre and South Toronto Conservative Club, Ladies' Branch; Governor-General's Body Guard, Toronto; 91st Regiment Canadian Highlanders, Hamilton; Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, Toronto; Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, Hamilton; Chapter General of Canada Knights of Malta and the Grand Chapter of Ladies of Justice, Toronto.

Mrs. Fessenden, as founder of Empire Day, sent a sheaf of crimson carnations tied with the national colours. To this was attached, with a League of the Empire brooch, a card bearing this inscription from Palgrave:

"If the day of a nation's weakness rise,
Of the little counsels that dare not dare,
Of a land that no more on herself relies,—
O breathe of the great ones that were,
Burn out this taint in the air!
The old heart of England restore,
Till the blood of heroes awake and cry on her bosom once more."

Lundy's Lane Historical Society, Niagara Falls, Ont.; 9th Mississauga Horse; Niagara District[Pg 42] Veteran Volunteers' Association, St. Catharines—Mr. Jamieson Black, as President, placed a wreath on the grave as a tribute from St. Catharines. For many years this Association has placed a wreath at the foot of the tomb of Brock at their annual outing at Queenston Heights.

Niagara Falls City, Ontario, Mayor and Aldermen; Niagara Historical Society, Niagara-on-the-Lake; Niagara Public Schools; Ontario Historical Society; St. Andrew's Society, Toronto; St. George's Society, Toronto; St. George's Society, Hamilton; Sons of Scotland Benevolent Association; Sons of Scotland, Camp "Alexander Fraser"; Six Nations Indians (Oshwegan), Brantford; United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada, Toronto; Upper Canada Old Boys' Association, Toronto; Welland County Teachers' Association; Women's Canadian Historical Society, Toronto—Wreath of scarlet gladioli and carnations tied with scarlet and green, the colors of the Society, the motto in gold on a green band: "Deeds Speak"; Women's Wentworth Historical Society, Hamilton.

Miss Ball, granddaughter of Captain John Clement Ball, carried a lithograph of the battle scene (Queenston Heights) made in 1813 from a sketch by Major Dennis as he lay wounded on the field, October 13th, 1812.

In addition to the wreath placed on the monument the United Empire Loyalists hung a wreath on the portrait of General Brock in the Parliament Buildings, Toronto.

The scene presented was unique, and in many respects a remarkable one. Not the least striking feature was the character of the gathering. Descendants of soldiers who fought with Brock were there, some of them carrying the burden of years, some barely out of childhood's leash. Others, and scarcely less interested in the proceedings, represented loyal and patriotic societies, widely spread over the Province. The Indian contingent[Pg 43] from the Six Nations occupied a conspicuous place of honour most worthily, their presence recalling the signal service rendered by their brave forefathers at Queenston Heights and in the campaign generally. The military detachments added colour to the animated scene. The men of the Royal Canadian Regiment, of the Governor-General's Body Guard, of the Forty-eighth Highlanders, the Queen's Own, the Royal Grenadiers, the Mississauga Horse, the Ridley College Cadets, and of other corps, were drawn up on the outside of the crowd, and beyond them, on the escarpment, the St. Catharines' Battery, Field Artillery, was stationed. Over all floated the Union Jack.



Conferring tribal membership on Miss Helen M. Merrill, who on adoption into the Oneida Nation received
the name "Kah-ya-tonhs" (One who keeps records).

An incident of the gathering in which much interest was shown was the unfurling of an old, historic Union Jack from the top of Brock's Monument by Miss Helen M. Merrill, Secretary of the Committee. When the first monument erected to Brock at Queenston was destroyed (17th April, 1840) a great indignation meeting was held on the Heights. Among those present was a British sailor from one of the ships that conveyed the Toronto people to the meeting. He had brought with him a Union Jack, and climbing to the top of the broken shaft, waved it aloft, amid the cheers of the assembled patriots. The flag was preserved, and Mr. Comer, Kingston, Ont., readily loaned it for this special occasion. Accompanying Miss Merrill to the top of the monument with the flag were Misses Marjorie FitzGibbon and Laura Brodigan and Mr. Allen W. Johnson (Six Nations).

Several relics of the War of 1812-14 were shown by their possessors, who held them sacred, among them a Union Jack, carried by Chief Paudash (Johnson) of the Mississauga Indians, from the Ontario Archives Department; early sketches of the Queenston battlefield, and pictures of officers who took part in the war.

[Pg 44]

At the close of the speeches the Six Nation Indians present formed a Council, and, in recognition of her services as Honorary Secretary of the Celebration Committee, conferred on Miss Helen M. Merrill the honour of tribal membership by the name "Kah-ya-tonhs"—one who keeps records.

The wreaths having been placed, the programme of the day was opened by the firing of a general salute by the 7th St. Catharines Field Battery of the Royal Canadian Artillery. This was followed by the playing of a lament for the dead by the pipers of the Forty-eighth Highlanders and Pipe-Major Dunbar, piper to Lieut.-Colonel William Hendrie, of Hamilton.

Letters expressing regret for inability to be present were read by Colonel Ryerson from the following gentlemen: The Right Honourable R. L. Borden, M.P., Prime Minister of Canada; His Honour Sir John M. Gibson, K.C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario; Colonel the Honourable Samuel Hughes, M.P., Minister of Militia, Ottawa; the Honourable Sir James P. Whitney, Prime Minister of Ontario; Major-General C. J. Mackenzie, C.B., C.G.S., Ottawa; Major-General W. D. Otter, C.V.O., C.B.; Major-General D. A. Macdonald, C.M.G., Ottawa; Brig.-General F. L. Lessard, C.B.; Colonel R. W. Rutherford, M.G.O.; Dr. R. A. Falconer, President, University of Toronto; Hugh Munro, M.P.P., Glengarry.


Abram Lewis (holding silver pipe of peace), Chief Alexander Hill, Chief A. G. Smith


[Pg 45]


The preliminaries over, the gathering was addressed by a number of well known gentlemen whose speeches follow:

Chairman of the General Committee

This meeting to-day is held to commemorate the death of a brave and wise man who died in the defence of his country. It is not a pean of victory we sing but a requiem. We are not here to glorify war; nor is our object to exult over our brave but defeated adversary. Rather is it an occasion when Canadians should pause and look back over the past and give praise to God that in the days of stress and storm He raised up great, good and brave men who were willing and able to fight for their king and country in order that they might enjoy civil and religious liberty under the British flag, and that they might hand down to their posterity a fair and goodly heritage which they had won from the primeval forests by their labour and sacrifices. The United Empire Loyalists came to this country not as those who desired to better their condition in life, nor were they possessed by land hunger, nor by ideas of political and social aggrandisement. They came solely because of their devotion to the British Crown and Constitution, and because they preferred to live in peace and poverty under a monarchical Government rather than in wealth and discord under republican institutions. It was to these men that Brock appealed, nor did he appeal in vain when war was declared. It was[Pg 46] on July 27th, 1812, that in reply to an address from the Assembly of Upper Canada he said:

"Gentlemen: When invaded by an enemy whose avowed object is the entire conquest of the Province, the voice of loyalty as well as of interest calls aloud to every person in the sphere in which he is placed, to defend his country. Our militia have heard the voice and have obeyed it. They have evinced by the promptitude and loyalty of their conduct that they are worthy of the king whom they serve, and of the constitution which they enjoy; and it affords me particular satisfaction, that while I address you as legislators, I speak to men who, in the day of danger, will be ready to assist not only with their counsel, but with arms."

He concluded as follows: "We are engaged in an awful and eventful contest. By unanimity and despatch in our councils, and by vigour in our operations, we may teach the enemy this lesson, that a country defended by free men, enthusiastically devoted to the cause of their king and constitution, can never be conquered."

We know the response, and others who will follow me will speak of it in greater detail. With the Canadian poet we can say and sing:

"We boast not of the victory,
But render homage, deep and just,
To his and their immortal dust,
Who proved so worthy of their trust—
No lofty pile nor sculptured bust
Can herald their degree.
"No tongue need blazon forth their fame—
The cheers that stir the sacred hill
Are but the promptings of the will
That conquered then, that conquers still;
And generations yet shall thrill
At Brock's remembered name."
[Pg 47]

Nor must it be supposed that the United Empire Loyalists and their children were the only men who responded to Brock's call to arms. Our gallant French-Canadian compatriots were not a whit behind in their hearty response. Coming from a brave and adventurous race, they performed deeds of valour and endurance equal to the best in the defence of our country. The hardy Highlanders of Glengarry, too, were rallied to the flag by the Macdonells. Not the least active among these Scottish Roman Catholic Loyalists was the Rev. Alexander Macdonell, a priest who afterwards became the "Good Bishop," a brave and loyal man whose country's welfare was ever near to his heart. Another Macdonell, George, was second in command of the Glengarry Regiment, and still another, Colonel John Macdonell, was aide-de-camp to Brock in addition to being Attorney-General of the Province. He, alas, lost his life in his gallant efforts to second his chief at this battle which we commemorate to-day. Scotsmen are ever brave and loyal, and we have in the Scottish population of the country an element on whom we can rely in time of danger.

Let us not forget that we owe not a little to our Indian allies in the War of 1812. Tecumseh and Brant played great parts. Nor was Brock niggardly in his praise. After the fall of Detroit he says in his despatch to the Governor-General:

"The conduct of the Indians, under Colonel Elliot, Captain McKee and other officers of the department, joined to that of the gallant and brave of their respective tribes, has since the commencement of the war been marked with acts of true heroism, and in nothing can they testify more strongly their love for their King, their great Father, than in following the dictates of honour and humanity by which they have hitherto been actuated."

[Pg 48]

Why do we single out Brock as a hero among so many who have rendered good service to the country? I think that it is because he was a man of loyalty, vigour, energy and administrative ability; because he was the embodiment of the patriotism and loyalty of the people; because he had within him the power to inspire others with the spirit of patriotism and self-sacrifice; and above and beyond all, it is due to his efforts, and to the spirit of resistance and Imperialism to which he gave form and substance, that Canada to-day is an integral part of the British Empire, and a daughter nation within that great galaxy of the nations known as the British Empire.

What does it mean to be a British citizen? What benefits accrue to us by having this status? Are not the paths of the sea open to us and to our commerce by the grace of the British navy? Can we not go to all parts of the world as individuals, knowing that the Union Jack protects us? Is it a small privilege to share in the brave deeds of the British army? Are we not proud of our common literature, and are not Shakespeare and Milton and Tennyson our very own? Not borrowed plumes we are wearing, but our own. And are not the benefits of British civil, religious and political liberty ours also? Is not British justice and administration of the law something to be proud of and to be thankful for? What should we do to maintain our status as a partner, a full partner, in the Imperial concern? Is it not our bounden duty to contribute directly to the support of the British navy? Are we to lag behind the other self-governing nations of the Empire in this essential duty? A thousand times No! A Government which will subscribe twenty-five millions of dollars for this purpose, and at once, can go to the polls in perfect confidence when their time comes to ask the people for their verdict.

[Pg 49]

Some good people seem to think that the time of universal peace is at hand. One has only to look at the state of affairs in Europe on this very day, to perceive how far we are removed from the millennium. In time of peace we must prepare for war; preparation for war is the best insurance policy against it. We wish to live at peace with all nations, but at all costs and at all hazards we must defend our shores. Universal military service is the duty of the Canadian people in the near future. The people will be better for it morally and physically. It will surely come, for the policy of the future is the maintenance of the integrity of the British Empire. We love our country, we believe it has a great future; we must make it secure. What says a sweet singer of Canada:

"O strong hearts guarding the birthright of our glory,
Worth your best blood this heritage ye guard:
Those mighty streams resplendent with story,
These iron coasts by rage of seas unjarred—
What fields of peace these bulwarks well secure:
What vales of plenty these calm floods supply:
Shall not our love this rough, sweet land make sure,
Her bounds preserve inviolate, though we die:
O strong hearts of the North
Let flame your loyalty forth,
And put the craven and the base to open shame
Till earth shall know the Child of Nations by her Name."

[Pg 50]


We have gathered here to-day as Canadians to commemorate an event which will be ever dear to us and our posterity. One hundred years ago Sir Isaac Brock, the hero of Upper Canada, died in battle upon this field in defence of his country and the flag. In the past we have learned and heard altogether too little of this truly great man, and of what he accomplished; it is not too much to say that he preserved Canada to the Empire and at the same time created a national sentiment in Canada which has ever grown and expanded to the present day. The national importance of the battle of Queenston Heights, following the capitulation of Detroit, cannot be over-estimated; national sentiment or a feeling of nationhood was even then manifesting itself in this young colony. The peoples who had settled in Canada sprang from races which had always stood out strongly for national identity—the English glory in their historic past; the Scottish race, to which my forefathers belonged and which to some extent I represent, on this occasion, are noted for their love of country; and so with the other races which made up the United Empire Loyalist settlers of Upper Canada at the time of the War of 1812-14. Our national heart was created and stirred in this century-old war, and the heartbeats have ever become stronger down to this day, and we now look back through the mists of one hundred years to Sir Isaac Brock as the first true source of national sentiment which fertilized our country, and stamped it as British and Canadian forever.

Our object in coming here to-day, after we have enjoyed one hundred years of blessed peace with our neighbours to the south, is not to perpetuate national hostility, or even to cherish a mere military[Pg 51] spirit; we hope and pray and fully believe that this peace will ever exist between us and our American brothers. Our object in coming here to-day is to honour the name and memory of one who was chiefly instrumental in bringing about that blessed peace, and in preserving our country to enjoy it; and in the name of peace we say that the ground upon which we stand to-day is consecrated and distinguished by the valour of our soldier hero, who gave up his life on this spot in the first great battle of the War of 1812 to purchase that peace which a grateful country has ever since enjoyed.


This monument under which we stand is a fit emblem of everlasting peace and at the same time it fittingly commemorates the glorious death of the man in memory of whom it was raised. We Canadians should ever be grateful to Divine Providence for having favoured us with such an able civil and military chief, because Brock was both the chief executive in our civil affairs and Commander-in-Chief of the forces. As Administrator of the Province of Upper Canada he was able and prudent; as Commander-in-Chief he was experienced and fearless. It remained, however, for the great chief Tecumseh to read the true character of the man as man. When they first met, Tecumseh turned to his fellow chiefs and allies, and, pointing to Brock, who stood by him, said, "This is a man!" The correctness of this opinion was borne out in both the life and death of Brock.

Our hero was ever dutiful. He always performed his duty and saw that others did likewise. The performance of duty was ever uppermost in his mind, and his ideals were always high, his aspirations noble. Permit me to quote here one of his first General Orders issued to the troops immediately upon his taking the field on the 4th of July, 1812:

[Pg 52]

"The Major-General calls the serious attention of every militiaman to the efforts making by the enemy to destroy and lay waste this flourishing country; they must be sensible of the great stake they have to contend for and will, by their conduct, convince the enemy that they are not desirous of bowing their necks to a foreign yoke. The Major-General is determined to devote his best energies to the defence of the country, and has no doubt that, supported by the zeal, activity and determination of the loyal inhabitants of this Province, he will successfully repel every hostile attack, and preserve to them inviolate all that they hold dear."

The result of the war proves how well Brock himself lived up to these sentiments.

Let us always remember that the War of 1812 was not of our making. On the 18th of June, 1812, President Madison declared war against Great Britain, with Canada as the point of attack. The "Right of Search," the power to search for contraband or for deserters on board of American ships, was claimed by Britain, but was resisted by the United States. Strange to say, this claim was abandoned by Great Britain the very day before war was declared by President Madison, yet the war was declared and went on. It will be readily seen that Canada had absolutely nothing to do with this war or its alleged cause, the "Right of Search"; and yet, in making this war on Canada, the United States placed itself on record as approving a forcible invasion of a neighbouring peaceful country and of involving it in all the horrors of war. At that time the United States had eight million people, Upper Canada had barely eighty thousand. At the very outset the Americans placed upon a war footing one hundred and seventy-five thousand men, whereas there were less than ten thousand men of all kinds capable of bearing arms in Upper Canada. These figures give us an idea[Pg 53] of the very great disparity both in numbers and fighting strength between the two peoples so far as we in Upper Canada were concerned. During the two and a half years of the war there were no less than twelve separate and distinct invasions of Canada, and fifty-six military and naval engagements, the great majority of which were won by our forces. While Brock lived his genius and spirit guided and inspired the defence of the country, and after his death his noble example and the preparations he had made for war during his life encouraged and enabled the people to repel the invader.

Under the guise of strict discipline and the grim visage of a soldier and fighting man, Isaac Brock possessed a warm human heart; he was ever solicitous for the comfort and well-being of his people and especially of his militia soldiers, and on every occasion consistent with the safety of the Province he relaxed the rigours of war and would permit the militia to return to their homes and farms. This is evidenced by many of his Militia General Orders. An extract from Militia General Orders of 26th of August, 1812, immediately after the capture of Detroit, reads as follows:

"Major-General Brock has ever felt anxious to study the comforts and conveniences of the militia, but the conduct of the detachments which lately accompanied him to Detroit has if possible increased his anxiety on this subject. The present cessation of hostilities enables him to dispense with the services of a large proportion of them for a short period."

We very naturally ask ourselves who these troops were for whose welfare General Brock was always so solicitous. There were of course some British regular troops in Canada, noticeably the Forty-ninth, Brock's own regiment, but during the earlier stages of the war, and while Brock lived, the men of the Province, militia and yeomanry, had to be[Pg 54] relied upon mainly; these chiefly were the men of the York, Glengarry, Norfolk and other militia regiments; every loyal man capable of bearing arms in the Province turned out to fight, or to help those who fought. The York and Glengarry militia served with great distinction, and I may perhaps be permitted to refer to the fact that forty-three gentlemen of my own name and family connection held commissions in the various regiments in that war. In connection with this I might further mention a somewhat curious incident. My own grandfather, Colonel Alexander Macdonell, was taken prisoner by the Americans at the Battle of Niagara, and was confined as a prisoner at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in the very same prison in which his own father, Captain Allan Macdonell, had been confined by the Revolutionary States as a prisoner of war during the Revolutionary War, 1776-83.

Now, happily, all is peace; we have enjoyed one hundred years of peace and we thank Divine Providence for it. We have had preserved to us by Brock and those who fought and fell with him a rich kingdom; we possess it in peace and happiness and great prosperity. This is an age of peace, and in this age and generation it is fit that we should advance all the works and arts of peace; a very great trust in this respect has been handed down to us and confided to our safe keeping. In these days of our prosperity we must protect and defend and develop this great country, this rich heritage which the heroism of our forefathers has preserved to us. We must not only conserve it, but we must better it and develop it, and make useful to man all these possessions which have been given us. Our ideals and ambitions must always be high, and if we find ourselves faltering let us look upon this splendid monument and think of the hero in honour of whom it was raised; and let us at all times remember that now as in 1812 in unity we[Pg 55] possess our strength; we must become one people if we are to be a great people, with one great common country. We have many Provinces but only one Canada.

It has been well said by one of Brock's biographers that "it remains for the youth of Canada to profoundly cherish the memory of Isaac Brock and to never lose an opportunity to follow the example set for them by his splendid deeds." It has also been truly said that "he fell ere he saw the star of his country rise," and, although the sky over this battlefield upon which his eyes closed forever one hundred years ago was cloudy and overcast, yet because he lived and died those who came after him enjoy the cloudless sunshine of peace and happiness.

Brock's family motto was "He who guards never sleeps." We know how faithfully he guarded and safeguarded his country in life, and let us pray that in death under this monument he sleeps well.

Minister of Education, Ontario

I have a great deal of pleasure in being present here to-day on this historic spot, and am deeply sensible of the honour conferred upon me in asking me to represent the Government of Ontario on this occasion.

We are meeting here to-day to commemorate the deeds of a great man who passed away in his effort to save this part of the world for the British Empire. We must remember that at the time of the battle this part of the world was a wilderness, and Sir Isaac Brock's wonderful capabilities enabled him to consolidate the people of this sparsely settled country, not forgetting our dear old friends the Indians. With a handful of people, as compared with the country to the south of us,[Pg 56] he made a gallant defence, and, as I said, retained this part of the world for the British Empire. He was not only a great soldier, but a diplomat and a statesman, and whatever his vision may have been one hundred years ago, everyone will agree with me that it was of such a character that he retained one of the best and finest parts of the world for Great Britain.

Let me say a word regarding the loyalty, the love of home and patriotism that existed at that time on this field of battle, and it might be asked, what are we doing to-day to create a sentiment of patriotism and loyalty to our country and flag? Let me contrast the efforts made in Canada to create a patriotic and national sentiment as compared with the country to the south of us. Just here let me tell you a short story regarding what occurred to myself in the city of Detroit some years ago, before I was a member of the Legislative Assembly or had any thought of public life. I have always remembered it with the keenest appreciation of the great work in which the people to the south of us are engaged, inculcating in the youth of the country a loyal and patriotic sentiment. I was in Detroit on a school fête day when the children of each school were marshalled together for a march past the Detroit City Hall, where they had a large picture of the President surrounded by their national flag, the Stars and Stripes. As each school reached the entrance to the City Hall the scholars halted, saluted, and gave three cheers. To a little urchin on the street near me who was selling papers I said, "Why do they stop and cheer?" He replied, "They are cheering for the old flag which we call 'Old Glory,' and, sir, let me tell you that is the flag that was never licked!" I possibly did not agree with the accuracy of his history, but I realized the sentiment that had been created in that youngster's mind, a sentiment of loyalty and patriotism no doubt inculcated in his mind at school.

[Pg 57]

You may reasonably ask, "What are we doing to create a sentiment of loyalty and patriotism in this country?" and I may say that we have succeeded in placing the Union Jack, the flag of civilization, over every rural school in the Province of Ontario. I am also reminded of what took place the other day in the State of New Jersey, and as you are a reading people, this episode would not pass unnoticed by you—it appeared in all of the papers of last week. A boy attending a high school in the State of New Jersey was asked, as is their custom Monday morning, to salute the flag and to announce allegiance to the United States. The boy stated that he had no objection to salute the flag, but he could not give his allegiance to the United States as he was a British subject. Mr. President, I find that the State regulations of New Jersey call upon every scholar in their schools to salute the flag on each Monday morning and to declare their allegiance to the United States. This boy, being a British subject, could not conform to that part of the regulations, and was dismissed from the school. What would our people think of a regulation of that kind? I leave it for your meditation.

I hope and trust this meeting will be an inspiration that will extend all over this Dominion of Canada, and that some definite and proper way shall be found to commemorate the deeds of our ancestors and those great heroes whose efforts we to-day jubilate in this part of Canada, realizing the great heritage that has become ours through the agency of those great men who have passed away. May Canada always remain a part—and by the Almighty's help I believe it will always remain a part—of the British Empire.

Mr. President, let me congratulate the Historical Societies, the volunteers and cadets here assembled for bringing about this wonderful meeting, which I trust will have an influence in making this an annual celebration for all time to come.

[Pg 58]


It is a great satisfaction to me to be here to-day and to know that so many patriotic societies and organizations have clubbed together to commemorate so splendidly the one hundredth anniversary of the notable victory gained upon this field.

The great, virile nations of the world have always commemorated the brave deeds and victories of their fathers. The Romans did everything in their power to inspire their young men with love of country by relating stories of their glorious past. Some of them were evidently legends, but they all tended to create and instil a pure national spirit.

For five hundred years after Marathon the Athenians commemorated the glorious victory won against overwhelming odds. The Spartans never forgot the death of Leonidas and his three hundred brave, unflinching followers, who died for the honour of their country at Thermopylæ. Pausanias the historian was able to read six hundred years after upon a column erected to their memory in Sparta, the names of the three hundred Spartans who had died with their king in that fight.

In Russia also the same spirit of reverence for their great heroes has always shown itself. Dimitry saved Russia by a great victory over the Tartars in 1380. Over five hundred years have elapsed, but still the name of Dimitry Donskoi lives in the memory and the songs of the Russian people, and still on "Dimitry's Saturday," the anniversary of the battle, prayers are offered up in memory of the brave men who fell on that day in defence of their country.

Switzerland is another example of the patriotism of a free people. They won their freedom by three great victories won against overwhelming odds at Morgarten, Sempach and Naefels. Naefels[Pg 59] was the final victory, and every year the people commemorate the great event. In solemn procession the people revisit the battlefield and the Landamman tells the fine old story of their deliverance from foreign rule. The five hundredth anniversary was celebrated in 1888, and people from all parts of Switzerland flocked to participate in the patriotic and religious services. This national spirit has kept Switzerland free although surrounded by great powers. Her children are all trained as soldiers in their public schools, and compulsory training of all their youth is rigidly enforced. We could learn a lesson from them in this.

Hon. R. A. Pyne, M.D., M.P.P., Minister of
Education, Toronto.

James L. Hughes, LL.D., Chief Inspector of
Schools, Toronto.

Colonel George T. Denison,


Canada has shown the same virile spirit as other great nations, and we may take pride in the way in which our people have recognized what they owe to General Brock and the men who fought with him on this field one hundred years ago. This spot has seen several inspiring demonstrations.

Brock and Macdonell had been buried in Fort George in 1812. In 1824 their remains were removed and buried again under the first monument here. In 1824 there were no railways, practically no steamers, and the population of the Province was very small, and yet in the funeral cortege there were 560 men on horseback, 285 carriages and wagons, and thousands of persons on foot, in all estimated at about ten thousand people, who followed the remains the seven miles from Niagara to this place. That was a remarkable tribute to the memory of the great general.

In 1840 the monument was blown up on Good Friday by an Irish rebel or Fenian named Benjamin Lett. This aroused intense indignation throughout the Province, and a great demonstration was organized to arrange for building a new monument on a grander scale. The meeting was held in July, 1840, and a great number of the foremost men in public life attended. Ten steamers,[Pg 60] all crowded with people, moved up the river in procession. About eight thousand persons were present. A new monument was decided upon and it is here above us now. It is a wonderful monument to have been erected by a small community when there was very little wealth in the country. This monument is as a column the finest and grandest I have seen. I put it far above the column to Alexander I. in front of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. It is about forty feet higher than the one to Nelson in Trafalgar Square. The National German Monument in the Neiderwald does not strike me as being so impressive.

In 1859, on the anniversary of the battle, there was another great gathering here for the inauguration of the monument. I was here with a detachment of my corps and there were a great many other detachments and people, and about two hundred of the old veterans of the war who came again to do honour to their dead chief. In the following year the late King was visiting Canada, and naturally he came here to do honour to the memory of the great general and to meet the surviving veterans of the war. There was another great demonstration and I was there on that occasion also. Could anything show more clearly the deep hold that General Brock had on the affection and memory of the Canadian people than these repeated gatherings? And now, after another fifty-two years, there is this splendid demonstration of respect and gratitude. I am proud that our people have done their duty to-day, and I hope that our action will inspire our children a hundred years hence to commemorate the great event. I make no apologies for coming here to glory over the victory. Brock died on this field and our fathers fought here that we should be a free and independent people, and we have enjoyed that position for a hundred years, thanks to their efforts. How can we use that freedom better, than in testifying in the heartiest[Pg 61] manner our gratitude and appreciation for the priceless boon which we owe to those who then won it for us!


Dr. Alexander Dame, Col. George Sterling Ryerson, Dr. James L. Hughes, Col. George T. Denison, Major W. Napier Keefer (next right
of speaker), Major Gordon J. Smith, Dr. Charles F. Durand.

Glengarry, Ontario

Permit me to express on behalf of the members of this generation of the family to which the former Attorney-General Macdonell belonged, my warm appreciation of the honour which was done to that gentleman's memory, by the invitation which in terms so generous and complimentary and so appreciative of his services, was extended to me as the representative of his family, to be present on this most interesting occasion as the special guest of your Committee.

We are assembled here to-day to commemorate the Centennial Anniversary of the death of Sir Isaac Brock, to give evidence that we Canadians hold in grateful remembrance the inestimable services which he rendered to our country, and to record it as our firm and solemn conviction that it is to that illustrious man of glorious memory we owe the preservation of this country, our connection with the Motherland and those British institutions which it is our happiness now to enjoy.

It was indeed a privilege for any man to have served under Sir Isaac Brock, to have been in any way associated with him, and more especially to have been placed in a position whereby he was enabled to second his indomitable efforts. It was the good fortune of Attorney-General Macdonell to have been associated with him in a threefold capacity. First he was connected with him by the most intimate ties of private friendship, for there existed between them the most perfect confidence and a mutual regard, amounting, as is frequently[Pg 62] the case with men of generous impulse, to personal affection. Then as Attorney-General of the Province and chief law adviser of the Crown, he was the trusted legal adviser of General Brock in his capacity of President of the Council of the Province, and although but a young man he was equal to the exigencies of that critical period.

Upon the declaration of war, the House of Assembly was hastily convened in extra session on the 27th July, when General Brock, in the Speech from the Throne, made use of those ever-memorable words: "We are engaged in an awful and eventful contest. By unanimity and despatch in our councils and by vigour in our operations we will teach the enemy this lesson: that a country defended by free men, enthusiastically devoted to the cause of their King and Constitution, can never be conquered." But the House proved recalcitrant, and refused to comply with Brock's request to suspend the Habeas Corpus Act. It was the Attorney-General who solved the difficulty by giving it as his legal opinion that Major-General Brock, as Administrator of the Province, under the authority of his Commission from the King, had the power to dissolve the House and proclaim martial law, and that under the circumstances it was his duty to do so. This opinion was concurred in by his colleagues in the Government, and, accordingly, the Government as such tendered it as their unanimous advice to the Administrator, who immediately acted upon it, and thereby saved the country.

As a consequence of this drastic measure, the three leaders of the Opposition in the Legislature—Joseph Willcocks, Benjamin Mallory and Abraham Markle—who had been chiefly instrumental up to this time in thwarting all Brock's efforts, immediately fled to the United States, with which they had long been in traitorous intercourse, and where all their sympathies lay, Willcocks being[Pg 63] eventually killed at the battle of Fort Erie, in 1814, in command of an American regiment, and Mallory serving throughout the war as a major in the same corps.

This measure enabled Brock also to deal summarily with their disloyal partisans and followers, much more numerous and infinitely more dangerous than is now generally supposed. He immediately issued a proclamation ordering all persons suspected of conniving with the enemy to be apprehended, and treated according to law. Those who had not taken the oath of allegiance were ordered to do so or leave the Province; many were sent out of the country; large numbers left of their own accord; those who refused to take the oath or to take up arms to defend the country, and remained in the Province after a given date, were declared to be enemies and spies, and were treated accordingly; a large number of this disloyal element were arrested and imprisoned early in the war, as on the day of the Battle of Queenston Heights the jail and Court House at Niagara as well as the blockhouse at Fort George were filled with political prisoners, over three hundred aliens and traitors being in custody, some of whom were tried and sentenced to death, while others were sent to Quebec for imprisonment.

This pressing and important business having been accomplished, General Brock entered actively upon his campaign, and determined upon offensive measures by an assault upon Detroit. Colonel Macdonell accompanied him as his military secretary and aide-de-camp. When the American, General Hull, in command of a greatly superior force and in possession of a strongly fortified position, on the 16th August proposed a cessation of hostilities with a view to his surrender, it was Colonel Macdonell whom General Brock entrusted with the delicate and important task of preparing the terms of capitulation. He returned within an hour[Pg 64] with the conditions, which were immediately confirmed by General Brock, whereby Fort Detroit with 59,700 square miles of American territory—the whole State of Michigan—was surrendered. 2,500 officers and men became prisoners of war, and 2,500 stand of arms, thirty-three pieces of cannon, the Adams brig-of-war, and stores and munitions of war to the value of £40,000, all so sorely needed by the Canadian militia, were handed over to the British Commander.

General Brock in his despatch to the Home Government announcing the capture of Detroit, and which was published in a Gazette Extraordinary in London on the 6th October, with characteristic generosity bore testimony to the services of his friend in the following terms: "In the attainment of this important point gentlemen of the first character and influence showed an example highly creditable to them, and I cannot on this occasion avoid mentioning the essential assistance I derived from John Macdonell, Esquire, His Majesty's Attorney-General, who from the beginning of the war has honoured me with his services as my Provincial Aide-de-Camp."

Brock's biographer and nephew, Mr. Ferdinand Brock Tupper, graphically tells the end of them both, almost upon the spot upon which we now stand. After mention of the hasty gallop from Fort George, at dawn on the 13th October, when it was found that the Americans had during the night passed over the Niagara River and succeeded in gaining the crest of the heights in rear of the battery, and Brock's desperate effort to dislodge them, he goes on to say: "The Americans now opened a heavy fire of musketry, and, conspicuous from his dress, his height, and the enthusiasm with which he animated his little band, the British commander was soon singled out, and he fell about an hour after his arrival, the fatal bullet entering his right breast and passing through his left side.[Pg 65] He lived only long enough to request that his fall might not be noticed, or prevent the advance of his brave troops. The lifeless body was immediately conveyed into a house at Queenston, where it remained until the afternoon, unperceived of the enemy. His aide-de-camp, Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonell, Attorney-General of Upper Canada—a fine, promising young man—was mortally wounded soon after his chief, and died the next day, at the early age of twenty-seven years. Although one bullet had passed through his body, and he was wounded in four places, yet he survived twenty hours, and during a period of excruciating agony his thoughts and words were constantly occupied in lamentations for his deceased commander and friend. He fell while gallantly charging, with the hereditary courage of his race, up the hill with 190 men, chiefly of the York Volunteers, by which charge the enemy was compelled to spike the eighteen-pounders in the battery there; and his memory will be cherished as long as courage and devotion are reverenced in the Province."

General Sheaffe, who succeeded General Brock upon the death of the latter, in his despatch announcing the victory which eventually crowned our arms, thus couples their names: " . . . . No officer was killed besides Major-General Brock, one of the most gallant and zealous officers in His Majesty's service, whose loss cannot be too much deplored, and Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonell, Provincial Aide-de-Camp, whose gallantry and merit rendered him worthy of his chief."

The Prince Regent thus acknowledged the communication through the Governor-General, by whom it had been forwarded: "His Royal Highness, the Prince Regent, is fully aware of the severe loss which His Majesty's service has experienced in the death of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock. This would have been sufficient to have clouded a victory of much greater importance. His Majesty[Pg 66] has lost in him not only an able and meritorious officer, but one who, in the exercise of his functions of Provisional Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, displayed qualities admirably adapted to awe the disloyal, to reconcile the wavering, and to animate the great mass of the inhabitants against successive attempts of the enemy to invade the Province, in the last of which he unhappily fell, too prodigal of that life of which his eminent services had taught us to understand the value. His Royal Highness has also been pleased to express his regret at the loss which the Province must experience in the death of the Attorney-General, Mr. Macdonell, whose zealous co-operation with Sir Isaac Brock will reflect lasting honour on his memory." In communicating the above to the father of the Attorney-General, Lieutenant-Colonel Coffin, P.A.D.C., under date York, March 20th, 1813, stated by command of His Honour the President that "it would doubtless afford some satisfaction to all the members of the family to which the late Attorney-General was so great an ornament to learn that his merit has been recognized even by the Royal Personage who wields the sceptre of the British Empire, and on which His Honour commands me to declare his personal gratification."

No medal was struck for Queenston Heights, but when some time afterwards the rewards for the capture of Detroit were distributed, gold medals were deposited by the Sovereign with the families of Major-General Brock and Colonel Macdonell, and the King stated in each instance that it was done "in token of the respect which His Majesty entertains for the memory of that officer."

The graciously worded despatch of the Prince Regent mentioned the only fault of Sir Isaac Brock. Like Nelson he was too prodigal of his life; but as, alike by his services and his glorious death, Nelson became the hero and the idol of the British people, so by his services and his death[Pg 67] Brock became for all time the hero of the people of this Province, and his memory will never die. Although he had served ten years in Canada, he had held his position as Administrator of Upper Canada but a few days over a year; yet that short time was sufficient to obtain for his name immortality, so long as the English language can narrate what in that brief period he accomplished, and hold forth for succeeding generations of British subjects in Canada and throughout the Empire the bright example of his genius and his gallantry, and the indomitable spirit with which he contended and overcame difficulties, apparently insurmountable, and which were sufficient to appal a heart even as stout and to tax to the uttermost a mind as versatile and resourceful as his.

Under this stately column he found a fitting tomb, and the ardent young friend, Glengarry's representative, who fell with him, lies beside him.

Chief Inspector of Schools, Toronto

I had the honour of requesting the Hon. Dr. Pyne, Minister of Education, to call the attention of the School Boards of Ontario to the importance of celebrating the hundredth anniversary of the victory so gallantly won on these heights, and of paying due tribute to the brave men and women who so nobly and heroically struggled to preserve for us the blessings of British liberty, and of unity with our motherland. To these men and women of firm faith and strong heart we give gratitude and reverence to-day, and especially to the statesman and hero who at the foot of these heights died a hundred years ago while leading Canadian volunteers to drive back invaders who without just cause had[Pg 68] dared to come to Canada with the avowed purpose of forcibly taking possession of our country.

In the judgment of the committee that arranged for the celebration of the glorious deeds of our early history, it is most important that Canadian children should be trained to revere the memories of the great and true men and women of one hundred years ago, and to rejoice because of the victories won by them for freedom and for imperial unity.

There are men who have written to the newspapers objecting to the course we adopted. They seem to think it improper to let our children know that our country was ever in danger, and that it was saved by the unselfish devotion and the brave deeds of our ancestors. However, in spite of their protests, based on weak and unpatriotic sentiment, we intend to teach young Canadians to remember the patriotism and valour of the founders and defenders of Canada, and to train them to become worthy successors to the men and women who made such sacrifices for them.

We have no wish to fill the hearts of the pupils in our schools with animosity towards the great nation whose fertile fields and happy homes we see beyond the great river that separates it from our own fair land. We wish to develop in our children a spirit that will lead them to say to the people across our borderland not "Hands off Canada," but "Hands together to achieve for God and for humanity the highest and broadest and truest ideals that have been revealed to the Anglo-Saxon race."

We do not wish to make our children quarrelsome or offensive, but we do wish them to be patriotic Canadians, full of loyalty to their flag, their Empire, and their King. We wish them to understand what their predecessors did in order that they may have faith in themselves and in their country; and we intend that they shall learn the[Pg 69] achievements of the past in order that they may have a true basis for their own manhood and womanhood. True reverence for courage and self-sacrifice, fidelity to principle, and devotion to home and country in time of need, is a fundamental element of strong, true character. The facts of history may have little influence in developing character, but the noble deeds of our ancestors performed for high purposes are the surest sources for the development of the strong and true emotions that make human character vital instead of inert. Emotions form the battery power of character, and among the emotions that give strength and virility and beauty to character, reverence for the dead who wisely struggled and nobly achieved, is surely one of the most productive of dignified and transforming character.

The history of the past is valuable chiefly for the opportunities it gives to be stirred to deep, true enthusiasm for heroism, for honour, for patriotism, for love of freedom, for devotion to duty, and for sublime self-sacrifice for high ideals. Whatever else we may neglect in the training of the young, I trust we shall never fail to fill their hearts with profound reverence for the men and women of the past to whom they owe so much.

We should teach other lessons from the War of 1812. We should fill each child's life with a splendid courage that can never be dismayed, by telling how a few determined settlers scattered widely over a new country successfully repelled invading armies coming from a country with a population twenty-fold larger. We should teach reverence not only for manhood but for womanhood by recounting the terrible hardships endured willingly by Canadian women generally, as well as by proudly relating the noble work done by individual women, of whom Laura Secord was so conspicuous an example.

[Pg 70]

A certain class of thoughtless people call us "flag-wavers" if we strive to give our young people a true conception of the value of national life, and of their duty to have a true love for their country and for their Empire. If a flag-waver means one who is proud of a noble ancestry, and determined to prove worthy of the race from which he sprung; one who knows that his forefathers gave a wider meaning to freedom, and who intends to perpetuate liberty and aid in giving it a still broader and higher value; one who is grateful because his Empire represents the grandest revelation of unity yet made known to humanity and who accepts this revelation as a sacred trust, then I am a flag-waver, and I shall make every boy and girl whom I can ever influence a flag-waver who loves his flag and waves it because it represents freedom, and honour, and justice, and truth, and unity, and a glorious history, the most triumphantly progressive that has been achieved by any nation in the development of the world.

We do well to celebrate the great deeds of the men and women of a hundred years ago, and teach our children to give them reverence, but it is far more important for us to consider what the people a hundred years hence will think of us than to glorify the triumphs of a hundred years ago. The work of the world is not done. Evolution to higher ideals goes ever on. Each succeeding generation has greater responsibilities and higher duties than the one that preceded it. The greatest lesson we can learn from the past is that we should prove true to the opportunities of our time; that we should with unselfish motive and undaunted hearts accept the responsibilities that come to us as partners in our magnificent Empire, and share in the achievement of greater triumphs for freedom and justice than have ever been recorded in the past.

Inspired by the records of such men as Brock, at the foot of whose monument we stand to-day and[Pg 71] look with reminiscent glance over the marvellous progress of a hundred glorious years, let us determine that we shall do our part to make the coming century more fruitful than the past.

Chief A. G. Smith, Six Nation Indians,
Grand River Reserve.

Captain Charles R. McCullough,
Hamilton, Ont.

Warrior F. Onondeyoh Loft, Six Nation
Indians, Toronto.


Six Nation Indians, Grand River Reserve

If a Mohawk Chief had in his make-up a particle of timidity I fear that your cheering would have frightened or disconcerted me.

Now, contrary to the usual preface to speeches on occasions of this nature, let me instead say that my pleasure in addressing you this afternoon is not altogether unalloyed, as I look back to the remote past, when my ancestors could make or unmake nations on this continent; their favour was then courted by the different European nations, until finally they entered into an alliance or treaty with the military authorities of the British nation, and which the Six Nations has ever held inviolate.

They, however, in my humble opinion, made a serious mistake in taking sides in the War of American Independence, as their treaty obligations only required them to assist the British when attacked by a foreign power and not in a case of family quarrel, so they could have consistently taken a neutral ground. It is not, however, so surprising that they took the step they did when we consider the influences that were brought to bear on them and the inducements that were held out to them. Consider the influence of Tha-yen-da-ne-gea—Brant, their war chief—and their own love of war. War with them was as religion. Add to these the influence of Sir William Johnson and others.

And there was the very strong inducement that they would be guaranteed a perpetual independence[Pg 72] and self-government, and also that they would be amply indemnified for any and all losses that they might sustain by their services. Now we know that these pledges were not adequately fulfilled, yet, notwithstanding this fact, the Six Nations remained faithful in their adherence to the British Crown.

And now allow me to come down to the eventful times which more immediately concern us this afternoon. Let me at the outset briefly but most emphatically assert that in those troublous times no followers of the illustrious Brock, whose fall and victory we are this afternoon commemorating, fought more bravely than the Six Nations; their very admiration of that great and brave general was as a spur to their bravery.

I think I may truthfully say that had it not been for the bravery of the Six Nations the Union Jack would not to-day be waving over these historic heights.

The Six Nations have never had an historian of their own to record the brave deeds of valour of their warriors, and therefore get but scant justice in the historical records of this country; naturally the historians magnify the achievements of their own peoples, while I claim that more credit should be given my own people.

Let me instance one or two samples of justice doled out to my people in various lines. You know that in Ontario manhood suffrage prevails in political elections, so that any foreigner after six months' residence can have every privilege of a full citizen, although he may have no higher interest in the country than as a place in which to earn his bread and butter, and whose ancestors have never shed a drop of blood for its retention by Britain, and who himself may never fight in its defence, but who may go back to fight his own country's battles, perhaps even against Britain.

[Pg 73]

But the original owners of this country, proved to be men on many a battlefield, who fought and won Britain's battles, ceased to be men and became minors after the battles were won and British predominance secured, and therefore are not allowed men's privileges.

I contend that if Canada is to do justice (and I believe it will) to the Six Nations, it will have to give them representation on the floor of the House of Commons and also respect the treaty concessions made to them, instead of gradually curtailing their tribal rights and privileges. These blood-bought rights and privileges are just as dear to the Six Nations as similar ones are to any other nation.

I fear, Mr. Chairman, that I have already taken up my allotted time, so will refrain from giving all the examples of our loyalty I would have liked to present to this vast assemblage. Allow me, however, to say that as this is an influential gathering, so I hope that each individual of influence will go back to his or her sphere of usefulness and listen to the cry for justice on behalf of the Six Nations, fully appreciating the fact that it is "up to you" to see to it that justice is done this people who have rendered such inestimable service to this country and to Britain.

My remarks may not suit everyone, but I cannot help that. I am not courting popularity, for I am getting too old for that, and I am descended from too long a line of brave warriors to be afraid to speak the truth, whether it be pleasant or otherwise.

Thanking you, Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, for the privilege and honour of addressing this influential assemblage and for the kind hearing and attention accorded to me.

[At the conclusion of Chief Smith's speech three rousing warwhoops were given, led by Chiefs Johnson and Elliott, and joined in by all present.]

[Pg 74]

Six Nation Indians

We are assembled to-day on this historic spot to commemorate the memory of a great soldier, a patriot and renowned son of the Empire of which we are a part.

I am pleased to note the presence of so many chiefs and warriors of the Six Nations who are here assembled on the basis of one common citizenship with you, to join with our white brethren to pay respect and homage to the late hero, General Sir Isaac Brock, who offered his life as a sacrifice in the cause he so gallantly defended. He was the brave leader who led the white man and Indian in the defence of our country, our flag, and all that pertained to the maintenance of British institutions.

Our act to-day is a noble one. It is of a kind that touches deep down into the heart that throbs with affection's glow. It is one worthy of emulation by our posterity. We as a people should never lose sight of the great importance that must attach to this occasion, and of the duty we owe to our children to do all we can to impress their minds with the precepts of loyalty to the king and crown, that should be ever steadfast and immovable.

As a member of the Six Nations it is not altogether my wish that I should be looked upon on this occasion as a mere representative of my nation, but rather as a representative of the noble native Indian race which has so conspicuously identified itself with British arms at critical periods in the history of our fair Dominion.

One hundred years ago our country and people were befogged by conditions that were grey and ominous. It was very uncertain as to the part, if any, the Indians would take in the impending conflict.

[Pg 75]

From this spot, almost, General Brock set out for Amherstburg to arrange plans of campaign, and there met and shook hands with Tecumseh, this patriot Indian giving the assurance to his chief in command of the forces that he and his united Indian tribes composed of the Shawanoes, Wyandottes, Chippewas, Ottawas, Foxes and others, were ready to go into the field of action in defence of the British cause.

Like General Brock, this noble red man, as a leader of his kinsmen, also sacrificed his life in the cause of his king and country. And sad is it to say that not even a heave of the turf marks his last resting-place.

It is not for me to laud or unduly magnify the important part the Indians have played in wars that have marked our country's history-making: but should such an emergency again present itself, I feel confident that the Indians will never be found wanting.

Honorary President of the Association of Canadian Clubs

I tender my thanks to the Committee for honouring the hundred clubs of the Dominion by inviting their honorary president to take part in the proceedings of this great day.

The real celebration of the centenary of the battle and the fitting remembrance of the hero who gave up his life for Canada one hundred years ago, has already taken place in the six thousand schools by six hundred thousand scholars of this premier Province of Ontario. By this vast army of patriots in the making there has been celebrated within the past few days in song and story the splendid heroism of the immortal Brock, and the work done by him for our common country a century ago.

[Pg 76]

In that great work he was nobly seconded by the brilliant young Glengarrian Macdonell, who, like his illustrious leader, fell on the slope of this sacred hill.

In this dread contest there fought side by side regular soldier and militiaman; the noble red man and the freed black man contended against a common enemy to that freedom and that constitution that every Briton loves so well.

It was indeed a proud thing for Canadians to remember that whilst there was a great Imperial officer to lead the little band, close beside him in the great struggle there ever stood a valorous Canadian aide-de-camp. Yes, for every regular that contended for the maintenance of British law and authority in this Canada of ours there were fighting by his side the farmer and the tradesman of those heroic days.

Was not this prophetic of that future co-operation between mother and daughter states? Was it not full of the deepest meaning for us of the twentieth century? Could we not say "Thy people are my people and my people thy people"? As in the days of yore, so in these days of Canada's abounding prosperity and increasing national greatness, there would be found men and means for any national or Imperial emergency that the future might have in store for us.

Our magnificently proportioned Canada must have a magnificently proportioned soul if she would fulfil her high destiny of eventual leadership in the band of sister nations within an Empire indissolubly bound by ties of love and sacrifice. In enlarging the soul of our people such celebrations as these have their sure and certain part, and the thrill of Brock's great name will stir this people's soul so long as Canada shall endure.

A brief and eloquent speech was also made by Mr. W. M. German, M.P., Welland, Ont.


Alexander Fraser, LL.D., Dr. Alexander Dame, Col. Geo. S. Ryerson, Miss Helen M. Merrill, John Stewart Carstairs, B.A., Allen W. Johnston.

[Pg 77]


By Dr. Alexander Fraser, Toronto

While with a fine sense of fitness the part taken by the men of Glengarry, Ontario, in the 1812-14 war is rarely referred to by the descendants of those who fought so well and fell for their country, it is but meet on a centennial occasion as is now being celebrated that the distinguished services of the clansmen should not be forgotten. Much, indeed, could be said of the Macdonells, Macdonalds, Macleans, MacMillans, Chisholms, Camerons and Grants, as well as of other kindred families, who displayed all the ardour of the Highland mountaineer in defence of home and country, and who occupied second place then nor subsequently when the war-note sounded. These brief lines, however, must deal only with Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell, who fell mortally wounded at Queenston Heights, and whose name cannot be disassociated in history from that of Brock, the chief hero of the war.

The many intermarriages in the course of generations between members of different houses of the Glengarry branch of Clan Donald have created genealogical intricacies not always threaded by the general reader. The identity of Colonel John Macdonell, the Queenston hero, however, need never have been in doubt. He was descended from Angus Macdonell of Greenfield, a grandson of Ranald,[Pg 78] the ninth chief of Glengarry—in Gaelic, styled "Mac-ic-Alasdair." The Macdonells of Greenfield are nearer the main line of the Glengarry family than the cadet branches of Aberchalder, Cullachie and Leek—many of whom settled in Canada, who left the parent stock at an earlier period. They might reasonably be regarded as representative of all the Glengarry Macdonells of Canada.

Angus Macdonell of Greenfield had one son, Alexander, who came to Canada in 1792. He was married in Scotland to a daughter of Alexander Macdonell of Aberchalder (Captain 1st Battalion, King's Royal Regiment of New York), and among the issue of that marriage were Duncan, who succeeded his father, John, who fell with Brock, and Donald, who figured at Ogdensburg, 1813.

John Macdonell (Queenston) was born in 1785, in Scotland, and with his family came to Canada when seven years of age. In due course he became member of the Legislature for Glengarry and Attorney-General for Upper Canada. He was a Colonel of Militia, and on the outbreak of the war of 1812 acted as Military Secretary and Provincial A.D.C. to General Sir Isaac Brock. His legal talents were regarded as of high order, and of his military abilities Brock entertained a very good opinion indeed. As President of the Council and Administrator of Upper Canada, General Brock occupied the highest civil position in the Province, and the chief military position as General of the forces under his command.

Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell, as Attorney-General, filled the next highest civil position to Brock in Upper Canada, and, as Military Secretary and P.A.D.C., was next highest in importance, if not in rank, to his chief in the field. Testimony was warmly borne by some of the most capable to judge, of his dominance in the military operations, and the subsequent negotiations, at Detroit, and the[Pg 79] papers in connection therewith, which he is said to have drafted, bear the mark of his patriotic and generous mind. The Prince Regent, in expressing his regret at the loss which the country must experience by the death of the Attorney-General, declared that "his zealous co-operation with Sir Isaac Brock would reflect lasting honour on his memory." Like Brock, he died unmarried; like him, too, he was engaged to be married at the time of his death. His fiancée was Miss Powell, daughter of the Chief Justice.

The story is told that at the commencement of the war, before making his will, Colonel Macdonell told Miss Powell that, though he had only a little estate to dispose of, about £300 in money, his books, papers and personal effects, together with ten acres of land on Church Street, Toronto, he wished her to have first choice of either the money and effects, or the land, for herself; the other part to go to a relative. She chose the money and the personalty, and the ten acres of land on Church Street went to his relative and godson, James Macdonell, son of his host, the Hon. Alexander Macdonell, Toronto, in whose family the title still remains.

Colonel Macdonell's father, Colonel Alexander Macdonell, commanded the 2nd Battalion, Glengarry Militia, in the war, and two of his brothers also had commissions, Duncan Macdonell, as a Captain, commanding a company at Ogdensburg (under Colonel George Macdonell), and Donald Greenfield Macdonell, who also commanded a company at Ogdensburg. Duncan, the elder brother, succeeded his father as Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 2nd Battalion, Glengarry Militia, until 1857, when he received the thanks of the Governor-General "for his long and valuable services dating from the last war." His son, Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald J. Macdonell, was also commanding officer of his grandfather's and father's regiment[Pg 80] from 1857 to 1804. He was a barrister, and a Bencher, and Recorder at Kingston, and for many years a partner with Sir John A. Macdonald, Prime Minister of Canada. His only son is the well-known Lieut.-Col. John A. Macdonell, Alexandria, Ontario, now the head of the Greenfield family, whose patriotic sentiments and antiquarian tastes have often found eloquent and useful expression. He is a grandnephew of Colonel Macdonell (Queenston) and fifth of Greenfield.

Donald Greenfield Macdonell, who commanded a company at Ogdensburg (brother of Colonel Macdonell, Queenston), became D.A.Q.M.G in the war, was a Colonel of Militia and Deputy Adjutant-General from 1846 to 1861. He had the honour of laying the corner-stone of the monument to Sir Isaac Brock at Queenston in 1853. Among his grandsons are Donald Greenfield Macdonell, barrister, Vancouver, heir male, after Lieut.-Col. John A. Macdonell, Alexandria, Ontario, and A. McLean Macdonell, K.C., the well-known barrister of Toronto.

The connection of Mr. A. McLean Macdonell, K.C., of Toronto, with the War of 1812 is perhaps unique. Not only had his paternal great-grandfather and three sons, the Macdonells of Greenfield, commissions in the War of 1812, as above stated, but his maternal great-grandfather and three sons also held commissions in that war, viz., the Honourable Neil McLean and his three sons: 1st, the Honourable Archibald McLean, afterwards Chief Justice of Upper Canada. It is said that when Colonel Macdonell fell, McLean was near him, and he called out to him: "Help me, Archie." 2nd, John McLean, afterwards Sheriff of Kingston; and 3rd, Colonel Alexander McLean, who shows an excellent military record, and whose daughter married John Macdonell of Greenfield, Mr. McLean Macdonell's father. Thus, Mr. McLean Macdonell had two great-grandfathers, two grandfathers, and four[Pg 81] granduncles, all holding important commissions in the only war which has vitally threatened Canada.

The connection between A. Claude Macdonell, M.P., Toronto, and Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell (Queenston) is by intermarriage in the families of Aberchalder and Cullachie. The Aberchalders gave a father, Captain Alexander, and three sons, John, Hugh, and Chichester, to the American revolutionary war. John was a Captain in Butler's Rangers and was the first Speaker of the first House of Assembly of Upper Canada, in 1792. Hugh was an officer in the King's Royal Regiment and in the Royal Canadian Volunteer Regiment. He was one of the members for Glengarry in the first Legislature of Upper Canada. He afterwards served at Gibraltar, and as British Consul-General at Algiers. Chichester served in Butler's Rangers, and became a colonel in the British army, winning distinction at Corunna.

Allan Macdonell of Cullachie (closely related to Aberchalder) was a captain in the 84th Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment, and his son, Alexander, an officer in Butler's Rangers, was prominent in the military-political life of Upper Canada, and at the time of the 1812 war was a colonel of Militia and Deputy Postmaster-General. His son, Angus Duncan Macdonell, who died in 1894, was the father of Mr. Angus Claude Macdonell, M.P. for South Toronto.

When Colonel Macdonell (Queenston) came to Toronto as a young man in connection with his profession, he resided with his relative, the Honourable Alexander Macdonell, Mr. Claude Macdonell's grandfather, and it was from his home he went to the front. Needless to say, Colonel Macdonell's memory is sacredly cherished among these and many others of his kith and kin in Canada, as it is indeed by all lovers of the heroic in Canadian history.

FOOTNOTE: Appendix I

[1]  Reprinted from the Toronto Globe and Mail and Empire of the 12th of October, 1912.

[Pg 82]



In commemoration of the Centenary of the Death
of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock at the
Battle of Queenston Heights

Massey Hall, Sunday, October 13th, 1912, 3 p.m.

Major-General W. H. Cotton, Commanding

The musical portion of the service was rendered by the massed bands of the garrison under the direction of Bandmaster G. I. Timpson, Queen's Own Rifles.


Opening Voluntary

"The Silver Trumpets"    -    -    -    -    Viviani
Band of the Queen's Own Rifles

Hymn, "Soldiers of Christ, Arise"
Put on the whole armour of God

Soldiers of Christ, arise,
And put your armour on;
Strong in the strength which God supplies,
Through His Eternal Son;
Strong in the Lord of Hosts,
And in His mighty power;
Who in the strength of Jesus trusts
Is more than conqueror.
[Pg 83] Stand then in His great might,
With all His strength endued;
And take to arm you for the fight,
The panoply of God.
From strength to strength go on,
Wrestle, and fight, and pray;
Tread all the powers of darkness down,
And win the well-fought day.
That having all things done,
And all your conflicts past,
Ye may obtain, through Christ alone,
A crown of joy at last.   Amen.

General Confession
(To be said by all, standing)

Almighty and most merciful Father; We have erred and strayed from Thy ways like lost sheep. We have followed too much the devices and desires of our own hearts. We have offended against Thy Holy Laws. We have left undone the things which we ought to have done; And we have done those things which we ought not to have done; And there is no health in us. But Thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us, miserable offenders. Spare Thou them, O God, which confess their faults. Restore Thou them that are penitent; according to Thy promises declared unto mankind in Christ Jesus our Lord. And grant, O most merciful Father, for His sake, that we may hereafter live a godly, righteous and sober life, To the glory of Thy Holy Name.   Amen.

Prayer for Pardon

O Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who desireth not the death of a sinner, but rather that he may turn from his wickedness, and[Pg 84] live, pardon and accept, we beseech Thee, all those who truly repent and unfeignedly believe Thy Holy Gospel. Grant us true repentance and Thy Holy Spirit; that those things may please Thee which we do at this present; and that the rest of our life hereafter may be pure and holy; so that at the last we may come to Thy eternal joy; through Jesus Christ our Lord.   Amen.

The Lord's Prayer

Prayer for the King's Majesty
(All standing)

O Lord, our Heavenly Father, high and mighty, King of kings, Lord of lords, the only Ruler of princes, who dost from Thy throne behold all the dwellers upon earth; most heartily we beseech Thee with Thy favor to behold our most gracious Sovereign Lord, King George; and so replenish him with the grace of Thy Holy Spirit, that he may alway incline to Thy will, and walk in Thy way; Endue him plenteously with heavenly gifts; grant him in health and wealth long to live; strengthen him that he may vanquish and overcome all his enemies; and finally, after this life, he may attain everlasting joy and felicity; through Jesus Christ our Lord.   Amen.

Prayer for the Royal Family

Almighty God, the fountain of all goodness, we humbly beseech Thee to bless our gracious Queen Mary, Alexandra the Queen Mother, Edward Prince of Wales and all the Royal Family; Endue them with Thy Holy Spirit; enrich them with Thy heavenly grace; prosper them with all happiness; and bring them to Thine everlasting kingdom; through Jesus Christ our Lord.   Amen.

[Pg 85]

Prayer for Soldiers

Grant, we beseech Thee, Almighty God, that we who are called to the service of our Empire, may ever remember the honour which we uphold and the privilege which is entrusted to us, to defend our Sovereign, our homes and our country. Enable us at all times to do what is right, and so to conduct ourselves, that we may bring no disgrace upon the uniform which we wear, nor upon the flag under which we serve. Make us faithful, brave and true to our duty, and especially to Thee, our God, as soldiers of Christ and soldiers of the King. Keep us, defend us and save us at all times; fill our hearts with courage and love, and may we never be ashamed to confess Thee before men, as good soldiers and servants of Thine. And this we ask for the sake of Jesus Christ our Lord.   Amen.

Scripture Lesson


"In the Chapel"    -    -    -    -    -     -    -    R. Eilenberg
Band of the Queen's Own Rifles

By Captain the Rev. Dr. Llwyd, Chaplain to the
Queen's Own Rifles.

Hymn, "Stand up for Jesus"
Quit you like men, be strong

Stand up, stand up for Jesus,
Ye soldiers of the Cross;
Lift high His Royal Banner,
It must not suffer loss;[Pg 86]
From victory unto victory
His army He shall lead;
Till every foe is vanquished,
And Christ is Lord indeed.
Stand up, stand up for Jesus,
The trumpet call obey;
Forth to the mighty conflict
In this His glorious day;
Ye that are men now serve Him
Against unnumbered foes;
Let courage rise with danger,
And strength to strength oppose.
Stand up, stand up for Jesus;
Stand in His Strength alone;
The arm of flesh will fail you,
Ye dare not trust your own;
Put on the gospel armour,
And watching unto prayer,
Where duty calls, or danger,
Be never wanting there.
Stand up, stand up for Jesus;
The strife will not be long;
This day the noise of battle,
The next the victors' song;
To him that overcometh
A crown of life shall be;
He with the King of glory
Shall reign eternally. Amen.

National Anthem

God save our Gracious King,
Long live our noble King,
God save the King.
Send him victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us;
God save the King.
[Pg 87]
Thy choicest gifts in store,
On him be pleased to pour;
Long may he reign.
May he defend our laws,
And ever give us cause
To sing with heart and voice,
God save the King.



The "Priests' March" from "Athalie" - Mendelssohn
Band of the Queen's Own Rifles

[Pg 88]



(Communicated by the Editor.)

The indignation aroused by the destruction of the first monument erected to General Brock was fully shared by the Indians of Ontario. Meetings of the Bands were held at which expression was given to the feelings which stirred their hearts. They asked the Government to allow them to join with the White Men in contributing to the Fund for the reconstruction of the monument, and this having been most cordially granted, a sum amounting to £207 10s. was raised among the Indians in sums varying from £7 10s. to £15 and paid over to the general fund on behalf of the following Bands:—

The Chippewas of the Upper Reserve, on the River St. Clair.

The Chippewas of the Lower Reserve and Walpole Island, on the River St. Clair.

The Hurons and Wyandotts of Amherstburg.

The Chippewas of the River Thames.

The Munsees of the River Thames.

The Oneidas of the River Thames.

The Six Nation Indians of the Grand River.

The Missisagua of the River Credit.

The Chippewas of the Saugeen River, Lake Huron.

The Chippewas of the Township of Rama, Lake Couchiching.

The Chippewas of Snake Island, Lake Simcoe.

The Missisagua of Alnwick, Rice Lake.

[Pg 89]

The Missisagua of Rice Lake Village, Otonabee; and of Mud and Balsam Lakes.

The Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte.

The following petition from the Missisagua of Rice Lake, shows the spirit in which the Indians acted:

"To Samuel P. Jarvis, Esquire, Chief Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

"We have heard of the wicked attempt to destroy the Monument of our old Chief, Sir Isaac Brock; and are also informed of the intention of the White Man to rebuild it.

"We respect the memory of the brave, and are sorry to find that there are any who do not.

"Some of us fought on the same field on which the gallant general fell. We then felt the same sorrow in our hearts that our loyal brothers in arms, the White Men, felt, and we still unite with them in the deepest regret at our common loss. These feelings urge us readily to contribute our share to the expense of re-building that Monument which was designed to perpetuate the fame of such noble deeds.

"We, who are thus ready to assist in the present exigency, will never be backward in testifying our loyal principles by still more substantial proofs, whenever our Great Mother, the Queen, shall lay her commands upon us. We will never refuse to hear her words. Our Great Fathers, her Royal predecessors, have been very kind to her people. We are not unthankful. We do not wish to be idle; but whenever we may be called upon to defend the honour and rights of the British Crown, we will most heartily strain every nerve, and do all the service in our power.

[Pg 90]

"We authorize you to subscribe from our monies the sum of Fifteen Pounds, in aid of the praiseworthy work about to be performed; and may the blessing of the Great Spirit make it prosper.

"Dated at Rice Lake Mission, Otonabee, January 7, 1841.

"George Paudash, Principal Chief.
"John Crow, Chief.
"John Copoway, Chief.
"John Taunchey, Chief.

"Read over to the Chiefs and signed by them
in presence of—

Henry Baldwin, Jun."

The generous action of the Indians was much appreciated by the British Government and the following acknowledgment was made by Lord John Russell, on its behalf:—

"Downing Street,      
"6th May, 1841.

"No. 372.
"My Lord:

"I received by the last mail from Canada a pamphlet, containing the correspondence, addresses, etc., connected with the subscription of various Indian Tribes in Upper Canada, in aid of the funds for the reconstruction of Sir Isaac Brock's Monument on Queenston Heights.

"The feelings evinced by the Indians on this occasion are much to their credit. I have to request that your Lordship will convey to them the thanks of the British Government and nation for their zealous co-operation, and renew to them the assurances of the Queen's regard for their welfare.

"I have, etc.,                  
"(Signed)    J. Russell.

"The Right Honourable Lord Sydenham."


[Pg 91]



A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Brock Centenary was held on the 16th October, 1912, there being present: Col. Ryerson, Dr. James L. Hughes, Dr. Alexander Fraser, Mr. C. E. Macdonald, Mr. F. D. L. Smith, and Miss Helen M. Merrill, Secretary.

It was resolved:—

That the thanks of the Committee be conveyed to the Right Honourable R. L. Borden, Prime Minister of Canada, and his Government for the military arrangements that had been made in connection with the celebration of the Centenary; and to the Honourable Dr. Pyne, Minister of Education of Ontario, for so cheerfully complying with all the suggestions made by the Committee with respect to the holding of patriotic exercises in the public schools.

That the publication of the Account of the Centenary celebration be proceeded with; and that Dr. Alexander Fraser (Chairman), Col. Ryerson, Mr. F. D. L. Smith, and Miss Helen M. Merrill be the Publication Committee in this matter.

That all the correspondence and papers in connection with the Centenary be deposited in the Ontario Archives, Toronto.

That the proposal to place a bronze tablet, commemorative of the Centenary, on Brock's monument at Queenston Heights be brought before the co-operating societies, and that action be taken in accordance with their opinion.

[Pg 92]

That the striking of a Centennial medal be left in abeyance in the meantime.

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held on the 25th of October, 1912, Col. Ryerson presiding, the subject of publication of the Centenary volume was minutely discussed. It was agreed that Dr. Alexander Fraser should edit the MS. for the press and that the work be proceeded with.


[Pg 93]



Contributed by J. L. Birney, Toronto, Son of Captain
Joseph Birney, from whose Narrative these
Statements have been Compiled.

Captain Birney was born in Orange County, in the State of New York, on the 1st of February, 1777.

In 1779 his father, William Birney, was killed at the battle of Lackawack, New York, in suppressing an Indian uprising, and upon their bereavement his mother, with his sister, a child in arms, and himself a child two years old, made her way through the forest, sixty miles, to New York City. In the year 1783 or 1784 he was baptized in Trinity Church, New York City. When the British evacuated New York, Captain Birney, with his family and friends, went with the British to where now is situated St. John, New Brunswick, and resided there until 1801, when he came to Upper Canada, and settled where Hamilton is to-day. While in New Brunswick he taught the Duke of Kent to skate, both of them often practising together on St. John's River.

In Upper Canada Captain Birney entered into the military life of the time. He was over six feet in height, powerfully built, and was well fitted for the stirring life then before him.

In 1812 he was Ensign in Captain Hatt's company, which accompanied Sir Isaac Brock to Detroit, and his commission as Ensign, signed by Sir Isaac Brock, is now in possession of his son, John L. Birney, of Toronto. Captain Birney was present when General Brock first met Tecumseh,[Pg 94] and he often related how the General was impressed with the wonderful personality of the great chief.

As Lieutenant he served in Captain Durand's company of 5th Lincoln Militia at the Battle of Queenston Heights. He was attached to Brock's staff as a special aide, to supervise the laying of the batteries. Shortly before the Canadians were driven from the heights, General Brock found that in firing at the Americans who were coming across the river the bullets were flying short, and he gave the order to Colonel Williams to cease firing, but Colonel Williams, mistaking the order to mean "retire," began to retire by Niagara. Sir Isaac remarked, "That's effective," but Captain Birney, noticing Colonel Williams' movement, remarked, "But, General, you did not mean to retire!" "By no means," answered Sir Isaac. "Oh, for one to bring them back!" "May I go?" offered Birney. "By all means go, Birney," ordered the General, whereupon Captain Birney ran down the steep slope of the heights as fast as he could. On the way down he noticed the mullein stalks being cut off, and stepping on a slippery spot he fell violently on the broad of his back.

At this he heard a great cheer, and looking up saw the cause of it all. The Americans were in possession of a portion of the heights, and their sharpshooters, thinking they had succeeded in intercepting him in his errand, had set up a cheer, but Birney was soon afoot, and came up with Colonel Williams, who upon seeing Birney, called his men to halt, and enquired, "What's the matter, Birney? Orders from the General?" Birney, being entirely out of breath, from his efforts and fall, could not answer, and Colonel Williams further enquired, "Did the General not order us to retire?" Birney shook his head. "What, then?" asked Colonel Williams. "To cease firing," Birney managed to whisper. At this the Colonel uttered an oath and smote himself a terrific blow on the forehead with his fist.[Pg 95] They had not returned far when they heard a voice say "Halt!" and looking up they saw the General and his men, they having been driven from the summit. There was a short conference, when the General decided to go around by St. David's and there attack the enemy. But they had not gone far when Birney, who was immediately behind the General, heard a groan, and looking up saw the General falling from his horse, and, rushing forward, he assisted him to the ground. With a few parting orders the General was dead.

After this Birney had to take command of his own company, and with the rest they fell in order and marched around the mountain by St. David's and there surprised the Americans eating their (the Canadians') breakfast, as the Americans had surprised them earlier in the morning. And then commenced the real fighting of the day. The Americans after a hand-to-hand fight were charged and driven out, many of them being forced over heights into Niagara River. Captain Birney used to remark that with his sword in one hand and a broken gunbarrel in the other he led his men in this charge, and it was a sorry day for any American who came within his reach. Among the many prisoners Captain Birney assisted in capturing that day was his cousin, Captain Winfield Scott, afterwards General Scott, who, after being taken to York, was exchanged for prisoners.

Captain Birney led his company, the 5th Lincoln, in the battle of Lundy's Lane in 1814, coming out of it, as he did in all his engagements, without a scratch.

He used to take pleasure in relating how, after the Americans had been badly beaten and had made a hasty retreat, leaving their men to be buried, there was left behind a lone gunner who stuck to his cannon. Birney and a number of his men marched down upon this man for the purpose of capturing the gun, and as they approached him,[Pg 96] three times did this gunner swing his torch with the purpose of firing his gun, but each time he drew back from the fuse and finally threw his torch upon the ground. Birney said it was well he did, as he and many of his men would not have lived to tell the tale, as they were walking directly in the face of the cannon. He also took pride in telling how one Canadian cannon was taken and retaken many times that night, while lying in heaps around it were Canadians and Americans who had fought and died bravely.

When the Rebellion of 1837 broke out Captain Birney was the oldest officer surviving the troubles of 1812-14. Being at that time over age he did not wish to take any part in the fighting, feeling he had served his country well and sufficiently up to that time, and he felt in addition that through favoritism many who had served under him had been promoted over his head. However, through the personal efforts of Sir Allan McNab and Colonel Land he was persuaded to take command of a company of the 3rd Gore Militia, which post he held until about 1841, being actively engaged in military affairs during all that period.

Some of his work at this time was the building of the bridge for the troops to cross the water-gap at Burlington Heights, and he also was engaged in constructing the defence works on Burlington Heights during the battle of Stoney Creek for use in case of retreat. He was afterwards with his company in charge of the 112 prisoners who were held and tried at Hamilton.

When Captain Birney died, in 1873, being in his 96th year, he was the oldest living Mason in Canada, having joined the Craft in 1803.

Transcriber's Notes

Illustration "Brock Centenary Celebration at Queenston Heights" added to list of Illustrations for Page 38.

Original spelling retained and some minor punctuation corrections made.

[The end of Brock Centenary (1812-1912) by Alexander Fraser]